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Ethics transplantation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908469/-ethics-and-kidney-transplants-with-living-donors
#1
Marie-France Mamzer Bruneel
The ethical debate surrounding transplant practices questions our societies. International recommendations set out numerous precautions which must be taken to ensure that donors act with their free will. While in most countries, including France, organ donation is a voluntary and non-commercial act, a black market exists in the world resulting in the trafficking of organs and tragic transplant tourism.
December 2016: Revue de L'infirmière
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904501/human-amniotic-epithelial-cells-combined-with-silk-fibroin-scaffold-in-the-repair-of-spinal-cord-injury
#2
Ting-Gang Wang, Jie Xu, Ai-Hua Zhu, Hua Lu, Zong-Ning Miao, Peng Zhao, Guo-Zhen Hui, Wei-Jiang Wu
Treatment and functional reconstruction after central nervous system injury is a major medical and social challenge. An increasing number of researchers are attempting to use neural stem cells combined with artificial scaffold materials, such as fibroin, for nerve repair. However, such approaches are challenged by ethical and practical issues. Amniotic tissue, a clinical waste product, is abundant, and amniotic epithelial cells are pluripotent, have low immunogenicity, and are not the subject of ethical debate...
October 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900567/clinical-potential-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-perspectives-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#3
REVIEW
Dharmendra Kumar, Taruna Anand, Wilfried A Kues
The recent establishment of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells promises the development of autologous cell therapies for degenerative diseases, without the ethical concerns associated with human embryonic stem (ES) cells. Initially, iPS cells were generated by retroviral transduction of somatic cells with core reprogramming genes. To avoid potential genotoxic effects associated with retroviral transfection, more recently, alternative non-viral gene transfer approaches were developed. Before a potential clinical application of iPS cell-derived therapies can be planned, it must be ensured that the reprogramming to pluripotency is not associated with genome mutagenesis or epigenetic aberrations...
November 29, 2016: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900507/-why-throw-away-something-useful-attitudes-and-opinions-of-people-treated-for-bipolar-disorder-and-their-relatives-on-organ-and-tissue-donation
#4
Carolina S Padoan, Lucas F Garcia, Aline A Rodrigues, Lucas M Patusco, Mariana V Atz, Flavio Kapczinski, José R Goldim, Pedro V S Magalhães
In regard to mental illness, brain donation is essential for the biological investigation of central pathology. Nevertheless, little is known about the thoughts of people with mental disorders on tissue donation for research. Here, our objective was to understand the attitudes and opinions of people treated for bipolar disorder and their relatives regarding donation in general, and particularly donation for research. This is a qualitative study that used in-depth interviews to determine the thoughts of participants regarding tissue donation for research...
November 29, 2016: Cell and Tissue Banking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888715/making-a-case-for-controlled-organ-donation-after-cardiac-death-the-story-of-italy-s-first-experience
#5
Marco Vergano, Emma Magavern, Francesca Baroncelli, Valeria Frisenda, Alessia Fonsato, Diego Artusio, Carlo Alberto Castioni, Maria Elena De Piero, Massimo Abelli, Elena Ticozzelli, Sergio Livigni
Donation after circulatory death (DCD) is a valuable option for the procurement of organs for transplantation. In Italy, organ procurement after controlled DCD is legally and ethically conceivable within the current legislative framework. However, although formal impediments do not exist, the health care team is faced with many obstacles that may hinder the implementation of such programs. We report the case of Italy's first controlled DCD, specifically discussing the role of the patient's family in the shared decision-making process...
November 5, 2016: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888277/looking-the-world-in-the-face-the-benefits-and-challenges-of-facial-transplantation-for-blind-patients
#6
Katrina A Bramstedt, Jan A Plock
Total bilateral blindness in the setting of facial transplantation is a controversial matter. Some transplant teams exclude these candidates, while others accept them onto their facial transplant waiting list. Using 3 cases, the clinical and ethical complexity of total bilateral blindness is explored. Guidance (medical, psychological, and social) for total bilateral blindness as both an inclusion and exclusion criterion is provided, with the stipulation that total bilateral blindness should not be an automatic exclusion criterion for facial transplantation...
November 25, 2016: Progress in Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885887/cell-therapies-for-parkinson-s-disease-how-far-have-we-come
#7
Thomas B Stoker, Roger A Barker
Over the past three decades, significant progress has been made in the development of potential regenerative cell-based therapies for neurodegenerative disease, with most success being seen in Parkinson's disease. Cell-based therapies face many challenges including ethical considerations, potential for immune-mediated rejection with allogeneic and xenogeneic tissue, pathological spread of protein-related disease into the grafted tissue as well as the risk of graft overgrowth and tumorigenesis in stem cell-derived transplants...
December 2016: Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881813/perspectives-of-us-and-australian-hand-therapists-about-pediatric-hand-transplantation
#8
Nitin Mukesh, Katrina A Bramstedt
INTRODUCTION: Pediatric hand transplantation (PHT), an investigational therapy, was recently performed in the United States. RESEARCH QUESTIONS: Perspectives of hand therapists about PHT patient selection (inclusion and exclusion criteria), team configuration, patient assent, and patient compliance were explored. DESIGN: Quantitative survey. We used a research ethics committee-approved 18-question e-link anonymous questionnaire to survey members of the American Society of Hand Therapists and the Australian (AU) Hand Therapy Association for their perspectives on PHT...
November 23, 2016: Progress in Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875647/what-pacemakers-can-teach-us-about-the-ethics-of-maintaining-artificial-organs
#9
Katrina Hutchison, Robert Sparrow
One day soon it may be possible to replace a failing heart, liver, or kidney with a long-lasting mechanical replacement or perhaps even with a 3-D printed version based on the patient's own tissue. Such artificial organs could make transplant waiting lists and immunosuppression a thing of the past. Supposing that this happens, what will the ongoing care of people with these implants involve? In particular, how will the need to maintain the functioning of artificial organs over an extended period affect patients and their doctors and the responsibilities of those who manufacture such devices? Drawing on lessons from the history of the cardiac pacemaker, this article offers an initial survey of the ethical issues posed by the need to maintain and service artificial organs...
November 2016: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873528/transplantation-of-vascularized-composite-allografts-review-of-current-knowledge
#10
M Molitor
Transplantation in reconstructive surgery has been performed for more than 20 years, although the official beginning of these procedures is considered the first successful transplantation of the hand in 1998. The original name "Composite Tissue Transplantation" has been used less frequently; more common is the term "Vascularized Composite Allotransplant", which better describes the basis of the procedure. There have been so far approximately 180 transplantations performed, the exact number is difficult to find...
2016: Acta Chirurgiae Plasticae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872835/six-end-stage-renal-disease-patients-benefited-from-first-non-simultaneous-single-center-6-way-kidney-exchange-transplantation-in-india
#11
Vivek B Kute, Himanshu V Patel, Umesh T Varyani, Pankaj R Shah, Pranjal R Modi, Veena R Shah, Sayyed J Rizvi, Bipin C Pal, Priya S Shah, Pavan S Wakhare, Vijay A Ghodela, Saiprasad G Shinde, Varsha B Trivedi, Minaxi H Patel, Hargovind L Trivedi
AIM: To avoid desensitization protocols and ABO incompatible kidney transplantation (KT) due to high costs and increased risk of infections from intense immunosuppression. METHODS: We present institutional ethical review board - approved study of single center 6-way kidney exchange transplantation. The participants comprised ABO incompatibility (n = 1); positive cross-match and/or presence of donor specific antibody (n = 5). The average time required from registration in kidney paired donation (KPD) registry to find suitable donors was 45 d and time required to perform transplants after legal permission was 2 mo...
November 6, 2016: World Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855949/-general-and-ethical-considerations-for-the-informed-consent-process-guidelines-from-the-francophone-society-of-bone-marrow-transplantation-and-cellular-therapy-sfgm-tc
#12
Jean-Baptiste Thibert, Alice Polomeni, Ibrahim Yakoub-Agha, Dominique Bordessoule
Informed consent is not restricted to clinical research and must be applied to high-risk care such as hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. If standardized informed consent might improve inequalities in medical practices between different transplantation centers, it is strongly recommended that it be adapted with an honest dialogue between physicians and patients and physicians and donors. In an attempt to harmonize clinical practices among French hematopoietic stem cell transplantation centers, the Francophone Society of Bone Marrow Transplantation and Cellular Therapy (SFGM-TC) held its sixth annual workshop series in September 2015 in Lille...
November 2016: Bulletin du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853630/current-stem-cell-based-therapies-in-diabetes
#13
REVIEW
Meredith A Lilly, Meghan F Davis, Josh E Fabie, Elizabeth B Terhune, G Ian Gallicano
Diabetes is a disease with wide-ranging personal and societal impacts that has been managed medicinally for over half a century. Since the discovery of stem cells, pancreatic islet regeneration has become a central target for clinical application that has the potential to decrease or eliminate the need for insulin administration and adjunctive medications. The discovery of alternative routes to pluripotency that bypass the ethical implications of embryonic stem cells has significantly expanded the horizons of stem cell based therapy...
2016: American Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842861/-information-and-consent-forms-for-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-donors-and-recipients-guidelines-from-the-franchophone-society-of-bone-marrow-transplantation-and-cellular-therapy-sfgm-tc
#14
Bénédicte Bruno, Jean-Baptiste Thibert, Nelly Bancillon, Anna Desbos, Abir Fawaz, Isabelle Fournier, Carole Genty, Dominique Issarni, Sandrine Leveille, Christelle Premel, Alice Polomeni, Myriam Renault, Sylvie Tarillon, Anne Wallart, Ibrahim Yakoub-Agha, Dominique Bordessoule
Within the context of the SFGM-TC's 6th workshop series on the harmonization of clinical practices, our workshop proposes a standardization of the informed consent process for hematopoietic stem cell donors and recipients leading up to an autologous or allogenic transplantation. All informed consent was for bone marrow or peripheral stem cell donors, and mononuclear/lymphocyte donors according to usual procedures. The informed consent for autologous and allogenic related or unrelated adults and pediatric transplantation patients have been included...
November 2016: Bulletin du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842480/mesenchymal-stem-cells-as-a-source-of-dopaminergic-neurons-a-potential-cell-based-therapy-for-parkinson-s-disease
#15
Katari Venkatesh, Dwaipayan Sen
Cell repair/replacing strategies for neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease depend on well-characterized dopaminergic neuronal candidates that are healthy and show promising effect in the rejuvenation of degenerated area of the brain. Therefore, it is imperative to develop innovative therapeutic strategies that replace damaged neurons with new/functional dopaminergic neurons. Although several research groups have reported the generation of neural precursors/neurons from human/mouse embryonic stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells, the latter is considered to be an attractive therapeutic candidate because of its high capacity for self-renewable, no adverse effect to allogeneic versus autologous transplants, high ethical acceptance and no teratoma formation...
November 14, 2016: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833207/brain-death-and-true-patient-care
#16
Doyen Nguyen
The "brain death" standard as a criterion of death is closely associated with the need for transplantable organs from heart-beating donors. Are all of these potential donors really dead, or does the documented evidence of patients destined for organ harvesting who improve, or even recover to live normal lives, call into question the premise underlying "brain death"? The aim of this paper is to re-examine the notion of "brain death," especially its clinical test-criteria, in light of a broad framework, including medical knowledge in the field of neuro-intensive care and the traditional ethics of the medical profession...
August 2016: Linacre Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832950/the-chick-embryo-chorioallantoic-membrane-cam-assay
#17
Domenico Ribatti
During avian development the mesodermal layers of the allantois and chorion fuse to form the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). This structure rapidly expands generating a rich vascular network that provides an interface for gas and waste exchange. The CAM allows to study tissue grafts, tumor growth and metastasis, drugs delivery and toxicologic analysis, and angiogenic and anti-angiogenic molecules. The CAM is relatively simple, quick, and low-cost model that allows screening of a large number of pharmacological samples in a short time; does not require administrative procedures for obtaining ethics committee approval for animal experimentation...
November 7, 2016: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830557/isolation-of-gmp-grade-human-hepatocytes-from-remnant-liver-tissue-of-living-donor-liver-transplantation
#18
Shin Enosawa
For the purpose of clinical research of hepatocyte transplantation, procedures for isolation, cryopreservation, thawing, and functional assessment of hepatocytes are described. Although demands for human hepatocytes are increasing in not only cell therapy but also drug development, it is highly difficult to obtain good lots of hepatocytes from human liver tissue. This chapter describes essential issues such as alleviation of warm ischemia, prevention of shear stress, optimization of cryopreservation, and functional assessment, along with securement of quality...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820783/reply-to-comment-on-the-article-dcd-pancreas-transplantation-meta-analysis-ethical-and-technical-considerations
#19
Sara Shahrestani, Paul Robertson, Henry Pleass, Wayne J Hawthorne
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 3, 2016: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820782/dcd-pancreas-transplantation-meta-analysis-ethical-and-technical-considerations
#20
Anand Sivaprakash Rathnasamy Muthusamy, Peter J Friend, Frank Dor, Jeremy Samuel Crane, Vassilios Papalois, Paul Herbert, Sanjay Sinha
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 3, 2016: Transplantation
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