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Prediction epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453499/screening-for-gene-environment-g%C3%A3-e-interaction-using-omics-data-from-exposed-individuals-an-application-to-gene-arsenic-interaction
#1
Maria Argos, Lin Tong, Shantanu Roy, Mekala Sabarinathan, Alauddin Ahmed, Md Tariqul Islam, Tariqul Islam, Muhammad Rakibuz-Zaman, Golam Sarwar, Hasan Shahriar, Mahfuzar Rahman, Md Yunus, Joseph H Graziano, Farzana Jasmine, Muhammad G Kibriya, Xiang Zhou, Habibul Ahsan, Brandon L Pierce
Identifying gene-environment interactions is a central challenge in the quest to understand susceptibility to complex, multi-factorial diseases. Developing an understanding of how inter-individual variability in inherited genetic variation alters the effects of environmental exposures will enhance our knowledge of disease mechanisms and improve our ability to predict disease and target interventions to high-risk sub-populations. Limited progress has been made identifying gene-environment interactions in the epidemiological setting using existing statistical approaches for genome-wide searches for interaction...
February 16, 2018: Mammalian Genome: Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452392/pbrit-gene-prioritization-by-correlating-functional-and-phenotypic-annotations-through-integrative-data-fusion
#2
Ajay Anand Kumar, Lut Van Laer, Maaike Alaerts, Amin Ardeshirdavani, Yves Moreau, Kris Laukens, Bart Loeys, Geert Vandeweyer, Inanc Birol
Motivation: Computational gene prioritization can aid in disease gene identification. Here, we propose pBRIT (prioritization using Bayesian Ridge regression and Information Theoretic model), a novel adaptive and scalable prioritization tool, integrating Pubmed abstracts, Gene Ontology, Sequence similarities, Mammalian and Human Phenotype Ontology, Pathway, Interactions, Disease Ontology, Gene Association database and Human Genome Epidemiology database, into the prediction model.We explore and address effects of sparsity and inter-feature dependencies within annotation sources, and the impact of bias towards specific annotations...
February 14, 2018: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451087/multiple-imputation-with-sequential-penalized-regression
#3
Faisal M Zahid, Christian Heumann
Missing data is a common issue that can cause problems in estimation and inference in biomedical, epidemiological and social research. Multiple imputation is an increasingly popular approach for handling missing data. In case of a large number of covariates with missing data, existing multiple imputation software packages may not work properly and often produce errors. We propose a multiple imputation algorithm called mispr based on sequential penalized regression models. Each variable with missing values is assumed to have a different distributional form and is imputed with its own imputation model using the ridge penalty...
January 1, 2018: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449565/amphibian-chytridiomycosis-outbreak-dynamics-are-linked-with-host-skin-bacterial-community-structure
#4
Kieran A Bates, Frances C Clare, Simon O'Hanlon, Jaime Bosch, Lola Brookes, Kevin Hopkins, Emilia J McLaughlin, Olivia Daniel, Trenton W J Garner, Matthew C Fisher, Xavier A Harrison
Host-associated microbes are vital for combatting infections and maintaining health. In amphibians, certain skin-associated bacteria inhibit the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), yet our understanding of host microbial ecology and its role in disease outbreaks is limited. We sampled skin-associated bacteria and Bd from Pyrenean midwife toad populations exhibiting enzootic or epizootic disease dynamics. We demonstrate that bacterial communities differ between life stages with few shared taxa, indicative of restructuring at metamorphosis...
February 15, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448859/assessment-of-the-external-validity-of-the-ajcc-8-th-staging-system-for-anal-carcinoma
#5
Hani Oweira, Anwar Giryes, Meinrad Mannhart, Rolf Schlumpf, Michael Decker, Omar Abdel-Rahman
BACKGROUND: The current study evaluates the prognostic value of the 8 th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging system for patients with anal carcinoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database (2004-2014) was explored and AJCC 6 th and 8 th stages were formulated. Through Kaplan-Meier analysis, overall survival analyses were performed. The Cox regression model (adjusted for age, gender, histology, ethnicity, sub-site, and grade) was calculated for cancer-specific survival and subsequently, pairwise comparisons of hazard ratios were calculated...
February 16, 2018: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447150/life-cycle-synchronization-is-a-viral-drug-resistance-mechanism
#6
Iulia A Neagu, Jason Olejarz, Mark Freeman, Daniel I S Rosenbloom, Martin A Nowak, Alison L Hill
Viral infections are one of the major causes of death worldwide, with HIV infection alone resulting in over 1.2 million casualties per year. Antiviral drugs are now being administered for a variety of viral infections, including HIV, hepatitis B and C, and influenza. These therapies target a specific phase of the virus's life cycle, yet their ultimate success depends on a variety of factors, such as adherence to a prescribed regimen and the emergence of viral drug resistance. The epidemiology and evolution of drug resistance have been extensively characterized, and it is generally assumed that drug resistance arises from mutations that alter the virus's susceptibility to the direct action of the drug...
February 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446237/going-through-the-motions-incorporating-movement-analyses-into-disease-research
#7
REVIEW
Eric R Dougherty, Dana P Seidel, Colin J Carlson, Orr Spiegel, Wayne M Getz
Though epidemiology dates back to the 1700s, most mathematical representations of epidemics still use transmission rates averaged at the population scale, especially for wildlife diseases. In simplifying the contact process, we ignore the heterogeneities in host movements that complicate the real world, and overlook their impact on spatiotemporal patterns of disease burden. Movement ecology offers a set of tools that help unpack the transmission process, letting researchers more accurately model how animals within a population interact and spread pathogens...
February 14, 2018: Ecology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444182/towards-phenotyping-stroke-leveraging-data-from-a-large-scale-epidemiological-study-to-detect-stroke-diagnosis
#8
Yizhao Ni, Kathleen Alwell, Charles J Moomaw, Daniel Woo, Opeolu Adeoye, Matthew L Flaherty, Simona Ferioli, Jason Mackey, Felipe De Los Rios La Rosa, Sharyl Martini, Pooja Khatri, Dawn Kleindorfer, Brett M Kissela
OBJECTIVE: 1) To develop a machine learning approach for detecting stroke cases and subtypes from hospitalization data, 2) to assess algorithm performance and predictors on real-world data collected by a large-scale epidemiology study in the US; and 3) to identify directions for future development of high-precision stroke phenotypic signatures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We utilized 8,131 hospitalization events (ICD-9 codes 430-438) collected from the Greater Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky Stroke Study in 2005 and 2010...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444152/the-interaction-between-cannabis-use-and-the-val158met-polymorphism-of-the-comt-gene-in-psychosis-a-transdiagnostic-meta-analysis
#9
Thomas Stephanus Johannes Vaessen, Lea de Jong, Annika Theresia Schäfer, Thomas Damen, Aniek Uittenboogaard, Pauline Krolinski, Chinyere Vicky Nwosu, Florentina Maria Egidius Pinckaers, Iris Leah Marije Rotee, Antonius Petrus Wilhelmus Smeets, Ayşegül Ermiş, James L Kennedy, Dorien H Nieman, Arun Tiwari, Jim van Os, Marjan Drukker
BACKGROUND: Neither environmental nor genetic factors are sufficient to predict the transdiagnostic expression of psychosis. Therefore, analysis of gene-environment interactions may be productive. OBJECTIVE: A meta-analysis was performed using papers investigating the interaction between cannabis use and catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) polymorphism Val158Met (COMTVal158Met). DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Embase, PsychInfo. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: All observational studies assessing the interaction between COMTVal158Met and cannabis with any psychosis or psychotic symptoms measure as an outcome...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440932/comparison-of-prognostic-prediction-between-nomogram-based-on-lymph-node-ratio-and-ajcc-8th-staging-system-for-patients-with-resected-pancreatic-head-carcinoma-a-seer-analysis
#10
Ning Pu, Jianang Li, Yaolin Xu, Wanling Lee, Yuan Fang, Xu Han, Guochao Zhao, Lei Zhang, Abulimiti Nuerxiati, Hanlin Yin, Wenchuan Wu, Wenhui Lou
Background: The prognosis of pancreatic carcinoma (PC) remains poor and the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) 8th staging system for survival prediction in PC patients after curative resection is still limited. Thus, the aim of this study is to refine a valuable prognostic model and novel staging system for PC with curative resection. Methods: The data of 3,458 patients used in this study were retrieved from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database registry of National Cancer Institute...
2018: Cancer Management and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440217/using-big-data-to-improve-cardiovascular-care-and-outcomes-in-china-a-protocol-for-the-chinese-electronic-health-records-research-in-yinzhou-cherry-study
#11
Hongbo Lin, Xun Tang, Peng Shen, Dudan Zhang, Jinguo Wu, Jingyi Zhang, Ping Lu, Yaqin Si, Pei Gao
INTRODUCTION: Data based on electronic health records (EHRs) are rich with individual-level longitudinal measurement information and are becoming an increasingly common data source for clinical risk prediction worldwide. However, few EHR-based cohort studies are available in China. Harnessing EHRs for research requires a full understanding of data linkages, management, and data quality in large data sets, which presents unique analytical opportunities and challenges. The purpose of this study is to provide a framework to establish a uniquely integrated EHR database in China for scientific research...
February 12, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438556/physical-performance-trajectories-and-mortality-among-older-mexican-americans
#12
Miriam Mutambudzi, Nai-Wei Chen, Bret Howrey, Marc A Garcia, Kyriakos S Markides
Background: We sought to identify distinct trajectory classes of physical performance in Mexican Americans aged 75 years and older, and to examine whether these trajectories predict mortality. Methods: We used 4 waves of Hispanic Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (H-EPESE) data for adults 75 years and older from 2004-5 to 2013. Latent growth curve analysis was used to identify distinct trajectory classes. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between baseline characteristics and the newly constructed trajectories...
February 9, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437582/number-of-incident-cases-of-the-main-eye-diseases-of-ageing-in-the-uk-biobank-cohort-projected-over-a-25-year-period-from-time-of-recruitment
#13
Parul Desai, Darwin C Minassian, Angela Reidy, Naomi Allen, Cathie Sudlow
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the number of new cases of age-related macular degeneration, cataract and glaucoma accruing in the UK Biobank cohort, over a period of 25 years from time of recruitment. Our secondary objective was to assess the statistical power of nested case-control studies of these eye diseases. We aimed to provide quantitative information relevant to UK Biobank's eye disease case ascertainment efforts and to the potential for UK Biobank-based research into the causes of eye disease...
February 6, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436309/are-perceived-prevalences-of-infection-also-biased-and-how-lessons-from-large-epidemics-of-mosquito-borne-diseases-in-tropical-regions
#14
Jocelyn Raude, Patrick Peretti-Watel, Jeremy Ward, Claude Flamand, Pierre Verger
BACKGROUND: Although people are likely to underestimate the frequencies of risks to health from common diseases and overestimate those from rare diseases, we still do not know much about reasons for this systematic bias, which is also referred to as "primary bias" in the literature. In this study, we take advantage of a series of large epidemics of mosquito-borne diseases to examine the accuracy of judgments of risk frequencies. In this aim, we assessed the perceived v. observed prevalence of infection by Zika, chikungunya or dengue fever during these outbreaks, as well as their variations among different subpopulations and epidemiological settings...
February 1, 2018: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436280/clinicopathologic-characteristics-and-survival-outcomes-in-floor-of-mouth-squamous-cell-carcinoma-a-population-based-study
#15
Satvir Saggi, Karam W Badran, Albert Y Han, Edward C Kuan, Maie A St John
Objective To describe the determinants of survival for patients with floor of mouth (FOM) squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) from 1973 to 2013 with the SEER database (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results). Study Design and Setting Retrospective cohort study with a national database. Subjects and Methods The SEER registry was utilized to calculate survival trends for patients with FOM SCC between 1973 and 2013. Patient data were analyzed with respect to age, sex, race, primary site, stage at presentation, tumor size, grade, and treatment modalities (surgery and radiotherapy)...
February 1, 2018: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435866/diagnostic-accuracy-of-icd-9-code-780-2-for-the-identification-of-patients-with-syncope-in-the-emergency-department
#16
Ludovico Furlan, Monica Solbiati, Veronica Pacetti, Franca Dipaola, Martino Meda, Mattia Bonzi, Elisa Fiorelli, Giulia Cernuschi, Daniele Alberio, Giovanni Casazza, Nicola Montano, Raffaello Furlan, Giorgio Costantino
PURPOSE: Syncope is a common condition that affects individuals of all ages and is responsible for 1-3% of all emergency department (ED) visits. Prospective studies on syncope are often limited by the exiguous number of subjects enrolled. A possible alternative approach would be to use of hospital discharge diagnoses from administrative databases to identify syncope subjects in epidemiological observational studies. We assessed the accuracy of the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) code 780...
February 12, 2018: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434671/validation-of-american-joint-committee-on-cancer-eighth-staging-system-among-prostate-cancer-patients-treated-with-radical-prostatectomy
#17
Omar Abdel-Rahman
Background: The objective in this paper was to validate the prognostic performance of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) 7th and 8th systems among prostate cancer patients treated with radical prostatectomy. Methods: The surveillance, epidemiology and end results (SEER) database (2006-2014) was accessed through the SEER*Stat program and AJCC 7th and 8th editions were calculated utilizing T, N and M stages, histological grade group, as well as baseline prostatic-specific antigen (PSA)...
February 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434339/epidemiology-and-biomarker-profile-of-pituitary-adenohypophysial-tumors
#18
Ozgur Mete, Amber Cintosun, Irwin Pressman, Sylvia L Asa
Recent studies have reported the prevalence of pituitary tumors to be ~1/1000 population. Many are prolactin-producing tumors that are managed medically, however, the epidemiology of surgically resected pituitary adenohypophysial neuroendocrine tumors has not been reported in a large series with detailed characterization. We reviewed 1055 adenohypophysial tumors from 1169 transsphenoidal resections from the pathology files of University Health Network, Toronto, 2001-2016. Tumors were characterized by immunohistochemical localization of transcription factors (Pit-1, ERα, SF-1, Tpit), hormones (adrenocorticotropin, growth hormone, prolactin, β-thyrotropin, β-folliculotropin, β-luteotropin, α-subunit), and other biomarkers (keratins, Ki67, p27, FGFR4)...
February 12, 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432134/cardiovascular-risk-and-the-american-dream-life-course-observations-from-the-bhs-bogalusa-heart-study
#19
Benjamin D Pollock, Emily W Harville, Katherine T Mills, Wan Tang, Wei Chen, Lydia A Bazzano
BACKGROUND: Economic literature shows that a child's future earnings are predictably influenced by parental income, providing an index of "socioeconomic mobility," or the ability of a person to move towards a higher socioeconomic status from childhood to adulthood. We adapted this economic paradigm to examine cardiovascular risk mobility (CRM), or whether there is life course mobility in relative cardiovascular risk. METHODS AND RESULTS: Participants from the BHS (Bogalusa Heart Study) with 1 childhood and 1 adult visit from 1973 to 2016 (n=7624) were considered...
February 6, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430590/patterns-of-health-care-service-utilization-by-individuals-with-mental-health-problems-a-predictive-cluster-analysis
#20
Béatrice Simo, Jean-Marie Bamvita, Jean Caron, Marie-Josée Fleury
This study aimed at identifying and characterizing clusters of mental health service users based on various characteristics in a sample of individuals with mental health problems. Data were collected in the epidemiological catchment area of South-West Montreal, Quebec in 2011 and 2014. Among the 746 participants who reported experiencing a mental health problem (high psychological distress and/or a mental disorder), 29% had used mental health services. A Two-Step cluster analysis was carried out to generate participant profiles based on their visit to mental health professional...
February 12, 2018: Psychiatric Quarterly
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