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Prediction epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527666/hepatic-steatosis-progresses-faster-in-hiv-mono-infected-than-hiv-hcv-co-infected-patients-and-is-associated-with-liver-fibrosis
#1
Thomas Pembroke, Marc Deschenes, Bertrand Lebouché, Amine Benmassaoud, Maida Sewitch, Peter Ghali, Philip Wong, Alex Halme, Elise Vuille-Lessard, Costa Pexos, Marina B Klein, Giada Sebastiani
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatic steatosis (HS) seems common in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, the relative effect of HIV, as well as hepatitis C virus (HCV) in those co-infected, and the influence of HS on liver fibrosis progression are unclear. METHODS: The LIVEr disease in HIV (LIVEHIV) is a Canadian prospective Cohort using transient elastography and associated controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) to screen for HS and liver fibrosis in unselected HIV-infected adults...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523593/emotion-oriented-coping-increases-the-risk-of-depression-among-caregivers-of-end-stage-renal-disease-patients-undergoing-hemodialysis
#2
Paulo Roberto Santos, Ítala Mônica de Sales Santos, João Laerte Alves de Freitas Filho, Carlos Wellington Macha, Priscila Garcia Câmara Cabral Tavares, Ana Cláudia de Oliveira Portela, Ana Mayara Barros Campos, Ana Raquel Ferreira de Azevedo, Catarine Cavalcante Ary, Felipe Peixoto Nobre, Jamille Fernandes Carneiro, Yandra Maria Gomes Pontes
PURPOSE: We investigated the possible association between coping style and depressive feelings among caregivers of end-stage renal disease patients undergoing hemodialysis. METHODS: We studied 107 main caregivers of hemodialysis patients. Main caregiver was defined as the person on whom the patient counts for daily care or the one the patient calls upon in case of difficulties. Demographic data of caregivers and clinical data of patients were collected. The Jalowiec Coping Scale was applied to score two styles of coping: problem-oriented coping (POC) and emotion-oriented coping (EOC)...
May 18, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521621/family-member-deaths-in-childhood-predict-systemic-inflammation-in-late-life
#3
Maria C Norton, Daniel J Hatch, Ronald G Munger, Ken R Smith
Biological and epidemiological evidence has linked early-life psychosocial stress with late-life health, with inflammation as a potential mechanism. We report here the association between familial death in childhood and adulthood and increased levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of systemic inflammation. The Cache County Memory Study is a prospective study of persons initially aged 65 and older in 1995. In 2002, there were 1,955 persons in the study with data on CRP (42.3 percent male, mean [SD] age = 81...
2017: Biodemography and Social Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520946/early-cannabis-initiation-and-educational-attainment-is-the-association-causal-data-from-the-french-tempo-study
#4
Maria Melchior, Camille Bolze, Eric Fombonne, Pamela J Surkan, Laura Pryor, Marie Jauffret-Roustide
Background: : Adolescent cannabis use has been reported to predict later educational attainment; however, results of past studies may be confounded by inappropriate control for factors that make some youths more likely to use cannabis precociously than others. We aimed to test the possibility of a causal relationship between early cannabis initiation and later academic achievement. Methods: : Analyses are based on data collected among TEMPO cohort study participants (France, 2009, n  = 1103, 22-35 years)...
May 18, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520685/pelvic-fracture-pattern-predicts-the-need-for-hemorrhage-control-intervention-results-of-an-aast-multi-institutional-study
#5
Todd W Costantini, Raul Coimbra, John B Holcomb, Jeanette M Podbielski, Richard D Catalano, Allie Blackburn, Thomas M Scalea, Deborah M Stein, Lashonda Williams, Joseph Conflitti, Scott Keeney, Christy Hoey, Tianhua Zhou, Jason Sperry, Dimitra Skiada, Kenji Inaba, Brian H Williams, Joseph P Minei, Alicia Privette, Robert C Mackersie, Brenton R Robinson, Forrest O Moore
BACKGROUND: Early identification of patients with pelvic fractures at risk of severe bleeding requiring intervention is critical. We performed a multi-institutional study to test our hypothesis that pelvic fracture patterns predict the need for a pelvic hemorrhage control intervention. METHODS: This prospective, observational, multicenter study enrolled patients with pelvic fracture due to blunt trauma. Inclusion criteria included shock on admission (systolic blood pressure <90 mm Hg or heart rate >120 beats/min and base deficit >5, and the ability to review pelvic imaging)...
June 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520487/chemical-risk-assessment-traditional-vs-public-health-perspectives
#6
Maureen R Gwinn, Daniel A Axelrad, Tina Bahadori, David Bussard, Wayne E Cascio, Kacee Deener, David Dix, Russell S Thomas, Robert J Kavlock, Thomas A Burke
Preventing adverse health effects of environmental chemical exposure is fundamental to protecting individual and public health. When done efficiently and properly, chemical risk assessment enables risk management actions that minimize the incidence and effects of environmentally induced diseases related to chemical exposure. However, traditional chemical risk assessment is faced with multiple challenges with respect to predicting and preventing disease in human populations, and epidemiological studies increasingly report observations of adverse health effects at exposure levels predicted from animal studies to be safe for humans...
May 18, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516725/the-need-for-better-preventative-strategies-for-inflammatory-bowel-disease-patients-at-risk-of-herpes-zoster-virus
#7
William Bye, Miles Sparrow, Susie Connor, Jane Andrews, Katie Ellard, Watson Ng, Georgia Hume, Sally Antoniades, Alissa Walsh
BACKGROUND: Immunosuppressed IBD patients have an increased risk of HZV infection. The existing live-attenuated HZV vaccine is contraindicated in some of these patients and can only be used with caution in others. AIMS: To describe characteristics of IBD patients suffering HZV to enable implementation of risk mitigation strategies for those at highest risk. METHODS: Gastroenterologists completed a proforma for IBD patients who experienced HZV infection: IBD phenotype, details of HZV infection, immunosuppression and any change to treatment upon diagnosis of HZV...
May 17, 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516509/the-incidence-and-predictors-of-depressive-and-anxiety-symptoms-in-older-adults-with-vision-impairment-a-longitudinal-prospective-cohort-study
#8
Thomas J Heesterbeek, Hilde P A van der Aa, Ger H M B van Rens, Johannes W R Twisk, Ruth M A van Nispen
PURPOSE: Depression and anxiety are highly prevalent in older adults with vision impairment. Because symptoms of depression and anxiety appear to fluctuate, it is important to identify patients who are at risk of developing these symptoms for early diagnosis and treatment. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the incidence of subthreshold depression and anxiety, and to investigate predictors of developing symptoms of depression and anxiety in older adults with vision impairment who had no subthreshold depression or anxiety at baseline...
May 18, 2017: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515183/modeling-lifetime-costs-and-health-outcomes-attributable-to-secondhand-smoke-exposure-at-home-among-korean-adult-women
#9
Jiyae Lee, Ah Ram Han, Dalwoong Choi, Kyung-Min Lim, SeungJin Bae
PURPOSE: The aim of this research is to estimate lifetime costs and health consequences for Korean adult women who were exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) at home. METHODS: A Markov model was developed to project the lifetime healthcare costs and health outcomes of a hypothetical cohort of Korean women who are 40 years old and were married to current smokers. The Korean epidemiological data were used to reflect the natural history of SHS-exposed and non-exposed women...
May 17, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512767/duration-of-major-and-minor-depressive-episodes-and-associated-risk-indicators-in-a-psychiatric-epidemiological-cohort-study-of-the-general-population
#10
M Ten Have, B W J H Penninx, M Tuithof, S van Dorsselaer, M Kleinjan, J Spijker, R de Graaf
OBJECTIVE: Hardly any studies exist on the duration of major depressive disorder (MDD) and factors that explain variations in episode duration that lack biases. This limits clinical decision-making and leaves patients wondering when they will recover. METHOD: Data were used from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study-2, a psychiatric epidemiological cohort study among a nationally representative adult population. Respondents with a newly originated depressive episode were selected: 286 MDD and 107 minor depressive disorder (MinDD) cases...
May 16, 2017: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511080/cadmium-and-alzheimer-s-disease-mortality-in-u-s-adults-updated-evidence-with-a-urinary-biomarker-and-extended-follow-up-time
#11
Qing Peng, Kelly M Bakulski, Bin Nan, Sung Kyun Park
Cadmium has been linked to impaired cognitive function in adults and may cause behavioral, physiological and molecular abnormalities characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in animals. Evidence linking cadmium and AD in humans is limited, but supportive. In the most recent epidemiologic study, blood cadmium in U.S. adults was positively associated with elevated AD mortality 7-13 years later. The association between urinary cadmium - an arguably more appropriate biomarker for studying chronic diseases - and AD mortality has not yet been explored...
May 13, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508700/the-chronicity-of-depressive-symptoms-in-mothers-of-children-with-asthma
#12
Joan Kub, Melissa H Bellin, Arlene Butz, Mary Elizabeth Bollinger, Cassia Lewis-Land, Philip Osteen
Depression can disproportionately affect low-income women. The purpose of this study was to explore the chronicity of depressive symptoms in a sample of 276 low-income inner-city mothers of children with high-risk asthma. The aims were to identify factors (asthma health status, stress, social support) associated with change in depressive symptomatology over 12 months as well as to ascertain what factors are most consistently associated with depressive symptoms. Using latent growth curve analysis, demographic variables, asthma severity, stress, and social support failed to explain changes in depressive symptomatology...
May 1, 2017: Western Journal of Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507891/discordance-in-perceived-risk-and-epidemiological-outcomes-of-prostate-cancer-among-african-american-men
#13
LaShanta J Rice, Melanie Jefferson, Vanessa Briggs, Ernestine Delmoor, Jerry C Johnson, Sebastiano Gattoni-Celli, Stephen J Savage, Michael Lilly, Sandip M Prasad, Rick Kittles, Chanita Hughes Halbert
As guidelines for prostate cancer screening have changed from an annual screening recommendation starting at age 50 to discussing the benefits and harms of screening with health care providers, it is necessary to examine other types of factors that are important to prostate cancer screening decisions among African American men. Perceived risk of developing cancer has been shown to predict cancer control behaviors and is lower among African Americans. We characterized perceived risk of developing prostate cancer among African American men from November 2009 to 2011 and evaluated the relationship between prostate cancer risk perceptions and sociodemographic characteristics, health care experiences, and knowledge and exposure to health information about cancer...
September 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506524/contemporary-incidence-and-cancer-control-outcomes-of-primary-neuroendocrine-prostate-cancer-a-seer-database-analysis
#14
Emanuele Zaffuto, Raisa Pompe, Marc Zanaty, Helen Davis Bondarenko, Sami-Ramzi Leyh-Bannurah, Marco Moschini, Paolo Dell'Oglio, Giorgio Gandaglia, Nicola Fossati, Armando Stabile, Kevin C Zorn, Francesco Montorsi, Alberto Briganti, Pierre I Karakiewicz
INTRODUCTION: Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the prostate (NEPC) is a rare entity. We aimed at providing contemporary data on incidence and survival figures of de-novo NEPC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Within the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database, we identified 309 individuals with de-novo NEPC diagnosed between 2004 and 2013. We evaluated age-adjusted incidence rates over the study. Kaplan-Meier analyses assessed overall survival (OS) after stratification according to histologic subtype, metastatic status, and treatment...
April 13, 2017: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506325/a-proposed-analytic-framework-for-determining-the-impact-of-an-antimicrobial-resistance-intervention
#15
Yrjo T Grohn, Carolee Carson, Cristina Lanzas, Laura Pullum, Michael Stanhope, Victoriya Volkova
Antimicrobial use (AMU) is increasingly threatened by antimicrobial resistance (AMR). The FDA is implementing risk mitigation measures promoting prudent AMU in food animals. Their evaluation is crucial: the AMU/AMR relationship is complex; a suitable framework to analyze interventions is unavailable. Systems science analysis, depicting variables and their associations, would help integrate mathematics/epidemiology to evaluate the relationship. This would identify informative data and models to evaluate interventions...
May 16, 2017: Animal Health Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506278/a-framework-for-evaluating-epidemic-forecasts
#16
Farzaneh Sadat Tabataba, Prithwish Chakraborty, Naren Ramakrishnan, Srinivasan Venkatramanan, Jiangzhuo Chen, Bryan Lewis, Madhav Marathe
BACKGROUND: Over the past few decades, numerous forecasting methods have been proposed in the field of epidemic forecasting. Such methods can be classified into different categories such as deterministic vs. probabilistic, comparative methods vs. generative methods, and so on. In some of the more popular comparative methods, researchers compare observed epidemiological data from the early stages of an outbreak with the output of proposed models to forecast the future trend and prevalence of the pandemic...
May 15, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502267/within-host-interference-competition-can-prevent-invasion-of-rare-parasites
#17
Benjamin J Z Quigley, Sam P Brown, Helen C Leggett, Pauline D Scanlan, Angus Buckling
Competition between parasite species or genotypes can play an important role in the establishment of parasites in new host populations. Here, we investigate a mechanism by which a rare parasite is unable to establish itself in a host population if a common resident parasite is already present (a 'priority effect'). We develop a simple epidemiological model and show that a rare parasite genotype is unable to invade if coinfecting parasite genotypes inhibit each other's transmission more than expected from simple resource partitioning...
May 15, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502018/evolutionary-processes-in-populations-of-cryptosporidium-inferred-from-gp60-sequence-data
#18
Juan C Garcia-R, David T S Hayman
Cryptosporidiosis is one of the most common human infectious diseases globally. The gp60 gene has been adopted as a key marker for molecular epidemiological investigations into this protozoan disease because of the capability to characterize genotypes and detect variants within Cryptosporidium species infecting humans. However, we know relatively little about the potential spatial and temporal variation in population demography that can be inferred from this gene beyond that it is recognized to be under selective pressure...
May 13, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500338/inflammatory-bacteriome-featuring-fusobacterium-nucleatum-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-identified-in-association-with-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#19
Nezar Noor Al-Hebshi, Akram Thabet Nasher, Mohamed Yousef Maryoud, Husham E Homeida, Tsute Chen, Ali Mohamed Idris, Newell W Johnson
Studies on the possible association between bacteria and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remain inconclusive, largely due to methodological variations/limitations. The objective of this study was to characterize the species composition as well as functional potential of the bacteriome associated with OSCC. DNA obtained from 20 fresh OSCC biopsies (cases) and 20 deep-epithelium swabs (matched control subjects) was sequenced for the V1-V3 region using Illumina's 2 × 300 bp chemistry. High quality, non-chimeric merged reads were classified to species level using a prioritized BLASTN-algorithm...
May 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499521/investigating-clinically-and-scientifically-useful-cut-points-on-the-compulsive-sexual-behavior-inventory
#20
Michael H Miner, Nancy Raymond, Eli Coleman, Rebecca Swinburne Romine
INTRODUCTION: One of the major obstacles to conducting epidemiologic research and determining the incidence and prevalence of compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) has been the lack of relevant empirically derived cut points on the various instruments that have been used to measure the concept. AIM: To further develop the Compulsive Sexual Behavior Inventory (CSBI) through exploring predictive validity and developing an empirically determined and clinically useful cut point for defining CSB...
May 2017: Journal of Sexual Medicine
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