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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441534/managing-the-plant-microbiome-for-biocontrol-fungi-examples-from-hypocreales
#1
REVIEW
Ryan M Kepler, Jude E Maul, Stephen A Rehner
Feeding an increasing global population requires continued improvements in agricultural efficiency and productivity. Meeting estimated future production levels requires the adoption of practices that increase output without environmental degradation associated with external inputs to supplement nutrition or control pests. Enriching the community of microbes associated with plants in agricultural systems for those providing ecosystem services such as pest control is one possible component towards achieving sustainable productivity increases...
April 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439871/application-of-chemical-genomics-to-plant-bacteria-communication-a-high-throughput-system-to-identify-novel-molecules-modulating-the-induction-of-bacterial-virulence-genes-by-plant-signals
#2
Elodie Vandelle, Maria Rita Puttilli, Andrea Chini, Giulia Devescovi, Vittorio Venturi, Annalisa Polverari
The life cycle of bacterial phytopathogens consists of a benign epiphytic phase, during which the bacteria grow in the soil or on the plant surface, and a virulent endophytic phase involving the penetration of host defenses and the colonization of plant tissues. Innovative strategies are urgently required to integrate copper treatments that control the epiphytic phase with complementary tools that control the virulent endophytic phase, thus reducing the quantity of chemicals applied to economically and ecologically acceptable levels...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439473/the-behavioral-response-of-prey-fish-to-predators-the-role-of-predator-size
#3
Zhong-Hua Tang, Qing Huang, Hui Wu, Lu Kuang, Shi-Jian Fu
Predation is one of the key factors governing patterns in natural systems, and adjustments of prey behaviors in response to a predator stimulus can have important ecological implications for wild fish. To investigate the effects of predators on the behavior of prey fish and to test whether the possible effects varied with predator size, black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) and snakehead (Channa argus) (a size-matched predator treatment with a similar body size to prey fish and a larger predator treatment with approximately 2...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439395/antioxidant-responses-under-salinity-and-drought-in-three-closely-related-wild-monocots-with-different-ecological-optima
#4
Mohamad Al Hassan, Juliana Chaura, María P Donat-Torres, Monica Boscaiu, Oscar Vicente
Some deleterious effects of drought, soil salinity and other abiotic stresses are mediated by the generation of oxidative stress through an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) that damage cellular membranes, proteins and DNA. In response to increased ROS, plants activate an array of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defences. We have correlated the activation of these responses with the contrasting tolerance to salinity and drought of three species of the genus Juncus, viz. J. maritimus, J. acutus (both halophytes) and J...
March 2017: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439264/benthic-diatom-based-indices-for-water-quality-assessment-in-two-subtropical-streams
#5
Xiang Tan, Quanfa Zhang, Michele A Burford, Fran Sheldon, Stuart E Bunn
Benthic diatoms have been universally used as indicators to assess water quality in lotic ecosystems. However, most diatom-based indices developed in Europe have not been widely used or tested in other continents such as Asia or Oceania. This study compared the performance of 14 widely-applied diatom indices in assessing ecological conditions in subtropical streams in South East Queensland (SEQ) in Australia and in the upper Han River in China. Most water quality variables in the upper Han River including dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total nitrogen (TN), and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) had strong relationships with at least one diatom index, with the exception of IDAP (Index Diatom Artois-Picardie), and TDI (Trophic Diatom Index)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438917/disease-ecology-health-and-the-environment-a-framework-to-account-for-ecological-and-socio-economic-drivers-in-the-control-of-neglected-tropical-diseases
#6
A Garchitorena, S H Sokolow, B Roche, C N Ngonghala, M Jocque, A Lund, M Barry, E A Mordecai, G C Daily, J H Jones, J R Andrews, E Bendavid, S P Luby, A D LaBeaud, K Seetah, J F Guégan, M H Bonds, G A De Leo
Reducing the burden of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) is one of the key strategic targets advanced by the Sustainable Development Goals. Despite the unprecedented effort deployed for NTD elimination in the past decade, their control, mainly through drug administration, remains particularly challenging: persistent poverty and repeated exposure to pathogens embedded in the environment limit the efficacy of strategies focused exclusively on human treatment or medical care. Here, we present a simple modelling framework to illustrate the relative role of ecological and socio-economic drivers of environmentally transmitted parasites and pathogens...
June 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437587/relationship-type-affects-the-reliability-of-dispersal-distance-estimated-using-pedigree-inferences-in-partially-sampled-populations-a-case-study-involving-invasive-american-mink-in-scotland
#7
Y Melero, M K Oliver, X Lambin
Estimating dispersal - a key parameter for population ecology and management - is notoriously difficult. The use of pedigree assignments, aided by likelihood-based softwares, has become popular to estimate dispersal rate and distance. However, the partial sampling of populations may produce false assignments. Further, it is unknown how the accuracy of assignment is affected by the genealogical relationships of individuals and is reflected by software-derived assignment probabilities. Inspired by a project managing invasive American mink (Neovison vison), we estimated individual dispersal distances using inferred pairwise relationships of culled individuals...
April 24, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436561/the-interplay-between-aridity-and-competition-determines-colonization-ability-exclusion-and-ecological-segregation-in-the-heteroploid-brachypodium-distachyon-species-complex
#8
Pedro J Rey, Antonio J Manzaneda, Julio M Alcántara
A higher competitive advantage of polyploid plants compared with their parental diploids is frequently invoked to explain their establishment success, colonization of novel environments and cytotypic ecological segregation, yet there is scarce experimental evidence supporting such hypotheses. Here, we investigated whether differential competitive ability of species of the Brachypodium distachyon (Poaceae) species complex, a model system for genomic, ecological and evolutionary studies of temperate grasses, contributes to explaining their ecological segregation as well as their coexistence in diploid/allotetraploid contact zones...
April 24, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436265/recruiting-african-american-children-for-research-an-ecological-systems-theory-approach
#9
Diane Graves, Jane P Sheldon
With health disparities still pervasive and persistent in the United States, medical researchers and social scientists continue to develop recruitment strategies to increase the inclusion of racial/ethnic minority groups in research and interventions. Effective methods for recruiting samples of African American participants for pediatric research may be best understood when situated within an overarching conceptual model-one that serves to organize and explain effective recruitment strategies. A theoretical framework well suited for this purpose is Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory, which views individuals as influencing and being influenced by (both directly and indirectly) a series of interconnected social systems...
April 1, 2017: Western Journal of Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435878/evolutionary-dynamics-of-crispr-gene-drives
#10
Charleston Noble, Jason Olejarz, Kevin M Esvelt, George M Church, Martin A Nowak
The alteration of wild populations has been discussed as a solution to a number of humanity's most pressing ecological and public health concerns. Enabled by the recent revolution in genome editing, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) gene drives-selfish genetic elements that can spread through populations even if they confer no advantage to their host organism-are rapidly emerging as the most promising approach. However, before real-world applications are considered, it is imperative to develop a clear understanding of the outcomes of drive release in nature...
April 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434200/land-use-for-animal-production-in-global-change-studies-defining-and-characterizing-a-framework
#11
Leanne N Phelps, Jed O Kaplan
Land use for animal production influences the earth system in a variety of ways, including local-scale modification to biodiversity, soils, and nutrient cycling; regional changes in albedo and hydrology; and global-scale changes in greenhouse gas and aerosol concentrations. Pasture is furthermore the single most extensive form of land cover, currently comprising about 22 - 26% of the earth's ice-free land surface. Despite the importance and variable expressions of animal production, distinctions among different systems are effectively absent from studies of land use and land cover change...
April 23, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433738/crimean-congo-hemorrhagic-fever-virus-in-ticks-in-turkey-a-broad-range-tick-surveillance-study
#12
Ömer Orkun, Zafer Karaer, Ayşe Çakmak, Serpil Nalbantoğlu
In Turkey, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) outbreaks started in northern regions in 2002. Human cases still continue to increase and the disease spreads in many other provinces of Turkey. The ecological role of the vector tick species occurring in Turkey is not certain exactly. Therefore, we planned a broad range tick study in three different ecological and geographical areas extending from the West Black Sea regions down to the Central Anatolia. The aim of this study was to determine and characterize CCHFV molecularly in feeding-ticks collected from various wild and domestic animals and from humans as well as in questing and unfed ticks...
April 19, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433728/vector-competence-of-amblyomma-americanum-acari-ixodidae-for-rickettsia-rickettsii
#13
Michael L Levin, Galina E Zemtsova, Lindsay F Killmaster, Alyssa Snellgrove, Lauren B M Schumacher
Rickettsia rickettsii - the etiologic agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) - is widely spread across the Americas. In the US, Dermacentor spp. ticks are identified as primary vectors of R. rickettsii and Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. has been implicated in transmission of this pathogen in several locations in the Southwest. Conversely, ticks of the genus Amblyomma are recognized vectors of RMSF in Central and South America, but not in the US. A. americanum is one of the most aggressive human-biting ticks in the US, whose geographical range overlaps with that of reported RMSF cases...
April 12, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432511/environmental-management-zoning-for-coal-mining-in-mainland-china-based-on-ecological-and-resources-conditions
#14
Haiqing Geng, Fan Chen, Zhiyuan Wang, Jie Liu, Weihua Xu
The purpose of this research is to establish an environmental management zoning for coal mining industry which is served as a basis for making environmental management policies. Based on the specific impacts of coal mining and regional characteristics of environment and resources, the ecological impact, water resources impact, and arable land impact are chose as the zoning indexes to construct the index system. The ecological sensitivity is graded into three levels of low, medium, and high according to analytical hierarchy processes and gray fixed weight clustering analysis, and the water resources sensitivity is divided into five levels of lower, low, medium, high, and higher according to the weighted sum of sub-indexes, while only the arable land sensitive zone was extracted on the basis of the ratio of arable land to the county or city...
May 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431762/effects-of-a-common-insecticide-on-wetland-communities-with-varying-quality-of-leaf-litter-inputs
#15
A B Stoler, B M Mattes, W D Hintz, D K Jones, L Lind, M S Schuler, R A Relyea
Chemical contamination of aquatic systems often co-occurs with dramatic changes in surrounding terrestrial vegetation. Plant leaf litter serves as a crucial resource input to many freshwater systems, and changes in litter species composition can alter the attributes of freshwater communities. However, little is known how variation in litter inputs interacts with chemical contaminants. We investigated the ecological effects resulting from changes in tree leaf litter inputs to freshwater communities, and how those changes might interact with the timing of insecticide contamination...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429079/the-r2r3-myb-tt2b-and-the-bhlh-tt8-genes-are-the-major-regulators-of-proanthocyanidin-biosynthesis-in-the-leaves-of-lotus-species
#16
Francisco José Escaray, Valentina Passeri, Ana Perea-García, Cristian Javier Antonelli, Francesco Damiani, Oscar Adolfo Ruiz, Francesco Paolocci
By exploiting interspecific hybrids and their progeny, we identified key regulatory and transporter genes intimately related to proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in leaves of Lotus spp. Proanthocyanidins (PAs), known as condensed tannins, are polymeric flavonoids enriching forage legumes of key nutritional value to prevent bloating in ruminant animals. Unfortunately, major forage legumes such as alfalfa and clovers lack PAs in edible tissues. Therefore, engineering the PA trait in herbage of forage legumes is paramount to improve both ecological and economical sustainability of cattle production system...
April 20, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428857/how-repeatable-is-the-environmental-impact-classification-of-alien-taxa-eicat-comparing-independent-global-impact-assessments-of-amphibians
#17
Sabrina Kumschick, G John Measey, Giovanni Vimercati, F Andre de Villiers, Mohlamatsane M Mokhatla, Sarah J Davies, Corey J Thorp, Alexander D Rebelo, Tim M Blackburn, Fred Kraus
The magnitude of impacts some alien species cause to native environments makes them targets for regulation and management. However, which species to target is not always clear, and comparisons of a wide variety of impacts are necessary. Impact scoring systems can aid management prioritization of alien species. For such tools to be objective, they need to be robust to assessor bias. Here, we assess the newly proposed Environmental Impact Classification for Alien Taxa (EICAT) used for amphibians and test how outcomes differ between assessors...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428394/beyond-the-roots-of-human-inaction-fostering-collective-effort-toward-ecosystem-conservation
#18
REVIEW
Elise Amel, Christie Manning, Britain Scott, Susan Koger
The term "environmental problem" exposes a fundamental misconception: Disruptions of Earth's ecosystems are at their root a human behavior problem. Psychology is a potent tool for understanding the external and internal drivers of human behavior that lead to unsustainable living. Psychologists already contribute to individual-level behavior-change campaigns in the service of sustainability, but attention is turning toward understanding and facilitating the role of individuals in collective and collaborative actions that will modify the environmentally damaging systems in which humans are embedded...
April 21, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426763/individual-based-modelling-of-population-growth-and-diffusion-in-discrete-time
#19
Natalie Tkachenko, John D Weissmann, Wesley P Petersen, George Lake, Christoph P E Zollikofer, Simone Callegari
Individual-based models (IBMs) of human populations capture spatio-temporal dynamics using rules that govern the birth, behavior, and death of individuals. We explore a stochastic IBM of logistic growth-diffusion with constant time steps and independent, simultaneous actions of birth, death, and movement that approaches the Fisher-Kolmogorov model in the continuum limit. This model is well-suited to parallelization on high-performance computers. We explore its emergent properties with analytical approximations and numerical simulations in parameter ranges relevant to human population dynamics and ecology, and reproduce continuous-time results in the limit of small transition probabilities...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426419/ecological-implications-of-floods-on-the-parasite-communities-of-two-freshwater-catfishes-in-a-neotropical-floodplain
#20
Priscilla de Oliveira Fadel Yamada, Fabio Hideki Yamada, Reinaldo José da Silva, Luciano Alves Dos Anjos
The parasite communities of two freshwater catfishes (Auchenipterus osteomystax and Trachelyopterus galeatus) were analyzed during the dry and rainy seasons in a Neotropical floodplain. The nature of river-floodplain systems places specific demands on parasite community structure, due to changes in the host environment. It was therefore hypothesized that flood conditions lead to an increase in the richness and abundance of fish parasites in the rainy season at the mouth of Aguapeí River floodplain. The Auchenipterus osteomystax parasite community was richer (11 vs...
June 1, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
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