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Ecological system

Shu-Yuan Pan, Mengyao Gao, Hyunook Kim, Kinjal J Shah, Si-Lu Pei, Pen-Chi Chiang
This paper provides an overview of the interrelationships between tourism and sustainability from a cross-disciplinary perspective. The current challenges and barriers in the tourism sustainability, such as high energy use, extensive water consumption and habitat destruction, are first reviewed. Then the key cross-disciplinary elements in sustainable tourism, including green energy, green transportation, green buildings, green infrastructure, green agriculture and smart technologies, are discussed. To overcome the challenges and barriers, a few implementation strategies on achieving sustainable tourism from the aspects of policy/regulation, institution, finance, technology and culture are proposed, along with the framework and details of a key performance indicator system...
April 17, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Fernando Magdaleno
The science and practice of environmental flows - aimed at the protection of ecosystem values and functions in regulated rivers - has progressively recognized the relevance of incorporating socio-cultural demands of local communities in the calculation of water requirements of rivers' habitats and services. This review paper synthesizes the concept of cultural flows, and presents the main approaches explored or conducted up to this date to provide such flows in rivers of different regions and typology. This work highlights the necessity of integrating cultural demands in future attempts to protect and restore altered flow patterns, due to the multiple interactions between flow, ecology and people which typically characterize rivers and other aquatic systems...
April 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Weronika Kozlowska, Charles Wagner, Erin M Moore, Adam Matkowski, Slavko Komarnytsky
Plants were an essential part of foraging for food and health, and for centuries remained the only medicines available to people from the remote mountain regions. Their correct botanical provenance is an essential basis for understanding the ethnic cultures, as well as for chemical identification of the novel bioactive molecules with therapeutic effects. This work describes the use of herbal medicines in the Beskid mountain ranges located south of Krakow and Lviv, two influential medieval centers of apothecary tradition in the region...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Mannfred Ma Boehm, Micah N Scholer, Jeremiah Jc Kennedy, Julian M Heavyside, Aniceto Daza, David Guevara-Apaza, Jill E Jankowski
Background: This study establishes an altiudinal gradient, spanning from the highland Andes (2400 m) to lowland Amazon, as a productive region for the study of bird pollination in Southeastern Peru. The 'Manú Gradient' has a rich history of ornithological research, the published data and resources from which lay the groundwork for analyses of plant-bird interactions. In this preliminary expedition we documented 44 plants exhibting aspects of the bird pollination syndrome, and made field observations of hummingbird visits at three sites spanning the Manú Gradient: 2800 m (Wayqecha), 1400 m (San Pedro), and 400 m (Pantiacolla)...
2018: Biodiversity Data Journal
Virginia Ruiz-Villanueva, Andrés Díez-Herrero, Juan Antonio García, Alfredo Ollero, Hervé Piégay, Markus Stoffel
Instream large wood (LW) is widely perceived as a source of hazard that should be avoided. This is also the case of Spain, where wood has been systematically removed from rivers for decades. Consequently, people are accustomed to rivers with minimal or no LW at all. However, the presence and transport of wood is natural and has positive ecological effects. Previous studies reported that the general negative perception towards LW in rivers is related to the lack of background knowledge about stream ecology or fluvial dynamics...
April 16, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Diana Delicado, Torsten Hauffe, Thomas Wilke
BACKGROUND: Differences in species richness among phylogenetic clades are attributed to clade age and/or variation in diversification rates. Access to ecological opportunity may trigger a temporary increase in diversification rates and ecomorphological variation. In addition, lower body temperatures in poikilothermic animals may result in decreasing speciation rates as proposed by the metabolic theory of ecology. For strictly freshwater organisms, environmental gradients within a river continuum, linked to elevation and temperature, might promote access to ecological opportunity and alter metabolic rates, eventually influencing speciation and extinction processes...
April 19, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Lu Bai, Jianzhou Wang, Xuejiao Ma, Haiyan Lu
Air pollution is defined as a phenomenon harmful to the ecological system and the normal conditions of human existence and development when some substances in the atmosphere exceed a certain concentration. In the face of increasingly serious environmental pollution problems, scholars have conducted a significant quantity of related research, and in those studies, the forecasting of air pollution has been of paramount importance. As a precaution, the air pollution forecast is the basis for taking effective pollution control measures, and accurate forecasting of air pollution has become an important task...
April 17, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Ivan Masmitja, Julian Gonzalez, Cesar Galarza, Spartacus Gomariz, Jacopo Aguzzi, Joaquin Del Rio
Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV) are proving to be a promising platform design for multidisciplinary autonomous operability with a wide range of applications in marine ecology and geoscience. Here, two novel contributions towards increasing the autonomous navigation capability of a new AUV prototype (the Guanay II) as a mix between a propelled vehicle and a glider are presented. Firstly, a vectorial propulsion system has been designed to provide full vehicle maneuverability in both horizontal and vertical planes...
April 17, 2018: Sensors
Chunlin Li, Miao Liu, Yuanman Hu, Tuo Shi, Min Zong, M Todd Walter
Urbanization is one of the most widespread anthropogenic activities, which brings a range of physical and biochemical changes to hydrological system and processes. Increasing direct runoff caused by land use change has become a major challenge for urban ecological security. Reliable prediction of the quantity and rate of surface runoff is an inherently difficult and time-consuming task for large ungauged urban areas. In this study, we combined Geographic Information System and remote sensing technology with an improved Soil Conservation Service curve number model to evaluate the effects of land use change on direct runoff volume of the four-ring area in Shenyang, China, and analyzed trends of direct runoff at different scales...
April 17, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Ziyan Wang, Lina Tang, Quanyi Qiu, Huaxiang Chen, Tong Wu, Guofan Shao
Intensifying urbanization and rapid population growth in Fujian Province, China, has caused pollution of air and water resources; this has adversely impacted ecosystems and human health. China has recently begun pursuing a massive infrastructure and economic development strategy called the Belt and Road Initiative, which could potentially cause further environmental damage. Evaluations of ecosystem health are therefore a first step towards identifying the potential impacts from the development and planning sustainable development strategies in the Golden Triangle of Southern Fujian...
April 19, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
H Vandenhove, C Bradshaw, N A Beresford, J Vives I Batlle, A Real, J Garnier-Laplace
Risks posed by the presence of radionuclides in the environment require an efficient, balanced, and adaptable assessment for protecting exposed humans and wildlife, and managing the associated radiological risk. Exposure of humans and wildlife originate from the same sources releasing radionuclides to the environment. Environmental concentrations of radionuclides serve as inputs to estimate the dose to man, fauna, and flora, with transfer processes being, in essence, similar, which calls for a common use of transport models...
January 1, 2018: Annals of the ICRP
Mengxuan Lyu, Jiaxing Chen, Yiqi Jiang, Wei Dong, Zhou Fang, Shuaicheng Li
BACKGROUND: Microbial abundance profiles are applied widely to understand diseases from the aspect of microbial communities. By investigating the abundance associations of species or genes, we can construct molecular ecological networks (MENs). The MENs are often constructed by calculating the Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) between genes. In this work, we also applied multimodal mutual information (MMI) to construct MENs. The members which drive the concerned MENs are referred to as key drivers...
April 11, 2018: BMC Systems Biology
Sebastián Rosenfeld, Johanna Marambio, Jaime Ojeda, Juan Pablo Rodríguez, Claudio González-Wevar, Karin Gerard, Tamara Contador, Gemita Pizarro, Andrés Mansilla
Interactions between algae and herbivores can be affected by various factors, such as seasonality and habitat structure. Among herbivores inhabiting marine systems, species of the order Patellogastropoda are considered key organisms in many rocky coasts of the world. Nacella species are one of the most dominant macro-herbivores on the rocky shores of the sub-Antarctic ecoregion of Magellan. However, the importance of its key role must be associated with its trophic ecology. The objective of this work was to evaluate spatial and temporal variabilities in the dietary composition of two intertidal Nacella species, considering grazing on macro- (macroalgae) and microscopic (periphyton) food...
2018: ZooKeys
Terry P Hughes, James T Kerry, Andrew H Baird, Sean R Connolly, Andreas Dietzel, C Mark Eakin, Scott F Heron, Andrew S Hoey, Mia O Hoogenboom, Gang Liu, Michael J McWilliam, Rachel J Pears, Morgan S Pratchett, William J Skirving, Jessica S Stella, Gergely Torda
Global warming is rapidly emerging as a universal threat to ecological integrity and function, highlighting the urgent need for a better understanding of the impact of heat exposure on the resilience of ecosystems and the people who depend on them 1 . Here we show that in the aftermath of the record-breaking marine heatwave on the Great Barrier Reef in 2016 2 , corals began to die immediately on reefs where the accumulated heat exposure exceeded a critical threshold of degree heating weeks, which was 3-4 °C-weeks...
April 18, 2018: Nature
David B Lindenmayer
In recent decades, meteorologists have made remarkable progress in predicting the weather, thereby saving lives and considerable sums of money. However, we are way behind when it comes to predicting the effects of environmental change on ecosystems, even when we are ourselves the agent of such change. Given the substantial environmental problems facing our living planet, and the need to tackle these in an ecologically responsible and cost-effective way, we should aspire to develop terrestrial environmental prediction systems that reach the levels of accuracy and precision which characterize weather prediction systems...
April 18, 2018: BMC Biology
Kin On Kwok, Jonathan M Read, Arthur Tang, Hong Chen, Steven Riley, Kai Man Kam
BACKGROUND: Non-hospital residential facilities are important reservoirs for MRSA transmission. However, conclusions and public health implications drawn from the many mathematical models depicting nosocomial MRSA transmission may not be applicable to these settings. Therefore, we reviewed the MRSA transmission dynamics studies in defined non-hospital residential facilities to: (1) provide an overview of basic epidemiology which has been addressed; (2) identify future research direction; and (3) improve future model implementation...
April 18, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Brian J Kerr, Steven L Trabue, Mark B van Weelden, Daniel S Andersen, Laura M Pepple
An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of feeding finishing pigs a corn-soybean (CSBM) diet or a CSBM diet supplemented with 30% dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), in combination with or without a growth-promoting ionophore (0 or 30 mg narasin/kg of diet), has on manure composition, microbial ecology, and gas emissions. Two separate groups of 24 gilts (initial BW = 145.1 kg, SD = 7.8 kg) were allotted to individual metabolism crates that allowed for total but separate collection of feces and urine during the 48-d collection period...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Tyler Christensen, William D Brown
Models of the evolution of sexual cannibalism show that the frequency of male mating opportunities has significant impact on male choice and male risk aversion. In this study, we examined ecological components that should affect opportunities for multiple mating in wild populations of the Chinese mantid (Tenodera sinensis Saussure). While conducting mark-recapture studies of two field populations over the course of two seasons, along with Global Positioning System data on locations of individuals, we collected data on population densities, movement patterns, and individual ranges to estimate the overlap of adult males and female mantids...
April 14, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Geoffrey D Hannigan, Melissa B Duhaime, Danai Koutra, Patrick D Schloss
Viruses and bacteria are critical components of the human microbiome and play important roles in health and disease. Most previous work has relied on studying bacteria and viruses independently, thereby reducing them to two separate communities. Such approaches are unable to capture how these microbial communities interact, such as through processes that maintain community robustness or allow phage-host populations to co-evolve. We implemented a network-based analytical approach to describe phage-bacteria network diversity throughout the human body...
April 18, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Boris A Trofimov, Elena Yu Schmidt
In this Account, we briefly discuss the recently discovered and rapidly developing superbase-promoted self-organization reactions of several equivalents of acetylenes and ketones to afford complex compounds that represent promising synthetic building blocks common in natural products. Notably, acetylenes play a special role in these reactions because of their dual (acting as an electrophile and a nucleophile) and flexible reactivity. These unique properties of acetylenes are elegantly expressed in superbasic media, where acetylenes are more deprotonated and their electrophilicity increases as a result of complexation with alkali metal cations, with simultaneous enhancement of the nucleophilic reactants due to desolvation...
April 18, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
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