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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244691/delayed-onset-sciatic-nerve-palsy-after-periacetabular-osteotomy-a-case-report
#1
Michael Leunig, Jonathan M Vigdorchik, Aidin Eslam Pour, Silvia Willi-Dähn, Reinhold Ganz
CASE: A large surgical correction was required for severe hip dysplasia, which was associated with a delayed-onset sciatic nerve injury in an adolescent patient. A cortical bone spur on the outside of the acetabular fragment produced an indirect injury that became symptomatic during mobilization of the patient. CONCLUSION: The risk of direct injury to the sciatic nerve during a periacetabular osteotomy is quite low when the osteotomy is executed in extension with abduction of the hip and flexion of the knee to reduce tension on the sciatic nerve...
January 2017: JBJS Case Connector
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239940/prolonged-duration-local-anesthesia-using-liposomal-bupivacaine-combined-with-liposomal-dexamethasone-and-dexmedetomidine
#2
Alina Y Rwei, Robert T Sherburne, David Zurakowski, Bruce Wang, Daniel S Kohane
BACKGROUND: The relatively short duration of effect of local anesthetics has been addressed by encapsulation in drug delivery systems. Codelivery with a single compound that produces an adjuvant effect on nerve block but without intrinsic local anesthetic properties can further prolong the nerve block effect. Here, we investigated whether codelivery of more than 1 encapsulated adjuvant compound can further enhance nerve blockade. METHODS: Liposomes loaded with bupivacaine (Bup), dexamethasone phosphate (DexP), or dexmedetomidine (DMED) were synthesized and its in vitro drug release profiles were determined...
December 11, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237486/transplantation-of-dental-pulp-stem-cells-improves-long-term-diabetic-polyneuropathy-together-with-improvement-of-nerve-morphometrical-evaluation
#3
Maiko Omi, Masaki Hata, Nobuhisa Nakamura, Megumi Miyabe, Shogo Ozawa, Hitoshi Nukada, Masami Tsukamoto, Kazunori Sango, Tatsuhito Himeno, Hideki Kamiya, Jiro Nakamura, Jun Takebe, Tatsuaki Matsubara, Keiko Naruse
BACKGROUND: Although previous reports have revealed the therapeutic potential of stem cell transplantation in diabetic polyneuropathy, the effects of cell transplantation on long-term diabetic polyneuropathy have not been investigated. In this study, we investigated whether the transplantation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) ameliorated long-term diabetic polyneuropathy in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. METHODS: Forty-eight weeks after STZ injection, we transplanted DPSCs into the unilateral hindlimb skeletal muscles...
December 13, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236164/the-influence-of-isoflavone-for-denervation-induced-muscle-atrophy
#4
Shinpei Tabata, Miki Aizawa, Masakazu Kinoshita, Yoshinori Ito, Yusuke Kawamura, Minoru Takebe, Weijun Pan, Kunihiro Sakuma
PURPOSE: Decrease in activity stress induces skeletal muscle atrophy. A previous study showed that treatment with a high level (20%) of isoflavone inhibits muscle atrophy after short-term denervation (at 4 days) in mice. The present study was designed to elucidate whether the dietary isoflavone aglycone (AglyMax) at a 0.6% prevents denervation-mediated muscle atrophy, based on the modulation of atrogin-1- or apoptosis-dependent signaling. METHODS: Mice were fed either a normal diet or 0...
December 13, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235496/involvement-of-trpm2-and-trpv1-channels-on-hyperalgesia-apoptosis-and-oxidative-stress-in-rat-fibromyalgia-model-protective-role-of-selenium
#5
Esra Yüksel, Mustafa Nazıroğlu, Mehmet Şahin, Bilal Çiğ
Fibromyalgia (FM) results in pain characterized by low selenium (Se) levels, excessive Ca2+ influx, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and acidic pH. TRPM2 and TRPV1 are activated by ROS and acid; nevertheless, their roles have not been elucidated in FM. Therefore, we investigated the contribution of TRPM2 and TRPV1 to pain, oxidative stress, and apoptosis in a rat model of FM and the therapeutic potential of Se. Thirty-six rats were divided into four groups: control, Se, FM, and FM + Se. The Se treatment reduced the FM-induced increase in TRPM2 and TRPV1 currents, pain intensity, intracellular free Ca2+, ROS, and mitochondrial membrane depolarization in the sciatic (SciN) and dorsal root ganglion (DRGN) neurons...
December 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234567/nerve-entrapment-in-the-hip-region-current-concepts-review
#6
RobRoy Martin, Hal David Martin, Benjamin R Kivlan
The purpose of this clinical commentary is to review the anatomy, etiology, evaluation, and treatment techniques for nerve entrapments of the hip region. Nerve entrapment can occur around musculotendinous, osseous, and ligamentous structures because of the potential for increased strain and compression on the peripheral nerve at those sites. The sequela of localized trauma may also result in nerve entrapment if normal nerve gliding is prevented. Nerve entrapment can be difficult to diagnose because patient complaints may be similar to and coexist with other musculoskeletal conditions in the hip and pelvic region...
December 2017: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234013/the-differentiation-stage-of-transplanted-stem-cells-modulates-nerve-regeneration
#7
Ching-Wen Huang, Wen-Chin Huang, Xuefeng Qiu, Flavia Fernandes Ferreira da Silva, Aijun Wang, Shyam Patel, Leon J Nesti, Mu-Ming Poo, Song Li
In regenerative medicine applications, the differentiation stage of implanted stem cells must be optimized to control cell fate and enhance therapeutic efficacy. We investigated the therapeutic potential of human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived cells at two differentiation stages on peripheral nerve regeneration. Neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) and Schwann cells (NCSC-SCs) derived from iPSCs were used to construct a tissue-engineered nerve conduit that was applied to bridge injured nerves in a rat sciatic nerve transection model...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231595/-effects-of-electroacupuncture-on-activation-of-microglia-cells-in-spinal-cord-in-rats-with-neuropathic-pain
#8
Sisi Li, Pengpeng Gu, Wenzhan Tu, Xia Jiang, Wenci Chen, Qimiao Hu, Songhe Jiang
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) on the activation of microglia cells in the L4 to L6 spinal cord in rats with neuropathic pain, so as to investigate whether EA could inhibit the activation of spinal microglial cells and regulate the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to achieve the analgesic effect. METHODS: Forty male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into a normal group, a sham-model group, a model group and an EA group, 10 rats in each one...
April 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230526/peripheral-nerve-diffusion-tensor-imaging-dti-normal-values-and-demographic-determinants-in-a-cohort-of-60-healthy-individuals
#9
Moritz Kronlage, Véronique Schwehr, Daniel Schwarz, Tim Godel, Lorenz Uhlmann, Sabine Heiland, Martin Bendszus, Philipp Bäumer
OBJECTIVE: To identify demographic determinants of peripheral nerve diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and to establish normal values for fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity (AD), radial diffusivity (RD), and mean diffusivity (MD). METHODS: Sixty subjects were examined at 3 Tesla by single-shot DTI. FA, AD, RD, and MD were collected for the sciatic, tibial, median, ulnar, and radial nerve and were correlated with demographic variables. RESULTS: Mean FA of all nerves declined with increasing age (r = -0...
December 11, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230164/a-sub-millimeter-inductively-powered-neural-stimulator
#10
Daniel K Freeman, Jonathan M O'Brien, Parshant Kumar, Brian Daniels, Reed A Irion, Louis Shraytah, Brett K Ingersoll, Andrew P Magyar, Andrew Czarnecki, Jesse Wheeler, Jonathan R Coppeta, Michael P Abban, Ronald Gatzke, Shelley I Fried, Seung Woo Lee, Amy E Duwel, Jonathan J Bernstein, Alik S Widge, Ana Hernandez-Reynoso, Aswini Kanneganti, Mario I Romero-Ortega, Stuart F Cogan
Wireless neural stimulators are being developed to address problems associated with traditional lead-based implants. However, designing wireless stimulators on the sub-millimeter scale (<1 mm3) is challenging. As device size shrinks, it becomes difficult to deliver sufficient wireless power to operate the device. Here, we present a sub-millimeter, inductively powered neural stimulator consisting only of a coil to receive power, a capacitor to tune the resonant frequency of the receiver, and a diode to rectify the radio-frequency signal to produce neural excitation...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230099/the-effect-of-co-transplantation-of-nerve-fibroblasts-and-schwann-cells-on-peripheral-nerve-repair
#11
Yang Wang, Dong Li, Gangyang Wang, Lulu Chen, Jun Chen, Zhangyin Liu, Zhaofeng Zhang, Hua Shen, Yuqing Jin, Zunli Shen
Combinations of fibroblasts (Fbs) and corresponding epithelial cells have been widely used in many tissues, such as the skin and breast tissues, to augment tissue repair and remodeling. Recently, a large amount of new data has indicated that nerve Fbs play critical roles in Schwann cells (SCs) and axons in vitro. However, little is known regarding the effects of co-transplanting nerve Fbs and SCs on peripheral nerve repair in vivo. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of co-transplanting sciatic nerve Fbs (SN-Fbs) and sciatic nerve SCs (SN-SCs) on nerve regeneration...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229746/inhibition-of-nadph-oxidase-dependent-oxidative-stress-in-the-rostral-ventrolateral-medulla-mediates-the-antihypertensive-effects-of-acupuncture-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#12
Xue-Rui Wang, Jing-Wen Yang, Cai-Shuo Ji, Xiang-Hong Zeng, Guang-Xia Shi, Marc Fisher, Cun-Zhi Liu
Oxidative stress in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), where the sympathetic nervous control center is located, contributes to neural mechanisms of hypertension. Acupuncture was previously reported to favorably affect high blood pressure. However, little is known about the effect of acupuncture on oxidative stress-modulated mechanisms in hypertension. This study was designed to evaluate the hypothesis that acupuncture exerts an antihypertensive effect via ameliorating oxidative stress and the redox-sensitive pathway in the RVLM of spontaneously hypertensive rats...
December 11, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229558/enhanced-activities-of-%C3%AE-subunit-containing-gabaa-receptors-blocked-spinal-long-term-potentiation-and-attenuated-formalin-induced-spontaneous-pain
#13
Jiang-Ping Liu, Yong-Tao He, Xing-Lian Duan, Zhan-Wei Suo, Xian Yang, Xiao-Dong Hu
The δ subunit-containing γ-Aminobutyric acid type A receptors (δ-GABAARs) are located at extrasynaptic sites and persistently active in the control of neuronal excitability. Here we recorded primary afferent C fiber-evoked field potentials in the superficial dorsal horn of rat spinal cords in vivo, and investigated the possible influence of δ-GABAARs activities on nociceptive synaptic transmission. We found that δ-GABAARs-preferring agonist THIP, when topically applied onto spinal cord dorsum, inhibited the basal synaptic responses in a dose-dependent manner...
December 8, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229422/split-sciatic-nerve-surgery-a-new-microsurgical-model-in-experimental-nerve-repair
#14
Luigi Schiraldi, Lima Sottaz, Srinivas Madduri, Corrado Campisi, Carlo M Oranges, Wassim Raffoul, Daniel F Kalbermatten, Pietro G di Summa
INTRODUCTION: Sciatic experimental surgery in rat often leads to hindlimb autophagy, with considerable ethical and research issues. In this work, the distal part of the sciatic nerve was split following the natural bifurcation between tibial and peroneal branches, before applying regenerative stem cells in a fibrin conduit on the peroneal segment. The new microsurgical model was tested in terms of animal morbidity and consistency of research outcomes, particularly comparing to the standard total sciatic axotomy procedure...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229154/morphofunctional-evaluation-of-end-to-side-neurorrhaphy-through-video-system-magnification
#15
Rui Sergio Monteiro de Barros, Marcus Vinicius Henriques Brito, Marcelo Houat de Brito, Jean Vitor de Aguiar Lédo Coutinho, Renan Kleber Costa Teixeira, Vitor Nagai Yamaki, Felipe Lobato da Silva Costa, Danusa Neves Somensi
BACKGROUND: The surgical microscope is an essential tool for microsurgery. Nonetheless, several promising alternatives are being developed, including endoscopes and laparoscopes with video systems. However, these alternatives have only been used for arterial anastomoses so far. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of a low-cost video-assisted magnification system in end-to-side neurorrhaphy in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty rats were randomly divided into four matched groups: (1) normality (sciatic nerve was exposed but was kept intact); (2) denervation (fibular nerve was sectioned, and the proximal and distal stumps were sutured-transection without repair); (3) microscope; and (4) video system (fibular nerve was sectioned; the proximal stump was buried inside the adjacent musculature, and the distal stump was sutured to the tibial nerve)...
January 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227824/reduced-inflammatory-factor-expression-facilitates-recovery-after-sciatic-nerve-injury-in-tlr4-mutant-mice
#16
Guoqing Tang, Jia Yao, Ruowu Shen, Aiyu Ji, Kai Ma, Beibei Cong, Fang Wang, Lingyu Zhu, Xuan Wang, Yingqiao Ding, Bei Zhang
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are extremely significant pattern recognition receptors. When nerve injury occurs, a variety of inflammatory factors are generated, leading to an exceedingly complex micro-environment. TLRs recognize damage-associated molecular patterns. To investigate the correlation between TLR4 and recovery after sciatic nerve injury, the model of sciatic nerve injury was conducted using TLR4-mutated mice (C3H/HeJ) and wild mice (C3H/HeN). Our goal was to identify short-stage and long-stage changes after sciatic nerve injury, mainly by checking the expression changes of inflammation factors in the short-stage and the differences in the recovery of the injured sciatic nerve in the long-stage...
December 8, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227106/hollow-silica-nanoparticles-penetrate-the-peripheral-nerve-and-enhance-the-nerve-blockade-from-tetrodotoxin
#17
Qian Liu, Claudia M Santamaria, Tuo Wei, Chao Zhao, Tianjiao Ji, Tianshe Yang, Andre Shomorony, Bruce Y Wang, Daniel S Kohane
The efficacy of tetrodotoxin (TTX), a very potent local anesthetic, is limited by its poor penetration through barriers to axonal surfaces. To address this issue, we encapsulated TTX in hollow silica nanoparticles (TTX-HSN) and injected them at the sciatic nerve in rats. TTX-HSN achieved an increased frequency of successful blocks, prolonged the duration of the block, and decreased the toxicity compared to free TTX. In animals injected with fluorescently labeled HSN, the imaging of frozen sections of nerve demonstrated that HSN could penetrate into nerve and that the penetrating ability of silica nanoparticles was highly size-dependent...
December 11, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225186/hinokitiol-inhibits-compound-action-potentials-in-the-frog-sciatic-nerve
#18
Nobuya Magori, Tsugumi Fujita, Eiichi Kumamoto
Hinokitiol (β-thujaplicin) is a natural tropolone derivative contained in Chamaecyparis taiwanensis that has various actions including anti-inflammatory activities. Various plant-derived compounds inhibit compound action potentials (CAPs) in a manner dependent on the chemical structure of the compounds; however, the effects of hinokitiol on nerve conduction have not been examined. To determine whether hinokitiol inhibits CAPs and, if so, the chemical structure of hinokitiol that is important in this inhibition, we examined the effects of hinokitiol and its related compounds on fast-conducting CAPs using the frog sciatic nerve and the air-gap method...
December 7, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225030/a-rare-cause-of-critical-limb-ischaemia-an-aneurysmal-persistent-sciatic-artery
#19
Gabriele Pagliariccio, Luciano Carbonari
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 7, 2017: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225009/anatomic-implications-of-lesser-trochanterplasty
#20
Onur Hapa, Nihat Demirhan Demirkıran, Buğra Hüsemoğlu, Mete Edizer, Hasan Havitçioğlu
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to measure the area of iliopsoas tendon attachment and the distance of sciatic nerve, medial circumflex femoral artery (MCFA) and quadratus muscle to lesser trochanter tip, before and after 5, 10, 15 mm depth excision of lesser trochanter. METHODS: A total 15 hips of 8 adult male cadavers were evaluated. Distances between lesser trochanter tip, sciatic nerve, the lower edge of quadratus muscle and MCFA; length and width of quadratus muscle insertion; area of iliopsoas muscle and quadratus muscle insertion was measured before and after sequential 5,10 and 15 mm depth trochanterplasties using 5 mm wide burr parallel to the posterior cortex...
December 7, 2017: Acta Orthopaedica et Traumatologica Turcica
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