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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157730/donor-and-recipient-perspectives-on-anonymity-in-kidney-donation-from-live-donors-a-multicenter-survey%C3%A2-study
#1
Dorthe Slaats, Annette Lennerling, Mathilde C Pronk, Karlijn A M I van der Pant, Ine M Dooper, Judith M Wierdsma, Carla Schrauwers, Hannah Maple, Jacqueline van de Wetering, Willem Weimar, Willij C Zuidema, Nizam Mamode, Frank J M F Dor, Emma K Massey
BACKGROUND: Maintaining anonymity is a requirement in the Netherlands and Sweden for kidney donation from live donors in the context of nondirected (or unspecified) and paired exchange (or specified indirect) donation. Despite this policy, some donors and recipients express the desire to know one another. Little empirical evidence informs the debate on anonymity. This study explored the experiences, preferences, and attitudes of donors and recipients toward anonymity. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective observational multicenter study using both qualitative and quantitative methods...
November 17, 2017: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149331/the-ethics-of-organ-tourism-role-morality-and-organ-transplantation
#2
Marcus P Adams
Organ tourism occurs when individuals in countries with existing organ transplant procedures, such as the United States, are unable to procure an organ by using those transplant procedures in enough time to save their life. In this paper, I am concerned with the following question: When organ tourists return to the United States and need another transplant, do US transplant physicians have an obligation to place them on a transplant list? I argue that transplant physicians have a duty not to relist organ tourists...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142981/commercial-kidney-transplantation-attitude-knowledge-perception-and-experience-of-recipients
#3
Fatma Al Rahbi, Issa Al Salmi
Introduction: Kidney transplantation is the gold standard for patients with end-stage kidney disease. In view of shortages of available organs, long wait times for possible transplantation, and strict regulation, many patients opt for commercial transplantation. This study elicits the reasons and motivations for patients with end-stage kidney disease to elect for commercial transplant. Methods: A questionnaire-based evaluation was conducted during the period from July 2015 until late December 2015...
July 2017: KI Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139480/position-paper-the-potential-role-of-optical-biopsy-in-the-study-and-diagnosis-of-environmental-enteric-dysfunction
#4
REVIEW
Alex J Thompson, Michael Hughes, Salzitsa Anastasova, Laurie S Conklin, Tudor Thomas, Cadman Leggett, William A Faubion, Thomas J Miller, Peter Delaney, François Lacombe, Sacha Loiseau, Alexander Meining, Rebecca Richards-Kortum, Guillermo J Tearney, Paul Kelly, Guang-Zhong Yang
Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) is a disease of the small intestine affecting children and adults in low and middle income countries. Arising as a consequence of repeated infections, gut inflammation results in impaired intestinal absorptive and barrier function, leading to poor nutrient uptake and ultimately to stunting and other developmental limitations. Progress towards new biomarkers and interventions for EED is hampered by the practical and ethical difficulties of cross-validation with the gold standard of biopsy and histology...
November 15, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133246/potentially-inappropriate-liver-transplantation-in-the-era-of-the-sickest-first-policy-a-search-for-the-upper-limits
#5
REVIEW
Michael Linecker, Tanja Krones, Thomas Berg, Claus U Niemann, Randolph H Steadman, Philipp Dutkowski, Pierre-Alain Clavien, Ronald W Busuttil, Robert D Truog, Henrik Petrowsky
Liver transplantation has emerged to a highly efficient treatment for a variaty of acute and chronic liver diseases. Organ shortage, however, is becoming an increasing problem worldwide, limiting the applicability of liver transplantation. In addition, potential recipients are becoming sicker, thereby increasing the risk of loosing the graft during transplantation or in the initial post-operative period after liver transplantation (3 months). This trend is challenging the MELD allocation model where sickest candidates are prioritized and no delisting criteria are given...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126585/-information-booklet-for-related-hematopoietic-stem-cell-donors-guidelines-from-the-francophone-society-of-bone-marrow-transplantation-and-cellular-therapy-sfgm-tc
#6
Alice Polomeni, Laure Tardieu, Malika Ainaoui, Christelle Andrianne, Nelly Bancillon, Valerie Chapel, Nathalie Chevallier, Solène Evrard, Isabelle Fournier, Guillaume Gargallo, Sandrine Godin, Dominique Issarni, Laetitia Le Bars, Barbara Renaud, Ibrahim Yakoub-Agha, Anne Wallart, Natacha De Bentzmann
Providing information to living donors is first and foremost a legal obligation as well as an ethical one, not to mention necessary to health care provision. It's been shown that quality of information concerning the procedure's practical aspects, scheduling of clinical tests and examinations, withdrawing stem cells for the donation, post-donation symptoms, and support provided by healthcare teams, directly impacts the donor's quality of experience. Taking this into consideration our group decided it was essential to create an informational support for donors in the form of a booklet to be provided in different hematopoietic stem cell transplant centers across France...
November 7, 2017: Bulletin du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125260/liver-allocation
#7
James Neuberger
Liver allocation policies determine how those livers that are offered for transplantation are allocated to those who have met the criteria for liver transplantation and are fit enough to undergo the procedure. The goals of allocation policies are based on varying combinations of need (reducing mortality awaiting a graft), benefit (maximising the outcomes of candidates on the list) or utility (maximising the life-years gained). Improvement in quality of life is rarely included in the setting of allocation policies...
November 10, 2017: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115798/acute-alcoholic-hepatitis-a-literature-review-and-proposal-of-treatment
#8
Gianni Testino, Silvia Leone
Severe acute alcoholic hepatitis (AAH) can lead to a clinical picture with a sixmonth mortality rate in more than 70% of cases. This clinical picture is characterized by: jaundice with a duration of less than three months, jaundice at the first failure event, serum bilirubin greater than 5 mg / dL, ratio AST / ALT> 2: 1, AST less than 500 IU / L, ALT <300 IU / L, neutrophil leukocytosis and a GGT increase. In addition, encephalopathy, fever, asthenia and coagulopathy may be present. Its onset may also be characterized by portalhypertensionrelated complications, particularly bleeding and hepatorenal syndrome...
November 7, 2017: Minerva Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110329/transplantation-of-feeder-free-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-cortical-neuron-progenitors-in-adult-male-wistar-rats-with-focal-brain-ischemia
#9
Yulius Hermanto, Tadashi Sunohara, Ahmad Faried, Yasushi Takagi, Jun Takahashi, Takakuni Maki, Susumu Miyamoto
The use of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) eliminates the ethical issues associated with fetal or embryonic materials, thus allowing progress in cell therapy research for ischemic stroke. Strict regulation of cell therapy development requires the xeno-free condition to eliminate clinical complications. Maintenance of hiPSCs with feeder-free condition presents a higher degree of spontaneous differentiation in comparison with conventional cultures. Therefore, feeder-free derivation might be not ideal for developing transplantable hiPSC derivatives...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101575/current-and-future-treatments-for-lysosomal-storage-disorders
#10
REVIEW
David P W Rastall, Andrea Amalfitano
Purpose of review Lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) are a class of genetic disorders that are a testing ground for the invention of novel therapeutics including enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), substrate reduction therapy (SRT), gene therapy, and hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). This review summarizes recently approved drugs, then examines the successful clinical trials in gene therapy and HSCT. Recent findings The FDA has recently approved a second SRT by reversing an earlier FDA decision, suggesting a favorable regulatory landscape going forward...
November 4, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100996/should-living-donor-liver-transplantation-be-an-option-when-deceased-donation-is-not
#11
Sarah R Lieber, Thomas D Schiano, Rosamond Rhodes
When a liver transplantation candidate is declined for listing to receive a deceased organ, sometimes a loved one comes forward and offers to be a living donor. This raises the ethical question of whether a patient who is not eligible for deceased donor liver transplantation should be eligible for living donor liver transplantation. We compare living organ donation in kidney and liver transplantation and explore key ethical concepts of justice, fairness, and societal trust. Ultimately, because there is no alternative life-preserving therapy in end-stage liver disease, and because transplantation with a living donor organ does not involve removing a resource from the common pool of transplant organs, we argue that a "slightly less benefit" than what is required for deceased transplantation listing standard should be used to determine the acceptability of living donor liver transplantation...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098739/organ-donation-and-transplantation-awareness-and-roles-of-healthcare-professionals-a-systematic-literature-review
#12
REVIEW
Funmi Ojawoniyi, Kevin Gormley, Emma Mcgleenan, Helen Rose Noble
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To examine the role of healthcare professionals in the organ donation and transplantation process. BACKGROUND: Globally, there remains a perennial disequilibrium between organ donation and organ transplantation. Several factors account for this disequilibrium; however, as healthcare professionals are not only strategically positioned as the primary intermediaries between organ donors and transplant recipients, but also professionally situated as the implementers of organ donation and transplantation processes, they are often blamed for the global organ shortage...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076946/mapping-the-informed-consent-process-for-left-ventricular-assist-devices
#13
Savitri E Fedson, Kelly K MacKenzie, Estevan D Delgado, Mackenzie N Abraham, Jerry D Estep, Jennifer S Blumenthal-Barby, Courtenay R Bruce
Ethical, practical, and medical challenges affect decisions about left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation. The informed consent document (IC-Doc) is integral to the decision-making process and structures informed consent conversations. The objective of this study was to analyze IC-Docs to identify the information patients and their families receive about LVAD implantation to create a model IC-Doc. We requested IC-Doc for LVAD implantation from LVAD programs in the United States. We analyzed them in three areas: medical and technical content, patient knowledge gaps, and syntax...
October 23, 2017: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058535/transplanting-the-body-preliminary-ethical-considerations
#14
Lantz Fleming Miller
A dissociated area of medical research warrants bioethical consideration: a proposed transplantation of a donor's entire body, except head, to a patient with a fatal degenerative disease. The seeming improbability of such an operation can only underscore the need for thorough bioethical assessment: Not assessing a case of such potential ethical import, by showing neglect instead of facing the issue, can only compound the ethical predicament, perhaps eroding public trust in ethical medicine. This article discusses the historical background of full-body transplantation, documents the seriousness of its current pursuit, and builds an argument for why prima facie this type of transplant is bioethically distinct...
October 23, 2017: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053779/cell-based-therapeutic-strategies-for-multiple-sclerosis
#15
REVIEW
Neil J Scolding, Marcelo Pasquini, Stephen C Reingold, Jeffrey A Cohen
The availability of multiple disease-modifying medications with regulatory approval to treat multiple sclerosis illustrates the substantial progress made in therapy of the disease. However, all are only partially effective in preventing inflammatory tissue damage in the central nervous system and none directly promotes repair. Cell-based therapies, including immunoablation followed by autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation, mesenchymal and related stem cell transplantation, pharmacologic manipulation of endogenous stem cells to enhance their reparative capabilities, and transplantation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, have generated substantial interest as novel therapeutic strategies for immune modulation, neuroprotection, or repair of the damaged central nervous system in multiple sclerosis...
November 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051396/facial-transplantation-an-update-of-results-and-perspectives-from-tissue-engineering
#16
Francesco Simonacci, Roberto Toni, Edoardo Raposio
BACKGROUND/AIM: Facial transplantation is a revolutionary procedure developed recently, which is indicated if autologous transfers fail to restore human appearance. More than 30 patients have undergone facial transplantation in different centers worldwide. Here, we provide an update on its main anatomical, surgical, immunological, ethical, and follow- up aspects. We also provide innovative perspectives of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering that could hold promise for this emerging surgical field...
2017: Annali Italiani di Chirurgia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051158/family-veto-in-organ-donation-in-canada-framing-within-english-language-newspaper-articles
#17
Samantha J Anthony, Maeghan Toews, Timothy Caulfield, Linda Wright
BACKGROUND: Because organ transplantation relies on public support for donation, an analysis of public discourse around organ donation is essential. We investigated the portrayal of family veto - when a family overrides the deceased person's prior legally executed wishes to donate - in Canadian news media. METHODS: Using the Canadian Newsstream database, we identified articles published in English-language newspapers addressing family veto between 2000 and 2016...
October 17, 2017: CMAJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049046/determination-of-death-in-donation-after-circulatory-death-an-ethical-propriety
#18
Andrew McGee, Dale Gardiner, Paul Murphy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The recently developed donation after circulatory death (DCD) heart transplant technique, pioneered by Papworth Hospital in the UK, involves the use of extracorporeal perfusion technologies to restart the donor heart in situ and thereby restore the donor's own circulation, after first isolating the donor's cerebral circulation. By restoring the circulation in the deceased donor, even if the cerebral circulation is excluded, the Papworth technique challenges the acceptability of death determination in DCD...
October 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045971/-technical-improvement-in-retroperitoneal-laparoscopic-living-donor-nephrectomy-report-of-193-cases
#19
L Zhao, L L Ma, H X Zhang, X F Hou, L Liu, Y Fu, Y G Kou, Y M Song
OBJECTIVE: To summarize our experience of retroperitoneal laparoscopic living donor nephrectomy, our continuous technical improvements and refinement of this skill and standardization of each procedure of this operation. METHODS: Having approved by hospital ethical committee and local government administration, a total of 193 living donors underwent retroperitoneal laparoscopic living donor nephrectomy from Dec.2003 to Feb. 2016 in our department. Under general anaesthesia, the operation was performed through 3 lumbar ports...
October 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034348/selection-of-patients-with-hepatocellular-cancer-a-difficult-balancing-between-equity-utility-and-benefit
#20
REVIEW
Alessandro Vitale, Quirino Lai
Although liver transplantation (LT) represents the gold-standard strategy for hepatocellular cancer (HCC), its use is circumscribed by several factors like donor shortage, perioperative complications, or competition with other candidates without HCC. Moreover, different alternative approaches like resection or loco-regional therapies may be attempted in selected cases. The best option for the treatment of an HCC patient is a complex decision, involving several ethical principles including: equity (horizontal equity and vertical equity or urgency), and utility...
2017: Translational Gastroenterology and Hepatology
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