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Slum health

Mohammad Ahmad, Sunil Bahl, Abhishek Kunwar
OBJECTIVE: To assess the seroprevalence against all three poliovirus serotypes in traditional high risk areas in Bihar, lowest routine immunization coverage areas in Madhya Pradesh and migrant population living in Mumbai urban slums. DESIGN: Cross-sectional Survey. SETTING: Subjects selected by house to house visit (community based) and transported to government health facilities for further study procedures. PARTICIPANTS: 1137 randomly selected healthy infants 6-11 months of age residing in the selected high-risk areas...
August 7, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
William Checkley, Suzanne L Pollard, Trishul Siddharthan, Giridhara R Babu, Megha Thakur, Catherine H Miele, Onno Cp Van Schayck
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 12, 2016: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
Alex Ezeh, Oyinlola Oyebode, David Satterthwaite, Yen-Fu Chen, Robert Ndugwa, Jo Sartori, Blessing Mberu, G J Melendez-Torres, Tilahun Haregu, Samuel I Watson, Waleska Caiaffa, Anthony Capon, Richard J Lilford
Massive slums have become major features of cities in many low-income and middle-income countries. Here, in the first in a Series of two papers, we discuss why slums are unhealthy places with especially high risks of infection and injury. We show that children are especially vulnerable, and that the combination of malnutrition and recurrent diarrhoea leads to stunted growth and longer-term effects on cognitive development. We find that the scientific literature on slum health is underdeveloped in comparison to urban health, and poverty and health...
October 12, 2016: Lancet
Richard J Lilford, Oyinlola Oyebode, David Satterthwaite, G J Melendez-Torres, Yen-Fu Chen, Blessing Mberu, Samuel I Watson, Jo Sartori, Robert Ndugwa, Waleska Caiaffa, Tilahun Haregu, Anthony Capon, Ruhi Saith, Alex Ezeh
In the first paper in this Series we assessed theoretical and empirical evidence and concluded that the health of people living in slums is a function not only of poverty but of intimately shared physical and social environments. In this paper we extend the theory of so-called neighbourhood effects. Slums offer high returns on investment because beneficial effects are shared across many people in densely populated neighbourhoods. Neighbourhood effects also help explain how and why the benefits of interventions vary between slum and non-slum spaces and between slums...
October 12, 2016: Lancet
Glennah Kerubo, Evans Amukoye, Stefan Niemann, Samuel Kariuki
BACKGROUND: Anti-tuberculosis drug resistance is an emerging health problem in Kenya and especially in slums. Slum environments create a conducive environment for the spread of tuberculosis (TB) due to high population density and lack of basic amenities such as decent housing, access to clean water, lack of drainage and basic sanitation. Furthermore, ineffective health services in crowded and poorer populations, poor patient compliance, a large pool of untreated cases, delayed diagnosis and inappropriate treatment regimens are likely to favour selection and spread of drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) strains in such settings, however, precise data on this problem are only sparsely available...
October 19, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Charu Kohli, Kalika Gupta
OBJECTIVE: To assess average out of expenditure incurred on hypertension management and treatment seeking behaviour among patients in Delhi, India. DESIGN AND METHOD: A community based cross sectional study was conducted in rural and urban slum areas of Delhi to select a total of 160 (142 rural and 18 urban slum) hypertension patients. These patients were detected from the cross sectional screening survey among 200 adults in urban area and 1005 in rural area selected by systematic random sampling...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Puja Dudeja, Apoorva Sindhu, Pooja Shankar, Tukaram Gadekar
INTRODUCTION: Reproductive health of adolescent girls is crucial as it determines the health of future generations. School girls when experiencing menarche find themselves in a setting without water, toilets or a supportive female teacher to explain the changes happening in their body. An important concern for adolescent girls is to have adequate, correct knowledge along with facilities and the cultural environment to manage menstruation hygienically and with dignity. Hence, the present study was done to assess knowledge and practices about menstruation in adolescent school girls of an urban slum...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
Vu Duy Kien, Hoang Van Minh, Kim Bao Giang, Amy Dao, Le Thanh Tuan, Nawi Ng
BACKGROUND: The catastrophic health expenditure and impoverishment indices offer guidance for developing appropriate health policies and intervention programs to decrease financial inequity. This study assesses socioeconomic inequalities in catastrophic health expenditure and impoverishment in relation to self-reported non-communicable diseases (NCD) in urban Hanoi, Vietnam. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from February to March 2013 in Hanoi, the capital city of Vietnam...
October 13, 2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
Saira Parveen Jolly, Mahfuzar Rahman, Kaosar Afsana, Fakir Md Yunus, Ahmed M R Chowdhury
BACKGROUND: A continuous influx of poor people to urban slums poses a challenge to Bangladesh's health system as it has failed to tackle maternal morbidity and mortality. BRAC is the largest non-governmental organisation in Bangladesh. BRAC has been working to reduce maternal, neonatal and under-five children morbidity and mortality of slum dwellers in cities. BRAC has been doing this work for a decade through a programme called MANOSHI. This programme provides door-to-door services to its beneficiaries through community health workers (CHWs) and normal delivery service through its delivery and maternity centres...
2016: PloS One
Helen Elsey, Shraddha Manandah, Dilip Sah, Sudeepa Khanal, Frances MacGuire, Rebecca King, Hilary Wallace, Sushil Chandra Baral
BACKGROUND: Communities in urban slums face multiple risks to their health. These are shaped by intermediary and structural determinants. Gaining a clear understanding of these determinants is a prerequisite for developing interventions to reduce the health consequences of urban poverty. With 828 million people living in slum conditions, the need to find ways to reduce risks to health has never been greater. In many low income settings, the kitchen is the epicentre of activities and behaviours which either undermine or enhance health...
2016: PloS One
Jessica Cohen, Ginger Golub, Margaret E Kruk, Margaret McConnell
Despite poverty and limited access to health care, evidence is growing that patients in low-income countries are taking a more active role in their selection of health care providers. Urban areas such as Nairobi, Kenya offer a rich context for studying these "active" patients because of the large number of heterogeneous providers available. We use a unique panel dataset from 2015 in which 402 pregnant women from peri-urban (the "slums" of) Nairobi, Kenya were interviewed three times over the course of their pregnancy and delivery, allowing us to follow women's care decisions and their perceptions of the quality of care they received...
September 22, 2016: Preventive Medicine
Sophie M Goudet, Elizabeth W Kimani-Murage, Frederick Wekesah, Milka Wanjohi, Paula L Griffiths, Barry Bogin, Nyovani J Madise
OBJECTIVE: Children in slums are at high risk of undernutrition, which has long-term negative consequences on their physical growth and cognitive development. Severe undernutrition can lead to the child's death. The present paper aimed to understand the causes of undernutrition in children as perceived by various groups of community members in Nairobi slums, Kenya. DESIGN: Analysis of ten focus group discussions and ten individual interviews with key informants...
September 20, 2016: Public Health Nutrition
Charu Kohli, Kalika Gupta
OBJECTIVE: To assess average out of expenditure incurred on hypertension management and treatment seeking behaviour among patients in Delhi, India. DESIGN AND METHOD: A community based cross sectional study was conducted in rural and urban slum areas of Delhi to select a total of 160 (142 rural and 18 urban slum) hypertension patients. These patients were detected from the cross sectional screening survey among 200 adults in urban area and 1005 in rural area selected by systematic random sampling...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Ali Nasir Siddiqui, Khalid Umer Khayyam, Manju Sharma
Despite successful implementation of directly observed treatment, short course (DOTS) in India, the growing number of diabetes mellitus (DM) patients appears to be a cause in the increasing tuberculosis (TB) incidence, affecting their management. In this regard, a prospective study was conducted on DOTS patients in three primary health care centers in urban slum region of South Delhi, India, to evaluate the effect of DM on sputum conversion, treatment outcome, and adverse drug reactions (ADR) due to anti-TB treatment...
2016: BioMed Research International
Sumina Shrestha, Monika Shrestha, Rajendra Raj Wagle, Gita Bhandari
BACKGROUND: Immunization is one of the most effective health interventions averting an estimated 2-3 million deaths every year. In Nepal, as in most low-income countries, infants are immunized with standard WHO recommended vaccines. However, 16.4 % of children did not receive complete immunization by 12 months of age in Nepal in 2011. Studies from different parts of the world showed that incomplete immunization is even higher in slums. The objective of this study was to identify the predictors of incompletion of immunization among children aged 12-23 months living in the slums of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal...
2016: BMC Public Health
Jeevan Lal Matawle, Shamsh Pervez, Anjali Shrivastava, Suresh Tiwari, Pallavi Pant, Manas Kanti Deb, Diwan Singh Bisht, Yasmeen F Pervez
PM2.5 concentrations were measured in residential indoor environment in slums of central India during 2012-2013. In addition, a suite of chemical components including metals (Al, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Pb, Mo, Se, Sb, Na, Mg, K and Hg), ions (Na(+), Mg(2+), K(+), Ca(2+), F(-), Cl(-), NH4 (+), NO3 (-) and SO4 (2-)) and carbon (OC and EC) were analyzed for all samples. Indoor PM2.5 concentrations were found to be several folds higher than the 24-h national ambient air quality standard (60 µg/m(3)) for PM2...
September 10, 2016: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Bidyut K Sarkar, Lion Shahab, Monika Arora, Jasjit S Ahluwalia, K Srinath Reddy, Robert West
INTRODUCTION: The existence of a social gradient in tobacco use has been clearly established in a number of countries with people with lower socioeconomic status being more likely to use tobacco. It is not clear how far this gradient is evident within severely deprived communities. This study assessed the association between occupation as a marker of socioeconomic status and use of smoked and smokeless tobacco within "slum" areas of Delhi, India. METHODS: A census survey of 11 888 households, comprising 30 655 adults from 28 low-income communities (14 government-authorized and 14 unauthorized settlements called "Jhuggi-Jhopri/JJ" clusters) was conducted in 2012...
August 23, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Jay G Silverman, Donta Balaiah, Julie Ritter, Anindita Dasgupta, Sabrina C Boyce, Michele R Decker, D D Naik, Saritha Nair, Niranjan Saggurti, Anita Raj
BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization is linked to a broad range of negative maternal health outcomes. However, it is unclear whether IPV is directly related to poor maternal outcomes or whether IPV is a marker for other forms of chronic, mundane maltreatment of women that stem from the culture of gender inequity that also gives rise to IPV. To determine the prevalence of non-violent forms of gender-based household maltreatment by husbands and in-laws (GBHM), and violence from in-laws (ILV) and husbands (IPV) against women during the peripregnancy period (during and in the year prior to pregnancy); to assess relative associations of GBHM, ILV and IPV with maternal health...
2016: Reproductive Health
Badeia Jawhari, Dave Ludwick, Louanne Keenan, David Zakus, Robert Hayward
BACKGROUND: The intent of this review is to discover the types of inquiry and range of objectives and outcomes addressed in studies of the impacts of Electronic Medical Record (EMR) implementations in limited resource settings in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: A state-of-the-art review characterized relevant publications from bibliographic databases and grey literature repositories through systematic searching, concept-mapping, relevance and quality filter optimization, methods and outcomes categorization and key article analysis...
2016: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
Mohammad Yousuf Mubarak, Abram L Wagner, Mari Asami, Bradley F Carlson, Matthew L Boulton
BACKGROUND: Sustained civil and military conflict, resulting in large numbers of internally displaced persons (IDP), in combination with rapid urbanization has strained public health and sanitation within cities in Afghanistan. In order to examine the association between preventive sanitary behaviors and diarrhea within two high risk settings located within Kabul, Afghanistan, this study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of hygienic practices and diarrheal illness in an IDP camp and an urban slum...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
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