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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822173/-breakthrough-in-key-science-and-technologies-in-dendrobium-catenatum-industry
#1
Ji-Ping Si, Qi Wang, Zhong-Jian Liu, Jing-Jing Liu, Yi-Bo Luo
In view of the significant difficulties of propagation, planting and simple product in Dendrobium catenatum(D. officinale)industry development, a series of research were carried out. Genome study showed that D. catenatum is a specie of diploid with 38 chromosomes and 28 910 protein-coding genes. It was identified that specific genes accumulated in different organs at the transcriptome level. We got an insight into the gene regulation mechanism of the loss of the endospermous seed, the wide ecological adaptability and the synthesis of polysaccharides, which provided a theoretical basis for genetic engineering breeding and development and utilization of active pharmaceutical ingredients...
June 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821769/patterns-of-transcriptional-parallelism-and-variation-in-the-developing-olfactory-system-of-drosophila-species
#2
Jia Wern Pan, Qingyun Li, Scott Barish, Sumie Okuwa, Songhui Zhao, Charles Soeder, Matthew Kanke, Corbin D Jones, Pelin Cayirlioglu Volkan
Organisms have evolved strikingly parallel phenotypes in response to similar selection pressures suggesting that there may be shared constraints limiting the possible evolutionary trajectories. For example, the behavioral adaptation of specialist Drosophila species to specific host plants can exhibit parallel changes in their adult olfactory neuroanatomy. We investigated the genetic basis of these parallel changes by comparing gene expression during the development of the olfactory system of two specialist Drosophila species to that of four other generalist species...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820121/aureimonas-endophytica-sp-nov-a-novel-endophytic-bacterium-isolated-from-aegiceras-corniculatum
#3
Fei-Na Li, Li Tuo, Zhen Pan, Min Guo, Simon Ming-Yuen Lee, Li Chen, Lin Hu, Cheng-Hang Sun
A Gram-negative, motile, aerobic and coccoid rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain 2T4P-2-4T, was isolated from a piece of surface-sterilized bark of Aegiceras corniculatum collected from Cotai Ecological Zones in Macao, China, and tested by a polyphasic approach to clarify its taxonomic position. Strain 2T4P-2-4T grew optimally without NaCl at 28-30 °C, pH 7.0-8.0. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain 2T4P-2-4T had the highest similarity (96.2 %) to Aureimonas rubiginis CC-CFT034T. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the strain grouped with species of the genus Aureimonas...
August 18, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818915/collaborative-environmental-governance-achieving-collective-action-in-social-ecological-systems
#4
REVIEW
Örjan Bodin
Managing ecosystems is challenging because of the high number of stakeholders, the permeability of man-made political and jurisdictional demarcations in relation to the temporal and spatial extent of biophysical processes, and a limited understanding of complex ecosystem and societal dynamics. Given these conditions, collaborative governance is commonly put forward as the preferred means of addressing environmental problems. Under this paradigm, a deeper understanding of if, when, and how collaboration is effective, and when other means of addressing environmental problems are better suited, is needed...
August 18, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818519/decomposition-characteristics-of-three-different-kinds-of-aquatic-macrophytes-and-their-potential-application-as-carbon-resource-in-constructed-wetland
#5
Suqing Wu, Shengbing He, Weili Zhou, Jianya Gu, Jungchen Huang, Lei Gao, Xu Zhang
Decomposition of aquatic macrophytes usually generates significant influence on aquatic environment. Study on the aquatic macrophytes decomposition may help reusing the aquatic macrophytes litters, as well as controlling the water pollution caused by the decomposition process. This study verified that the decomposition processes of three different kinds of aquatic macrophytes (water hyacinth, hydrilla and cattail) could exert significant influences on water quality of the receiving water, including the change extent of pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), the contents of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus, etc...
August 14, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817121/meganuclease-assisted-generation-of-stable-transgenics-in-the-sea-anemone-nematostella-vectensis
#6
Eduard Renfer, Ulrich Technau
The sea anemone Nematostella vectensis is a model system used by a rapidly growing research community for comparative genomics, developmental biology and ecology. Here, we describe a microinjection procedure for creating stable transgenic lines in Nematostella based on meganuclease (I-SceI)-assisted integration of a transgenic cassette into the genome. The procedure describes the preparation of the reagents, microinjection of the transgenesis vector and the husbandry of transgenic animals. The microinjection setup differs from those of previously published protocols by the use of a holding capillary mounted on an inverted fluorescence microscope...
September 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815735/traps-and-transformations-influencing-the-financial-viability-of-tourism-on-private-land-conservation-areas
#7
Hayley S Clements, Graeme S Cumming
The ability of private conservation organizations to remain financially viable is a key factor influencing their effectiveness. A third of financially-motivated private land conservation areas (PLCAs) surveyed previously in South Africa were found to be unprofitable, raising questions about their ability to effectively adapt their business models to their socioeconomic environment. In any complex system, options for later adaptation can be constrained by starting conditions ('path dependence'). We tested three hypothesized drivers that might create path dependence in PLCA business models: (H1) land asset size (large mammalian game abundance is constrained by available land area); (H2) infrastructural asset extent (the introduction of charismatic predators, such as lion, requires substantial infrastructural investment); and (H3) productivity (rainfall limits vegetation and thereby game abundance)...
August 17, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815647/wildlife-disease-ecology-from-the-individual-to-the-population-insights-from-a-long-term-study-of-a-naturally-infected-european-badger-population
#8
Jenni L McDonald, Andrew Robertson, Matthew J Silk
1. Long-term individual-based datasets on host-pathogen systems are a rare and valuable resource for understanding the infectious disease dynamics in wildlife. A study of European badgers (Meles meles) naturally infected with bovine tuberculosis (bTB) at Woodchester Park in Gloucestershire (UK) has produced a unique dataset, facilitating investigation of a diverse range of epidemiological and ecological questions with implications for disease management. 2. Since the 1970s this badger population has been monitored with a systematic mark-recapture regime yielding a dataset of >15,000 captures of >3000 individuals, providing detailed individual life-history, morphometric, genetic, reproductive and disease data...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815592/sexual-selection-on-male-body-size-genital-length-and-heterozygosity-consistency-across-habitats-and-social-settings
#9
Megan L Head, Andrew T Kahn, Jonathan M Henshaw, J Scott Keogh, Michael D Jennions
1. Spatial and temporal variation in environmental factors and the social setting can help to maintain genetic variation in sexually selected traits if it affects the strength of directional selection. A key social parameter which affects the intensity of, and sometimes predicts the response to, mating competition is the operational sex ratio (OSR; ratio of receptive males to females). 2. How the OSR affects selection for specific male traits is poorly understood. It is also unclear how sexual selection is affected by interactions between the OSR and environmental factors, such as habitat complexity, that alter key male-female interactions such as mate encounter rates...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815142/a-data-capture-framework-for-large-scale-interventional-studies-with-survey-workflow-management
#10
Shiqiang Tao, Ningzhou Zeng, Xi Wu, Xiaojin Li, Wei Zhu, Licong Cui, G Q Zhang
Capturing high-quality survey data is an arduous process for large-scale and extensive interventional studies. This paper presents the architecture, interface design, and an innovative form generation engine of a system called RE- Form: Refactorized Electronic Web Forms. REForm provides researchers the capability to design and manage surveys and the flexibility to organize them in a customizable workflow. REForm has been designed, implemented, pilot-tested and deployed for an NCI-funded interventional study IMPACT...
2017: AMIA Summits on Translational Science Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814445/meeting-report-on-experimental-approaches-to-evolution-and-ecology-using-yeast-and-other-model-systems
#11
Daniel Jarosz, Aimée M Dudley
The fourth EMBO-sponsored conference on Experimental Approaches to Evolution and Ecology Using Yeast and Other Model Systems (https://www.embl.de/training/events/2016/EAE16-01/), was held at the EMBL in Heidelberg, Germany, October 19-23, 2016. The conference was organized by Judith Berman (Tel Aviv University), Maitreya Dunham (University of Washington), Jun-Yi Leu (Academia Sinica), and Lars Steinmetz (EMBL Heidelberg and Stanford University). The meeting attracted ~120 researchers from 28 countries and covered a wide range of topics in the fields of genetics, evolutionary biology, and ecology with a unifying focus on yeast as a model system...
August 16, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813949/monitoring-brain-potentials-to-guide-neurorehabilitation-of-tracking-impairments
#12
Boris Yazmir, Miriam Reiner
Motor impairments come in different forms. One class of motor impairments, relates to accuracy of tracking a moving object, as, for instance, when chasing in an attempt to catch it. Here we look at neural signals associated with errors in tracking, and the implications for brain-computer-interfaces that target impairment-tailored rehabilitation. As a starting point, we characterized EEG signals evoked by tracking errors during continuous natural motion, in healthy participants. Participants played a virtual 3D, ecologically valid haptic tennis game, and had to track a moving tennis ball in order to hit and send the ball towards the opponent's court...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813471/mitochondrial-genome-evolution-in-the-saccharomyces-sensu-stricto-complex
#13
Jiangxing Ruan, Jian Cheng, Tongcun Zhang, Huifeng Jiang
Exploring the evolutionary patterns of mitochondrial genomes is important for our understanding of the Saccharomyces sensu stricto (SSS) group, which is a model system for genomic evolution and ecological analysis. In this study, we first obtained the complete mitochondrial sequences of two important species, Saccharomyces mikatae and Saccharomyces kudriavzevii. We then compared the mitochondrial genomes in the SSS group with those of close relatives, and found that the non-coding regions evolved rapidly, including dramatic expansion of intergenic regions, fast evolution of introns and almost 20-fold higher rearrangement rates than those of the nuclear genomes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813285/cognitive-behavioral-couple-therapy
#14
REVIEW
Norman B Epstein, Le Zheng
This article describes how cognitive-behavioral couple therapy (CBCT) provides a good fit for intervening with a range of stressors that couples experience from within and outside their relationship. It takes an ecological perspective in which a couple is influenced by multiple systemic levels. We provide an overview of assessment and intervention strategies used to modify negative behavioral interaction patterns, inappropriate or distorted cognitions, and problems with the experience and regulation of emotions...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812849/global-health-in-the-anthropocene-moving-beyond-resilience-and-capitalism-comment-on-health-promotion-in-an-age-of-normative-equity-and-rampant-inequality
#15
Remco van de Pas
There has been much reflection on the need for a new understanding of global health and the urgency of a paradigm shift to address global health issues. A crucial question is whether this is still possible in current modes of global governance based on capitalist values. Four reflections are provided. (1) Ecological -centered values must become central in any future global health framework. (2) The objectives of 'sustainability' and 'economic growth' present a profound contradiction. (3) The resilience discourse maintains a gridlock in the functioning of the global health system...
December 24, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812699/primate-brain-size-is-predicted-by-diet-but-not-sociality
#16
Alex R DeCasien, Scott A Williams, James P Higham
The social brain hypothesis posits that social complexity is the primary driver of primate cognitive complexity, and that social pressures ultimately led to the evolution of the large human brain. Although this idea has been supported by studies indicating positive relationships between relative brain and/or neocortex size and group size, reported effects of different social and mating systems are highly conflicting. Here, we use a much larger sample of primates, more recent phylogenies, and updated statistical techniques, to show that brain size is predicted by diet, rather than multiple measures of sociality, after controlling for body size and phylogeny...
March 27, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812691/a-macroecological-theory-of-microbial-biodiversity
#17
William R Shoemaker, Kenneth J Locey, Jay T Lennon
Microorganisms are the most abundant, diverse and functionally important organisms on Earth. Over the past decade, microbial ecologists have produced the largest ever community datasets. However, these data are rarely used to uncover law-like patterns of commonness and rarity, test theories of biodiversity, or explore unifying explanations for the structure of microbial communities. Using a global scale compilation of >20,000 samples from environmental, engineered and host-related ecosystems, we test the power of competing theories to predict distributions of microbial abundance and diversity-abundance scaling laws...
April 3, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812678/the-multilayer-nature-of-ecological-networks
#18
Shai Pilosof, Mason A Porter, Mercedes Pascual, Sonia Kéfi
Although networks provide a powerful approach to study a large variety of ecological systems, their formulation does not typically account for multiple interaction types, interactions that vary in space and time, and interconnected systems such as networks of networks. The emergent field of 'multilayer networks' provides a natural framework for extending analyses of ecological systems to include such multiple layers of complexity, as it specifically allows one to differentiate and model 'intralayer' and 'interlayer' connectivity...
March 23, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812672/rapid-and-direct-recoveries-of-predators-and-prey-through-synchronized-ecosystem-management
#19
Jameal F Samhouri, Adrian C Stier, Shannon M Hennessey, Mark Novak, Benjamin S Halpern, Phillip S Levin
One of the twenty-first century's greatest environmental challenges is to recover and restore species, habitats and ecosystems. The decision about how to initiate restoration is best-informed by an understanding of the linkages between ecosystem components and, given these linkages, an appreciation of the consequences of choosing to recover one ecosystem component before another. However, it remains difficult to predict how the sequence of species' recoveries within food webs influences the speed and trajectory of restoration, and what that means for human well-being...
March 1, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812622/species-rich-networks-and-eco-evolutionary-synthesis-at-the-metacommunity-level
#20
Hirokazu Toju, Masato Yamamichi, Paulo R Guimarães, Jens M Olesen, Akihiko Mougi, Takehito Yoshida, John N Thompson
Understanding how ecological and evolutionary processes interdependently structure biosphere dynamics is a major challenge in the era of worldwide ecosystem degradation. However, our knowledge of 'eco-evolutionary feedbacks' depends largely on findings from simple systems representing limited spatial scales and involving few species. Here we review recent conceptual developments for the understanding of multispecies coevolutionary processes and then discuss how new lines of concepts and methods will accelerate the integration of ecology and evolutionary biology...
January 24, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
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