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Disease ecology

Maryam Dastoorpoor, Gholamreza Goudarzi, Narges Khanjani, Esmaeil Idani, Hamidreza Aghababaeian, Abbas Bahrampour
OBJECTIVES: There are few studies about the association between breathing polluted air and increased risk of cardiovascular diseases and cardiac death in the Middle East. This study aimed to investigate the relation between air pollutants and cardiovascular mortality (based on ICD-10) in Ahvaz. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this ecological study, the data about cardiovascular disease mortality and air pollutants from March 2008 until March 2015 was inquired from the Ahvaz City Authority and the Khuzestan Province Environmental Protection Agency...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health
Ashley Jane Riner, Jaime L Rudd, Deana L Clifford, Brian L Cypher, Janet E Foley, Patrick Foley
The San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes macrotis mutica Merriam (Carnivora, Canidae)) is an endangered small carnivore endemic to the San Joaquin Valley of California. Commercial and agricultural land expansion has contributed to the species' decline and invasion of more cosmopolitan species, providing means for potential ecological shifts in disease vector and host species. Fleas are common ectoparasites that can serve as important indicators of cross-species interactions and disease risk. We compared flea load and species composition on kit foxes inhabiting urban and nonurban habitats to determine how urbanization affects flea diversity and potential disease spillover from co-occurring species...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Daniel Barros de Castro, Vanderson Souza Sampaio, Bernardino Cláudio de Albuquerque, Rosemary Costa Pinto, Megumi Sadahiro, Ricardo Augusto Dos Passos, Cristiano Fernandes da Costa, José Ueleres Braga
BACKGROUND: Dengue is the most prevalent arboviral disease affecting humans. The frequency and magnitude of dengue epidemic have significantly increased over recent decades. This study aimed to identify dengue epidemic types and risk factors for the extensive epidemics that occurred in 2010-2011, across the municipalities of Amazonas state, Brazil. METHODS: Using an ecological approach, secondary data were obtained from the dengue fever surveillance system. Epidemic waves were classified according to three indices: duration, intensity, and coverage...
March 15, 2018: BMC Public Health
Ana Carolina Lima Cavaletti, Célia Pereira Caldas, Kenio Costa de Lima
OBJECTIVES: To identify the diseases that lead older persons to hospitalizations in the public health system in the state of Rio de Janeiro and, through a study of spatial distribution among hospitalization rates of the municipal districts, discuss the social contexts involved in the hospitalization of the elderly. METHODS: An ecological cross-sectional study using secondary data from the Brazilian hospital information system from the period 2009 to 2015 was performed...
March 12, 2018: Value in Health Regional Issues
Kara N Durski, Andrea M McCollum, Yoshinori Nakazawa, Brett W Petersen, Mary G Reynolds, Sylvie Briand, Mamoudou Harouna Djingarey, Victoria Olson, Inger K Damon, Asheena Khalakdina
The recent apparent increase in human monkeypox cases across a wide geographic area, the potential for further spread, and the lack of reliable surveillance have raised the level of concern for this emerging zoonosis. In November 2017, the World Health Organization (WHO), in collaboration with CDC, hosted an informal consultation on monkeypox with researchers, global health partners, ministries of health, and orthopoxvirus experts to review and discuss human monkeypox in African countries where cases have been recently detected and also identify components of surveillance and response that need improvement...
March 16, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Madan Upadhyay, Ranju Kharel Sitaula, Bharat Shrestha, Bhaiya Khanal, Bishnu Psd Upadhyay, Jeevan B Sherchand, Prakash Ghimire
PURPOSE: This review aims to provide a detailed update in Seasonal hypercute panuveitis (SHAPU) which is a blinding disease of unknown etiology reported only from Nepal, occurring every odd year since 1975 predominantly in children. METHODS: Data sources were literature reviewed using PubMed, Medline, and ISI Databases (since 1975 to late 2017). Search items included SHAPU, seasonal endophthalmitis, hypopyon uveitis, caterpillar induced uveitis alone or in combination with white moth, panuveitis, and review...
March 15, 2018: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
T P Loch, M Faisal
Flavobacterial diseases are significant impediments to hatchery-based fishery conservation and aquaculture productivity worldwide. Recent studies revealed a multitude of novel flavobacteria within the reproductive fluids and unfertilized eggs of feral Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha broodstock, some of which were associated with systemic disease. Herein, embryonated eggs/fry from these broodstock were assayed for flavobacteria while in incubator stacks in three hatcheries over 2 years, as was the water entering hatchery incubators...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Fish Diseases
Abdullah M S Al-Hatmi, Sarah A Ahmed, Anne D van Diepeningen, Miranda Drogari-Apiranthitou, Paul E Verweij, Jacques F Meis, G Sybren de Hoog
The Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) is the most common group of fusaria associated with superficial and life-threatening infections in humans. Here we formally introduce Fusarium metavorans sp. nov., widely known as FSSC6 (Fusarium solani species complex lineage 6), one of the most frequent agents of human opportunistic infections. The species is described with multilocus molecular data including sequences of internal transcribed spacer region (ITS), portions of the translation elongation factor 1-a gene (TEF1), and the partial RNA polymerase II gene (rPB2)...
April 1, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Adrian Blanco Machin, Luiz Fernando Costa Nascimento
Exposure to air pollutants, usually measured by environmental agencies that are not present in all states, may be associated with respiratory admissions in children. An ecological time series study was conducted with data on hospitalizations due to selected respiratory diseases in children under 10 years of age in 2012 in the city of Cuiabá, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Mean levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were estimated with a mathematical model, data on low temperatures and relative humidity were obtained from the Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology, and the numbers of brush burnings were obtained from the Environmental Information System...
March 8, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Xing Chen, Gang Ni, Kai He, Zhao-Li Ding, Gui-Mei Li, Adeniyi C Adeola, Robert W Murphy, Wen-Zhi Wang, Ya-Ping Zhang
Capture hybridization coupled with high-throughput sequencing (HTS) has become one of the most popular approaches to address some scientific problems not only for fundamental evolution but also for ecology and human disease in recent years. However, the technical problem of limited probe capture ability affects its widespread application. Here, we propose to capture hybridize long-range DNA fragments for HTS (termed LR-LCH). We provide a case of three amphibian samples to examine LR-LCH with 2 kb libraries and comparison of standard capture hybridization with 480 bp libraries...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Hannah Padda, Amy Niedbalski, Erin Tate, Sharon L Deem
Zoological institutions play an important role in promoting the goals of the One Health movement. We launched the Institute for Conservation Medicine (ICM) at the Saint Louis Zoo in 2011 to advance the goals of One Health. In 2016, we distributed a survey to Zoo members to evaluate member awareness and understanding of One Health and to provide direction for future communication and actions from the ICM. We hypothesized that Zoo members would be aware of One Health and care about infectious disease issues. Survey results showed Zoo members primarily cared about chronic, non-infectious diseases and their associated economic costs, with participants ranking their top three health issues of concern for humans as nutrition/obesity/diet (49%), costs of health care (48%), and cancer (37%)...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
J R Bowers, K L Parise, E J Kelley, D Lemmer, J M Schupp, E M Driebe, D M Engelthaler, P Keim, B M Barker
Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadasii are soil fungi endemic to desert regions of the southwestern United States, and the causative agents of valley fever, or coccidioidomycosis. Studies have shown that the distribution of Coccidioides in soils is sporadic and cannot be explained by soil characteristics alone, suggesting that biotic and other abiotic factors should be examined. However, tools to reliably and robustly screen the large number of soils needed to investigate these potential associations have not been available...
March 8, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Hye-Jin Kim, Hanbyul Kim, Jin Ju Kim, Nu Ri Myeong, Taeyune Kim, Taehun Park, Eunjoo Kim, Ji-Yei Choi, Johnhwan Lee, Susun An, Woo Jun Sul
Given the higher incidence of skin diseases in more urbanized populations and its association with the skin microbiome, we questioned how the skin microbiome differed depending on the degree of urbanization. Skin microbiomes of 231 healthy subjects in five large cities in China varied mainly with environment and socioeconomic status of the cities in question. The differences among microbiomes could be explained by the predominantly niche-based assembly of microbial communities, which was supported by a dominance test, β-null deviation, and edge-length abundance distribution...
March 2018: Science Advances
David J Páez, Olivier Restif, Peggy Eby, Raina K Plowright
Bats provide important ecosystem services such as pollination of native forests; they are also a source of zoonotic pathogens for humans and domestic animals. Human-induced changes to native habitats may have created more opportunities for bats to reside in urban settings, thus decreasing pollination services to native forests and increasing opportunities for zoonotic transmission. In Australia, fruit bats ( Pteropus spp. flying foxes) are increasingly inhabiting urban areas where they feed on anthropogenic food sources with nutritional characteristics and phenology that differ from native habitats...
May 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Leone M Brown, Richard J Hall
Anthropogenic landscape features such as urban parks and gardens, landfills and farmlands can provide novel, seasonally reliable food sources that impact wildlife ecology and distributions. In historically migratory species, food subsidies can cause individuals to forgo migration and form partially migratory or entirely sedentary populations, eroding a crucial benefit of migration: pathogen avoidance through seasonal abandonment of transmission sites and mortality of infected individuals during migration. Since many migratory taxa are declining, and wildlife populations in urban areas can harbour zoonotic pathogens, understanding the mechanisms by which anthropogenic resource subsidies influence infection dynamics and the persistence of migration is important for wildlife conservation and public health...
May 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Gavin G Cotterill, Paul C Cross, Eric K Cole, Rebecca K Fuda, Jared D Rogerson, Brandon M Scurlock, Johan T du Toit
Providing food to wildlife during periods when natural food is limited results in aggregations that may facilitate disease transmission. This is exemplified in western Wyoming where institutional feeding over the past century has aimed to mitigate wildlife-livestock conflict and minimize winter mortality of elk ( Cervus canadensis ). Here we review research across 23 winter feedgrounds where the most studied disease is brucellosis, caused by the bacterium Brucella abortus Traditional veterinary practices (vaccination, test-and-slaughter) have thus far been unable to control this disease in elk, which can spill over to cattle...
May 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Simonetta Mattiucci, Paolo Cipriani, Arne Levsen, Michela Paoletti, Giuseppe Nascetti
This review addresses the biodiversity, biology, distribution, ecology, epidemiology, and consumer health significance of the so far known species of Anisakis, both in their natural hosts and in human accidental host populations, worldwide. These key aspects of the Anisakis species' biology are highlighted, since we consider them as main driving forces behind which most of the research in this field has been carried out over the past decade. From a public health perspective, the human disease caused by Anisakis species (anisakiasis) appears to be considerably underreported and underestimated in many countries or regions around the globe...
2018: Advances in Parasitology
Anusree Mahanta, Piyali Ganguli, Pankaj Barah, Ram Rup Sarkar, Neelanjana Sarmah, Saurav Phukan, Mayuri Bora, Shashi Baruah
Diseases by protozoan pathogens pose a significant public health concern, particularly in tropical and subtropical countries, where these are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality. Protozoan pathogens tend to establish chronic infections underscoring their competence at subversion of host immune processes, an important component of disease pathogenesis and of their virulence. Modulation of cytokine and chemokine levels, their crosstalks and downstream signaling pathways, and thereby influencing recruitment and activation of immune cells is crucial to immune evasion and subversion...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Sori Teshale, Dirk Geysen, Gobena Ameni, Pierre Dorny, Dirk Berkvens
BACKGROUND: As evidence of the infection of domestic animals by Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Anaplasma sp. 'Omatjenne' is presently becoming available, understanding the epidemiological and ecological significance of infection is important to quantify the clinical and socio-economic impact of the diseases they cause. METHODS: The first aim of this study was to analyse the occurrence of A. phagocytophilum and Anaplasma sp. 'Omatjenne' in cattle samples collected from selected African countries using a polymerase chain reaction and restriction enzyme fragment length polymorphism...
March 9, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
L Pita, L Rix, B M Slaby, A Franke, U Hentschel
The recognition that all macroorganisms live in symbiotic association with microbial communities has opened up a new field in biology. Animals, plants, and algae are now considered holobionts, complex ecosystems consisting of the host, the microbiota, and the interactions among them. Accordingly, ecological concepts can be applied to understand the host-derived and microbial processes that govern the dynamics of the interactive networks within the holobiont. In marine systems, holobionts are further integrated into larger and more complex communities and ecosystems, a concept referred to as "nested ecosystems...
March 9, 2018: Microbiome
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