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Disease ecology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333607/arabidopsis-mlo2-is-a-negative-regulator-of-sensitivity-to-extracellular-ros
#1
Fuqiang Cui, Hongpo Wu, Omid Safronov, Panpan Zhang, Rajeev Kumar, Hannes Kollist, Jarkko Salojärvi, Ralph Panstruga, Kirk Overmyer
The atmospheric pollutant ozone (O3 ) is a strong oxidant that causes extracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, has significant ecological relevance, and is used here as a non-invasive ROS inducer to study plant signalling. Previous genetic screens identified several mutants exhibiting enhanced O3- sensitivity, but few with enhanced tolerance. We found that loss-of-function mutants in Arabidopsis MLO2, a gene implicated in susceptibility to powdery mildew disease, exhibit enhanced dose-dependent tolerance to O3 and extracellular ROS, but a normal response to intracellular ROS...
January 15, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332417/-concise-history-of-toxicology-from-empiric-knowledge-to-science
#2
Anna Tompa, Péter Balázs
Toxicology is a science of poisonings by xenobiotics and endogenous physiological changes. Its empiric roots may be traced back to the emerging of the human race because the most important pledge of our predecessors' survival was the differentiation between eatable and poisonous plants and animals. In the course of social evolution, there were three main fields of using poisons: 1) hunting and warfare, 2) to settle social tensions by avoiding military conflicts through hiding strategy of eliminating enemies by toxic substances, 3) medicines applied first as anti-poisons and later by introducing strong substances to defeat diseases, but paradoxically active euthanasia is also a part of the whole story...
January 2018: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329935/tick-borne-pathogen-detection-what-s-new
#3
Alejandro Cabezas-Cruz, Muriel Vayssier-Taussat, Gilbert Greub
Ticks and the pathogens they transmit constitute a growing burden for human and animal health worldwide. Traditionally, tick-borne pathogen detection has been carried out using PCR-based methods that rely in known sequences for specific primers design. This approach matches with the view of a 'single-pathogen' epidemiology. Recent results, however, have stressed the importance of coinfections in pathogen ecology and evolution with impact in pathogen transmission and disease severity. New approaches, including high-throughput technologies, were then used to detect multiple pathogens, but they all need a priori information on the pathogens to search...
January 9, 2018: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325101/fauna-ecological-characteristics-and-checklist-of-the-mosquitoes-in-mazandaran-province-northern-iran
#4
Seyed Hassan Nikookar, Mahmoud Fazeli-Dinan, Shahyad Azari-Hamidian, Seyed Nouraddin Mousavi Nasab, Mohsen Aarabi, Seyyed Payman Ziapour, Ahmadali Enayati, Janet Hemingway
Mosquitoes are important vectors of human and animal diseases. This study updates current knowledge on fauna, dominance, and distribution of mosquitoes in Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran, to inform disease control effort. Larval collections, using standard dippers or droppers, and adult collections, using total catches, shelter pits, CDC light traps, and human landing catches, were performed monthly in 30 villages across 16 counties, from May to December 2014. Ovitraps, baited with hay infusion as oviposition attractants or stimulants for Aedes (Stegomyia) mosquitoes, were installed in each village and inspected weekly for eggs...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325027/pathogens-microbiome-and-the-host-emergence-of-the-ecological-koch-s-postulates
#5
Pascale Vonaesch, Mark Anderson, Philippe J Sansonetti
Even though tremendous progress has been made in the last decades to elucidate the mechanisms of intestinal homeostasis, dysbiosis and disease, we are only at the beginning of understanding the complexity of the gut ecosystem and the underlying interaction networks. We are also only starting to unravel the mechanisms that pathogens have evolved to overcome the barriers imposed by the microbiota and host to exploit the system to their own benefit. Recent work in these domains clearly indicates that the 'traditional Koch's postulate', which state that a given pathogen leads to a distinct disease, are not valid for all 'infectious' diseases, but that a more complete and complex interpretation of the Koch's postulate is needed in order to understand and explain them...
January 9, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324760/bionomics-of-phlebotomus-argentipes-in-villages-in-bihar-india-with-insights-into-efficacy-of-irs-based-control-measures
#6
David M Poché, Rajesh B Garlapati, Shanta Mukherjee, Zaria Torres-Poché, Epco Hasker, Tahfizur Rahman, Aakanksha Bharti, Vishnu P Tripathi, Suman Prakash, Rahul Chaubey, Richard M Poché
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a deadly vector-borne disease. Approximately 90% of Indian VL cases occur in Bihar, where the sand fly, Phlebotomus argentipes, is the principal vector. Sand fly control in Bihar consists of indoor residual spraying (IRS), the practice of spraying the inner walls of village dwellings with insecticides. Prior researchers have evaluated success of IRS-control by estimating vector abundance in village houses, but the number of sampling periods (n = 2-3) were minimal, and outdoor-resting P...
January 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321892/regional-patterns-of-declining-butternut-juglans-cinerea-l-suggest-site-characteristics-for-restoration
#7
Randall S Morin, Kurt W Gottschalk, Michael E Ostry, Andrew M Liebhold
Butternut trees dying from a canker disease were first reported in southwestern Wisconsin in 1967. Since then, the disease has caused extensive mortality of butternut throughout its North American range. The objectives of this study were to quantify changes in butternut populations and density across its range and identify habitat characteristics of sites where butternut is surviving in order to locate regions for potential butternut restoration. The natural range of butternut (Juglans cinerea L.) extends over a large region of eastern N...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320767/ecological-approaches-to-dental-caries-prevention-paradigm-shift-or-shibboleth
#8
Nebu Philip, Bharat Suneja, Laurence J Walsh
Contemporary paradigms of dental caries aetiology focus on the ecology of the dental plaque biofilm and how local environmental factors can modulate this to cause disease. The crucial role that a healthy oral microbiome plays in preventing caries and promoting oral health is also being increasingly recognized. Based on these concepts, several ecological preventive approaches have been developed that could potentially broaden the arsenal of currently available caries-preventive measures. Many of these ecological approaches aim for long-term caries control by either disrupting cariogenic virulence factors without affecting bacterial viability, or include measures that can enhance the growth of health-associated, microbially diverse communities in the oral microbiome...
January 11, 2018: Caries Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318531/a-study-on-sheep-farming-practices-in-relation-to-future-production-strategies-in-bensa-district-of-southern-ethiopia
#9
Hizkel Kenfo, Yoseph Mekasha, Yosef Tadesse
The study was carried out in Bensa district of Sidama zone, Southern Ethiopia. Agro-ecologically, the study sites were classified into highland and mid-altitude. The objective of the study was to identify sheep farming practices in relation to future production strategies in the study area. A total of 128 households from four kebeles (lower administrative structure) were selected purposively based on sheep population and production potential and accessibility. Data was collected through semi-structured questionnaire, focus group discussions, and key informants...
January 9, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316977/the-lung-tissue-microbiota-of-mild-and-moderate-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#10
Alexa A Pragman, Tianmeng Lyu, Joshua A Baller, Trevor J Gould, Rosemary F Kelly, Cavan S Reilly, Richard E Isaacson, Chris H Wendt
BACKGROUND: Oral taxa are often found in the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) lung microbiota, but it is not clear if this is due to a physiologic process such as aspiration or experimental contamination at the time of specimen collection. METHODS: Microbiota samples were obtained from nine subjects with mild or moderate COPD by swabbing lung tissue and upper airway sites during lung lobectomy. Lung specimens were not contaminated with upper airway taxa since they were obtained surgically...
January 9, 2018: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316967/ecological-distribution-and-population-dynamics-of-rift-valley-fever-virus-mosquito-vectors-diptera-culicidae-in-senegal
#11
Biram Biteye, Assane G Fall, Mamadou Ciss, Momar T Seck, Andrea Apolloni, Moussa Fall, Annelise Tran, Geoffrey Gimonneau
BACKGROUND: Many zoonotic infectious diseases have emerged and re-emerged over the last two decades. There has been a significant increase in vector-borne diseases due to climate variations that lead to environmental changes favoring the development and adaptation of vectors. This study was carried out to improve knowledge of the ecology of mosquito vectors involved in the transmission of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) in Senegal. METHODS: An entomological survey was conducted in three Senegalese agro-systems, Senegal River Delta (SRD), Senegal River Valley (SRV) and Ferlo, during the rainy season (July to November) of 2014 and 2015...
January 9, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315305/serological-and-molecular-inquiry-of-chagas-disease-in-an-afro-descendant-settlement-in-mato-grosso-do-sul-state-brazil
#12
Mariana Furquim da Silva Martins, Mariane Barroso Pereira, Juliana de Jesus Guimarães Ferreira, Adriana de Oliveira França, Marlon Cézar Cominetti, Eduardo de Castro Ferreira, Maria Elizabeth Moraes Cavalheiros Dorval, Cláudio Lúcio Rossi, Sílvia de Barros Mazon, Eros Antonio de Almeida, Sandra Cecília Botelho Costa, Gláucia Elisete Barbosa Marcon
Furnas do Dionísio is a Brazilian Afro-descendant settlement in the city of Jaraguari, 21.4 miles from Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Approximately 96 families live in this quilombola (Maroon) settlement, also known in Brazil as a remnant community of descendants of African slaves. Recent studies found 20% of households were infested by triatomines, 18% of insects captured in the community were infected by Trypanosoma cruzi, and 22.7% of dogs presented T. cruzi antibodies. The low prevalence of Chagas disease observed in humans in Mato Grosso do Sul State is attributed to its arrival via colonist migration and subsequent transplacental transmission...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313478/schistosomiasis-and-infertility-in-east-africa
#13
Patricia A Woodall, Michael R Kramer
Case reports and pathology series suggest associations of female genital schistosomiasis (Schistosoma haematobium) with infertility and ectopic pregnancy. Differential geographic distribution of infertility is not explained by analyses of known risk factors. In this cross-sectional multilevel semi-ecologic study, interpolated prevalence maps for S. haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni in East Africa were created using data from two open-access Neglected Tropical Diseases Databases. Prevalence was extracted to georeferenced survey sample points for Demographic and Health Surveys for Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda for 2000 and 2010...
January 8, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313197/exploiting-rhizosphere-microbial-cooperation-for-developing-sustainable-agriculture-strategies
#14
Yoann Besset-Manzoni, Laura Rieusset, Pierre Joly, Gilles Comte, Claire Prigent-Combaret
The rhizosphere hosts a considerable microbial community. Among that community, bacteria called plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) can promote plant growth and defense against diseases using diverse distinct plant-beneficial functions. Crop inoculation with PGPR could allow to reduce the use of pesticides and fertilizers in agrosystems. However, microbial crop protection and growth stimulation would be more efficient if cooperation between rhizosphere bacterial populations was taken into account when developing biocontrol agents and biostimulants...
January 8, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312813/domestic-carnivore-interactions-with-wildlife-in-the-cape-horn-biosphere-reserve-chile-husbandry-and-perceptions-of-impact-from-a-community-perspective
#15
Elke Schüttler, Lorena Saavedra-Aracena, Jaime E Jiménez
Background: Hundreds of millions of domestic carnivores worldwide have diverse positive affiliations with humans, but can provoke serious socio-ecological impacts when free-roaming. Unconfined dogs (Canis familiaris) and cats (Felis catus) interact with wildlife as predators, competitors, and disease-transmitters; their access to wildlife depends on husbandry, perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors of pet owners and non-owners. Methods: To better understand husbandry and perceptions of impacts by unconfined, domestic carnivores, we administered questionnaires (n = 244) to pet owners and non-owners living in one of the last wilderness areas of the world, the Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve, located in southern Chile...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310716/critical-low-temperature-for-the-survival-of-aedes-aegypti-in-taiwan
#16
Pui-Jen Tsai, Tang-Huang Lin, Hwa-Jen Teng, Hsi-Chyi Yeh
BACKGROUND: Taiwan is geographically located in a region that spans both tropical and subtropical climates (22-25°N and 120-122°E). The Taiwan Centers for Disease Control have found that the ecological habitat of Aedes aegypti appears only south of 23.5°N. Low temperatures may contribute to this particular habitat distribution of Ae. aegypti under the influence of the East Asian winter monsoon. However, the threshold condition related to critically low temperatures remains unclear because of the lack of large-scale spatial studies...
January 8, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310700/a-cross-sectional-study-of-the-filarial-and-leishmania-co-endemicity-in-two-ecologically-distinct-settings-in-mali
#17
Moussa Brema Sangare, Yaya Ibrahim Coulibaly, Siaka Yamoussa Coulibaly, Michel Emmanuel Coulibaly, Bourama Traore, Ilo Dicko, Ibrahim Moussa Sissoko, Sibiry Samake, Sekou Fantamady Traore, Thomas Bruce Nutman, Jesus Gilberto Valenzuela, Ousmane Faye, Shaden Kamhawi, Fabiano Oliveira, Roshanak Tolouei Semnani, Seydou Doumbia
BACKGROUND: Filariasis and leishmaniasis are two neglected tropical diseases in Mali. Due to distribution and associated clinical features, both diseases are of concern to public health. The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of co-infection with filarial (Wuchereria bancrofti and Mansonella perstans) and Leishmania major parasites in two ecologically distinct areas of Mali, the Kolokani district (villages of Tieneguebougou and Bougoudiana) in North Sudan Savanna area, and the district of Kolondieba (village of Boundioba) in the South Sudan Savanna area...
January 8, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310449/hand-hygiene-and-tuberculosis-risk-in-korea-an-ecological-association
#18
Mi Ah Han
Hand hygiene is a basic but effective strategy against infectious disease. This study investigated an ecological association between hand hygiene and tuberculosis (TB) risk in Korea. Hand hygiene data were obtained from the 2015 Community Health Survey. Information on TB incidence and mortality in 2015 were obtained from the National Infectious Diseases Surveillance System and death monitoring database, respectively. In multiple linear regression analysis, frequent hand washing rates after using the restroom (B = -0...
January 1, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304100/social-determinants-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-treatment-non-adherence-in-rio-de-janeiro-brazil
#19
Elvira Maria Godinho de Seixas Maciel, Juliana de Souza Amancio, Daniel Barros de Castro, José Ueleres Braga
Success in tuberculosis control depends on the implementation of steps that reduce social inequities, allowing the diagnosis and effective treatment of the disease. Little is known about the conditions affecting antituberculosis treatment non-adherence in areas of great social and economic heterogeneity, such as the municipality of Rio de Janeiro. This study aimed to describe and identify the social determinants of antituberculosis treatment non-adherence in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro between 2008 and 2012...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302270/back-to-the-future-in-a-petri-dish-origin-and-impact-of-resurrected-microbes-in-natural-populations
#20
REVIEW
Shira Houwenhuyse, Emilie Macke, Lien Reyserhove, Lore Bulteel, Ellen Decaestecker
Current natural populations face new interactions because of the re-emergence of ancient microbes and viruses. These risks come from the re-emergence of pathogens kept in laboratories or from pathogens that are retained in the permafrost, which become available upon thawing due to climate change. We here focus on the effects of such re-emergence in natural host populations based on evolutionary theory of virulence and long-term studies, which investigate host-pathogen adaptations. Pathogens tend to be locally and temporally adapted to their co-occurring hosts, but when pathogens from a different environment or different time enter the host community, the degree to which a new host-pathogen interaction is a threat will depend on the specific genotypic associations, the time lag between the host and the pathogen, and the interactions with native or recent host and pathogen species...
January 2018: Evolutionary Applications
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