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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28234971/expression-patterns-of-slit-and-robo-family-members-in-adult-mouse-spinal-cord-and-peripheral-nervous-system
#1
Lauren Carr, David B Parkinson, Xin-Peng Dun
The secreted glycoproteins, Slit1-3, are classic axon guidance molecules that act as repulsive cues through their well characterised receptors Robo1-2 to allow precise axon pathfinding and neuronal migration. The expression patterns of Slit1-3 and Robo1-2 have been most characterized in the rodent developing nervous system and the adult brain, but little is known about their expression patterns in the adult rodent peripheral nervous system. Here, we report a detailed expression analysis of Slit1-3 and Robo1-2 in the adult mouse sciatic nerve as well as their expression in the nerve cell bodies within the ventral spinal cord (motor neurons) and dorsal root ganglion (sensory neurons)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28234776/radiographic-and-clinical-results-of-freehand-s2-alar-iliac-screw-placement-for-spinopelvic-fixation-an-analysis-of-45-consecutive-screws
#2
Young-Seop Park, Seung-Jae Hyun, Jong-Hwa Park, Ki-Jeong Kim, Tae-Ahn Jahng, Hyun-Jib Kim
STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective clinical case series. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate mid-term outcomes of S2 ala-iliac (S2AI) screw fixation in patients who underwent multilevel posterior spinal fusion surgery. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: There have been few reports on radiographic and clinical outcomes in patients who underwent spinopelvic reconstruction surgery using S2AI screw installation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-three patients were treated by a single spinal surgeon between September 2013 and June 2014 utilizing segmental instrumentation with pedicle and S2AI screw...
February 23, 2017: Clinical Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28234636/a-three-arm-randomized-clinical-trial-comparing-continuous-femoral-plus-single-injection-sciatic-peripheral-nerve-blocks-versus-periarticular-injection-with-ropivacaine-or-liposomal-bupivacaine-for-patients-undergoing-total-knee-arthroplasty
#3
Adam W Amundson, Rebecca L Johnson, Matthew P Abdel, Carlos B Mantilla, Jason K Panchamia, Michael J Taunton, Michael E Kralovec, James R Hebl, Darrell R Schroeder, Mark W Pagnano, Sandra L Kopp
BACKGROUND: Multimodal analgesia is standard practice for total knee arthroplasty; however, the role of regional techniques in improved perioperative outcomes remains unknown. The authors hypothesized that peripheral nerve blockade would result in lower pain scores and opioid consumption than two competing periarticular injection solutions. METHODS: This three-arm, nonblinded trial randomized 165 adults undergoing unilateral primary total knee arthroplasty to receive (1) femoral catheter plus sciatic nerve blocks, (2) ropivacaine-based periarticular injection, or (3) liposomal bupivacaine-based periarticular injection...
February 24, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233159/the-effects-of-co-administration-of-pregabalin-and-vitamin-e-on-neuropathic-pain-induced-by-partial-sciatic-nerve-ligation-in-male-rats
#4
Manzumeh-Shamsi Meymandi, Gholamreza Sepehri, Mona Abdolsamadi, Mohammad Shaabani, Gioia Heravi, Omid Yazdanpanah, Mohammadmehdi-Moeini Aghtaei
OBJECTIVE: This study was performed to evaluate the effect of pregabalin co-administration with vitamin E in Partial Sciatic Nerve Ligation (PSNL)-induced neuropathic pain in rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were randomly allocated as control, sham, and PSNL groups (n = 8). PSNL was induced by tight ligation of the sciatic nerve with a copper wire. On day 14th, the PSNL and sham operated rats received either pregabalin (1, 3, and 30 mg/kg), vitamin E (100 and 200 mg/kg), or their combination intraperitoneally...
February 23, 2017: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28232023/peptide-regulation-of-cofilin-activity-in-the-cns-a-novel-therapeutic-approach-for-treatment-of-multiple-neurological-disorders
#5
REVIEW
Alisa E Shaw, James R Bamburg
Cofilin is a ubiquitous protein which cooperates with many other actin-binding proteins in regulating actin dynamics. Cofilin has essential functions in nervous system development including neuritogenesis, neurite elongation, growth cone pathfinding, dendritic spine formation, and the regulation of neurotransmission and spine function, components of synaptic plasticity essential for learning and memory. Cofilin's phosphoregulation is a downstream target of many transmembrane signaling processes, and its misregulation in neurons has been linked in rodent models to many different neurodegenerative and neurological disorders including Alzheimer disease (AD), aggression due to neonatal isolation, autism, manic/bipolar disorder, and sleep deprivation...
February 19, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231784/accuracy-of-clinical-neurological-examination-in-diagnosing-lumbo-sacral-radiculopathy-a-systematic-literature-review
#6
Nassib Tawa, Anthea Rhoda, Ina Diener
BACKGROUND: Lumbar radiculopathy remains a clinical challenge among primary care clinicians in both assessment and diagnosis. This often leads to misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatment of patients resulting in poor health outcomes, exacerbating this already debilitating condition. This review evaluated 12 primary diagnostic accuracy studies that specifically assessed the performance of various individual and grouped clinical neurological tests in detecting nerve root impingement, as established in the current literature...
February 23, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230504/peripheral-neuropathy-and-leptin-receptor-defect-demyelination-of-the-sciatic-nerve-of-the-obese-zucker-rat
#7
Jacques Gilloteaux, Kritika Subramanian, Nadia Solomon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Ultrastructural Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228977/transient-hemi-lower-limb-ischemia-in-the-newborn-arterial-thrombosis-or-persistent-sciatic-artery
#8
Makiko Kirino, Masayuki Ochiai, Masako Ichiyama, Hirosuke Inoue, Takeshi Kusuda, Tadamune Kinjo, Masataka Ishimura, Shouichi Ohga
Neonatal thromboembolism occurs with various predispositions and triggers. Early diagnosis of the thrombosis is challenging and essential for the therapeutic interventions. We herein report two newborns who presented with transient hemi-lower limb ischemia due to (1) arterial thrombosis or (2) a persistent sciatic artery (PSA). The patient with arterial thrombosis showed elevations of fibrin degradation product and D-dimer and received antithrombin and heparin intravenously. The patient with PSA was immediately assessed by a contrast-enhanced computed tomography because of a transient ischemic episode with no evidence of hypercoagulability...
January 2017: American Journal of Perinatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227512/implantation-and-testing-of-wfma-stimulators-in-macaque
#9
Philip R Trovk, David Frim, Ben Roitberg, Vernon L Towle, Kazutaka Takahashi, Sungjae Suh, Martin Bak, Sam Bredeson, Zhe Hu, Philip R Trovk, David Frim, Ben Roitberg, Vernon L Towle, Kazutaka Takahashi, Sungjae Suh, Martin Bak, Sam Bredeson, Zhe Hu, Vernon L Towle, David Frim, Kazutaka Takahashi, Zhe Hu, Sam Bredeson, Martin Bak, Ben Roitberg, Sungjae Suh
Our on-going work to develop an intracortical visual prosthesis has motivated the design, fabrication, and testing of a Wireless Floating Microelectrode Array (WFMA) stimulator. This implantable device can be used for an electrical stimulation interface in the peripheral and the central nervous system. Previously, its use in a sciatic nerve rodent model was described. Here implantation of two WFMAs in motor cortex of two NHP (macaque - two devices/animal) is presented. Preliminary functional tests show the implanted devices to be fully functional with stimulation-induced motor movements obtained...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226286/peripheral-nerve-ultrasonography-in-patients-with-transthyretin-amyloidosis
#10
Simon Podnar, Stayko Sarafov, Ivailo Tournev, Gregor Omejec, Janez Zidar
OBJECTIVE: To systematically study peripheral nerve morphology in patients with transthyretin (TTR) amyloidosis and TTR gene mutation carriers using high-resolution ultrasonography (US). METHODS: In this prospective cross-sectional study we took a structured history, performed neurological examination, and measured peripheral nerve cross-sectional areas (CSAs) bilaterally at 28 standard locations using US. Demographic and US findings were compared to controls. RESULTS: Peripheral nerve CSAs were significantly larger in 33 patients with familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) compared to 50 controls, most dramatically at the common entrapment sites (median nerve at the wrist, ulnar nerve at the elbow), and in the proximal nerve segments (median nerve in the upper arm, sciatic nerve in the thigh)...
January 29, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225868/n-acetylcysteine-downregulates-phosphorylated-p-38-expression-but-does-not-reverse-the-increased-superoxide-anion-levels-in-the-spinal-cord-of-rats-with-neuropathic-pain
#11
A Horst, J A de Souza, M C Q Santos, A P K Riffel, C Kolberg, M F M Ribeiro, L S de Fraga, W A Partata
We determined the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on the expression of the phosphorylated p38 (p-p38) protein and superoxide anion generation (SAG), two important players in the processing of neuropathic pain, in the lumbosacral spinal cord of rats with chronic constriction injury (CCI)-induced neuropathic pain. The sciatic functional index (SFI) was also measured to assess the functional recovery post-nerve lesion. Thirty-six male Wistar rats were divided equally into the following groups: Naive (rats did not undergo surgical manipulation); Sham (rats in which all surgical procedures involved in CCI were used except the ligature), and CCI (rats in which four ligatures were tied loosely around the right common sciatic nerve), which received 2, 4, or 8 intraperitoneal injections of NAC (150 mg·kg-1·day-1) or saline beginning 4 h after CCI...
February 16, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224633/gluteal-compartment-syndrome-with-neurologic-impairment-report-of-two-cases-and-review-of-the-literature
#12
Greg D Kuhlman, Kelly G Gwathmey
INTRODUCTION: We describe two patients who developed gluteal compartment syndrome (GCS) in the context of drug overdose. One patient developed a sciatic neuropathy and one patient a lumbosacral plexopathy. METHODS: We reviewed the literature of atraumatic GCS and resultant neurological impairment. RESULTS: We review 26 cases (our two and 24 previously published) of GCS and neurological impairment. All patients developed GCS in the context of drug or alcohol overdose...
February 22, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223844/neuronal-plasticity-of-trigeminal-ganglia-in-mice-following-nerve-injury
#13
Randi Lynds, Chuang Lyu, Gong-Wei Lyu, Xie-Qi Shi, Annika Rosén, Kamal Mustafa, Tie-Jun Sten Shi
BACKGROUND: Nerve injury may induce neuropathic pain. In studying the mechanisms of orofacial neuropathic pain, attention has been paid to the plastic changes that occur in the trigeminal ganglia (TGs) and nucleus in response to an injury of the trigeminal nerve branches. Previous studies have explored the impact of sciatic nerve injury on dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) and it has shown dramatic changes in the expression of multiple biomarkers. In large, the changes in biomarker expression in TGs after trigeminal nerve injury are similar to that in DRGs after sciatic nerve injury...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222529/progressive-motor-deficit-is-mediated-by-the-denervation-of-neuromuscular-junctions-and-axonal-degeneration-in-transgenic-mice-expressing-mutant-p301s-tau-protein
#14
Zhuoran Yin, Femke Valkenburg, Betty E Hornix, Ietje Mantingh-Otter, Xingdong Zhou, Muriel Mari, Fulvio Reggiori, Debby Van Dam, Bart J L Eggen, Peter P De Deyn, Erik Boddeke
Tauopathies include a variety of neurodegenerative diseases associated with the pathological aggregation of hyperphosphorylated tau, resulting in progressive cognitive decline and motor impairment. The underlying mechanism for motor deficits related to tauopathy is not yet fully understood. Here, we use a novel transgenic tau mouse line, Tau 58/4, with enhanced neuron-specific expression of P301S mutant tau to investigate the motor abnormalities in association with the peripheral nervous system. Using stationary beam, gait, and rotarod tests, motor deficits were found in Tau 58/4 mice already 3 months after birth, which deteriorated during aging...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222067/designation-and-validation-of-a-posterior-anatomical-plate-for-the-anterior-column-of-the-acetabulum
#15
Lifeng Zhang, Chuangxin Lin, Shenglu Cao, Yiran Wang, Geng Peng, Yongqiang Xu, Yongzeng Feng, Gang Wang
BACKGROUND Surgical treatment of acetabular fractures is one of the greatest challenges for orthopedic surgeons. Fixation of most displaced fractures requires extensive exposure, which may lead to complications, including blood loss, neural or vascular injury, postoperative infection, wound healing problems, and heterotopic bone formation. MATERIAL AND METHODS This study was conducted to certify an anatomic plate with an anterior column lag screw guiding device to repair the posterior acetabulum. Complete pelvic spiral computed tomography (CT) scan data were collected from 56 patients...
February 21, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219087/muscle-response-to-complete-peripheral-nerve-injury-changes-of-acetylcholine-receptor-and-creatine-kinase-activity-over-time
#16
Shimon Rochkind, Asher Shainberg
Background This study was designed to assess the changes of acetylcholine receptor (AChR) and creatine kinase (CK) levels, which are important biochemical markers for muscle viability in cases of long-term muscle denervation. Scientists and peripheral nerve surgeons may find these data important regarding maximal range of muscle viability applicable for timing of effective peripheral nerve reconstructive surgery. Methods The study was conducted on 48 rats (96 gastrocnemius muscles), whose right legs were denervated by removing a 10-mm segment of sciatic nerve, while their left legs remained intact...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217060/ultrasonography-guided-pulsed-radiofrequency-of-sciatic-nerve-for-the-treatment-of-complex-regional-pain-syndrome-type-ii
#17
Yi Hwa Choi, Dong Jin Chang, Woon Suk Hwang, Jin Hwan Chung
Although the major mechanism of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) involves dysfunctional central or sympathetic nervous system activation, the peripheral nervous system also contributes significantly to its clinical manifestations. Pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) is a recently developed treatment option for neuropathic pain syndromes. Here, we report a case of CRPS Type II after a femur fracture and sciatic nerve injury, in which the pain was treated successfully with ultrasonography-guided selective sciatic nerve PRF application...
January 2017: Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215880/adenovirus-vector-mediated-ex-vivo-gene-transfer-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-bdnf-tohuman-umbilical-cord-blood-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-ucb-mscs-promotescrush-injured-rat-sciatic-nerve-regeneration
#18
Wei-Hong Hei, Akram A Almansoori, Mi-Ae Sung, Kyung-Won Ju, Nari Seo, Sung-Ho Lee, Bong-Ju Kim, Soung-Min Kim, Jeong Won Jahng, Hong He, Jong-Ho Lee
This study was designed toinvestigate the efficacy of adenovirus vector-mediated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) ex vivo gene transfer to human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCB-MSCs) in a rat sciatic nerve crush injury model. BDNF protein and mRNA expression after infection was checked through an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Male Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250g, 6 weeks old) were distributed into threegroups (n=20 each): the control group, UCB-MSC group, and BDNF-adenovirus infected UCB-MSC (BDNF-Ad+UCB-MSC) group...
February 13, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215879/incline-treadmill-exercise-suppresses-pain-hypersensitivity-associated-with-the-modulation-of-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-and-anti-inflammatory-cytokine-in-rats-with-peripheral-nerve-injury
#19
Kun-Ling Tsai, Po-Ching Huang, Li-Kai Wang, Ching-Hsia Hung, Yu-Wen Chen
We aimed to investigate the impact of 3 weeks of incline treadmill exercise (TE) on withdrawal responses elicited by thermal and mechanical stimuli, and on anti-inflammatory cytokine (interleukin-10, IL-10) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha [TNF-α]) expression in the sciatic nerve of rats underwent chronic constriction injury (CCI). Group 1 received a sham-operation where the sciatic nerve was exposed but not ligated, while Group 2 underwent a sham-operation followed by exercising on an 8%-incline treadmill (TE8)...
February 12, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214338/sciatic-neuropathy-due-to-popliteal-fossa-nerve-block
#20
Adam Aubuchon, W David Arnold, Anna Bracewell, J Chad Hoyle
INTRODUCTION: Sciatic neuropathy following popliteal nerve block (PNB) for regional anesthesia is considered uncommon but has been increasingly recognized in the literature. We identified a case of sciatic neuropathy that occurred after bunionectomy during which a PNB had been performed. METHODS: To understand the frequency of PNB-related sciatic neuropathy we performed a retrospective review of sciatic neuropathies at our center over a five year period. RESULTS: Forty-five cases of sciatic neuropathy were reviewed...
February 18, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
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