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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865243/lessons-learnt-from-active-tuberculosis-case-finding-in-an-urban-slum-setting-of-agra-city-india
#1
Banuru Muralidhara Prasad, Srinath Satyanarayana, Sarabjit Singh Chadha
Active case finding (ACF) is recognized as one of the key strategies to reach the missing 3 million cases in high tuberculosis (TB) burden countries. In India, we conducted ACF as a pilot project to assess its operational feasibility in four slums of Agra city in 2012 and covered 3940 households (in 14 wards) with a population of 21,870. Trained community volunteers visited households with an intention to provide information on TB and refer those with cough ≥2 weeks for sputum smear examination. Volunteers identified 8 persons with cough of ≥2 weeks by asking the first or the main respondent of the household...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865238/tuberculosis-prevalence-and-socio-economic-differentials-in-the-slums-of-four-metropolitan-cities-of-india
#2
Palaniappan Marimuthu
AIM: To understand tuberculosis (TB) prevalence among the slum dwellers of metropolitan cities of India and the factors associated with TB prevalence. METHODS: National Family Health Survey-III data for four metropolitan cities namely, Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai was used for this study. RESULTS: Prevalence of TB is significantly (P=0.001) higher in the slums than non-slums of Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata cities. As the living standard increases, TB prevalence decreases...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863317/evaluating-promis-%C3%A2-applied-cognition-items-in-a-sample-of-older-adults-at-risk-for-cognitive-decline
#3
Molly Howland, Curtis Tatsuoka, Kathleen A Smyth, Martha Sajatovic
PROMIS(®) Applied Cognition is a short self-assessment of cognitive abilities and concerns that eliminates the need for a trained rater and provides online question banks that can be uniformly used across health care providers. This 12-month prospective study of 281 elderly individuals evaluates self-perceptions of cognitive functioning in relation to objective cognition, or assessment by an external rater, and compares PROMIS® Applied Cognition Abilities and Concerns subsets with commonly used "legacy" instruments...
November 1, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843827/anemia-and-its-determinants-among-women-of-reproductive-age-of-a-slum-in-kolkata-a-focus-group-discussion-among-health-workers-in-a-slum-of-kolkata
#4
Aparajita Dasgupta, Kaushik Sarkar, Ranadip Chowdhury, Arindam Ray, Bhaskar Shahbabu
CONTEXT: Anemia is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality among women of reproductive age. Progress toward reducing the burden of anemia has been little despite efforts through decades. AIMS: We conducted this study to unearth the microlevel determinants of anemia among women of reproductive age. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This qualitative study was conducted in Urban Health Centre (UHC), Chetla. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A focus group discussion was held among all the eight health staffs, who were involved in reproductive and child health-related service delivery under UHC, Chetla...
April 2016: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806533/epidemiologic-correlates-of-chronic-respiratory-infections-in-adults-an-urban-slum-of-bhubaneswar-odisha-india
#5
Sonali Kar, Ipsa Mohapatra, Amrita Konar
INTRODUCTION: Urbanization is marked by emergence of slum areas, wherein migrants from the nearby villages stay in temporary establishments for seeking avenues of employment. These dwellings lack most of the essential living conditions like safe water, healthy living conditions and access to health services. This population is also vulnerable to social evils like alcohol and tobacco addiction. KIMS, a medical college in Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India has an Urban Health Training Centre (UHTC) that caters to a slum population of nearly 12,000 population for their primary health needs...
August 4, 2016: Global Journal of Health Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793115/women-s-status-and-experiences-of-mistreatment-during-childbirth-in-uttar-pradesh-a-mixed-methods-study-using-cultural-health-capital-theory
#6
May Sudhinaraset, Emily Treleaven, Jason Melo, Kanksha Singh, Nadia Diamond-Smith
BACKGROUND: Mistreatment of women in healthcare settings during childbirth has been gaining attention globally. Mistreatment during childbirth directly and indirectly affects health outcomes, patient satisfaction, and the likelihood of delivering in a facility currently or in the future. It is important that we study patients' reports of mistreatment and abuse to develop a deeper understanding of how it is perpetrated, its consequences, and to identify potential points of intervention...
October 28, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788441/early-testing-of-new-sanitation-technology-for-urban-slums-the-case-of-the-blue-diversion-toilet
#7
Robert Tobias, Mark O'Keefe, Rahel Künzle, Heiko Gebauer, Harald Gründl, Eberhard Morgenroth, Wouter Pronk, Tove A Larsen
The toilets used most in informal urban settlements have detrimental consequences for the environment and human health due to the lack of proper collection and treatment of toilet waste. Concepts for safe, sustainable and affordable sanitation systems exist, but their feasibility and acceptance have to be investigated at an early stage of development, which is difficult due to the high costs of building working models. In this paper, we present an approach to estimate acceptance in a valid and representative form with only one working model, and apply it to test an innovative zero-emission toilet with recycling of wash water...
October 24, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788377/individual-and-contextual-characteristics-of-indoor-and-outdoor-falls-in-older-residents-of-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-brazil
#8
Carla Ferreira do Nascimento, Yeda Aparecida Oliveira Duarte, Maria Lúcia Lebrão, Alexandre Dias Porto Chiavegatto Filho
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: To analyze a representative sample of older individuals of São Paulo, Brazil, according to outdoor fallers, indoor fallers and non-fallers, and to identify biological and socioeconomic (individual and contextual) factors associated with the occurrence and place of falls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted using data (n = 1345) from the 2010 wave of the Health, Wellbeing and Aging (SABE) Study, a representative sample of older residents (60 years and older) of São Paulo, Brazil...
January 2017: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784996/effectiveness-of-the-health-complex-model-in-iranian-primary-health-care-reform-the-study-protocol
#9
Jafar Sadegh Tabrizi, Mostafa Farahbakhsh, Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani, Roya Hassanzadeh, Akram Zakeri, Leili Abedi
BACKGROUND: Iranian traditional primary health care (PHC) system, although proven to be successful in some areas in rural populations, suffers major pitfalls in providing PHC services in urban areas especially the slum urban areas. The new government of Iran announced a health reform movement including the health reform in PHC system of Iran. The Health Complex Model (HCM) was chosen as the preferred health reform model for this purpose. METHODS: This paper aims to report a detailed research protocol for the assessment of the effectiveness of the HCM in Iran...
2016: Patient Preference and Adherence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780498/factors-affecting-carriage-and-intensity-of-infection-of-calodium-hepaticum-within-norway-rats-rattus-norvegicus-from-an-urban-slum-environment-in-salvador-brazil
#10
R Walker, T Carvalho-Pereira, S Serrano, G Pedra, K Hacker, J Taylor, A Minter, A Pertile, A Panti-May, M Carvalho, F N Souza, N Nery, G Rodrigues, T Bahiense, M G Reis, A I Ko, J E Childs, M Begon, F Costa
Urban slum environments in the tropics are conducive to the proliferation and the spread of rodent-borne zoonotic pathogens to humans. Calodium hepaticum (Brancroft, 1893) is a zoonotic nematode known to infect a variety of mammalian hosts, including humans. Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) are considered the most important mammalian host of C. hepaticum and are therefore a potentially useful species to inform estimates of the risk to humans living in urban slum environments. There is a lack of studies systematically evaluating the role of demographic and environmental factors that influence both carriage and intensity of infection of C...
October 26, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771634/cross-sectional-serologic-assessment-of-immunity-to-poliovirus-in-differential-risk-areas-of-india-india-seroprevalence-survey-2014
#11
Mohammad Ahmad, Sunil Bahl, Abhishek Kunwar
OBJECTIVE: To assess the seroprevalence against all three poliovirus serotypes in traditional high risk areas in Bihar, lowest routine immunization coverage areas in Madhya Pradesh and migrant population living in Mumbai urban slums. DESIGN: Cross-sectional Survey. SETTING: Subjects selected by house to house visit (community based) and transported to government health facilities for further study procedures. PARTICIPANTS: 1137 randomly selected healthy infants 6-11 months of age residing in the selected high-risk areas...
August 7, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760724/managing-threats-to-respiratory-health-in-urban-slums
#12
William Checkley, Suzanne L Pollard, Trishul Siddharthan, Giridhara R Babu, Megha Thakur, Catherine H Miele, Onno Cp Van Schayck
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 12, 2016: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760703/the-history-geography-and-sociology-of-slums-and-the-health-problems-of-people-who-live-in-slums
#13
Alex Ezeh, Oyinlola Oyebode, David Satterthwaite, Yen-Fu Chen, Robert Ndugwa, Jo Sartori, Blessing Mberu, G J Melendez-Torres, Tilahun Haregu, Samuel I Watson, Waleska Caiaffa, Anthony Capon, Richard J Lilford
Massive slums have become major features of cities in many low-income and middle-income countries. Here, in the first in a Series of two papers, we discuss why slums are unhealthy places with especially high risks of infection and injury. We show that children are especially vulnerable, and that the combination of malnutrition and recurrent diarrhoea leads to stunted growth and longer-term effects on cognitive development. We find that the scientific literature on slum health is underdeveloped in comparison to urban health, and poverty and health...
October 12, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760702/improving-the-health-and-welfare-of-people-who-live-in-slums
#14
Richard J Lilford, Oyinlola Oyebode, David Satterthwaite, G J Melendez-Torres, Yen-Fu Chen, Blessing Mberu, Samuel I Watson, Jo Sartori, Robert Ndugwa, Waleska Caiaffa, Tilahun Haregu, Anthony Capon, Ruhi Saith, Alex Ezeh
In the first paper in this Series we assessed theoretical and empirical evidence and concluded that the health of people living in slums is a function not only of poverty but of intimately shared physical and social environments. In this paper we extend the theory of so-called neighbourhood effects. Slums offer high returns on investment because beneficial effects are shared across many people in densely populated neighbourhoods. Neighbourhood effects also help explain how and why the benefits of interventions vary between slum and non-slum spaces and between slums...
October 12, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756241/drug-susceptibility-profiles-of-pulmonary-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates-from-patients-in-informal-urban-settlements-in-nairobi-kenya
#15
Glennah Kerubo, Evans Amukoye, Stefan Niemann, Samuel Kariuki
BACKGROUND: Anti-tuberculosis drug resistance is an emerging health problem in Kenya and especially in slums. Slum environments create a conducive environment for the spread of tuberculosis (TB) due to high population density and lack of basic amenities such as decent housing, access to clean water, lack of drainage and basic sanitation. Furthermore, ineffective health services in crowded and poorer populations, poor patient compliance, a large pool of untreated cases, delayed diagnosis and inappropriate treatment regimens are likely to favour selection and spread of drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) strains in such settings, however, precise data on this problem are only sparsely available...
October 19, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754308/lbos-03-03-economic-impact-of-hypertension
#16
Charu Kohli, Kalika Gupta
OBJECTIVE: To assess average out of expenditure incurred on hypertension management and treatment seeking behaviour among patients in Delhi, India. DESIGN AND METHOD: A community based cross sectional study was conducted in rural and urban slum areas of Delhi to select a total of 160 (142 rural and 18 urban slum) hypertension patients. These patients were detected from the cross sectional screening survey among 200 adults in urban area and 1005 in rural area selected by systematic random sampling...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740925/a-cross-sectional-study-to-assess-awareness-about-menstruation-in-adolescent-girls-of-an-urban-slum-in-western-maharashtra
#17
Puja Dudeja, Apoorva Sindhu, Pooja Shankar, Tukaram Gadekar
INTRODUCTION: Reproductive health of adolescent girls is crucial as it determines the health of future generations. School girls when experiencing menarche find themselves in a setting without water, toilets or a supportive female teacher to explain the changes happening in their body. An important concern for adolescent girls is to have adequate, correct knowledge along with facilities and the cultural environment to manage menstruation hygienically and with dignity. Hence, the present study was done to assess knowledge and practices about menstruation in adolescent school girls of an urban slum...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737663/socioeconomic-inequalities-in-catastrophic-health-expenditure-and-impoverishment-associated-with-non-communicable-diseases-in-urban-hanoi-vietnam
#18
Vu Duy Kien, Hoang Van Minh, Kim Bao Giang, Amy Dao, Le Thanh Tuan, Nawi Ng
BACKGROUND: The catastrophic health expenditure and impoverishment indices offer guidance for developing appropriate health policies and intervention programs to decrease financial inequity. This study assesses socioeconomic inequalities in catastrophic health expenditure and impoverishment in relation to self-reported non-communicable diseases (NCD) in urban Hanoi, Vietnam. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from February to March 2013 in Hanoi, the capital city of Vietnam...
October 13, 2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732596/evaluation-of-maternal-health-service-indicators-in-urban-slum-of-bangladesh
#19
Saira Parveen Jolly, Mahfuzar Rahman, Kaosar Afsana, Fakir Md Yunus, Ahmed M R Chowdhury
BACKGROUND: A continuous influx of poor people to urban slums poses a challenge to Bangladesh's health system as it has failed to tackle maternal morbidity and mortality. BRAC is the largest non-governmental organisation in Bangladesh. BRAC has been working to reduce maternal, neonatal and under-five children morbidity and mortality of slum dwellers in cities. BRAC has been doing this work for a decade through a programme called MANOSHI. This programme provides door-to-door services to its beneficiaries through community health workers (CHWs) and normal delivery service through its delivery and maternity centres...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685999/public-health-risks-in-urban-slums-findings-of-the-qualitative-healthy-kitchens-healthy-cities-study-in-kathmandu-nepal
#20
Helen Elsey, Shraddha Manandah, Dilip Sah, Sudeepa Khanal, Frances MacGuire, Rebecca King, Hilary Wallace, Sushil Chandra Baral
BACKGROUND: Communities in urban slums face multiple risks to their health. These are shaped by intermediary and structural determinants. Gaining a clear understanding of these determinants is a prerequisite for developing interventions to reduce the health consequences of urban poverty. With 828 million people living in slum conditions, the need to find ways to reduce risks to health has never been greater. In many low income settings, the kitchen is the epicentre of activities and behaviours which either undermine or enhance health...
2016: PloS One
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