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Prediction epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821546/a-supervised-statistical-learning-approach-for-accurate-legionella-pneumophila-source-attribution-during-outbreaks
#1
Andrew H Buultjens, Kyra Y L Chua, Sarah L Baines, Jason Kwong, Wei Gao, Zoe Cutcher, Stuart Adcock, Susan Ballard, Mark B Schultz, Takehiro Tomita, Nela Subasinghe, Glen P Carter, Sacha J Pidot, Lucinda Franklin, Torsten Seemann, Anders Gonçalves Da Silva, Benjamin P Howden, Timothy P Stinear
Public health agencies are increasingly relying on genomics during Legionnaires' disease investigations. However, the causative bacterium (Legionella pneumophila) has an unusual population structure with extreme temporal and spatial genome sequence conservation. Furthermore, Legionnaires' disease outbreaks can be caused by multiple L. pneumophila genotypes in a single source. These factors can confound cluster identification using standard phylogenomic methods. Here, we show that a statistical learning approach based onL...
August 18, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820030/epidemiology-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-the-united-states-implications-for-the-perfusion-profession-a-2017-update
#2
Joseph J Sistino, David C Fitzgerald
INTRODUCTION: By analyzing epidemiological trends in cardiovascular disease (CVD), key stakeholders can make informed decisions on the future of disease burden and treatment. Accordingly, the cardiovascular perfusion community would benefit from data that would help predict future professional resource utilization. METHODS: In 2003, the changes in the number of hospital discharges for CVD from 1990 to 2000 were published, based on data from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS)...
September 2017: Perfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819535/clinical-features-and-antinuclear-antibodies-profile-among-adults-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-and-lupus-nephritis-a-cross-sectional-study
#3
Nashwa Ahmed, Mazin Shigidi, Al Nour Al Agib, Hassan Abdelrahman, Elshafie Taha
INTRODUCTION: Limited data is available regarding the clinical manifestations and pattern of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) in Sudan. This study aimed to determine the clinical manifestations and Antinuclear Antibodies (ANA) profile among Sudanese adults with SLE and lupus nephritis (LN). METHODS: A descriptive study was conducted in Omdurman Military Hospital, Sudan. It included all adults with SLE and on regular follow-up during the study period (December 2012 to May 2013)...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818717/the-effect-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-on-the-risk-of-developing-prescription-opioid-use-disorder-results-from-the-national-epidemiologic-survey-on-alcohol-and-related-conditions-iii
#4
Ahmed N Hassan, Bernard Le Foll, Sameer Imtiaz, Jürgen Rehm
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of baseline post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and each symptoms cluster on the risk of developing opioid use disorder (OUD) in those exposed to opioid painkillers and to assess the effect of comorbid PTSD and OUD on functioning, OUD severity, and treatment seeking compared with individuals with OUD only. METHODS: We obtained data from 4025 individuals exposed to opioid painkillers from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions III...
August 8, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818628/a-prospective-multicentre-study-of-the-epidemiology-and-outcomes-of-bloodstream-infection-in-cirrhotic-patients
#5
Michele Bartoletti, Maddalena Giannella, Russell Lewis, Paolo Caraceni, Sara Tedeschi, Mical Paul, Christoph Schramm, Tony Bruns, Manuela Merli, Nazaret Cobos-Trigueros, Elena Seminari, Pilar Retamar, Patricia Muñoz, Mario Tumbarello, Patrizia Burra, Maria Torrani Cerenzia, Bruno Barsic, Ester Calbo, Alberto Enrico Maraolo, Nicola Petrosillo, Maria Angeles Galan-Ladero, Giampiero D'Offizi, Noa Bar Sinai, Jesus Rodríguez-Baño, Gabriella Verucchi, Mauro Bernardi, Pierluigi Viale
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the current epidemiology of BSI in patients with cirrhosis, analyse predictors of 30-day mortality, and risk factors for antibiotic resistance. METHODS: Cirrhotic patients developing a BSI episode were prospectively included at 19 centres in five countries from September 2014 to December 2015. The discrimination of mortality risk scores for 30-day mortality were compared by area under the receiver operator-risk and Cox-regression models...
August 14, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818331/molecular-epidemiology-of-epizootic-haematopoietic-necrosis-virus-ehnv
#6
Paul M Hick, Kuttichantran Subramaniam, Patrick M Thompson, Thomas B Waltzek, Joy A Becker, Richard J Whittington
Low genetic diversity of Epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus (EHNV) was determined for the complete genome of 16 isolates spanning the natural range of hosts, geography and time since the first outbreaks of disease. Genomes ranged from 125,591-127,487 nucleotides with 97.47% pairwise identity and 106-109 genes. All isolates shared 101 core genes with 121 potential genes predicted within the pan-genome of this collection. There was high conservation within 90,181 nucleotides of the core genes with isolates separated by average genetic distance of 3...
August 14, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818163/evaluation-of-ckd-epi-pakistan-equation-for-estimated-glomerular-filtration-rate-egfr-acomparison-of-egfr-prediction-equations-in-pakistani-population
#7
Sibtain Ahmed, Lena Jafri, Aysha Habib Khan
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the results of 24-hour urinary creatinine clearance (CrCl) with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI), CKD-EPI Pakistan (CKD-EPI Pak), Cockcroft Gault (CG) and 4-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equations. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive, cross-sectional study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Section of Clinical Chemistry, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, The Aga Khan University, Karachi, from June to October 2013...
July 2017: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815681/meta-analytical-synthesis-of-regression-coefficients-under-different-categorization-scheme-of-continuous-covariates
#8
Daisuke Yoneoka, Masayuki Henmi
Recently, the number of clinical prediction models sharing the same regression task has increased in the medical literature. However, evidence synthesis methodologies that use the results of these regression models have not been sufficiently studied, particularly in meta-analysis settings where only regression coefficients are available. One of the difficulties lies in the differences between the categorization schemes of continuous covariates across different studies. In general, categorization methods using cutoff values are study specific across available models, even if they focus on the same covariates of interest...
August 16, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811995/agreement-between-gamma-passing-rates-using-computed-tomography-in-radiotherapy-and-secondary-cancer-risk-prediction-from-more-advanced-dose-calculated-models
#9
Abdulhamid Chaikh, Jacques Balosso
BACKGROUND: During the past decades, in radiotherapy, the dose distributions were calculated using density correction methods with pencil beam as type 'a' algorithm. The objectives of this study are to assess and evaluate the impact of dose distribution shift on the predicted secondary cancer risk (SCR), using modern advanced dose calculation algorithms, point kernel, as type 'b', which consider change in lateral electrons transport. METHODS: Clinical examples of pediatric cranio-spinal irradiation patients were evaluated...
June 2017: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811994/the-measurement-of-liver-fat-from-single-energy-quantitative-computed-tomography-scans
#10
Xiaoguang Cheng, Glen M Blake, J Keenan Brown, Zhe Guo, Jun Zhou, Fengzhe Wang, Liqiang Yang, Xiaohong Wang, Li Xu
BACKGROUND: Studies of soft tissue composition using computed tomography (CT) scans are often semi-quantitative and based on Hounsfield units (HU) measurements that have not been calibrated with a quantitative CT (QCT) phantom. We describe a study to establish the water (H2O) and dipotassium hydrogen phosphate (K2HPO4) basis set equivalent densities of fat and fat-free liver tissue. With this information liver fat can be accurately measured from any abdominal CT scan calibrated with a suitable phantom...
June 2017: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810417/outdoor-group-activity-depression-and-subjective-well-being-among-retirees-of-china-the-mediating-role-of-meaning-in-life
#11
Zhen Zhang
This study examined the effect of outdoor group activity on mental health and the potential mediating effect of meaning in life. Participants were 559 retired people. A self-developed questionnaire measured outdoor group activity; the Meaning in Life Scale, the Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale, and the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression assessed meaning in life, subjective well-being, and depression, respectively. Results indicated outdoor group activity significantly predicted subjective well-being and depression; meaning in life fully mediated the relationship between outdoor group activity and subjective well-being and partially mediated the relationship between outdoor group activity and depression...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807858/host-specificity-pathogen-exposure-and-superinfections-impact-the-distribution-of-anaplasma-phagocytophilum-genotypes-in-ticks-roe-deer-and-livestock-in-a-fragmented-agricultural-landscape
#12
Amélie Chastagner, Angélique Pion, Hélène Verheyden, Bruno Lourtet, Bruno Cargnelutti, Denis Picot, Valérie Poux, Émilie Bard, Olivier Plantard, Karen D McCoy, Agnes Leblond, Gwenaël Vourc'h, Xavier Bailly
Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a bacterial pathogen mainly transmitted by Ixodes ricinus ticks in Europe. It infects wild mammals, livestock, and, occasionally, humans. Roe deer are considered to be the major reservoir, but the genotypes they carry differ from those that are found in livestock and humans. Here, we investigated whether roe deer were the main source of the A. phagocytophilum genotypes circulating in questing I. ricinus nymphs in a fragmented agricultural landscape in France. First, we assessed pathogen prevalence in 1837 I...
August 11, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805451/genetic-characterisation-and-analysis-of-infectious-bronchitis-virus-isolated-from-brazilian-flocks-between-2010-and-2015
#13
Claudia Carranza, Claudete S Astolfi-Ferreira, Silvana H Santander Parra, Luis F N Nuñez, Zoltan Penzes, Jorge L Chacón, Luiz Sesti, Ruy D Chacón, Antonio J Piantino Ferreira
Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) variants in Brazil were isolated during 2010-2015 for epidemiological and molecular analysis to characterise the different variants and perform a bioinformatic analysis to compare with sequences of variants collected over the previous 40 years. Of the 453 samples examined, 61.4% were positive for IBV and 75.9% of these were considered to have the BR-I genotype and were detected in birds of all ages distributed in all five Brazilian regions. The ratio of non-synonymous substitutions per non-synonymous site (dN) to synonymous substitutions per synonymous site (dS), i...
August 14, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802528/how-young-is-too-young-in-breast-cancer-young-breast-cancer-is-not-a-unique-biological-subtype
#14
Jianfei Fu, Lunpo Wu, Wei Fu, Yinuo Tan, Tiantian Xu, Zhongwu Hong, Fan Wang, Shuguang Li
BACKGROUND: There is no uniformly adopted cutoff value to define "young patients" with breast cancer. This study was designed to determine an optimal cutoff value, to investigate prognostic factors and to explore gene expression profiles of young female breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database was examined to identify cases of female breast cancer diagnosed between 2000 and 2007. The optimal cutoff value for young age was determined using the X-tile program (Yale University, version 3...
June 8, 2017: Clinical Breast Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801208/projected-increase-in-total-knee-arthroplasty-in-the-united-states-an-alternative-projection-model
#15
M C S Inacio, E W Paxton, S E Graves, R S Namba, S Nemes
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our study was to estimate the future incidence rate (IR) and volume of primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in the United States from 2015 to 2050 using a conservative projection model that assumes a maximum IR of procedures. Furthermore, our study compared these projections to a model assuming exponential growth, as done in previous studies, for illustrative purposes. METHODS: A population based epidemiological study was conducted using data from US National Inpatient Sample (NIS) and Census Bureau...
August 8, 2017: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799997/epidemiology-of-ischemic-heart-disease-in-hiv
#16
Virginia A Triant, Steven K Grinspoon
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize and synthesize recent data on the risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in HIV-infected individuals. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies in the field demonstrate an increasing impact of cardiovascular disease (CVD) on morbidity and mortality in HIV relative to AIDS-related diagnoses. Studies continue to support an approximately 1.5 to two-fold increased risk of IHD conferred by HIV, with specific risk varying by sex and virologic/immunologic status...
August 10, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797732/more-than-a-decade-follow-up-in-severe-or-difficult-to-treat-asthma-tenor-ii
#17
Bradley E Chipps, Tmirah Haselkorn, Brandee Paknis, Benjamin Ortiz, Eugene R Bleecker, Farid Kianifard, Aimee J Foreman, Stanley J Szefler, Robert S Zeiger
BACKGROUND: The Epidemiology and Natural History of Asthma: Outcomes and Treatment Regimens (TENOR I) study demonstrated high morbidity in patients with severe/difficult-to-treat asthma, despite standard-of-care treatment. OBJECTIVE: To determine the long-term natural history of disease and outcomes in patients in TENOR I, after more than a decade. METHODS: TENOR I was a multicenter, observational study (2001-2004) of 4756 patients with severe/difficult-to-treat asthma...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796728/patient-hospital-and-geographic-disparities-in-laparoscopic-surgery-use-among-surveillance-epidemiology-and-end-results-medicare-patients-with-colon-cancer
#18
Kendra L Ratnapradipa, Min Lian, Donna B Jeffe, Nicholas O Davidson, Jan M Eberth, Sandi L Pruitt, Mario Schootman
BACKGROUND: Surgical resection is the primary treatment for colon cancer, but use of laparoscopic approaches varies widely despite demonstrated short- and long-term benefits. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to identify characteristics associated with laparoscopic colon cancer resection and to quantify variation based on patient, hospital, and geographic characteristics. DESIGN: Bayesian cross-classified, multilevel logistic models calculated adjusted ORs and CIs for patient, surgeon, hospital, and geographic characteristics and unexplained variability (predicted vs...
September 2017: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795686/hdl-and-atherosclerotic-cardiovascular-disease-genetic-insights-into-complex-biology
#19
REVIEW
Robert S Rosenson, H Bryan Brewer, Philip J Barter, Johan L M Björkegren, M John Chapman, Daniel Gaudet, Daniel Seung Kim, Eric Niesor, Kerry-Anne Rye, Frank M Sacks, Jean-Claude Tardif, Robert A Hegele
Plasma levels of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) predict the risk of cardiovascular disease at the epidemiological level, but a direct causal role for HDL in cardiovascular disease remains controversial. Studies in animal models and humans with rare monogenic disorders link only particular HDL-associated mechanisms with causality, including those mechanisms related to particle functionality rather than cholesterol content. Mendelian randomization studies indicate that most genetic variants that affect a range of pathways that increase plasma HDL-C levels are not usually associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, with some exceptions, such as cholesteryl ester transfer protein variants...
August 10, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795108/data-for-the-oxford-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-study-international-survey-of-vascular-surgery-professionals
#20
Regent Lee, Amy Jones, Felicity Woodgate, Nicholas Killough, Kirthi Bellamkonda, Matthew Williams, Katherine Hurst, Lucy Fulford-Smith, Ismail Cassimjee, Ashok Handa
As part of the Oxford Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (OxAAA) Study, we conducted an international survey of vascular surgery professionals. One aspect of the survey is as published in the International Journal of Cardiology: "International Opinion on Priorities in Research for Small Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms and the Potential Path for Research to Impact Clinical Management". This Data-in-Brief article contains a detailed method for the conduct of this survey and additional original data. In this survey, we also provided vascular surgery colleagues with contemporary epidemiologic and surgical outcome data...
October 2017: Data in Brief
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