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Disease ecology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163453/an-integrated-insight-into-the-relationship-between-soil-microbial-community-and-tobacco-bacterial-wilt-disease
#1
Hongwu Yang, Juan Li, Yunhua Xiao, Yabing Gu, Hongwei Liu, Yili Liang, Xueduan Liu, Jin Hu, Delong Meng, Huaqun Yin
The soil microbial communities play an important role in plant health, however, the relationship between the below-ground microbiome and above-ground plant health remains unclear. To reveal such a relationship, we analyzed soil microbial communities through sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons from 15 different tobacco fields with different levels of wilt disease in the central south part of China. We found that plant health was related to the soil microbial diversity as plants may benefit from the diverse microbial communities...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163408/environmental-nutrient-supply-directly-alters-plant-traits-but-indirectly-determines-virus-growth-rate
#2
Christelle Lacroix, Eric W Seabloom, Elizabeth T Borer
Ecological stoichiometry and resource competition theory both predict that nutrient rates and ratios can alter infectious disease dynamics. Pathogens such as viruses hijack nutrient rich host metabolites to complete multiple steps of their epidemiological cycle. As the synthesis of these molecules requires nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), environmental supply rates, and ratios of N and P to hosts can directly limit disease dynamics. Environmental nutrient supplies also may alter virus epidemiology indirectly by changing host phenotype or the dynamics of coinfecting pathogens...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161862/modeling-co-infection-of-ixodes-tick-borne-pathogens
#3
Yijun Lou, Li Liu, Daozhou Gao
Ticks, including the Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes scapularis hard tick species, are regarded as the most common arthropod vectors of both human and animal diseases in Europe and the United States capable of transmitting a large number of bacteria, viruses and parasites. Since ticks in larval and nymphal stages share the same host community which can harbor multiple pathogens, they may be co-infected with two or more pathogens, with a subsequent high likelihood of co-transmission to humans or animals. This paper is devoted to the modeling of co-infection of tick-borne pathogens, with special focus on the co-infection of Borrelia burgdorferi (agent of Lyme disease) and Babesia microti (agent of human babesiosis)...
October 2017: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161850/preface
#4
Daozhou Gao, Shigui Ruan, Jifa Jiang
In the new century, with rapid population growth, large-scale urbanization, global warming and many other factors, we are facing unprecedented ecological, health, social, and other challenges and issues. These include biological invasion, environmental degradation, sharp increase in cancer morbidity, high frequency of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, which pose a grave threat to biological diversity, public health, economic development and so on. Based on the solid research in population dynamics and disease dynamics, mathematical modeling, analysis and simulation have been widely used over the past decades to study various problems in life sciences and medicine, from the expression of gene sequence to the pathogenesis of cancer, from the control of molecular organisms to the resistance of bacteria and viruses, from immune response to diseases to the design and evaluation of treatments, and so on...
October 2017: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161826/modeling-ebola-virus-disease-transmissions-with-reservoir-in-a-complex-virus-life-ecology
#5
Tsanou Berge, Samuel Bowong, Jean Lubuma, Martin Luther Mann Manyombe
We propose a new deterministic mathematical model for the transmission dynamics of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) in a complex Ebola virus life ecology. Our model captures as much as possible the features and patterns of the disease evolution as a three cycle transmission process in the two ways below. Firstly it involves the synergy between the epizootic phase (during which the disease circulates periodically amongst non-human primates populations and decimates them), the enzootic phase (during which the disease always remains in fruit bats population) and the epidemic phase (during which the EVD threatens and decimates human populations)...
February 1, 2018: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161325/the-mechanisms-of-humic-substances-self-assembly-with-biological-molecules-the-case-study-of-the-prion-protein
#6
Gabriele Giachin, Ridvan Nepravishta, Walter Mandaliti, Sonia Melino, Alja Margon, Denis Scaini, Pierluigi Mazzei, Alessandro Piccolo, Giuseppe Legname, Maurizio Paci, Liviana Leita
Humic substances (HS) are the largest constituent of soil organic matter and are considered as a key component of the terrestrial ecosystem. HS may facilitate the transport of organic and inorganic molecules, as well as the sorption interactions with environmentally relevant proteins such as prions. Prions enter the environment through shedding from live hosts, facilitating a sustained incidence of animal prion diseases such as Chronic Wasting Disease and scrapie in cervid and ovine populations, respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160520/spatial-risk-of-tuberculosis-mortality-and-social-vulnerability-in-northeast-brazil
#7
Thaís Zamboni Berra, Ana Angélica Rêgo de Queiroz, Mellina Yamamura, Luiz Henrique Arroyo, Maria Concebida da Cunha Garcia, Marcela Paschoal Popolin, Danielle Talita Dos Santos, Antonio Carlos Vieira Ramos, Luana Seles Alves, Inês Estevinho Fronteira, Francisco Chiaravalloti, Pedro Fredemir Palha, Ricardo Alexandre Arcêncio
INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis (TB) is the most common infectious disease in the world. We aimed to analyze the spatial risk of tuberculosis mortality and to verify associations in high-risk areas with social vulnerability. METHODS: This was an ecological study. The scan statistic was used to detect areas at risk, and the Bivariate Moran Index was used to verify relationships between variables. RESULTS: High-risk areas of tuberculosis mortality were statistically significantly associated with domain 2 of the Social Vulnerability Index (I=0...
September 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158661/policy-system-and-environmental-correlates-of-fruit-and-vegetable-consumption-in-a-low-income-african-american-population-in-the-southeast
#8
Lori Brand Bateman, LaToya J O'Neal, Theolishia Smith, Yufeng Li, Theresa A Wynn, Chen Dai, Mona N Fouad
Objective: The current study seeks to identify policy, system and environmental (PSE) correlates of fruit and vegetable consumption among a sample of low-income African Americans in two counties in Alabama (Jefferson and Mobile) and one county in Mississippi (Forrest). Design: A modified Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFFS) survey, which included multi-level ecological factors, was used to evaluate nutritional habits at the pre-intervention stage of a multi-state research study...
2017: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156630/anti-bacteria-and-microecosystem-regulating-effects-of-dental-implant-coated-with-dimethylaminododecyl-methacrylate
#9
Bolei Li, Yang Ge, Yao Wu, Jing Chen, Hockin H K Xu, Minggang Yang, Mingyun Li, Biao Ren, Mingye Feng, Michael D Weir, Xian Peng, Lei Cheng, Xuedong Zhou
The effects of dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate (DMADDM) modified titanium implants on bacterial activity and microbial ecosystem of saliva-derived biofilm were investigated for the first time. Titanium discs were coated with DMADDM solutions at mass fractions of 0 mg/mL (control), 1, 5 and 10 mg/mL, respectively. Biomass accumulation and metabolic activity of biofilms were tested using crystal violet assay and MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. 16S rRNA gene sequencing was performed to measure the microbial community...
November 20, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155663/frameworks-for-preventing-detecting-and-controlling-zoonotic-diseases
#10
Miriam L Shiferaw, Jeffrey B Doty, Giorgi Maghlakelidze, Juliette Morgan, Ekaterine Khmaladze, Otar Parkadze, Marina Donduashvili, Emile Okitolonda Wemakoy, Jean-Jacques Muyembe, Leopold Mulumba, Jean Malekani, Joelle Kabamba, Theresa Kanter, Linda Lucy Boulanger, Abraham Haile, Abyot Bekele, Meseret Bekele, Kasahun Tafese, Andrea A McCollum, Mary G Reynolds
Preventing zoonotic diseases requires coordinated actions by government authorities responsible for human and animal health. Constructing the frameworks needed to foster intersectoral collaboration can be approached in many ways. We highlight 3 examples of approaches to implement zoonotic disease prevention and control programs. The first, rabies control in Ethiopia, was implemented using an umbrella approach: a comprehensive program designed for accelerated impact. The second, a monkeypox program in Democratic Republic of the Congo, was implemented in a stepwise manner, whereby incremental improvements and activities were incorporated into the program...
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153315/what-are-the-keys-to-a-longer-happier-life-answers-from-five-decades-of-health-psychology-research
#11
Blair T Johnson, Rebecca L Acabchuk
RATIONALE: It has long been known that factors of the mind and of interpersonal relationships influence health, but it is only in the last 50 years that an independent scientific field of health psychology appeared, dedicated to understanding psychological and behavioral processes in health, illness, and healthcare. OBJECTIVE AND METHOD: This article (a) reviews important research that answers the question of how human beings can have longer, happier lives; and (b) highlights trends in health psychology featuring articles in Social Science & Medicine as well as other related literature...
November 4, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153262/a-call-to-introduce-structured-zika-surveillance-in-india
#12
Farah Ishtiaq
India has the climatic conditions conducive to year-round transmission of Zika virus, and a structured disease surveillance program should be implemented to prevent an outbreak. Such a program should (i) start screening before an outbreak arises; (ii) collect baseline data to assess future disease risk and monitor potential birth defects; and (iii) provide new insights into the ecology of the disease and inform public health policy following the one health concept.
November 15, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152202/assessing-the-potential-of-translocating-vulnerable-forest-birds-by-searching-for-novel-and-enduring-climatic-ranges
#13
Lucas B Fortini, Lauren R Kaiser, Adam E Vorsino, Eben H Paxton, James D Jacobi
Hawaiian forest birds are imperiled, with fewer than half the original >40 species remaining extant. Recent studies document ongoing rapid population decline and project complete climate-based range losses for the critically endangered Kaua'i endemics 'akeke'e (Loxops caeruleirostris) and 'akikiki (Oreomystis bairdi) by end-of-century due to projected warming. Climate change facilitates the upward expansion of avian malaria into native high elevation forests where disease was historically absent. While intensified conservation efforts attempt to safeguard these species and their habitats, the magnitude of potential loss and the urgency of this situation require all conservation options to be seriously considered...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151881/genomic-insights-into-adaptive-divergence-and-speciation-among-malaria-vectors-of-the-anopheles-nili-group
#14
Caroline Fouet, Colince Kamdem, Stephanie Gamez, Bradley J White
Ongoing speciation in the most important African malaria vectors gives rise to cryptic populations, which differ remarkably in their behavior, ecology, and capacity to vector malaria parasites. Understanding the population structure and the drivers of genetic differentiation among mosquitoes is crucial for effective disease control because heterogeneity within vector species contributes to variability in malaria cases and allow fractions of populations to escape control efforts. To examine population structure and the potential impacts of recent large-scale control interventions, we have investigated the genomic patterns of differentiation in mosquitoes belonging to the Anopheles nili group-a large taxonomic group that diverged ~3 Myr ago...
October 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151872/evolved-pesticide-tolerance-influences-susceptibility-to-parasites-in-amphibians
#15
Jessica Hua, Vanessa P Wuerthner, Devin K Jones, Brian Mattes, Rickey D Cothran, Rick A Relyea, Jason T Hoverman
Because ecosystems throughout the globe are contaminated with pesticides, there is a need to understand how natural populations cope with pesticides and the implications for ecological interactions. From an evolutionary perspective, there is evidence that pesticide tolerance can be achieved via two mechanisms: selection for constitutive tolerance over multiple generations or by inducing tolerance within a single generation via phenotypic plasticity. While both mechanisms can allow organisms to persist in contaminated environments, they might result in different performance trade-offs including population susceptibility to parasites...
September 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150915/epidemiology-of-rhdv2-lagovirus-europaeus-gi-2-in-free-living-wild-european-rabbits-in-portugal
#16
C Rouco, J Abrantes, A Serronha, A M Lopes, E Maio, M J Magalhães, E Blanco, J Bárcena, P J Esteves, N Santos, P C Alves, P Monterroso
As the detection of the first outbreak of a novel aetiological agent of rabbit haemorrhagic disease commonly called RHDV2 or RHDVb (Lagovirus europaeus/GI.2, henceforth GI.2) in France in 2010, the virus rapidly spread throughout continental Europe and nearby islands such as Great Britain, Sardinia, Sicily, the Azores and the Canary Islands among others. The outbreaks of this new lagovirus cause important economic losses in rabbitries, and ecological disruptions by affecting the conservation of rabbit-sensitive top predators...
November 17, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150828/vectors-hosts-and-control-measures-for-zika-virus-in-the-americas
#17
REVIEW
Sarah J Thompson, John M Pearce, Andrew M Ramey
We examine Zika virus (ZIKV) from an ecological perspective and with a focus on the Americas. We assess (1) the role of wildlife in ZIKV disease ecology, (2) how mosquito behavior and biology influence disease dynamics, and (3) how nontarget species and ecosystems may be impacted by vector control programs. Our review suggests that free-ranging, non-human primates may be involved in ZIKV transmission in the Old World; however, other wildlife species likely play a limited role in maintaining or transmitting ZIKV...
November 17, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150826/rethinking-human-nonhuman-primate-contact-and-pathogenic-disease-spillover
#18
REVIEW
Victor Narat, Lys Alcayna-Stevens, Stephanie Rupp, Tamara Giles-Vernick
Zoonotic transmissions are a major global health risk, and human-animal contact is frequently raised as an important driver of transmission. A literature examining zooanthroponosis largely agrees that more human-animal contact leads to more risk. Yet the basis of this proposition, the term contact, has not been rigorously analyzed. To understand how contact is used to explain cross-species spillovers, we conducted a multi-disciplinary review of studies addressing human-nonhuman primate (NHP) engagements and pathogenic transmissions and employing the term contact...
November 17, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150707/a-guard-killer-phage-cocktail-effectively-lyses-the-host-and-inhibits-the-development-of-phage-resistant-strains-of-escherichia-coli
#19
Ling Yu, Shuang Wang, Zhimin Guo, Hongtao Liu, Diangang Sun, Guangmou Yan, Dongliang Hu, Chongtao Du, Xin Feng, Wenyu Han, Jingmin Gu, Changjiang Sun, Liancheng Lei
In recent years, after the emergence of a large number of multidrug-resistant bacteria, phages and phage-associated products for the prevention and control of bacterial disease have revealed prominent advantages as compared with antibiotics. However, bacteria are susceptible to becoming phage-resistant, thus severely limiting the application of phage therapy. In this study, Escherichia coli cells were incubated with lytic bacteriophages to obtain mutants that were resistant to the lytic phages. Then, bacteriophages against the phage-resistant variants were isolated and subsequently mixed with the original lytic phage to prepare a novel phage cocktail for bactericidal use...
November 17, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147568/environmental-influences-on-the-skin-microbiome-of-humans-and-cattle-in-rural-madagascar
#20
Melissa B Manus, James J Yu, Lawrence P Park, Olaf Mueller, Sarah C Windsor, Julie E Horvath, Charles L Nunn
Background and objectives: The skin harbors a dynamic community of microorganisms, where contact with humans, other animals and the environment can alter microbial communities. Most research on the human skin microbiome features Western populations living in hygienic conditions, yet these populations have vastly different patterns of environmental contact than the majority of people on Earth, including those living in developing countries. Methodology: We studied skin microbial communities of humans and cattle (zebu) in rural Madagascar to investigate how zebu ownership affects microbial composition of the human skin, and to characterize non-Western human and zebu skin communities more generally...
2017: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
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