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Prediction epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235006/intrinsic-contact-between-t-and-n-classifications-in-resected-well-moderately-differentiated-locoregional-pancreatic-neuroendocrine-neoplasms
#1
Jin-Zhi Xu, Wen-Quan Wang, Shi-Rong Zhang, Hua-Xiang Xu, Chun-Tao Wu, Zi-Hao Qi, He-Li Gao, Quan-Xing Ni, Liang Liu, Xian-Jun Yu
BACKGROUND: The role of N classification is controversial in several prognostication systems proposed for pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (pNENs). The widely accepted modified European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (mENETS) system suggests this contradiction may be related to T classification. METHODS: Data were collected retrospectively from 981 patients in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database (1973-2012; cohort 1) and 140 patients from the Pancreatic Cancer Institute of Fudan University (2006-2016; cohort 2)...
December 12, 2017: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234838/clinical-characteristics-and-prognosis-of-traumatic-head-injury-following-road-traffic-accidents-admitted-in-icu-analysis-of-694-cases
#2
Hedi Chelly, Mabrouk Bahloul, Rania Ammar, Ahmed Dhouib, Khaireddine Ben Mahfoudh, Mohamed Zaher Boudawara, Olfa Chakroun, Imen Chabchoub, Anis Chaari, Mounir Bouaziz
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study is to analyze the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) following Road Traffic Accidents (RTAs). Moreover, we aim to evaluate the outcome of the TBI victims referred to our medico-surgical Intensive Care Unit (ICU), and to define predictive factors associated with poor prognosis. METHODS: A retrospective study over a 4-year period (2009 to 2012) of 694 patients with head injuries, incurred during road traffic accidents, admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of a university hospital (Sfax-Tunisia)...
December 12, 2017: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234135/comparative-epidemiology-of-poliovirus-transmission
#3
Navideh Noori, John M Drake, Pejman Rohani
Understanding the determinants of polio transmission and its large-scale epidemiology remains a public health priority. Despite a 99% reduction in annual wild poliovirus (WPV) cases since 1988, tackling the last 1% has proven difficult. We identified key covariates of geographical variation in polio transmission patterns by relating country-specific annual disease incidence to demographic, socio-economic and environmental factors. We assessed the relative contributions of these variables to the performance of computer-generated models for predicting polio transmission...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234082/rebound-of-cotton-leaf-curl-multan-virus-and-its-exclusive-detection-in-cotton-leaf-curl-disease-outbreak-punjab-india-2015
#4
Sibnarayan Datta, Raghvendra Budhauliya, Bidisha Das, Reji Gopalakrishnan, Sonika Sharma, Soumya Chatterjee, Vanlalhmuaka, P Srinivas Raju, Vijay Veer
Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) outbreaks caused by CLCuD associated begomoviruses (CABs) significantly constrain cotton production in India and Pakistan. In comparison to the CABs circulating in Pakistan, molecular epidemiology, evolution and recombination patterns of CABs circulating in India are less studied. In this work, we characterized CAB complex sequences obtained from the most recent outbreak (Punjab, India, 2015), and rigorously analyzed them with reference to GenBank sequences, submitted from India, Pakistan and other neighbouring countries, using contemporary bioinformatics approaches...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233035/from-the-wound-to-the-bench-exoproteome-interplay-between-wound-colonizing-staphylococcus-aureus-strains-and-co-existing-bacteria
#5
Andrea N García-Pérez, Anne de Jong, Sabryna Junker, Dörte Becher, Monika A Chlebowicz, José C Duipmans, Marcel F Jonkman, Jan Maarten van Dijl
Wound-colonizing microorganisms can form complex and dynamic polymicrobial communities where pathogens and commensals may co-exist, cooperate or compete with each other. The present study was aimed at identifying possible interactions between different bacteria isolated from the same chronic wound of a patient with the genetic blistering disease epidermolysis bullosa (EB). Specifically, this involved two different isolates of the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, and isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis and Klebsiella oxytoca...
December 13, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232561/development-of-artificial-intelligence-approach-to-forecasting-oyster-norovirus-outbreaks-along-gulf-of-mexico-coast
#6
Shima Shamkhali Chenar, Zhiqiang Deng
This paper presents an artificial intelligence-based model, called ANN-2Day model, for forecasting, managing and ultimately eliminating the growing risk of oyster norovirus outbreaks. The ANN-2Day model was developed using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) Toolbox in MATLAB Program and 15-years of epidemiological and environmental data for six independent environmental predictors including water temperature, solar radiation, gage height, salinity, wind, and rainfall. It was found that oyster norovirus outbreaks can be forecasted with two-day lead time using the ANN-2Day model and daily data of the six environmental predictors...
December 9, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230377/clinical-significance-of-circulating-immune-cells-in-left-and-right-sided-colon-cancer
#7
Jiabo Di, Meng Zhuang, Hong Yang, Beihai Jiang, Zaozao Wang, Xiangqian Su
Background: Left-sided and right-sided colon cancers (LCCs and RCCs, respectively) differ in their epidemiology, pathogenesis, genetic and epigenetic alterations, molecular pathways and prognosis. Notably, immune response gene expression profiles have been shown to differ between patients with LCC and patients with RCC. The immune system plays an important role in tumor immunosurveillance, and there is increasing evidence that peripheral blood immune cells have a profound influence on tumor prognosis...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229582/survival-after-cytoreductive-nephrectomy-in-metastatic-non-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma-patients-a-population-based-study
#8
Michele Marchioni, Marco Bandini, Felix Preisser, Zhe Tian, Anil Kapoor, Luca Cindolo, Giulia Primiceri, Francesco Berardinelli, Alberto Briganti, Shahrokh F Shariat, Luigi Schips, Pierre I Karakiewicz
BACKGROUND: The benefit of cytoreductive nephrectomy (CNT) for cancer-specific mortality (CSM)-free survival is unclear in contemporary metastatic non-clear cell renal cell carcinoma (non-ccmRCC) patients. OBJECTIVE: To assess the role of CNT in non-ccmRCC patients. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Within Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry (2001-2014), we identified patients with non-ccmRCC. INTERVENTION: CNT versus no CNT in non-ccmRCC patients...
December 8, 2017: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227938/the-cumulative-effect-of-air-pollutants-on-the-acute-exacerbation-of-copd-in-shanghai-china
#9
Xian Wen Sun, Pei Li Chen, Lei Ren, Ying Ni Lin, Jian Ping Zhou, Lei Ni, Qing Yun Li
BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies have shown the effect of air pollutants on acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). However, little is known regarding the dose-response relationship. This study aimed to investigate the cumulative effect of air pollutants on AECOPD. METHODS: We collected 101 patients with AECOPD from November 2010 through August 2011 in Shanghai. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate associations between air pollutants and AECOPD...
December 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226722/the-use-of-databases-data-mining-and-immunoinformatics-in-vaccinology-where-are-we
#10
Nagendra R Hegde, S Gauthami, H M Sampath Kumar, Jagadeesh Bayry
Vaccinology has evolved from a sub-discipline focussed on simplistic vaccine development based on antibody-mediated protection to a separate discipline involving epidemiology, host and pathogen biology, immunology, genomics, proteomics, structure biology, protein engineering, chemical biology, and delivery systems. Data mining in combination with bioinformatics has provided a scaffold linking all these disciplines to the design of vaccines and vaccine adjuvants. Areas covered: This review provides background knowledge on immunological aspects which have been exploited with informatics for the in silico analysis of immune responses and the design of vaccine antigens...
December 11, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226705/survival-prediction-in-pancreatic-cancer-patients-with-no-distant-metastasis-a-large-scale-population-based-estimate
#11
Ning Pu, Yang Lv, Guochao Zhao, Wanling Lee, Abulimiti Nuerxiati, Dansong Wang, Xuefeng Xu, Tiantao Kuang, Wenchuan Wu, Wenhui Lou
AIM: To identify the risk factors for overall survival (OS) of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma patients with no distant metastasis, and formulate a novel nomogram for prognostic prediction. PATIENTS & METHODS: Data were obtained from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma patients with no distant metastasis as the primary cohort, and 127 patients at our institution were enrolled as the validation cohort. The prognostic nomogram integrating all independent risk factors for predicting OS was established to achieve superior discriminatory ability...
December 11, 2017: Future Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225714/incorporating-high-dimensional-exposure-modelling-into-studies-of-air-pollution-and-health
#12
Yi Liu, Gavin Shaddick, James V Zidek
Performing studies on the risks of environmental hazards on human health requires accurate estimates of exposures that might be experienced by the populations at risk. Often there will be missing data and in many epidemiological studies, the locations and times of exposure measurements and health data do not match. To a large extent this will be due to the health and exposure data having arisen from completely different data sources and not as the result of a carefully designed study, leading to problems of both 'change of support' and 'misaligned data'...
2017: Statistics in Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223087/oxidative-stress-in-birds-along-a-nox-and-urbanisation-gradient-an-interspecific-approach
#13
Pablo Salmón, Emilie Stroh, Amparo Herrera-Dueñas, Maria von Post, Caroline Isaksson
Urbanisation is regarded as one of the most threatening global issues for wildlife, however, measuring its impact is not always straight forward. Oxidative stress physiology has been suggested to be a useful biomarker of health and therefore, a potentially important indicator of the impact that urban environmental stressors, especially air pollution, can have on wildlife. For example, nitrogen oxides (NOx), released during incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, are highly potent pro-oxidants, thus predicted to affect either the protective antioxidants and/or cause oxidative damage to bio-molecules...
December 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222711/%C3%A3-gro-survey-on-radiotherapy-capacity-in-austria-status-quo-and-estimation-of-future-demands
#14
Brigitte Zurl, Anja Bayerl, Alexander De Vries, Hans Geinitz, Robert Hawliczek, Tomas-Henrik Knocke-Abulesz, Peter Lukas, Richard Pötter, Wolfgang Raunik, Brigitte Scholz, Annemarie Schratter-Sehn, Felix Sedlmayer, Dietmar Seewald, Edgar Selzer, Karin S Kapp
BACKGROUND: A comprehensive evaluation of the current national and regional radiotherapy capacity in Austria with an estimation of demands for 2020 and 2030 was performed by the Austrian Society for Radiation Oncology, Radiobiology and Medical Radiophysics (ÖGRO). MATERIALS AND METHODS: All Austrian centers provided data on the number of megavoltage (MV) units, treatment series, fractions, percentage of retreatments and complex treatment techniques as well as the daily operating hours for the year 2014...
December 8, 2017: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221891/the-evolution-of-host-defence-to-parasitism-in-fluctuating-environments
#15
Charlotte Ferris, Alex Best
Given rapidly changing environments, it is important for us to understand how the evolution of host defence responds to fluctuating environments. Here we present the first theoretical study of evolution of host resistance to parasitism in a classic epidemiological model where the host birth rate varies seasonally. We show that this form of seasonality has clear qualitative and quantitative impacts on the evolution of resistance. When the host can recover from infection, it evolves a lower level of defence when the amplitude is high...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221594/periodontal-disease-and-periodontal-bacteria-as-triggers-for-rheumatoid-arthritis
#16
REVIEW
Zijian Cheng, Josephine Meade, Kulveer Mankia, Paul Emery, Deirdre A Devine
There is an epidemiological association between periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), which is hypothesised to lead to enhanced generation of RA-related autoantibodies that can be detected years before the onset of RA symptoms. Periodontitis is a common dysbiotic disease; tissue damage occurs because the immune system fails to limit both the resident microbial community and the associated local immune response. Certain periodontal bacteria, including Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, may contribute to RA autoantibody production through direct post-translational modification of proteins or, indirectly, by influencing neutrophil-mediated neo-epitope generation...
February 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221591/eradicating-bvd-reviewing-irish-programme-data-and-model-predictions-to-support-prospective-decision-making
#17
H-H Thulke, M Lange, J A Tratalos, T A Clegg, G McGrath, L O'Grady, P O'Sullivan, M L Doherty, D A Graham, S J More
Bovine Viral Diarrhoea is an infectious production disease of major importance in many cattle sectors of the world. The infection is predominantly transmitted by animal contact. Postnatal infections are transient, leading to immunologically protected cattle. However, for a certain window of pregnancy, in utero infection of the foetus results in persistently infected (PI) calves being the major risk of BVD spread, but also an efficient target for controlling the infection. There are two acknowledged strategies to identify PI animals for removal: tissue tag testing (direct; also known as the Swiss model) and serological screening (indirect by interpreting the serological status of the herd; the Scandinavian model)...
November 23, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220728/assessment-of-long-term-exposure-to-airborne-dioxin-and-cadmium-concentrations-in-the-lyon-metropolitan-area-france
#18
T Coudon, H Hourani, C Nguyen, E Faure, F R Mancini, B Fervers, P Salizzoni
Identifying the long-term effects of airborne pollutants requires the computation of the spatial and temporal variability of their concentration in air to estimate the exposure of the population. To estimate exposure levels of individuals in a breast cancer case control study nested in a national prospective cohort, we determine here the differential impact of a variety of cadmium and dioxin sources on urban air over a large urban area and over a period of almost 20years. To that end, we couple an emission model, to estimate dioxin and cadmium atmospheric annual releases, with an urban dispersion model in order to compute pollutant concentration fields at a fine temporal (1h) and spatial (25m) resolution...
December 5, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218028/the-folate-cycle-as-a-cause-of-natural-killer-cell-dysfunction-and-viral-etiology-in-type-1-diabetes
#19
Allison L Bayer, Christopher A Fraker
The folate pathway is critical to proper cellular function and metabolism. It is responsible for multiple functions, including energy (ATP) production, methylation reactions for DNA and protein synthesis and the production of immunomodulatory molecules, inosine and adenosine. These play an important role in immune signaling and cytotoxicity. Herein, we hypothesize that defects in the folate pathway in genetically susceptible individuals could lead to immune dysfunction, permissive environments for chronic cyclical latent/lytic viral infection, and, ultimately, the development of unchecked autoimmune responses to infected tissue, in this case islet beta cells...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216960/estimation-study-of-new-cancer-cases-and-deaths-in-wuwei-hexi-corridor-region-china-2018
#20
Bo Yu Cao, Cheng Yun Li, Feng Lan Xu, Xiao Qin Liu, Yan Xu Yang, Jing Li, Cai Yun Gao, You Ming Rong, Rong Cheng Li, Ya Li Li, Shan Zheng, Ya Na Bai, Yan Cheng Ye
Population-based cancer registration data were collected to estimate the cancer incidence and mortality in Wuwei, Hexi Corridor Region, China in 2018. We used the 2011-2013 data to predict the number of new cases and deaths in 2018 and the 2003-2013 data to analyze trends in cancer incidence and mortality. The goal is to enable cancer prevention and control directions. Our results indicated that stomach cancer is the most common cancer. For all cancers combined, the incidence and mortality rates showed significantly increasing trends (+2...
November 2017: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
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