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Prediction epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921315/imputing-estrogen-receptor-er-status-in-a-population-based-cancer-registry-a-sensitivity-analysis
#1
Rebecca Andridge, Anne-Michelle Noone, Nadia Howlader
Breast cancers are clinically heterogeneous based on tumor markers. The National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program provides baseline data on these tumor markers for reporting cancer burden and trends over time in the US general population. These tumor markers, however, are often prone to missing observations. In particular, estrogen receptor (ER) status, a key biomarker in the study of breast cancer, has been collected since 1992 but historically was not well-reported, with missingness rates as high as 25% in early years...
December 5, 2016: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920579/validation-of-diagnostic-codes-for-charcot-marie-tooth-disease-in-the-danish-national-patient-registry
#2
Signe Vaeth, Uffe Birk Jensen, Rikke Christensen, Henning Andersen
PURPOSE: To validate the diagnostic codes for Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) in the Danish National Patient Registry (DNPR) using positive predictive value (PPV) as a measure of validity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We used the DNPR to identify all patients diagnosed with at least one primary CMT diagnosis at a specialized department in the Central Denmark Region during the period 1977-2012. From this population, we randomly selected 123 patients for the validation study...
2016: Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919333/radiation-and-cataract-risk-impact-of-recent-epidemiologic-studies-on-icrp-judgments
#3
Roy E Shore
In its 2012 report on tissue reactions, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) made several key assumptions regarding radiation risk to the lens of the eye, including that radiation-related minor opacities will progress to become vision-impairing cataracts, that protracted irradiation confers as much risk per unit dose as an acute exposure, and that there is a dose threshold for cataract effects at about 0.5Gy. The few studies available provide only limited support for the ICRP assumption that radiation-related minor opacities are predictive of vision-impairing cataracts; further longitudinal data are clearly needed...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919205/achieving-simplified-disease-activity-index-remission-in-patients-with-active-rheumatoid-arthritis-is-associated-with-subsequent-good-functional-and-structural-outcomes-in-a-real-world-clinical-setting-under-a-treat-to-target-strategy
#4
Fumio Hirano, Waka Yokoyama, Hayato Yamazaki, Koichi Amano, Atsushi Kawakami, Taichi Hayashi, Naoto Tamura, Shinsuke Yasuda, Hiroaki Dobashi, Takao Fujii, Satoshi Ito, Yuko Kaneko, Toshihiro Matsui, Yasuaki Okuda, Kazuyoshi Saito, Fumihito Suzuki, Ryusuke Yoshimi, Ryoko Sakai, Ryuji Koike, Hitoshi Kohsaka, Nobuyuki Miyasaka, Masayoshi Harigai
OBJECTIVE: To verify predictive validity of simplified disease activity index (SDAI) remission for subsequent functional and structural outcomes in real-world clinical settings under a treat-to-target strategy (T2T). METHODS: In this multicentre, prospective cohort study, T2T was implemented in rheumatoid arthritis patients with moderate-to-high disease activity. SDAI or clinical disease activity index was assessed every 12 weeks, and treatment was adjusted to achieve clinical remission or low disease activity...
December 6, 2016: Modern Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918711/serum-cotinine-does-not-predict-neutralizing-antibodies-against-interferon-beta-in-an-austrian-ms-cohort
#5
Michael Auer, Harald Hegen, Thomas Luft, Gabriel Bsteh, Anna Fogdell-Hahn, Amy Loercher, Florian Deisenhammer
Previous epidemiologic studies showed an increased risk of neutralizing antibody (NAb) development against Interferon beta in multiple sclerosis patients who smoke. Cotinine is an easily detectable metabolite of nicotine and, therefore, can be used as an objective surrogate marker for smoking status. We measured cotinine levels in NAb-positive and NAb-negative patients to find a potential association of nicotine consumption and NAb development. Cotinine was measured in 37 patients with known smoking status and in 123 patients with unknown smoking status, all of whom were routinely tested for NAb...
December 2016: Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916311/land-use-regression-modeling-of-ultrafine-particles-ozone-nitrogen-oxides-and-markers-of-particulate-matter-pollution-in-augsburg-germany
#6
Kathrin Wolf, Josef Cyrys, Tatiana Harciníková, Jianwei Gu, Thomas Kusch, Regina Hampel, Alexandra Schneider, Annette Peters
Important health relevance has been suggested for ultrafine particles (UFP) and ozone, but studies on long-term effects are scarce, mainly due to the lack of appropriate spatial exposure models. We designed a measurement campaign to develop land use regression (LUR) models to predict the spatial variability focusing on particle number concentration (PNC) as indicator for UFP, ozone and several other air pollutants in the Augsburg region, Southern Germany. Three bi-weekly measurements of PNC, ozone, particulate matter (PM10, PM2...
December 1, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914655/crohn-s-disease
#7
REVIEW
Joana Torres, Saurabh Mehandru, Jean-Frédéric Colombel, Laurent Peyrin-Biroulet
Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract, with increasing incidence worldwide. Crohn's disease might result from a complex interplay between genetic susceptibility, environmental factors, and altered gut microbiota, leading to dysregulated innate and adaptive immune responses. The typical clinical scenario is a young patient presenting with abdominal pain, chronic diarrhoea, weight loss, and fatigue. Assessment of disease extent and of prognostic factors for complications is paramount to guide therapeutic decisions...
November 30, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913438/quantifying-the-dynamics-of-field-cancerization-in-tobacco-related-head-and-neck-cancer-a-multiscale-modeling-approach
#8
Marc D Ryser, Walter T Lee, Neal E Ready, Kevin Z Leder, Jasmine Foo
High rates of local recurrence in tobacco-related head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) are commonly attributed to unresected fields of precancerous tissue. Because they are not easily detectable at the time of surgery without additional biopsies, there is a need for noninvasive methods to predict the extent and dynamics of these fields. Here, we developed a spatial stochastic model of tobacco-related HNSCC at the tissue level and calibrated the model using a Bayesian framework and population-level incidence data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry...
October 20, 2016: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912923/predictors-of-30-day-mortality-in-patients-admitted-to-emergency-departments-for-acute-heart-failure
#9
Matthieu Marchetti, Antoine Benedetti, Olivier Mimoz, Jean-Yves Lardeur, Jérémy Guenezan, Nicolas Marjanovic
OBJECTIVES: Acute heart failure (AHF) is a leading cause of admission in emergency departments (ED). It is associated with significant in-hospital mortality, suggesting that there is room for improvement of care. Our aims were to investigate clinical patterns, biological characteristics and determinants of 30-day mortality. METHODS: We conducted a single site, retrospective review of adult patients (≥18years) admitted to ED for AHF over a 12-month period. Data collected included demographics, clinical, biological and outcomes data...
November 22, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912794/a-genetic-risk-score-composed-of-rheumatoid-arthritis-risk-alleles-hla-drb1-haplotypes-and-response-to-tnfi-therapy-results-from-a-swedish-cohort-study
#10
Xia Jiang, Johan Askling, Saedis Saevarsdottir, Leonid Padyukov, Lars Alfredsson, Sebastien Viatte, Thomas Frisell
BACKGROUND: To prevent debilitating and irreversible joint damage, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is often treated with tumor necrosis factor inhibitor (TNFi), but many patients do not respond to this costly therapy. Few predictors for response are known, and it has been proposed that genetic factors which influence the development of RA may also influence disease severity and response to therapy. Several previous studies have attempted to confirm this but results remain inconclusive. We expand on previous studies by including more RA risk alleles, and maximize power by combining them into a genetic risk score...
December 3, 2016: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912737/hcv-prevalence-can-predict-hiv-epidemic-potential-among-people-who-inject-drugs-mathematical-modeling-analysis
#11
Vajiheh Akbarzadeh, Ghina R Mumtaz, Susanne F Awad, Helen A Weiss, Laith J Abu-Raddad
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV are both transmitted through percutaneous exposures among people who inject drugs (PWID). Ecological analyses on global epidemiological data have identified a positive association between HCV and HIV prevalence among PWID. Our objective was to demonstrate how HCV prevalence can be used to predict HIV epidemic potential among PWID. METHODS: Two population-level models were constructed to simulate the evolution of HCV and HIV epidemics among PWID...
December 3, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908820/true-aneurysm-of-the-inferior-thyroid-artery-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#12
Luigi Venturini, Paolo Sapienza, Raffaele Grande, Valerio Scarano Catanzaro, Fabrizio Fanelli, Luca di Marzo
Aneurysms of the inferior thyroid artery (ITA) are extremely rare and potentially determine severe sequelae. We report a case of true ITA aneurysm in a 45-year old Caucasian woman treated with endovascular embolization; postoperative course was uneventful and, at 6-month follow-up, the aneurysm is completely thrombized. A systematic review of the literature has been also performed to identify the epidemiologic and clinical characteristics and diagnostic and operative options of this disease. Size alone is not able to predict the fate of the aneurysm and an aggressive treatment seems to be justified because of the high risk of complications in case of rupture...
November 28, 2016: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908639/animal-models-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection
#13
Geraldine Taylor
Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is a major cause of respiratory disease and hospitalisation of infants, worldwide, and is also responsible for significant morbidity in adults and excess deaths in the elderly. There is no licensed hRSV vaccine or effective therapeutic agent. However, there are a growing number of hRSV vaccine candidates that have been developed targeting different populations at risk of hRSV infection. Animal models of hRSV play an important role in the preclinical testing of hRSV vaccine candidates and although many have shown efficacy in preclinical studies, few have progressed to clinical trials or they have had only limited success...
November 29, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906989/factors-associated-with-cancer-and-non-cancer-related-deaths-among-taiwanese-patients-with-diabetes-after-17-years-of-follow-up
#14
Chin-Hsiao Tseng
OBJECTIVE: A previous 12-year follow-up of a large diabetes cohort in Taiwan suggested a survival advantage in the patients with obesity. The present study further investigated additional determinants for cancer and non-cancer death in the cohort after a follow-up of 17 years. METHODS: A cohort of 92546 diabetes patients recruited since 1995 was followed for vital status by matching the National Death Certificate Database until 2011. Cox regression estimated the hazard ratios for the following variables: age at baseline, sex, diabetes type, screen-detected diabetes (diabetes diagnosed accidentally through epidemiological screening programs or during visits to medical settings without a history of diabetes), diabetes duration, body mass index, insulin use, hypertension, smoking, and living region...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906782/predicting-heart-dose-in-breast-cancer-patients-who-received-3d-conformal-radiation-therapy
#15
Daniel Wollschläger, Heiko Karle, Marcus Stockinger, Detlef Bartkowiak, Sandra Bührdel, Hiltrud Merzenich, Thomas Wiegel, Heinz Schmidberger, Maria Blettner
Cardiac late effects are a major health concern for long-term survivors after radiotherapy for breast cancer. Large cohort studies to better understand the exact dose-response relationship require individual estimates of radiation dose to the heart. To predict individual cardiac dose from information that is typically available for all members of a retrospective epidemiological cohort study, 774 female breast cancer patients treated with megavoltage tangential field radiotherapy in 1998-2008 were examined. All dose distributions were calculated using Eclipse with the anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA) for photon fields and the electron Monte Carlo algorithm for electron boost fields...
January 2017: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906023/surface-area-dependence-of-gas-particle-interactions-influences-pulmonary-and-neuroinflammatory-outcomes
#16
Christina R Tyler, Katherine E Zychowski, Bethany N Sanchez, Valeria Rivero, Selita Lucas, Guy Herbert, June Liu, Hammad Irshad, Jacob D McDonald, Barry E Bleske, Matthew J Campen
BACKGROUND: Deleterious consequences of exposure to traffic emissions may derive from interactions between carbonaceous particulate matter (PM) and gaseous components in a manner that is dependent on the surface area or complexity of the particles. To determine the validity of this hypothesis, we examined pulmonary and neurological inflammatory outcomes in C57BL/6 and apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE(-/-)) male mice after acute and chronic exposure to vehicle engine-derived particulate matter, generated as ultrafine (UFP) and fine (FP) sizes, with additional exposures using UFP or FP combined with gaseous copollutants derived from fresh gasoline and diesel emissions, labeled as UFP + G and FP + G...
December 1, 2016: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905906/discordance-between-self-reported-arthritis-and-musculoskeletal-signs-and-symptoms-in-older-women
#17
Tkt Lo, Lynne Parkinson, Michelle Cunich, Julie Byles
BACKGROUND: Arthritis is a gendered disease where women have a higher prevalence and more disability than men with arthritis of the same age. Health survey data is a major source of information for monitoring of the burden of arthritis. The validity of self-reported arthritis and the determinants of its accuracy among women have not been thoroughly studied. The objectives of this study were to: 1) examine the agreement between self-report diagnosed arthritis and musculoskeletal signs and symptoms in community-living older women; 2) estimate the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of self-reported arthritis; and 3) assess the factors associated with the disagreement...
December 1, 2016: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903680/herpes-simplex-virus-specific-t-cell-response-in-a-cohort-with-primary-genital-infection-correlates-inversely-with-frequency-of-subsequent-recurrences
#18
Elisabeth Franzen-Röhl, Danika Schepis, Fredrik Atterfelt, Kristina Franck, Arne Wikström, Jan-Åke Liljeqvist, Tomas Bergström, Elisabeth Aurelius, Klas Kärre, Louise Berg, Hans Gaines
OBJECTIVES: During the last decades, a changing epidemiological pattern of genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection has emerged. Primary infection is now caused as often by HSV-1 as by HSV-2. Once established, HSV can be reactivated leading to recurrent mucocutaneous lesions as well as meningitis. Why some otherwise immune-competent individuals experience severe and frequent recurrences is not known, and the immunological mechanism underlying recurrent symptomatic HSV infection is not fully understood...
November 30, 2016: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903668/malignant-pleural-mesothelioma-an-update-on-investigation-diagnosis-and-treatment
#19
Anna C Bibby, Selina Tsim, Nikolaos Kanellakis, Hannah Ball, Denis C Talbot, Kevin G Blyth, Nick A Maskell, Ioannis Psallidas
Malignant pleural mesothelioma is an aggressive malignancy of the pleural surface, predominantly caused by prior asbestos exposure. There is a global epidemic of malignant pleural mesothelioma underway, and incidence rates are predicted to peak in the next few years.This article summarises the epidemiology and pathogenesis of malignant pleural mesothelioma, before describing some key factors in the patient experience and outlining common symptoms. Diagnostic approaches are reviewed, including imaging techniques and the role of various biomarkers...
December 2016: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903061/geographic-distribution-of-canine-heartworm-dirofilaria-immitis-infection-in-stray-dogs-of-eastern-romania
#20
Lavinia Ciucă, Vincenzo Musella, Liviu D Miron, Maria Paola Maurelli, Giuseppe Cringoli, Antonio Bosco, Laura Rinaldi
A survey was conducted in the eastern part of Romania to assess the prevalence and geographical distribution of Dirofilaria immitis in dogs. Plasma samples were collected from 458 stray dogs hosted in shelters in 8 counties and tested serologically for the presence of heartworm. In addition, 45 blood samples from dogs of a shelter in Galati city were examined by the modified Knott and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. The immmunological assay showed a heartworm infection prevalence of 8...
November 21, 2016: Geospatial Health
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