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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915264/inhibition-of-infection-spread-by-co-transmitted-defective-interfering-particles
#1
Ashley Baltes, Fulya Akpinar, Bahar Inankur, John Yin
Although virus release from host cells and tissues propels the spread of many infectious diseases, most virus particles are not infectious; many are defective, lacking essential genetic information needed for replication. When defective and viable particles enter the same cell, the defective particles can multiply while interfering with viable particle production. Defective interfering particles (DIPs) occur in nature, but their role in disease pathogenesis and spread is not known. Here, we engineered an RNA virus and its DIPs to express different fluorescent reporters, and we observed how DIPs impact viral gene expression and infection spread...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913417/parasite-biodiversity-faces-extinction-and-redistribution-in-a-changing-climate
#2
Colin J Carlson, Kevin R Burgio, Eric R Dougherty, Anna J Phillips, Veronica M Bueno, Christopher F Clements, Giovanni Castaldo, Tad A Dallas, Carrie A Cizauskas, Graeme S Cumming, Jorge Doña, Nyeema C Harris, Roger Jovani, Sergey Mironov, Oliver C Muellerklein, Heather C Proctor, Wayne M Getz
Climate change is a well-documented driver of both wildlife extinction and disease emergence, but the negative impacts of climate change on parasite diversity are undocumented. We compiled the most comprehensive spatially explicit data set available for parasites, projected range shifts in a changing climate, and estimated extinction rates for eight major parasite clades. On the basis of 53,133 occurrences capturing the geographic ranges of 457 parasite species, conservative model projections suggest that 5 to 10% of these species are committed to extinction by 2070 from climate-driven habitat loss alone...
September 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912766/environmental-bacteriophages-of-the-emerging-enterobacterial-phytopathogen-dickeya-solani-show-genomic-conservation-and-capacity-for-horizontal-gene-transfer-between-their-bacterial-hosts
#3
Andrew Day, Jiyoon Ahn, Xinzhe Fang, George P C Salmond
Dickeya solani is an economically important phytopathogen widespread in mainland Europe that can reduce potato crop yields by 25%. There are no effective environmentally-acceptable chemical systems available for diseases caused by Dickeya. Bacteriophages have been suggested for use in biocontrol of this pathogen in the field, and limited field trials have been conducted. To date only a small number of bacteriophages capable of infecting D. solani have been isolated and characterized, and so there is a need to expand the repertoire of phages that may have potential utility in phage therapy strategies...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905501/outbreak-of-tularaemia-connected-to-a-contaminated-well-in-the-v%C3%A3-stra-g%C3%A3-taland-region-in-sweden
#4
E Lindhusen Lindhé, M Hjertqvist, T Wahab
Tularaemia, is a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis. This disease has been reported in Sweden since 1931 and its wide distribution in the country poses a challenge for understanding the transmission, ecology and epidemiology of the disease. In Sweden, the disease is usually transmitted by mosquitoes, but in this study we could show that consumption of well water was epidemiologically linked to the outbreak, by isolating F. tularensis from the water. In this article, we describe an outbreak of tularaemia in the region of Västra Götaland in the southwest of Sweden in spring of 2013...
September 14, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904999/linking-spatial-structure-and-community-level-biotic-interactions-through-cooccurrence-and-time-series-modeling-of-the-human-intestinal-microbiota
#5
Eric J de Muinck, Knut E A Lundin, Pål Trosvik
The gastrointestinal (GI) microbiome is a densely populated ecosystem where dynamics are determined by interactions between microbial community members, as well as host factors. The spatial organization of this system is thought to be important in human health, yet this aspect of our resident microbiome is still poorly understood. In this study, we report significant spatial structure of the GI microbiota, and we identify general categories of spatial patterning in the distribution of microbial taxa along a healthy human GI tract...
September 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904415/targeted-metagenome-based-analyses-show-gut-microbial-diversity-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-patients
#6
Zhibing Qiu, Haijing Yang, Lan Rong, Weiqun Ding, Jiazhen Chen, Liang Zhong
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a multifactorial disease including both genetic and environmental factors. We compared the diversity of intestinal microbesamong a cohort of IBD patients to study the microbial ecological effects on IBD. Fecal samples from patients were sequenced with next generation sequence technology at 16S rDNA region. With statistical tools, microbial community was investigated at different level. The gut microbial diversity of Crohn's disease (CD) patients and colonic polyp (CP) patients significantly different from each other...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903868/predicting-farm-level-animal-populations-using-environmental-and-socioeconomic-variables
#7
Mary van Andel, Christopher Jewell, Joanna McKenzie, Tracey Hollings, Andrew Robinson, Mark Burgman, Paul Bingham, Tim Carpenter
Accurate information on the geographic distribution of domestic animal populations helps biosecurity authorities to efficiently prepare for and rapidly eradicate exotic diseases, such as Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD). Developing and maintaining sufficiently high-quality data resources is expensive and time consuming. Statistical modelling of population density and distribution has only begun to be applied to farm animal populations, although it is commonly used in wildlife ecology. We developed zero-inflated Poisson regression models in a Bayesian framework using environmental and socioeconomic variables to predict the counts of livestock units (LSUs) and of cattle on spatially referenced farm polygons in a commercially available New Zealand farm database, Agribase...
September 15, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902295/sandfly-fauna-diptera-psychodidae-in-an-urban-area-central-west-of-brazil
#8
Wagner de Souza Fernandes, Leandro Machado Borges, Aline Etelvina Casaril, Everton Falcão de Oliveira, Jucelei de Oliveira Moura Infran, Eliane Mattos Piranda, Elisa Teruya Oshiro, Suellem Petilim Gomes, Alessandra Gutierrez de Oliveira
Biological and ecological relations among vectors and their pathogens are important to understand the epidemiology of vector-borne diseases. Camapuã is an endemic area for visceral and tegumentary leishmaniasis. The aim of this study was to characterize the sandfly fauna present in Camapuã , MS, Brazil. Sand flies were collected every fortnight from May 2014 to April 2015 using automatic light traps in the domicile and peridomicile of twelve neighborhoods and forest. The collected specimens were identified based on morphology according to the valid identification keys...
August 24, 2017: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899362/nationwide-cross-sectional-survey-of-schistosomiasis-and-soil-transmitted-helminthiasis-in-sudan-study-protocol
#9
Seungman Cha, Sung-Tae Hong, Young-Ha Lee, Keon Hoon Lee, Dae Seong Cho, Jinmoo Lee, Jong-Yil Chai, Mousab Siddig Elhag, Soheir Gabralla Ahmad Khaled, Mustafa Khidir Mustafa Elnimeiri, Nahid Abdelgadeir Ali Siddig, Hana Abdelrazig, Sarah Awadelkareem, Azza Tag Eldin Elshafie, Hassan Ahmed Hassan Ahmed Ismail, Mutamad Amin
BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STHs) are target neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) of preventive chemotherapy, but the control and elimination of these diseases have been impeded due to resource constraints. Few reports have described study protocol to draw on when conducting a nationwide survey. We present a detailed methodological description of the integrated mapping of schistosomiasis and STHs on the basis of our experiences, hoping that this protocol can be applied to future surveys in similar settings...
September 12, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898520/sugars-and-beyond-the-role-of-sugars-and-the-other-nutrients-and-their-potential-impact-on-caries
#10
REVIEW
Rodrigo A Giacaman
The traditional concept of caries as a multifactorial transmittable and infectious disease has been challenged. Novel conceptual ideas have come to add to the complexity of this highly prevalent disease worldwide. Current etiological understanding of the disease has emphasized the pivotal role of sugar in caries. In fact, current definition points towards an ecological disease caused by the commensal microbiota that under ecological imbalances, mainly due to high and or frequent sugar consumption, creates a state of dysbiosis in the oral biofilm...
September 12, 2017: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894470/trends-in-medicinal-uses-of-edible-wild-vertebrates-in-brazil
#11
Rômulo Romeu Nóbrega Alves, Tacyana Pereira Ribeiro Oliveira, Maria Franco Trindade Medeiros
The use of food medicines is a widespread practice worldwide. In Brazil, such use is often associated with wild animals, mostly focusing on vertebrate species. Here we assessed taxonomic and ecological trends in traditional uses of wild edible vertebrates in the country, through an extensive ethnobiological database analysis. Our results showed that at least 165 health conditions are reportedly treated by edible vertebrate species (n = 204), mostly fishes and mammals. However, reptiles stand out presenting a higher plasticity in the treatment of multiple health conditions...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893322/bovine-trypanosomosis-changes-in-parasitemia-and-packed-cell-volume-in-dry-and-wet-seasons-at-gidami-district-oromia-regional-state-western-ethiopia
#12
Efrem Degneh, Workineh Shibeshi, Getachew Terefe, Kaleab Asres, Hagos Ashenafi
BACKGROUND: Animal trypanosomosis is one of the major disease problems affecting agricultural productivity in Ethiopia. The impact of the disease is believed to vary with season and agro-ecologies in line with fly vector distribution. A cross-sectional study on bovine trypanosomosis was conducted from November 2015 to June 2016, in seven selected villages of Gidami district, Oromia Regional State, western Ethiopia. A total of 930 blood samples were collected and subjected to parasitological and hematological analysis...
September 11, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893076/seroprevalence-and-risk-factors-for-i-coxiella-burnetii-i-the-causative-agent-of-q-fever-in-the-dromedary-camel-i-camelus-dromedarius-i-population-in-algeria
#13
Mohammed H Benaissa, Samir Ansel, Abdallah Mohamed-Cherif, Karima Benfodil, Djamel Khelef, Curtis R Youngs, Rachid Kaidi, Khatima Ait-Oudhia
Query (Q) fever is a globally distributed zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii, a bacterial agent for which ruminants are the most prevalent natural reservoir. Data regarding Q fever infection in camels in Algeria are limited. Therefore, a survey to detect seroprevalence of C. burnetii antibodies was conducted among healthy camel populations in a vast area in southeastern Algeria to determine distribution of the Q fever causative organism and to identify risk factors associated with infection. Between January and March 2016, blood samples were collected from 184 camels and serum samples were subsequently analysed using a commercial Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) kit...
August 31, 2017: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882454/understanding-immunity-through-the-lens-of-disease-ecology
#14
REVIEW
Stephen M Hedrick
As we describe the immune system in ever more exquisite detail, we might find that no matter how successful, this approach will not be sufficient to understand the spread of infectious agents, their susceptibility to vaccine therapy, and human disease resistance. Compared with the strict reductionism practiced as a means of characterizing most biological processes, I propose that the progression and outcome of disease-causing host-parasite interactions will be more clearly understood through a focus on disease ecology...
September 4, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882025/shipping-amounts-of-olive-flounder-from-jejudo-and-events-of-acute-food-poisoning-by-kudoa-septempunctata-in-2015-korea-an-ecological-study
#15
Jong-Myon Bae
Objectives: There are debates on Kudoa septempunctata as a pathogenic agent causing acute food poisoning because the reproducibility of experimental evidences is in doubt. If K. septempunctata were one of causal agent of acute food poisoning, the more intake of oliver flounder infected by K. septempuctata, the more occurrence of events diagnosed as Kudoa food poisoning. The aim was to evaluate an association between shipping amounts of olive flounder from Jejudo (amounts) and events of Kudoa food poisoning (events)...
September 6, 2017: Epidemiology and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881972/abundance-estimation-and-differential-testing-on-strain-level-in-metagenomics-data
#16
Martina Fischer, Benjamin Strauch, Bernhard Y Renard
Motivation: Current metagenomics approaches allow analyzing the composition of microbial communities at high resolution. Important changes to the composition are known to even occur on strain level and to go hand in hand with changes in disease or ecological state. However, specific challenges arise for strain level analysis due to highly similar genome sequences present. Only a limited number of tools approach taxa abundance estimation beyond species level and there is a strong need for dedicated tools for strain resolution and differential abundance testing...
July 15, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879613/vaccines-for-conservation-plague-prairie-dogs-black-footed-ferrets-as-a-case-study
#17
Daniel J Salkeld
The endangered black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes) is affected by plague, caused by Yersinia pestis, both directly, as a cause of mortality, and indirectly, because of the impacts of plague on its prairie dog (Cynomys spp.) prey base. Recent developments in vaccines and vaccine delivery have raised the possibility of plague control in prairie dog populations, thereby protecting ferret populations. A large-scale experimental investigation across the western US shows that sylvatic plague vaccine delivered in oral baits can increase prairie dog survival...
September 6, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878055/interacting-effects-of-wildlife-loss-and-climate-on-ticks-and-tick-borne-disease
#18
Georgia Titcomb, Brian F Allan, Tyler Ainsworth, Lauren Henson, Tyler Hedlund, Robert M Pringle, Todd M Palmer, Laban Njoroge, Michael G Campana, Robert C Fleischer, John Naisikie Mantas, Hillary S Young
Both large-wildlife loss and climatic changes can independently influence the prevalence and distribution of zoonotic disease. Given growing evidence that wildlife loss often has stronger community-level effects in low-productivity areas, we hypothesized that these perturbations would have interactive effects on disease risk. We experimentally tested this hypothesis by measuring tick abundance and the prevalence of tick-borne pathogens (Coxiella burnetii and Rickettsia spp.) within long-term, size-selective, large-herbivore exclosures replicated across a precipitation gradient in East Africa...
September 13, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877864/internet-searches-and-their-relationship-to-cognitive-function-in-older-adults-cross-sectional-analysis
#19
Johanna Austin, Kristy Hollingshead, Jeffrey Kaye
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer disease (AD) is a very challenging experience for all those affected. Unfortunately, detection of Alzheimer disease in its early stages when clinical treatments may be most effective is challenging, as the clinical evaluations are time-consuming and costly. Recent studies have demonstrated a close relationship between cognitive function and everyday behavior, an avenue of research that holds great promise for the early detection of cognitive decline. One area of behavior that changes with cognitive decline is language use...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875769/understanding-the-cryptic-nature-of-lassa-fever-in-west-africa
#20
Rory Gibb, Lina M Moses, David W Redding, Kate E Jones
Lassa fever (LF) is increasingly recognized by global health institutions as an important rodent-borne disease with severe impacts on some of West Africa's poorest communities. However, our knowledge of LF ecology, epidemiology and distribution is limited, which presents barriers to both short-term disease forecasting and prediction of long-term impacts of environmental change on Lassa virus (LASV) zoonotic transmission dynamics. Here, we synthesize current knowledge to show that extrapolations from past research have produced an incomplete picture of the incidence and distribution of LF, with negative consequences for policy planning, medical treatment and management interventions...
September 6, 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
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