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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166751/is-there-a-glucose-metabolic-signature-of-spreading-tdp-43-pathology-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#1
Donatienne van Weehaeghe, Jenny Ceccarini, Stefanie M Willekens, Joke de Vocht, Philip van Damme, Koen van Laere
BACKGROUND: Recently, four neuropathological stages of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) with spreading of transactive response DNA-Binding Protein-43 pathology were described. Although 18F-FDG PET has been useful in diagnosis and prognosis of ALS patients, in vivo disease staging using glucose metabolic patterns across the different ALS stages have not been attempted so far. In this study, we investigated whether the discriminant brain regions of the neuropathological stage model can be translated to metabolic patterns for in vivo staging of ALS...
November 22, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166742/-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-for-the-treatment-of-acute-myeloid-leukemia-with-primary-thrombocytosis-three-cases-report-and-literatures-review
#2
X P Zong, L Tang, J N Cen, S N Chen, A N Sun, D P Wu
Objective: To investigate the characteristics of the essential thrombocythemia (ET) cases transformed to the acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and the role of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) in the treatment of this disease. Methods: The clinical and laboratory characteristics of 3 ET cases before and after transformation and after allo-HSCT were retrospectively analyzed, meanwhile the related literatures were reviewed and discussed. Results: Case 1 was a male patient of 44 years old, whose PLT was 500×10(9)/L when firstly diagnosed ET...
October 14, 2017: Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Xueyexue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166134/injection-partners-hcv-and-hiv-status-among-rural-persons-who-inject-drugs-in-puerto-rico
#3
Patrick Habecker, Roberto Abadie, Melissa Welch-Lazoritz, Juan Carlos Reyes, Bilal Khan, Kirk Dombrowski
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of hepatitis C (HCV) and HIV among persons who inject drugs (PWID) and the ability of these diseases to spread through injection networks are well documented in urban areas. However, less is known about injection behaviors in rural areas. OBJECTIVES: This study focuses on the association between the number of self-reported injection partners with the PWID's self-reported HCV and HIV status. Injection networks provide paths for infection and information to flow, and are important to consider when developing prevention and intervention strategies...
November 22, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165706/cholera-epidemics-of-the-past-offer-new-insights-into-an-old-enemy
#4
Matthew Phelps, Mads Linnet Perner, Virginia E Pitzer, Viggo Andreasen, Peter K M Jensen, Lone Simonsen
Background: Although cholera is considered the quintessential long-cycle waterborne disease, studies have emphasized the existence of short-cycle (food, household) transmission. We investigated singular Danish cholera epidemics (1853) to elucidate epidemiological parameters and modes of spread. Methods: Using time series data from cities with different water systems, we estimated the intrinsic transmissibility (R0). Accessing cause-specific mortality data we studied clinical severity, age-specific impact...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165393/the-role-of-hypoxia-in-glioblastoma-invasion
#5
REVIEW
Ana Rita Monteiro, Richard Hill, Geoffrey J Pilkington, Patrícia A Madureira
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), a grade IV astrocytoma, is the most common and deadly type of primary malignant brain tumor, with a patient's median survival rate ranging from 15 to 17 months. The current treatment for GBM involves tumor resection surgery based on MRI image analysis, followed by radiotherapy and treatment with temozolomide. However, the gradual development of tumor resistance to temozolomide is frequent in GBM patients leading to subsequent tumor regrowth/relapse. For this reason, the development of more effective therapeutic approaches for GBM is of critical importance...
November 22, 2017: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165349/combating-fusarium-infection-using-bacillus-based-antimicrobials
#6
REVIEW
Noor Khan, Maskit Maymon, Ann M Hirsch
Despite efforts to control toxigenic Fusarium species, wilt and head-blight infections are destructive and economically damaging diseases that have global effects. The utilization of biological control agents in disease management programs has provided an effective, safe, and sustainable means to control Fusarium-induced plant diseases. Among the most widely used microbes for biocontrol agents are members of the genus Bacillus. These species influence plant and fungal pathogen interactions by a number of mechanisms such as competing for essential nutrients, antagonizing pathogens by producing fungitoxic metabolites, or inducing systemic resistance in plants...
November 22, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165129/comparative-study-on-three-different-methods-for-arm-span-measurement-the-japan-environment-and-children-s-study-pilot
#7
Mayumi Tsuji, Tadayuki Ayabe, Rie Tanaka, Ayako Senju, Eiji Shibata, Shunsuke Araki, Seiichi Morokuma, Masafumi Sanefuji, Koichi Kusuhara, Toshihiro Kawamoto
BACKGROUND: Arm span is an important measure for the assessment of growth and hormone deficiency diseases. In an epidemiological survey, with a large number of subjects' indicators, it is especially valuable to establish methods which can measure both quickly and accurately. However, there are various methods, and the length of arm span may vary according to the medical institution. METHODS: The arm span of nine 6-year old subjects was measured using two institutional standard methods, A and B, and a third method C which is an improved method and has been used for the first time in this study...
April 4, 2017: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163939/infection-prevention-and-control-measures-and-tools-for-the-prevention-of-entry-of-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-into-healthcare-settings-guidance-from-the-european-centre-for-disease-prevention-and-control
#8
A P Magiorakos, K Burns, J Rodríguez Baño, M Borg, G Daikos, U Dumpis, J C Lucet, M L Moro, E Tacconelli, G Skov Simonsen, E Szilágyi, A Voss, J T Weber
Background: Infections with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are increasingly being reported from patients in healthcare settings. They are associated with high patient morbidity, attributable mortality and hospital costs. Patients who are "at-risk" may be carriers of these multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (MDR-E).The purpose of this guidance is to raise awareness and identify the "at-risk" patient when admitted to a healthcare setting and to outline effective infection prevention and control measures to halt the entry and spread of CRE...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163494/reproducibility-and-reuse-of-adaptive-immune-receptor-repertoire-data
#9
Felix Breden, Eline T Luning Prak, Bjoern Peters, Florian Rubelt, Chaim A Schramm, Christian E Busse, Jason A Vander Heiden, Scott Christley, Syed Ahmad Chan Bukhari, Adrian Thorogood, Frederick A Matsen Iv, Yariv Wine, Uri Laserson, David Klatzmann, Daniel C Douek, Marie-Paule Lefranc, Andrew M Collins, Tania Bubela, Steven H Kleinstein, Corey T Watson, Lindsay G Cowell, Jamie K Scott, Thomas B Kepler
High-throughput sequencing (HTS) of immunoglobulin (B-cell receptor, antibody) and T-cell receptor repertoires has increased dramatically since the technique was introduced in 2009 (1-3). This experimental approach explores the maturation of the adaptive immune system and its response to antigens, pathogens, and disease conditions in exquisite detail. It holds significant promise for diagnostic and therapy-guiding applications. New technology often spreads rapidly, sometimes more rapidly than the understanding of how to make the products of that technology reliable, reproducible, or usable by others...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163407/a-therapeutic-antiviral-antibody-inhibits-the-anterograde-directed-neuron-to-cell-spread-of-herpes-simplex-virus-and-protects-against-ocular-disease
#10
Dirk Bauer, Mira Alt, Miriam Dirks, Anna Buch, Christiane S Heilingloh, Ulf Dittmer, Bernd Giebel, André Görgens, Vivien Palapys, Maren Kasper, Anna M Eis-Hübinger, Beate Sodeik, Arnd Heiligenhaus, Michael Roggendorf, Adalbert Krawczyk
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a leading cause of blindness and viral encephalitis in the developed world. Upon reactivation from sensory neurons, HSV returns via axonal transport to peripheral tissues where it causes, e.g., severe, potentially blinding ocular diseases. In the present study we investigated whether the HSV-1/2 glycoprotein B-specific antibody mAb 2c or its humanized counterpart mAb hu2c can protect from ocular disease in a mouse model of HSV-1-induced acute retinal necrosis (ARN). In this model the viral spread from the initially infected to the contralateral eye resembles the routes taken in humans upon HSV reactivation...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163343/data-driven-sequence-of-changes-to-anatomical-brain-connectivity-in-sporadic-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
Neil P Oxtoby, Sara Garbarino, Nicholas C Firth, Jason D Warren, Jonathan M Schott, Daniel C Alexander
Model-based investigations of transneuronal spreading mechanisms in neurodegenerative diseases relate the pattern of pathology severity to the brain's connectivity matrix, which reveals information about how pathology propagates through the connectivity network. Such network models typically use networks based on functional or structural connectivity in young and healthy individuals, and only end-stage patterns of pathology, thereby ignoring/excluding the effects of normal aging and disease progression. Here, we examine the sequence of changes in the elderly brain's anatomical connectivity over the course of a neurodegenerative disease...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162969/clinical-immunology-of-cholera-current-trends-and-directions-for-future-advancement
#12
Francesco Chiappelli, Allen Khakshooy, Nicole Balenton
Cholera remains a feared, aggressive, infectious and lethal disease today, despite several decades of intense research, concerted public health modalities designed to prevent, and to control outbreaks, availability of efficacious vaccines aimed at containing its contagious spread, and effective patient-centered medical interventions for reducing morbidity and mortality. Despite these advances, cholera still strikes communities around the world, especially in countries and regions of the globe where medical and nursing care cannot be as effectively proffered to the population at risk as in First World economies...
2017: Bioinformation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162706/vaccine-effects-on-heterogeneity-in-susceptibility-and-implications-for-population-health-management
#13
Kate E Langwig, Andrew R Wargo, Darbi R Jones, Jessie R Viss, Barbara J Rutan, Nicholas A Egan, Pedro Sá-Guimarães, Min Sun Kim, Gael Kurath, M Gabriela M Gomes, Marc Lipsitch
Heterogeneity in host susceptibility is a key determinant of infectious disease dynamics but is rarely accounted for in assessment of disease control measures. Understanding how susceptibility is distributed in populations, and how control measures change this distribution, is integral to predicting the course of epidemics with and without interventions. Using multiple experimental and modeling approaches, we show that rainbow trout have relatively homogeneous susceptibility to infection with infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus and that vaccination increases heterogeneity in susceptibility in a nearly all-or-nothing fashion...
November 21, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162163/%C3%AE-synuclein-fibrils-recruit-peripheral-immune-cells-in-the-rat-brain-prior-to-neurodegeneration
#14
Ashley S Harms, Vedad Delic, Aaron D Thome, Nicole Bryant, Zhiyong Liu, Sidhanth Chandra, Asta Jurkuvenaite, Andrew B West
Genetic variation in a major histocompatibility complex II (MHCII)-encoding gene (HLA-DR) increases risk for Parkinson disease (PD), and the accumulation of MHCII-expressing immune cells in the brain correlates with α-synuclein inclusions. However, the timing of MHCII-cell recruitment with respect to ongoing neurodegeneration, and the types of cells that express MHCII in the PD brain, has been difficult to understand. Recent studies show that the injection of short α-synuclein fibrils into the rat substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) induces progressive inclusion formation in SNpc neurons that eventually spread to spiny projection neurons in the striatum...
November 21, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162093/receptivity-to-malaria-in-the-china-myanmar-border-in-yingjiang-county-yunnan-province-china
#15
Tianmu Chen, Shaosen Zhang, Shui-Sen Zhou, Xuezhong Wang, Chunhai Luo, Xucan Zeng, Xiangrui Guo, Zurui Lin, Hong Tu, Xiaodong Sun, Hongning Zhou
BACKGROUND: The re-establishment of malaria has become an important public health issue in and out of China, and receptivity to this disease is key to its re-emergence. Yingjiang is one of the few counties with locally acquired malaria cases in the China-Myanmar border in China. This study aimed to understand receptivity to malaria in Yingjiang County, China, from June to October 2016. METHODS: Light-traps were employed to capture the mosquitoes in 17 villages in eight towns which were categorized into four elevation levels: level 1, 0-599 m; level 2, 600-1199 m; level 3, 1200-1799 m; and level 4, > 1800 m...
November 21, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161981/presenting-symptoms-and-clinical-findings-in-hpv-positive-and-hpv-negative-oropharyngeal-cancer-patients
#16
Timo Carpén, Anni Sjöblom, Marie Lundberg, Caj Haglund, Antti Markkola, Stina Syrjänen, Jussi Tarkkanen, Antti Mäkitie, Jaana Hagström, Petri Mattila
OBJECTIVES: Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) is divided in two different disease entities depending on HPV involvement. We investigated differences in presenting symptoms and clinical findings in patients with HPV-positive and -negative OPSCC tumors. METHODS: Altogether 118 consecutive patients diagnosed with primary OPSCC between 2012 and 2014 at the Helsinki University Hospital were included. HPV-status of the tumors was assessed by PCR detection of HPV DNA and immunostaining with p16-INK4a antibody...
November 21, 2017: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161877/modeling-and-analyzing-the-transmission-dynamics-of-visceral-leishmaniasis
#17
Lan Zou, Jing Chen, Shigui Ruan
In this paper, we develop a mathematical model to study the transmission dynamics of visceral leishmaniasis. Three populations: dogs, sandflies and humans, are considered in the model. Based on recent studies, we include vertical transmission of dogs in the spread of the disease. We also investigate the impact of asymptomatic humans and dogs as secondary reservoirs of the parasites. The basic reproduction number and sensitivity analysis show that the control of dog-sandfly transmission is more important for the elimination of the disease...
October 2017: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161876/the-risk-index-for-an-sir-epidemic-model-and-spatial-spreading-of-the-infectious-disease
#18
Min Zhu, Xiaofei Guo, Zhigui Lin
In this paper, a reaction-diffusion-advection SIR model for the transmission of the infectious disease is proposed and analyzed. The free boundaries are introduced to describe the spreading fronts of the disease. By exhibiting the basic reproduction number RDA0 for an associated model with Dirichlet boundary condition, we introduce the risk index RF0(t) for the free boundary problem, which depends on the advection coefficient and time. Sufficient conditions for the disease to prevail or not are obtained. Our results suggest that the disease must spread if RF0(t0) ≤ 1 for some t0 and the disease is vanishing if RF0(∞) < 1, while if RF0 (0) < 1, the spreading or vanishing of the disease depends on the initial state of infected individuals as well as the expanding capability of the free boundary...
October 2017: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161874/onset-and-termination-of-oscillation-of-disease-spread-through-contaminated-environment
#19
Xue Zhang, Shuni Song, Jianhong Wu
We consider a reaction diffusion equation with a delayed nonlocal nonlinearity and subject to Dirichlet boundary condition. The model equation is motivated by infection dynamics of disease spread (avian influenza, for example) through environment contamination, and the nonlinearity takes into account of distribution of limited resources for rapid and slow interventions to clean contaminated environment. We determine conditions under which an equilibrium with positive value in the interior of the domain (disease equilibrium) emerges and determine conditions under which Hope bifurcation occurs...
October 2017: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161869/dynamical-behaviors-of-an-echinococcosis-epidemic-model-with-distributed-delays
#20
Kai Wang, Zhidong Teng, Xueliang Zhang
In this paper, a novel spreading dynamical model for Echinococcosis with distributed time delays is proposed. For the model, we firstly give the basic reproduction number R0 and the existence of a unique endemic equilibrium when R0>1. Furthermore, we analyze the dynamical behaviors of the model. The results show that the dynamical properties of the model is completely determined by R0. That is, if R0< 1, the disease-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable, and if R0>1, the model is permanent and the endemic equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable...
October 2017: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
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