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Mark A Pacult, Fraser C Henderson, Mathew D Wooster, Abhay K Varma
The authors report the case of a 76 year-old woman presenting with leg pain, numbness and weakness mimicking a lumbosacral radiculopathy. Lumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated mild root compression but lumbar decompression afforded only transient symptomatic relief. Post-operative MRI of the lumbosacral plexus and sciatic nerve revealed a gluteal venous varix compressing the sciatic nerve just distal to the piriformis muscle. Neurolysis and surgical resection of the offending varix resulted in resolution of her symptoms...
June 18, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Yui Kobatake, Hiroki Sakai, Hidetaka Nishida, Yosuke Uematsu, Sadatoshi Maeda, Hiroaki Kamishina
An 8-year-old castrated male cat presented with acute ataxia and paresis in all four limbs. The cat also exhibited signs of autonomic nervous system impairment. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed swelling of the brachial plexuses bilaterally. Despite treatment, the cat died after 10 days of treatment. A postmortem examination revealed swollen radial nerves and cervical nerve roots in which infiltration of inflammatory cells was histologically confirmed. Additionally, lymphocytic infiltration was found around the blood vessels of the sciatic nerve bundle and the vagus nerve...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Ying Chen, Jian Zhang, Zhe Chen, Quanguang Wang, Bing Li, Rujing Lai, Xuzhong Xu, Zhifang Cao, Lizhen Yu
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although intravenous lipid emulsion has been proved a powerful antidote for local anesthetic toxicity, there are few pharmacokinetic data on using lipid infusion as a pretreatment for other clinical applications. We assessed the influence of lipid pretreatment on the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of levobupivacaine. METHODS: Altogether, 12 patients undergoing below-knee surgery for a fracture were randomly assigned to 2 groups (6 patients per group): pretreatment with 1...
June 19, 2018: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Christine B Sieberg, Caitlin Taras, Aya Gomaa, Chelsea Nickerson, Cindy Wong, Catherine Ward, Georgios Baskozos, David L H Bennett, Juan D Ramirez, Andreas C Themistocleous, Andrew S C Rice, Pallai R Shillo, Solomon Tesfaye, Robert R Edwards, Nick A Andrews, Charles Berde, Michael Costigan
Background: Epidemiological studies in patients with neuropathic pain demonstrate a strong association with psychiatric conditions such as anxiety; however, the precipitating pathology between these symptoms remains unclear. To investigate this, we studied the effects of lifelong stress on levels of neuropathic pain-like behavior and conversely, the effects of chronic neuropathic injury on anxiety-like status in male and female mice. In addition, we assayed this link in painful and painless diabetic peripheral neuropathy patients...
May 2018: Pain Reports (Baltimore, Md.)
Venus Vakhshori, Ram K Alluri, Anuj Mahajan, Alidad Ghiassi
Background  Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are commonly treated using endovascular techniques. Previous nerve palsies after embolization have been reported as isolated case reports, none of which affected the forearm. Case Description  A case of acute, transient neuropathy of the radial nerve following embolization of a forearm AVM is described. The patient, an otherwise healthy 27-year-old man, began having symptoms of superficial radial nerve (SRN) and posterior interosseous nerve (PIN) palsies immediately following endovascular embolization...
July 2018: Journal of Wrist Surgery
Ye Peng, Kai-Yuan Li, Yu-Fei Chen, Xiao-Jie Li, Shu Zhu, Zheng-Yu Zhang, Xiao Wang, Li-Na Duan, Zhuo-Jing Luo, Jun-Jie Du, Jian-Chang Wang
Longitudinally oriented microstructures are essential for a nerve scaffold to promote the significant regeneration of injured peripheral axons across nerve gaps. In the current study, we present a novel nerve-guiding collagen-chitosan (CCH) scaffold that facilitated the repair of 30 mm-long sciatic nerve defects in beagles. The CCH scaffolds were observed with a scanning electron microscope. Eighteen beagles were equally divided into CCH group, autograft group and non-graft group. The posture and gait of each dog was recorded at 12 and 24 weeks after surgery...
March 22, 2018: Injury
Elisabeth A Kappos, Patricia Baenziger-Sieber, Mathias Tremp, Patricia E Engels, Sarah Thommen, Lima Sprenger, Robyn M Benz, Dirk J Schaefer, Stefan Schaeren, Daniel Felix Kalbermatten
BACKGROUND: The aim was to evaluate the regenerative effect of epineural injection of rat ASCs (rASCs) in three different settings of acute and chronic compression in a rat sciatic nerve model. METHODS: Acute compression (60 s) with a vessel clamp over a distance of 1 mm (group 1) or 10 mm (group 2), as well as chronic compression with a permanent remaining, nonabsorbable polymeric clip over a distance of 1 mm (group 3) was performed. Depending on the group, either 5 × 106 rASCs or the same volume (25 μl) of culture medium (CM) was injected with a 30G needle in the epineurium at the time of compression...
June 19, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Chatchote Thitaram, Pitchaya Matchimakul, Wanpitak Pongkan, Wasan Tangphokhanon, Raktham Maktrirat, Jaruwan Khonmee, Anucha Sathanawongs, Piyamat Kongtueng, Korakot Nganvongpanit
Background: Elephants are the largest and heaviest living terrestrial animals, but information on their histology is still lacking. This study provides a unique insight into the elephant's organs and also provides a comparison between juvenile Asian elephants and adult Asian elephants or other species. Here we report on the histological structure of 24 organs, including the skin, brain (cerebrum, cerebellar hemisphere, vermis, thalamus, midbrain), spinal cord, sciatic nerve, striated skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, bone (flat bone and long bone), cartilage (hyaline cartilage and fibrocartilage), heart (right atrium, right ventricle), blood vessels (aorta, pulmonary artery and caudal vena cava), trunk, trachea, lung, tongue, esophagus, stomach, small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, ileum), large intestine (cecum, colon, rectum), liver and pancreas, kidney, ovary, uterus (body and horn) and spleen of two juvenile Asian elephants...
2018: PeerJ
Hui Zhu, Chengbin Xue, Min Yao, Hongkui Wang, Ping Zhang, Tianmei Qian, Songlin Zhou, Shiying Li, Bin Yu, Yongjun Wang, Xiaosong Gu
The microenvironment of peripheral nerve regeneration consists of multiple neurotrophic factors, adhesion molecules, and extracellular matrix molecules, secreted by unique glial cells in the peripheral nerve system (PNS)-Schwann cell (SCs). Following peripheral nerve injury (PNI), local IGF-1 production is upregulated in SCs and denervated muscle during axonal sprouting and regeneration. Regulation of IGF-1/IGF-1R signaling is considered as a potentially targeted therapy of PNI. We previously identified a group of novel miRNAs in proximal nerve following rat sciatic nerve transection...
June 18, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Chun Yao, Yaxian Wang, Honghong Zhang, Wei Feng, Qihui Wang, Dingding Shen, Tianmei Qian, Fang Liu, Susu Mao, Xiaosong Gu, Bin Yu
As a major glia in peripheral nerve system, Schwann cells play a critical role in peripheral nerve injury repair. Searching efficient approach to promote Schwann cell activation might facilitate peripheral nerve repair. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been shown to regulate gene expression and take part in many biological processes. However, the role of lncRNAs in peripheral nerve regeneration is not fully understood. In this study, we obtained a global lncRNA portrayal following sciatic nerve injury in male rats using microarray and further investigated one of these dys-regulated lncRNAs, TNXA-PS1, confirming its vital role in regulating Schwann cells...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Anna Folkesson, Per Hartvig Honoré, Ole J Bjerrum
A high proportion of patients suffering from neuropathic pain do not receive satisfactory pain relief from their current treatment, due to incomplete efficacy and dose-limiting adverse effects. Hence, one strategy to improve treatment outcome is the use of a combination of analgesic drugs. The potential benefits of such approach include improved and prolonged duration of analgesic effect and fewer or milder adverse effects with lower doses of each drug. Gabapentin is recommended as a first-line drug in the treatment of neuropathic pain, and has recently been demonstrated to act on supraspinal structures to stimulate the descending noradrenergic pain inhibitory system...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
M B Olsen, L M Jacobsen, E I Schistad, L M Pedersen, L J Rygh, C Røe, J Gjerstad
Background/aims The μ-opioid receptor (OPRM1) is the major target of endogenous opioid peptides and opioid analgesic agents. An important single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in this gene is the functional SNP, rs1799971, leading to a substitution of asparagine (Asn) to aspartic acid (Asp) at codon 40 in exon 1. Previous studies have suggested that this SNP may give different phenotypes in males and females. In the present study we therefore investigated whether the OPRM1 Asn40Asp SNP, grouped by gender, could predict clinical outcome regarding progression of pain intensity and disability in patients with discogenic low back pain and sciatica...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
M Mayo-Moldes, A Carregal, M Corujeira, T Fernandez, V Vilanova
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Tianle Gao, Tiansheng Shi, Dan-Qiao Wang, Zsuzsanna Wiesenfeld-Hallin, Xiao-Jun Xu
Background and aims We have previously reported that systemic administration of sinomenine produced antinociception in various experimental pain conditions in rodents, particularly in models of neuropathic pain. In the present study we assessed the effects of repeated administration of sinomenine in two rodent models of neuropathic pain in order to study the development of tolerance. Methods The analgesic effect of sinomenine was tested in female Sprague-Dawley rats that exhibited mechanical and cold hypersensitivity following ischaemic injury to the spinal cord and in male C57/BL6 mice that developed mechanical hypersensitivity after ischaemic injury to the sciatic nerve...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Boram Nho, Junghun Lee, Junsub Lee, Kyeong Ryang Ko, Sung Joong Lee, Sunyoung Kim
Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a multifunctional protein that contains angiogenic and neurotrophic properties. In the current study, we investigated the analgesic effects of HGF by using a plasmid DNA that was designed to express 2 isoforms of human HGF-pCK-HGF-X7 (or VM202)-in a chronic constriction injury (CCI) -induced mouse neuropathic pain model. Intramuscular injection of pCK-HGF-X7 into proximal thigh muscle induced the expression of HGF in the muscle, sciatic nerve, and dorsal root ganglia (DRG)...
April 16, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Markus Theurl, Daniela Lener, Karin Albrecht-Schgoer, Arno Beer, Wilfried Schgoer, Yu Liu, Ursula Stanzl, Reiner Fischer-Colbrie, Rudolf Kirchmair
The pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy remains enigmatic. Damage to the vasa nervorum may be responsible for this disorder. Recently, we showed that secretoneurin (SN) induces angiogenesis in hindlimb and myocardial ischemia. Moreover, beneficial effects were observed in wound healing. We therefore hypothesized that SN therapy may ameliorate diabetic neuropathy. We used db/db mice as animal model for neuropathy. Gene therapy was accomplished by intramuscular injection of SN plasmid along the sciatic nerve...
April 13, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Fumiko Sekiguchi, Tomoyo Fujita, Takahiro Deguchi, Sakura Yamaoka, Ken Tomochika, Maho Tsubota, Sumire Ono, Yamato Horaguchi, Maki Ichii, Mio Ichikawa, Yumiko Ueno, Nene Koike, Tadatoshi Tanino, Huy Du Nguyen, Takuya Okada, Hiroyuki Nishikawa, Shigeru Yoshida, Tsuyako Ohkubo, Naoki Toyooka, Kazuya Murata, Hideaki Matsuda, Atsufumi Kawabata
Since Cav 3.2 T-type Ca2+ channels (T-channels) expressed in the primary afferents and CNS contribute to intractable pain, we explored T-channel-blocking components in distinct herbal extracts using a whole-cell patch-clamp technique in HEK293 cells stably expressing Cav 3.2 or Cav 3.1, and purified and identified sophoraflavanone G (SG) as an active compound from SOPHORAE RADIX (SR). Interestingly, hop-derived SG analogues, (2S)-6-prenylnaringenin (6-PNG) and (2S)-8-PNG, but not naringenin, also blocked T-channels; IC50 (μM) of SG, (2S)-6-PNG and (2S)-8-PNG was 0...
June 15, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Chaoling Dong, E Scott Helton, Ping Zhou, Xuan Ouyang, Xavier d'Anglemont de Tassigny, Alberto Pascual, José López-Barneo, Eroboghene E Ubogu
There is emerging evidence that glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a potent inducer of restrictive barrier function in tight junction-forming microvascular endothelium and epithelium, including the human blood-nerve barrier (BNB) in vitro. We sought to determine the role of GDNF in restoring BNB function in vivo by evaluating sciatic nerve horseradish peroxidase (HRP) permeability in tamoxifen-inducible GDNF conditional knockout (CKO) adult mice following non-transecting crush injury via electron microscopy, with appropriate wildtype (WT) and heterozygous (HET) littermate controls...
June 18, 2018: Tissue Barriers
Yingcong Yang, Zhongyuan Xia, Qingtao Meng, Kang Liu, Yeda Xiao, Liwei Shi
This study was designed to examine the effect and mechanism of dexmedetomidine (Dex) on neuropathic pain (NP). The NP model was established by performing chronic sciatic nerve constriction injury (CCI). Seven days after CCI surgery, the rats were injected intraperitoneally with Dex, ZD7288 (an HCN channel inhibitor), and saline, respectively. The paw withdrawal threshold to mechanical stimulation and the thermal withdrawal latency tests were performed. After administration, the L4, L5 dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons of rats were isolated...
June 14, 2018: Neuroreport
Brian E Cairns, Lars Arendt-Nielsen, Paola Sacerdote
Background It is unknown why an acute pain condition under various circumstances can transition into a chronic pain condition. There has been a shift towards neuroinflammation and hence glial cell activations specifically in the dorsal root ganglion and spinal cord as a mechanism possibly driving the transition to chronic pain. This has led to a focus on non-neuronal cells in the peripheral and central nervous system. Besides infiltrating macrophages, Schwann cells and satellite glial cells release cytokines and therefore important mechanisms in the maintenance of pain...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
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