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Disease ecology

Sanja Pintarić, Ivan Zeljković, Gordana Pehnec, Višnja Nesek, Mislav Vrsalović, Hrvoje Pintarić
The aim of this study was to investigate whether nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), and certain meteorological conditions had an impact on cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related emergency department (ED) visits in the metropolitan area of Zagreb. This retrospective, ecological study included 20,228 patients with a cardiovascular disease as their primary diagnosis who were examined in the EDs of two Croatian University Hospitals, Sisters of Charity and Holy Spirit, in the study period July 2008-June 2010. The median of daily CVD-related ED visits during the study period was 28 and was the highest during winter...
September 1, 2016: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Fiona Mactaggart, Liane McDermott, Anna Tynan, Maxine Whittaker
Health and well-being outcomes in communities living in proximity to mining activity may be influenced by a broad spectrum of factors including population growth, economic instability or land degradation. This review aims to synthesise broader outcomes associated with mining activity and in doing so, further explore possible determinants in communities of low- and middle-income countries. Four databases were systematically searched and articles were included if the study targeted adults residing in proximity to mining activity, and measured individual or community-level health or well-being outcomes...
October 17, 2016: Global Public Health
Jatinder Singh, Ryan C Johnson, Carey D Schlett, Emad M Elassal, Katrina B Crawford, Deepika Mor, Jeffrey B Lanier, Natasha N Law, William A Walters, Nimfa Teneza-Mora, Jason W Bennett, Eric R Hall, Eugene V Millar, Michael W Ellis, D Scott Merrell
Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are common in the general population, with increased prevalence among military trainees. Previous research has revealed numerous nasal microbial signatures that correlate with SSTI development and Staphylococcus aureus colonization. Thus, we hypothesized that the ecology of the inguinal, oropharynx, and perianal regions may also be altered in response to SSTI and/or S. aureus colonization. We collected body site samples from 46 military trainees with purulent abscess (SSTI group) as well as from 66 asymptomatic controls (non-SSTI group)...
September 2016: MSphere
Utsav Pandey, Andrew S Bell, Daniel W Renner, David A Kennedy, Jacob T Shreve, Chris L Cairns, Matthew J Jones, Patricia A Dunn, Andrew F Read, Moriah L Szpara
The intensification of the poultry industry over the last 60 years facilitated the evolution of increased virulence and vaccine breaks in Marek's disease virus (MDV-1). Full-genome sequences are essential for understanding why and how this evolution occurred, but what is known about genome-wide variation in MDV comes from laboratory culture. To rectify this, we developed methods for obtaining high-quality genome sequences directly from field samples without the need for sequence-based enrichment strategies prior to sequencing...
September 2016: MSphere
M Amber Sajjad, Kara L Holloway, Mark A Kotowicz, Patricia M Livingston, Mustafa Khasraw, Sharon Hakkennes, Trisha L Dunning, Susan Brumby, Richard S Page, Daryl Pedler, Alasdair Sutherland, Svetha Venkatesh, Sharon L Brennan-Olsen, Lana J Williams, Julie A Pasco
Background: An increasing burden of chronic disease and associated health service delivery is expected due to the ageing Australian population. Injuries also affect health and wellbeing and have a long-term impact on health service utilisation. There is a lack of comprehensive data on disease and injury in rural and regional areas of Australia. The aim of the Ageing, Chronic Disease and Injury study is to compile data from various sources to better describe the patterns of chronic disease and injury across western Victoria...
August 19, 2016: Journal of Public Health Research
Pankaj Trivedi, Chanda Trivedi, Jasmine Grinyer, Ian C Anderson, Brajesh K Singh
Plant health and productivity is strongly influenced by their intimate interaction with deleterious and beneficial organisms, including microbes, and insects. Of the various plant diseases, insect-vectored diseases are of particular interest, including those caused by obligate parasites affecting plant phloem such as Candidatus (Ca.) Phytoplasma species and several species of Ca. Liberibacter. Recent studies on plant-microbe and plant-insect interactions of these pathogens have demonstrated that plant-microbe-insect interactions have far reaching consequences for the functioning and evolution of the organisms involved...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Ambra Bisio, Ludovico Pedullà, Laura Bonzano, Piero Ruggeri, Giampaolo Brichetto, Marco Bove
Writing is a means of communication which requires complex motor, perceptual, and cognitive skills. If one of these abilities gets lost following traumatic events or due to neurological diseases, handwriting could deteriorate. Occupational therapy practitioners provide rehabilitation services for people with impaired handwriting. However, to determine the effectiveness of handwriting interventions no studies assessed whether the proposed treatments improved the kinematics of writing movement or had an effect at the level of the central nervous system...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Rafael de Oliveira Christe, André Barretto Bruno Wilke, Paloma Oliveira Vidal, Mauro Toledo Marrelli
Culicidae mosquitoes are important vectors of pathogens; however, males and females have different responses to selective pressures, leading to distinct evolutionary outcomes. A better understanding of this phenomenon is crucial to establish effective control strategies for this mosquito. Although Aedes fluviatilis is considered a secondary vector for several diseases, there is a dearth of data about its ecology, population structure and sexual dimorphism. The goal of this study was therefore to assess sexual dimorphism patterns in Aedes fluviatilis...
October 13, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Yu Qi Qiao, Chen Wen Cai, Zhi Hua Ran
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients exhibit impaired control of the microbiome in the gut. "Dysbiosis" is commonly observed. A Western diet is a risk factor for the development of IBD but may have different effects on the gut microbiota in IBD and non-IBD individuals. Exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) can induce remission in pediatric Crohn's disease (CD) with a decrease in gut microbiome diversity after EEN treatment. Although there are some theoretical benefits, the actual treatment effects of prebiotics and probiotics in IBD patients can vary...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Digestive Diseases
A T Silva, L B Soares, F R L Magajewski
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide public health problem and is expressed by increasing amounts of patients on renal replacement therapy (RRT), with significant economic and social impacts. The aim of this work was to analyze socioeconomic and mortality aspects of CKD patients in Santa Catarina (SC), Brazil. METHODS: This was an ecologic study with the population of SC's CKD patients, who used RRT or underwent renal transplantation (RT) from 2012 to 2013...
September 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
Jonathan Ben-David, Stephen D Atkinson, Yulia Pollak, Gilad Yossifon, Uri Shavit, Jerri L Bartholomew, Tamar Lotan
BACKGROUND: Myxozoa is a speciose group of endoparasitic cnidarians that can cause severe ecological and economic effects. Although highly reduced compared to free-living cnidarians, myxozoans have retained the phylum-defining stinging organelles, known as cnidae or polar capsules, which are essential to initiating host infection. To explore the adaptations of myxozoan polar capsules, we compared the structure, firing process and content release mechanism of polar tubules in myxospores of three Myxobolus species including M...
October 14, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Luiz Ricardo Gonçalves, Alexsandra Rodrigues de Mendonça Favacho, André Luiz Rodrigues Roque, Natalia Serra Mendes, Otávio Luiz Fidelis Junior, Jyan Lucas Benevenute, Heitor Miraglia Herrera, Paulo Sérgio D'Andrea, Elba Regina Sampaio de Lemos, Rosangela Zacarias Machado, Marcos Rogério André
: Bartonella spp. comprise an ecologically successful group of microorganisms that infects erythrocytes and have adapted to different hosts, which include a wide range of mammals, besides humans. Rodents are reservoirs of about two thirds of Bartonella spp. described to date; and some of them have been implicated as causative agents of human diseases. In our study, we performed the molecular and phylogenetic analyses of Bartonella spp. infecting wild rodents from five different Brazilian biomes...
October 7, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Rachel Nicholls, Lin Perry, Christine Duffield, Robyn Gallagher, Heather Pierce
BACKGROUND: There is growing recognition of the influence of the workplace environment on the eating habits of the workforce, which in turn may contribute to increased overweight and obesity. Overweight and obesity exact enormous costs in terms of reduced well-being, worker productivity and increased risk of non-communicable diseases. The workplace is an ideal place to intervene and support healthy behaviours. This review aimed to identify barriers and facilitators to nurses' healthy eating in the workplace...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Advanced Nursing
Linda Valeri, Oscar Patterson-Lomba, Yared Gurmu, Akweley Ablorh, Jennifer Bobb, F William Townes, Guy Harling
BACKGROUND: The recent Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa has spread wider than any previous human EVD epidemic. While individual-level risk factors that contribute to the spread of EVD have been studied, the population-level attributes of subnational regions associated with outbreak severity have not yet been considered. METHODS: To investigate the area-level predictors of EVD dynamics, we integrated time series data on cumulative reported cases of EVD from the World Health Organization and covariate data from the Demographic and Health Surveys...
2016: PloS One
Jordi Serra-Cobo, Marc López-Roig
More than 200 viruses have been detected in bats. Some unique bat characteristics can explain the roles played in the maintenance and transmission of viruses: long phylogenetic history can have originated coevolution processes, great number of species are adapted to live in different environments, big mobility, long lifespan and gregarious behaviour of many species.To analyse zoonoses long longitudinal studies are needed with a multidisciplinary approximation to obtain the following eco-epidemiological data: colony size, number of bats per species, population structure, behaviour of each species, degree of contact between bats, social structure, remaining time of bats in the colony, colony type, foraging area, turnover rate of individuals, shelter temperature, relationship with other colonies and co-infection processes...
October 9, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Jahangir Imam, Puneet K Singh, Pratyoosh Shukla
Deciphering plant-microbe interactions is a promising aspect to understand the benefits and the pathogenic effect of microbes and crop improvement. The advancement in sequencing technologies and various 'omics' tool has impressively accelerated the research in biological sciences in this area. The recent and ongoing developments provide a unique approach to describing these intricate interactions and test hypotheses. In the present review, we discuss the role of plant-pathogen interaction in crop improvement...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Junpei Yamashita, Takuya Sato, Katsutoshi Watanabe
For parasites with complex life cycles, the ecological traits determining host competence and seasonal changes in infection in natural habitats are often unclear, which makes it difficult to predict infection dynamics, including disease outbreaks. Hairworms (Phylum: Nematomorpha) require both aquatic and terrestrial hosts to complete their life cycle. Although hairworm host competencies have been tested in laboratory experiments, knowledge of the paratenic hosts (aquatic insect larvae) in their natural habitats is limited...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Parasitology
Katerina V-A Johnson, Philip W J Burnet
Studies on microbiome diversity are flooding the current literature, yet lessons from ecology clearly demonstrate that diversity is just one factor to consider when analyzing an ecosystem, along with its stability, structure and function. Measures of diversity may be a useful tool for interpreting metagenomic data but the question remains as to how informative they are and what insight they may provide into the state of the microbiome. A study utilizing mathematical modelling to investigate the ecological dynamics of microbial communities has shown that diversity and stability may not always be concomitant...
October 10, 2016: Gut Microbes
Barbara Bramanti, Nils Chr Stenseth, Lars Walløe, Xu Lei
Plague caused by Yersinia pestis is a zoonotic infection, i.e., it is maintained in wildlife by animal reservoirs and on occasion spills over into human populations, causing outbreaks of different entities. Large epidemics of plague, which have had significant demographic, social, and economic consequences, have been recorded in Western European historical documents since the sixth century. Plague has remained in Europe for over 1400 years, intermittently disappearing, yet it is not clear if there were reservoirs for Y...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
J Flegr, D Q Escudero
The global seroprevalence of latent toxoplasmosis is estimated to be higher than 30%. The presence of slowly dividing parasites in tissue cysts located mainly in immunoprivileged organs was long considered asymptomatic. Recently, many studies have shown that latent Toxoplasma infections could have serious impacts on human health. Here we ran a cross-sectional study in a population of 1486 volunteers. The results showed that 333 infected subjects scored worse than 1153 controls in 28 of 29 health-related variables...
October 10, 2016: Parasitology
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