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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911999/joint-effects-of-nutrient-addition-and-enemy-exclusion-on-exotic-plant-success
#1
Robert W Heckman, Justin P Wright, Charles E Mitchell
Worldwide, ecosystems are increasingly dominated by exotic plant species, a shift hypothesized to result from numerous ecological factors. Two of these, increased resource availability and enemy release, may act in concert to increase exotic success in plant communities (Resource-Enemy Release Hypothesis, R-ERH). To test this, we manipulated the availability of soil nutrients and access of vertebrate herbivores, insect herbivores, and fungal pathogens to intact grassland communities containing both native and exotic species...
December 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909426/deconstructing-the-bat-skin-microbiome-influences-of-the-host-and-the-environment
#2
Christine V Avena, Laura Wegener Parfrey, Jonathan W Leff, Holly M Archer, Winifred F Frick, Kate E Langwig, A Marm Kilpatrick, Karen E Powers, Jeffrey T Foster, Valerie J McKenzie
Bats are geographically widespread and play an important role in many ecosystems, but relatively little is known about the ecology of their associated microbial communities and the role microbial taxa play in bat health, development, and evolution. Moreover, few vertebrate animal skin microbiomes have been comprehensively assessed, and thus characterizing the bat skin microbiome will yield valuable insight into the variability of vertebrate skin microbiomes as a whole. The recent emergence of the skin fungal disease white-nose syndrome highlights the potentially important role bat skin microbial communities could play in bat health...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907248/mycobacterium-ulcerans-toxin-mycolactone-may-enhance-host-seeking-and-oviposition-behavior-by-aedes-aegypti-l-diptera-culicidae
#3
M L Sanders, H R Jordan, C Serewis-Pond, L Zheng, M E Benbow, P L Small, J K Tomberlin
The ecological functions of many toxins continue to remain unknown for those produced by environmental pathogens. Mycobacterium ulcerans, the causative agent of the neglected tropical disease, Buruli ulcer, produces a cytotoxic macrolide, mycolactone, whose function(s) in the environment remains elusive. Through a series of dual-choice behavior assays, we show that mycolactone may be an interkingdom cue for the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, seeking blood-meals as well as oviposition sites. Results provide novel insight into the evolution between bacteria and potential vectors...
December 1, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905285/the-current-status-of-ticks-in-turkey-a-100-year-period-review-from-1916-to-2016
#4
Abdullah İnci, Alparslan Yıldırım, Önder Düzlü
Environmental and bio-ecological changes, some administrative and political mistakes, and global warming seriously affect the behaviors of ticks in Turkey and globally. The global public sensitivity toward tick infestations has increased along with increases in tick-borne diseases (TBDs). Recently, the World Health Organization (WHO) developed a new political concept, "One Health," for specific struggle strategies against tick infestations and TBDs. To highlight the importance of the issue, the WHO had declared the year 2015 for vector-borne diseases and adopted the slogan "small bites big threat"...
September 2016: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903936/operationalising-cognitive-fatigability-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-gordian-knot-that-can-be-cut
#5
Anthony Mark Harrison, Roshan das Nair, Rona Moss-Morris
BACKGROUND: Researchers have attempted to operationalise objective measures of cognitive fatigability in multiple sclerosis (MS) to overcome the perceived subjectivity of patient-reported outcomes of fatigue (PROs). Measures of cognitive fatigability examine decrements in performance during sustained neurocognitive tasks. OBJECTIVE: This personal viewpoint briefly summarises available evidence for measures of cognitive fatigability in MS and considers their overall utility...
November 30, 2016: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903594/chronic-rhinosinusitis-and-the-evolving-understanding-of-microbial-ecology-in-chronic-inflammatory-mucosal-disease
#6
REVIEW
Michael Hoggard, Brett Wagner Mackenzie, Ravi Jain, Michael W Taylor, Kristi Biswas, Richard G Douglas
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) encompasses a heterogeneous group of debilitating chronic inflammatory sinonasal diseases. Despite considerable research, the etiology of CRS remains poorly understood, and debate on potential roles of microbial communities is unresolved. Modern culture-independent (molecular) techniques have vastly improved our understanding of the microbiology of the human body. Recent studies that better capture the full complexity of the microbial communities associated with CRS reintroduce the possible importance of the microbiota either as a direct driver of disease or as being potentially involved in its exacerbation...
January 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903308/joint-spatial-time-series-epidemiological-analysis-of-malaria-and-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-infection
#7
O A Adegboye, M Al-Saghir, D H Y Leung
Malaria and leishmaniasis are among the two most important health problems of many developing countries especially in the Middle East and North Africa. It is common for vector-borne infectious diseases to have similar hotspots which may be attributed to the overlapping ecological distribution of the vector. Hotspot analyses were conducted to simultaneously detect the location of local hotspots and test their statistical significance. Spatial scan statistics were used to detect and test hotspots of malaria and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Afghanistan in 2009...
December 1, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903064/modelling-of-the-distribution-of-biomphalaria-glabrata-and-biomphalaria-straminea-in-the-metropolitan-region-of-recife-pernambuco-brazil
#8
Verônica Santos Barbosa, Ricardo José de Paula Souza E Guimarães, Rodrigo Moraes Loyo, Constança Simões Barbosa
The occurrence of schistosomiasis is directly linked to the presence of its snail intermediate host Biomphalaria spp. Knowledge of geographical distribution, habitats and behaviour of these snails in relation to the climate is essential for guiding measures for disease prevention and control. This study aims to model the distribution of B. glabrata and B. straminea in schistosomiasis non-endemic areas of the metropolitan region of Recife (MRR) based on environmental data and estimates of snail distributions in endemic and neighbouring areas...
November 25, 2016: Geospatial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903051/spatial-and-spatio-temporal-analysis-of-malaria-in-the-state-of-acre-western-amazon-brazil
#9
Leonardo Augusto Kohara Melchior, Francisco Chiaravalloti Neto
Since 2005, the State of Acre, western Amazon, Brazil, has reported the highest annual parasite incidence (API) of malaria among the Brazilian states. This study examines malaria incidence in Acre using spatial and spatio-temporal analysis based on an ecological time series study analyzing malaria cases and deaths for the time period 1992- 2014 and using secondary data. API indexes were calculated by age, sex, parasite species, ratio of Plasmodium vivax to P. falciparum malaria, malaria mortality rate and case fatality rate...
November 16, 2016: Geospatial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902186/multigenetic-characterization-of-candidatus-xenohaliotis-californiensis
#10
Francesco Cicala, James D Moore, Jorge Cáceres-Martínez, Miguel A Del Río-Portilla, Mónica Hernández-Rodríguez, Rebeca Vásquez-Yeomans, Axayácatl Rocha-Olivares
"Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis" (or Ca. Xc) is the etiological agent of the withering syndrome (WS), a chronic wasting disease affecting most if not all North American species of abalone, and has been described as a Rickettsiales-like prokaryote. Genetic data about this species is limited to the 16S rRNA gene. The inability to grow it axenically has hindered its genetic and genomic characterization and, in consequence, a thorough analysis of its systematics. Here, we amplified and sequenced five genes (16S rRNA, 23S rRNA, ftsZ, virD4, and virB11) of Ca...
October 11, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900447/controversies-about-sugars-results-from-systematic-reviews-and-meta-analyses-on-obesity-cardiometabolic-disease-and-diabetes
#11
REVIEW
Tauseef A Khan, John L Sievenpiper
Fructose-containing sugars are a focus of attention as a public health target for their putative role in obesity and cardiometabolic disease including diabetes. The fructose moiety is singled out to be the primary driver for the harms of sugars due to its unique endocrine signal and pathophysiological role. However, this is only supported by ecological studies, animal models of overfeeding and select human intervention studies with supraphysiological doses or lack of control for energy. The highest level of evidence from systematic reviews and meta-analyses of controlled trials has not shown that fructose-containing sugars behave any differently from other forms of digestible carbohydrates...
November 30, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898308/emerging-biopharmaceuticals-from-marine-actinobacteria
#12
REVIEW
Syed Shams Ul Hassan, Komal Anjum, Syed Qamar Abbas, Najeeb Akhter, Bibi Ibtesam Shagufta, Sayed Asmat Ali Shah, Umber Tasneem
Actinobacteria are quotidian microorganisms in the marine world, playing a crucial ecological role in the recycling of refractory biomaterials and producing novel secondary metabolites with pharmaceutical applications. Actinobacteria have been isolated from the huge area of marine organisms including sponges, tunicates, corals, mollusks, crabs, mangroves and seaweeds. Natural products investigation of the marine actinobacteria revealed that they can synthesize numerous natural products including alkaloids, polyketides, peptides, isoprenoids, phenazines, sterols, and others...
November 22, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897256/dysbiosis-by-neutralizing-commensal-mediated-inhibition-of-pathobionts
#13
Esteban Rodriguez Herrero, Vera Slomka, Nico Boon, Kristel Bernaerts, Emma Hernandez-Sanabria, Marc Quirynen, Wim Teughels
Dysbiosis in the periodontal microbiota is associated with the development of periodontal diseases. Little is known about the initiation of dysbiosis. It was hypothesized that some commensal bacteria suppress the outgrowth of pathobionts by H2O2 production. However, serum and blood components released due to inflammation can neutralize this suppressive effect, leading to the initiation of dysbiosis. Agar plate, dual-species and multi-species ecology experiments showed that H2O2 production by commensal bacteria decreases pathobiont growth and colonization...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896023/ceratopogonidae-diptera-nematocera-of-the-piedmont-of-the-yungas-forests-of-tucum%C3%A3-n-ecology-and-distribution
#14
José Manuel Direni Mancini, Cecilia Adriana Veggiani-Aybar, Ana Denise Fuenzalida, Mercedes Sara Lizarralde de Grosso, María Gabriela Quintana
Within the Ceratopogonidae family, many genera transmit numerous diseases to humans and animals, while others are important pollinators of tropical crops. In the Yungas ecoregion of Argentina, previous systematic and ecological research on Ceratopogonidae focused on Culicoides, since they are the main transmitters of mansonelliasis in northwestern Argentina; however, few studies included the genera Forcipomyia, Dasyhelea, Atrichopogon, Alluaudomyia, Echinohelea, and Bezzia. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the presence and abundance of Ceratopogonidae in this region, their association with meteorological variables, and their variation in areas disturbed by human activity...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894365/leishmania-infantum-illness-transmission-profile-and-risk-factors-for-asymptomatic-infection-in-an-endemic-metropolis-in-brazil
#15
Letícia Helena Dos Santos Marques, Iara Caixeta Marques DA Rocha, Ilka Afonso Reis, Gisele Macedo Rodrigues DA Cunha, Edward Oliveira, Thais Ribeiro Pfeilsticker, Valdelaine Etelvina Miranda DE Araújo, Maria Helena Franco Morais, Ana Rabello, Mariângela Carneiro
To evaluate the distribution of asymptomatic infection by Leishmania infantum in a metropolis in Brazil with different relative risks (RRs) for disease and risk factors associated with the infection, an ecological study was conducted using a Bayesian approach to estimate the RR of human visceral leishmaniasis (HVL) based on cases between 2008 and 2011. The areas were categorized and selected according to disease incidence: low (area-1), medium (area-2) and high (area-3). Cross-sectional study enrolling 935 children was used to estimate the prevalence of infection by L...
November 29, 2016: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894344/siropins-novel-serine-protease-inhibitors-from-gut-microbiota-acting-on-human-proteases-involved-in-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#16
Héla Mkaouar, Nizar Akermi, Vincent Mariaule, Samira Boudebbouze, Nadia Gaci, Florette Szukala, Nicolas Pons, Josan Marquez, Ali Gargouri, Emmanuelle Maguin, Moez Rhimi
BACKGROUND: In eukaryotes, the serpins constitute a wide family of protease inhibitors regulating many physiological pathways. Many reports stressed the key role of serpins in several human physiopathologies including mainly the inflammatory bowel diseases. In this context, eukaryotic serpins were largely studied and their use to limit inflammation was reported. In comparison to that, bacterial serpins and mainly those from human gut microbiota remain poorly studied. RESULTS: The two genes encoding for putative serpins from the human gut bacterium Eubacterium sireaum, display low sequence identities...
November 29, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894320/successful-malaria-elimination-in-the-ecuador-peru-border-region-epidemiology-and-lessons-learned
#17
Lyndsay K Krisher, Jesse Krisher, Mariano Ambuludi, Ana Arichabala, Efrain Beltrán-Ayala, Patricia Navarrete, Tania Ordoñez, Mark E Polhemus, Fernando Quintana, Rosemary Rochford, Mercy Silva, Juan Bazo, Anna M Stewart-Ibarra
BACKGROUND: In recent years, malaria (Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum) has been successfully controlled in the Ecuador-Peru coastal border region. The aim of this study was to document this control effort and to identify the best practices and lessons learned that are applicable to malaria control and to other vector-borne diseases. A proximal outcome evaluation was conducted of the robust elimination programme in El Oro Province, Ecuador, and the Tumbes Region, Peru. Data collection efforts included a series of workshops with local public health experts who played central roles in the elimination effort, review of epidemiological records from Ministries of Health, and a review of national policy documents...
November 28, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894018/managing-mosquito-spaces-citizen-self-governance-of-disease-vectors-in-a-desert-landscape
#18
Nicolena vonHedemann, Paul Robbins, Melinda K Butterworth, Katheryn Landau, Cory W Morin
Public health agencies' strategies to control disease vectors have increasingly included "soft" mosquito management programs that depend on citizen education and changing homeowner behaviors. In an effort to understand public responses to such campaigns, this research assesses the case of Tucson, Arizona, where West Nile virus presents a serious health risk and where management efforts have focused on public responsibility for mosquito control. Using surveys, interviews, and focus groups, we conclude that citizens have internalized responsibilities for mosquito management but also expect public management of parks and waterways while tending to reject the state's interference with privately owned parcels...
November 25, 2016: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893866/ecology-and-demography-of-free-roaming-domestic-dogs-in-rural-villages-near-serengeti-national-park-in-tanzania
#19
Anna M Czupryna, Joel S Brown, Machunde A Bigambo, Christopher J Whelan, Supriya D Mehta, Rachel M Santymire, Felix J Lankester, Lisa J Faust
Free-roaming dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) are of public health and conservation concern because of their potential to transmit diseases, such as rabies, to both people and wildlife. Understanding domestic dog population dynamics and how they could potentially be impacted by interventions, such as rabies vaccination, is vital for such disease control efforts. For four years, we measured demographic data on 2,649 free-roaming domestic dogs in four rural villages in Tanzania: two villages with and two without a rabies vaccination campaign...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891217/models-of-eucalypt-phenology-predict-bat-population-flux
#20
John R Giles, Raina K Plowright, Peggy Eby, Alison J Peel, Hamish McCallum
Fruit bats (Pteropodidae) have received increased attention after the recent emergence of notable viral pathogens of bat origin. Their vagility hinders data collection on abundance and distribution, which constrains modeling efforts and our understanding of bat ecology, viral dynamics, and spillover. We addressed this knowledge gap with models and data on the occurrence and abundance of nectarivorous fruit bat populations at 3 day roosts in southeast Queensland. We used environmental drivers of nectar production as predictors and explored relationships between bat abundance and virus spillover...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
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