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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531221/human-paleodiet-and-animal-utilization-strategies-during-the-bronze-age-in-northwest-yunnan-province-southwest-china
#1
Lele Ren, Xin Li, Lihong Kang, Katherine Brunson, Honggao Liu, Weimiao Dong, Haiming Li, Rui Min, Xu Liu, Guanghui Dong
Reconstructing ancient diets and the use of animals and plants augment our understanding of how humans adapted to different environments. Yunnan Province in southwest China is ecologically and environmentally diverse. During the Neolithic and Bronze Age periods, this region was occupied by a variety of local culture groups with diverse subsistence systems and material culture. In this paper, we obtained carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotopic ratios from human and faunal remains in order to reconstruct human paleodiets and strategies for animal exploitation at the Bronze Age site of Shilinggang (ca...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530167/biofilm-community-succession-a-neutral-perspective
#2
Stephen Woodcock, William T Sloan
Although biofilms represent one of the dominant forms of life in aqueous environments, our understanding of the assembly and development of their microbial communities remains relatively poor. In recent years, several studies have addressed this and have extended the concepts of succession theory in classical ecology into microbial systems. From these datasets, niche-based conceptual models have been developed explaining observed biodiversity patterns and their dynamics. These models have not, however, been formulated mathematically and so remain untested...
May 22, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528650/the-role-of-intermetal-competition-and-mis-metalation-in-metal-toxicity
#3
Anna Barwinska-Sendra, Kevin J Waldron
The metals manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper and zinc are essential for almost all bacteria, but their precise metal requirements vary by species, by ecological niche and by growth condition. Bacteria thus must acquire each of these essential elements in sufficient quantity to satisfy their cellular demand, but in excess these same elements are toxic. Metal toxicity has been exploited by humanity for centuries, and by the mammalian immune system for far longer, yet the mechanisms by which these elements cause toxicity to bacteria are not fully understood...
2017: Advances in Microbial Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528276/a-review-of-neighborhood-effects-and-early-child-development-how-where-and-for-whom-do-neighborhoods-matter
#4
REVIEW
Anita Minh, Nazeem Muhajarine, Magdalena Janus, Marni Brownell, Martin Guhn
This paper describes a scoping review of 42 studies of neighborhood effects on developmental health for children ages 0-6, published between 2009 and 2014. It focuses on three themes: (1) theoretical mechanisms that drive early childhood development, i.e. how neighborhoods matter for early childhood development; (2) dependence of such mechanisms on place-based characteristics i.e. where neighborhood effects occur; (3) dependence of such mechanisms on child characteristics, i.e. for whom is development most affected...
May 18, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527292/-triatoma-dimidiata-in-colombia-distribution-ecology-and-epidemiological-importance
#5
Óscar Quirós-Gómez, Nicolás Jaramillo, Víctor Angulo, Gabriel Parra-Henao
Triatoma dimidiata is an important vector of Chagas disease in Central America and countries of northern South America. In Colombia, it has a wide geographical distribution with reported presence in 14 departments in the Andean, Caribbean, Eastern plains and Upper Magdalena regions, where it occupies different natural and artificial ecotopes. The species is considered a secondary vector in the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi. Its presence in wild, peridomestic and intradomiciliary habitats in the Andean region, coupled with its ability to move between them, has allowed it to escape the control based on pyrethroids spraying, highlighting its importance in maintaining transmission of the parasite through the potential reinfestation of homes...
June 1, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524866/succession-in-the-petroleum-reservoir-microbiome-through-an-oil-field-production-lifecycle
#6
Adrien Vigneron, Eric B Alsop, Bartholomeus P Lomans, Nikos C Kyrpides, Ian M Head, Nicolas Tsesmetzis
Subsurface petroleum reservoirs are an important component of the deep biosphere where indigenous microorganisms live under extreme conditions and in isolation from the Earth's surface for millions of years. However, unlike the bulk of the deep biosphere, the petroleum reservoir deep biosphere is subject to extreme anthropogenic perturbation, with the introduction of new electron acceptors, donors and exogenous microbes during oil exploration and production. Despite the fundamental and practical significance of this perturbation, there has never been a systematic evaluation of the ecological changes that occur over the production lifetime of an active offshore petroleum production system...
May 19, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524860/an-invariability-area-relationship-sheds-new-light-on-the-spatial-scaling-of-ecological-stability
#7
Shaopeng Wang, Michel Loreau, Jean-Francois Arnoldi, Jingyun Fang, K Abd Rahman, Shengli Tao, Claire de Mazancourt
The spatial scaling of stability is key to understanding ecological sustainability across scales and the sensitivity of ecosystems to habitat destruction. Here we propose the invariability-area relationship (IAR) as a novel approach to investigate the spatial scaling of stability. The shape and slope of IAR are largely determined by patterns of spatial synchrony across scales. When synchrony decays exponentially with distance, IARs exhibit three phases, characterized by steeper increases in invariability at both small and large scales...
May 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522173/variation-in-the-immune-state-of-gammarus-pulex-crustacea-amphipoda-according-to-temperature-are-extreme-temperatures-a-stress
#8
Sophie Labaude, Yannick Moret, Frank Cézilly, Charel Reuland, Thierry Rigaud
Temperature is known to impact host-parasite interactions in various ways. Such effects are often regarded as the consequence of the increased metabolism of parasites with increasing temperature. However, the effect of temperature on hosts' immune system could also be a determinant. Here we assessed the influence of temperature on the immunocompetence of the crustacean amphipod Gammarus pulex. Amphipods play a key ecological role in freshwater ecosystems that can be altered by several parasites. We investigated the consequences of three weeks of acclimatization at four temperatures (from 9 °C to 17 °C) on different immunological parameters...
May 15, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518116/the-wincf-model-an-inexpensive-and-tractable-microcosm-of-a-mucus-plugged-bronchiole-to-study-the-microbiology-of-lung-infections
#9
William J Comstock, Edwin Huh, Reiley Weekes, Connor Watson, Tianyang Xu, Pieter C Dorrestein, Robert A Quinn
Many chronic airway diseases result in mucus plugging of the airways. Lungs of an individual with cystic fibrosis are an exemplary case where their mucus-plugged bronchioles create a favorable habitat for microbial colonization. Various pathogens thrive in this environment interacting with each other and driving many of the symptoms associated with CF disease. Like any microbial community, the chemical conditions of their habitat have a significant impact on the community structure and dynamics. For example, different microorganisms thrive in differing levels of oxygen or other solute concentrations...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516427/the-organism-strikes-back-chlorella-algae-and-their-impact-on-photosynthesis-research-1920s-1960s
#10
Kärin Nickelsen
Historians and philosophers of twentieth-century life sciences have demonstrated that the choice of experimental organism can profoundly influence research fields, in ways that sometimes undermined the scientists' original intentions. The present paper aims to enrich and broaden the scope of this literature by analysing the career of unicellular green algae of the genus Chlorella. They were introduced for the study of photosynthesis in 1919 by the German cell physiologist Otto H. Warburg, and they became the favourite research objects in this field up to the 1960s...
June 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516321/evaluating-local-adaptation-of-a-complex-phenotype-reciprocal-tests-of-pigmy-rattlesnake-venoms-on-treefrog-prey
#11
Sarah A Smiley-Walters, Terence M Farrell, H Lisle Gibbs
Theory predicts that predator-prey interactions can generate reciprocal selection pressures on species pairs, which can result in local adaptation, yet the presence and pattern of local adaptation is poorly studied in vertebrate predator-prey systems. Here, we used a reciprocal common garden (laboratory) experimental design involving comparisons between local and foreign populations to determine if local adaptation was present between a generalist predator-the pigmy rattlesnake (Sistrurus miliarius)-and a co-occurring prey-the squirrel treefrog (Hyla squirella)...
May 17, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515867/the-evolution-of-the-major-histocompatibility-complex-in-upstream-versus-downstream-river-populations-of-the-longnose-dace
#12
Erika Crispo, Haley R Tunna, Noreen Hussain, Silvia S Rodriguez, Scott A Pavey, Leland J Jackson, Sean M Rogers
Populations in upstream versus downstream river locations can be exposed to vastly different environmental and ecological conditions and can thus harbor different genetic resources due to selection and neutral processes. An interesting question is how upstream-downstream directionality in rivers affects the evolution of immune response genes. We used next-generation amplicon sequencing to identify eight alleles of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II β exon 2 in the cyprinid longnose dace (Rhinichthys cataractae) from three rivers in Alberta, upstream and downstream of municipal and agricultural areas along contaminant gradients...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515428/cell-morphology-governs-directional-control-in-swimming-bacteria
#13
Òscar Guadayol, Katie L Thornton, Stuart Humphries
The ability to rapidly detect and track nutrient gradients is key to the ecological success of motile bacteria in aquatic systems. Consequently, bacteria have evolved a number of chemotactic strategies that consist of sequences of straight runs and reorientations. Theoretically, both phases are affected by fluid drag and Brownian motion, which are themselves governed by cell geometry. Here, we experimentally explore the effect of cell length on control of swimming direction. We subjected Escherichia coli to an antibiotic to obtain motile cells of different lengths, and characterized their swimming patterns in a homogeneous medium...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515204/a-genetic-legacy-of-introgression-confounds-phylogeny-and-biogeography-in-oaks
#14
John D McVay, Andrew L Hipp, Paul S Manos
Oaks (Quercus L.) have long been suspected to hybridize in nature, and widespread genetic exchange between morphologically defined species is well documented in two- to six-species systems, but the phylogenetic consequences of hybridization in oaks have never been demonstrated in a phylogenetically diverse sample. Here, we present phylogenomic analyses of a ca 30 Myr clade that strongly support morphologically defined species and the resolution of novel clades of white oaks; however, historical hybridization across clade boundaries is detectable and, undiagnosed, would obscure the imprint of biogeographic history in the phylogeny...
May 17, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514432/the-perception-of-strigolactones-in-vascular-plants
#15
REVIEW
Shelley Lumba, Duncan Holbrook-Smith, Peter McCourt
Small-molecule hormones play central roles in plant development, ranging from cellular differentiation and organ formation to developmental response instruction in changing environments. A recently discovered collection of related small molecules collectively called strigolactones are of particular interest, as these hormones also function as ecological communicators between plants and fungi and between parasitic plants and their hosts. Advances from model plant systems have begun to unravel how, as a hormone, strigolactone is perceived and transduced...
May 17, 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513564/tetrodotoxin-producing-bacteria-detection-distribution-and-migration-of-the-toxin-in-aquatic-systems
#16
REVIEW
Timur Yu Magarlamov, Daria I Melnikova, Alexey V Chernyshev
This review is devoted to the marine bacterial producers of tetrodotoxin (TTX), a potent non-protein neuroparalytic toxin. In addition to the issues of the ecology and distribution of TTX-producing bacteria, this review examines issues relating to toxin migration from bacteria to TTX-bearing animals. It is shown that the mechanism of TTX extraction from toxin-producing bacteria to the environment occur through cell death, passive/active toxin excretion, or spore germination of spore-forming bacteria. Data on TTX microdistribution in toxic organs of TTX-bearing animals indicate toxin migration from the digestive system to target organs through the transport system of the organism...
May 17, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513415/the-fungal-cell-wall-structure-biosynthesis-and-function
#17
Neil A R Gow, Jean-Paul Latge, Carol A Munro
The molecular composition of the cell wall is critical for the biology and ecology of each fungal species. Fungal walls are composed of matrix components that are embedded and linked to scaffolds of fibrous load-bearing polysaccharides. Most of the major cell wall components of fungal pathogens are not represented in humans, other mammals, or plants, and therefore the immune systems of animals and plants have evolved to recognize many of the conserved elements of fungal walls. For similar reasons the enzymes that assemble fungal cell wall components are excellent targets for antifungal chemotherapies and fungicides...
May 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512383/effects-of-cover-crops-on-pratylenchus-penetrans-and-the-nematode-community-in-carrot-production
#18
Zane J Grabau, Zin Thu Zar Maung, D Corey Noyes, Dean G Baas, Benjamin P Werling, Daniel C Brainard, Haddish Melakeberhan
Cover cropping is a common practice in U.S. Midwest carrot production for soil conservation, and may affect soil ecology and plant-parasitic nematodes-to which carrots are very susceptible. This study assessed the impact of cover crops-oats (Avena sativa), radish (Raphanus sativus) cv. Defender, rape (Brassica napus) cv. Dwarf Essex, and a mixture of oats and radish-on plant-parasitic nematodes and soil ecology based on the nematode community in Michigan carrot production systems. Research was conducted at two field sites where cover crops were grown in Fall 2014 preceding Summer 2015 carrot production...
March 2017: Journal of Nematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509389/a-revised-sociogenomic-model-of-personality-traits
#19
Brent W Roberts
In this paper, I seek to update the sociogenomic model of personality traits (Roberts & Jackson, 2008). Specifically, I seek to outline a broader and more comprehensive theoretical perspective on personality traits than offered in the original version of the sociogenomic model of personality traits. First, I review the major points of our 2008 paper. Second, I update our earlier model mostly with insights derived from a deeper reading of evolutionary theoretical systems, such as those found in life-history theory and ecological-evolutionary-developmental biology...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507698/formicamycins-antibacterial-polyketides-produced-by-streptomyces-formicae-isolated-from-african-tetraponera-plant-ants
#20
Zhiwei Qin, John T Munnoch, Rebecca Devine, Neil A Holmes, Ryan F Seipke, Karl A Wilkinson, Barrie Wilkinson, Matthew I Hutchings
We report a new Streptomyces species named S. formicae that was isolated from the African fungus-growing plant-ant Tetraponera penzigi and show that it produces novel pentacyclic polyketides that are active against MRSA and VRE. The chemical scaffold of these compounds, which we have called the formicamycins, is similar to the fasamycins identified from the heterologous expression of clones isolated from environmental DNA, but has significant differences that allow the scaffold to be decorated with up to four halogen atoms...
April 1, 2017: Chemical Science
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