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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039800/high-ethanol-contents-of-spirit-drinks-in-kibera-slums-kenya-implications-for-public-health
#1
Alex O Okaru, Kennedy O Abuga, Isaac O Kibwage, Dirk W Lachenmeier
Cheap licit and artisanal illicit spirit drinks have been associated with numerous outbreaks of alcohol poisoning especially with methanol. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of cheap spirit drinks in Kibera slums in Nairobi County, Kenya. The samples consisted of cheap licit spirits (n = 11) and the artisanal spirit drink, 'chang'aa', (n = 28). The parameters of alcoholic strength and volatile composition were used as indicators of quality and were determined using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) respectively...
October 17, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016282/analysis-of-health-indicators-in-two-rural-communities-on-the-colombian-caribbean-coast-poor-water-supply-and-education-level-are-associated-with-water-related-diseases
#2
María Stephany Ruiz-Díaz, Gustavo José Mora-García, Germán Israel Salguedo-Madrid, Doris Esther Gómez-Camargo
Water-related diseases are closely linked with drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) indicators, socioeconomic status, education level, or dwelling's conditions. Developing countries exhibit a particular vulnerability to these diseases, especially rural areas and urban slums. This study assessed socioeconomic features, WASH indicators, and water-related diseases in two rural areas of the Colombian Caribbean coast. Most of this population did not finish basic education (72.3%, N = 159). Only one of the communities had a water supply (aqueduct), whereas the other received water via an adapted tanker ship...
September 25, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977323/degradation-of-parental-bonding-and-violence-against-children-the-use-of-family-genogram-in-the-pediatric-clinic
#3
Égle Thomaz Leoncio, Sonia Regina Pereira de Souza, José Lúcio Martins Machado
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the importance of using the family genogram in pediatric consultation, as an analysis tool to evaluate the degradation of parental bonding and also violence against children. METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted in 2011 wherein 63 children, aged between 2 and 6 years, enrolled in a slum nursery, was studied. In order to construct the genogram, data were collected in four stages: pediatric evaluation at nursery; interview with caregivers; interview with teachers; and interview with the nursery coordinator...
April 2017: Revista Paulista de Pediatria: Orgão Oficial da Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971097/acceptability-of-iron-and-zinc-biofortified-pearl-millet-ictp-8203-based-complementary-foods-among-children-in-an-urban-slum-of-mumbai-india
#4
Samantha Lee Huey, Sudha Venkatramanan, Shobha A Udipi, Julia Leigh Finkelstein, Padmini Ghugre, Jere Douglas Haas, Varsha Thakker, Aparna Thorat, Ashwini Salvi, Anura V Kurpad, Saurabh Mehta
Biofortification, a method for increasing micronutrient content of staple crops, is a promising strategy for combating major global health problems, such as iron and zinc deficiency. We examined the acceptability of recipes prepared using iron- and zinc-biofortified pearl millet (FeZnPM) (~80 ppm Fe, ~34 ppm Zn, varietal ICTP-8203), compared to conventional pearl millet (CPM) (~20 ppm Fe, ~19 ppm Zn) in preparation for an efficacy trial. Our objective was to examine the acceptability of FeZnPM compared to CPM among young children and mothers living in the urban slums of Mumbai...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871278/community-mobilization-for-slum-upgrading-through-sanitation-in-roma-informal-settlements-in-the-paris-region
#5
Ipsita Nita Chaudhuri
BACKGROUND: Community-based processes addressing environment, housing, and health issues may decrease health inequities by addressing social, economic, and political health determinants more effectively. Yet little analysis of their effectiveness has been undertaken and their potential transfer to marginalized groups in rich country settings. In Europe, stark health inequalities are seen among the Roma, Europe's most impoverished community who often reside in informal settlements suffering from illiteracy, inadequate housing, and lack of water and sanitation...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869693/diabetes-prevalence-and-its-impact-on-health-related-quality-of-life-in-tuberculosis-patients
#6
Ali Nasir Siddiqui, Khalid Umer Khayyam, Nahida Siddiqui, Rohit Sarin, Manju Sharma
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM), assess its influence on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among TB patients. METHODS: In this prospective study, eligible patients at three primary health care centers in urban slum region of South Delhi, India, underwent blood glucose screening at treatment initiation. HRQoL scores were determined by conducting face-to-face interviews using Dhingra and Rajpal (DR-12) scale at pretreatment, end of intensive phase and end of the treatment...
September 4, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863869/intention-to-accept-pertussis-vaccine-among-pregnant-women-in-karachi-pakistan
#7
Mariam Siddiqui, Afshin Alaf Khan, Aiden Kennedy Varan, Alejandra Esteves-Jaramillo, Shazia Sultana, Asad S Ali, Anita K M Zaidi, Saad B Omer
BACKGROUND: Maternal immunization against pertussis is a potential strategy to protect young infants from severe disease. We assessed factors associated with intention to accept pertussis vaccination among pregnant women in Karachi, Pakistan. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey between May and August 2013 in pregnant women who visited healthcare centers in urban slums of Karachi city. Women completed a survey examining socio-demographic factors, vaccination history, knowledge on pertussis disease, perception of vaccine recommendation sources, and potential influences on vaccine decision-making...
September 25, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862241/is-rule-of-halves-still-an-occurrence-in-south-india-findings-from-community-based-survey-in-a-selected-urban-area-of-puducherry
#8
S S Kar, S Kalaiselvi, R Archana, G K Saya, K C Premarajan
BACKGROUND: The objective of the present study was to assess the applicability of the rule of halves in an urban population of Puducherry, South India. We also aimed to find the correlates associated with undiagnosed hypertension to facilitate targeted screening. METHODOLOGY: We derive our observation from a community-based cross-sectional study conducted using the World Health Organization STEPwise approach to surveillance in urban slum of Puducherry during 2014-15...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852236/felt-need-and-treatment-seeking-barriers-among-substance-abusers-in-urban-slum-area-in-central-india
#9
Himanshu Jayantrao Ashtankar, Manoj Rajanna Talapalliwar
INTRODUCTION: Substance abuse is known public health problem in the world. Felt need of treatment and barriers in seeking treatment are important for successful treatment of addictions. Therefore, this study was designed to understand the pattern (type) of substance abuse among residents of urban slum and to study the felt need and barriers for the treatment of substance abuse among substance abusers in urban slum areas of the central India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in slum area in central India...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830372/tuberculosis-active-case-finding-in-cambodia-a-pragmatic-cost-effectiveness-comparison-of-three-implementation-models
#10
Richard James, Keovathanak Khim, Lydia Boudarene, Joanne Yoong, Chea Phalla, Saly Saint, Pichenda Koeut, Tan Eang Mao, Richard Coker, Mishal Sameer Khan
BACKGROUND: Globally, almost 40% of tuberculosis (TB) patients remain undiagnosed, and those that are diagnosed often experience prolonged delays before initiating correct treatment, leading to ongoing transmission. While there is a push for active case finding (ACF) to improve early detection and treatment of TB, there is extremely limited evidence about the relative cost-effectiveness of different ACF implementation models. Cambodia presents a unique opportunity for addressing this gap in evidence as ACF has been implemented using different models, but no comparisons have been conducted...
August 22, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799240/adaptive-functioning-and-its-associated-factors-among-girl-children-residing-in-slum-areas-of-bhubaneswar-india
#11
Ansuman Panigrahi, Sai C Das, Prabhudarsan Sahoo
AIM: Adaptive functioning develops throughout early childhood, and its limitation is a reflection that the child has developmental or emotional problems or even mental retardation. Little is known about the adaptive functioning or developmental status of slum children. The present cross-sectional study was undertaken during the year 2014 to assess the status of adaptive functioning among girl children aged between 3 and 9 years residing in slum areas of Bhubaneswar and to explore the factors associated with poor adaptive functioning...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793024/socioenvironmental-conditions-and-intestinal-parasitic-infections-in-brazilian-urban-slums-a-cross-sectional-study
#12
Caroline Ferraz Ignacio, Milena Enderson Chagas da Silva, Natasha Berendonk Handam, Maria de Fatima Leal Alencar, Adriana Sotero-Martins, Martha Macedo de Lima Barata, Antonio Henrique Almeida de Moraes
Methods: A cross-sectional study covering an agglomeration of urban slums was conducted between 2015 and 2016 using participants observation, a socioeconomic survey, and the spontaneous sedimentation method with three slides per sample to analyze fresh stool specimens ( n =595) searching for intestinal parasites. Results: Endolimax nana ( n =95, 16.0%) and Entamoeba coli ( n =65, 10.9%) were the most frequently identified agents, followed by Giardia intestinalis ( n =24, 4...
August 7, 2017: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749766/identifying-potential-sources-of-exposure-along-the-child-feces-management-pathway-a-cross-sectional-study-among-urban-slums-in-odisha-india
#13
Fiona Majorin, Belen Torondel, Parimita Routray, Manaswini Rout, Thomas Clasen
Child feces represent a particular health risk to children due to increased prevalence of enteric agents and a higher risk of exposure owing to exploratory behaviors of young children. The safe management of such feces presents a significant challenge, not only for the 2.4 billion who lack access to improved sanitation, but also due to unhygienic feces collection and disposal and poor subsequent handwashing practices. We assessed potential sources of fecal exposure by documenting child feces management practices in a cross-sectional study of 851 children < 5 years of age from 694 households in 42 slums in two cities in Odisha, India...
September 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746325/effect-of-maternal-socio-demographic-factors-and-child-feeding-practice-on-wasting-among-under-five-years-children-in-slum-area-of-rupandehi-district-in-nepal
#14
S Gautam, S Ruchal, B Timalsina, D Acharya, B Khadka, V Gautam, J K Singh
INTRODUCTION: Childhood wasting although well studied elsewhere, it has not been well understood about in slum area of Nepal. This study aimed to assess effect of socio-demographic factors and child feeding practice in the determination of wasting among the children under five years of age in slum area of Nepal. METHODS: A community based cross-sectional study was performed among 150 children under five years of age from the slum area of Nepal between 1st January and 28th February 2013 using simple random sampling techniques...
April 2017: JNMA; Journal of the Nepal Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729309/the-role-of-a-decision-support-smartphone-application-in-enhancing-community-health-volunteers-effectiveness-to-improve-maternal-and-newborn-outcomes-in-nairobi-kenya-quasi-experimental-research-protocol
#15
Pauline Bakibinga, Eva Kamande, Milka Omuya, Abdhalah K Ziraba, Catherine Kyobutungi
INTRODUCTION: Improving maternal and newborn survival remains major aspirations for many countries in the Global South. Slum settlements, a result of rapid urbanisation in many developing countries including Kenya, exhibit high levels of maternal and neonatal mortality. There are limited referral mechanisms for sick neonates and their mothers from the community to healthcare facilities with ability to provide adequate care. In this study, we specifically plan to develop and assess the added value of having community health volunteers (CHVs) use smartphones to identify and track mothers and children in a bid to reduce pregnancy-related complications and newborn deaths in the urban slums of Kamukunji subcounty in Nairobi, Kenya...
July 20, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722608/active-tuberculosis-case-finding-in-haiti
#16
Jack Masur, Serena P Koenig, Pierrot Julma, Oksana Ocheretina, Maria A Durán-Mendicuti, Daniel W Fitzgerald, Jean W Pape
In 2010, Haiti suffered from a devastating earthquake; data on the impact on the tuberculosis (TB) epidemic are limited. From January to June 2013, we conducted active case finding at the household level in a slum in Port-au-Prince. Community health workers identified individuals with cough ≥ 2 weeks, and referred them for evaluation. Contact tracing was conducted for patients with active TB. Of an estimated 7,500 residents screened, 394 (5%) had cough and were tested for TB. One hundred (25%) were diagnosed with active TB; 53 (53%) were smear positive...
August 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721954/out-of-pocket-health-expenditure-and-sources-of-financing-for-delivery-postpartum-and-neonatal-health-in-urban-slums-of-bhubaneswar-odisha-india
#17
Kirti Sundar Sahu, Bhavna Bharati
BACKGROUND: Out-of-pocket expenditure (OOPE) is an obstacle in the path of getting universal health coverage in India. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the OOPE, sources of funding, and experience of catastrophic expenditure (CE) for healthcare related to delivery, postpartum, and neonatal morbidity. METHODS: A community-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted among a sample of 240 recently delivered women from the slums of Bhubaneswar, Odisha...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716067/molecular-characterization-of-group-a-rotaviruses-in-mukuru-slums-kenya-detection-of-novel-strains-circulating-in-children-below-5%C3%A2-years-of-age
#18
Joshua Ndung'u Gikonyo, James Nyangao, Cecilia Mbae, Carlene Sang, Eliud Njagi, Joseph Ngeranwa, Mathew Esona, Mapaseka L Seheri, Grace W Gitau, Kedra Raini, Samuel Kariuki
BACKGROUND: Gastroenteritis is a public health concern due to high morbidity and mortality among children. Rotaviruses are the leading etiological agents of severe gastroenteritis in children and accounts for more than half a million deaths per year in Africa. The study aimed at investigating the rotavirus genotypes that were circulating in children aged 5 years and below in and around Mukuru slums in Nairobi County Kenya. METHODS: A purposive cross sectional sampling method was applied where 166 samples were collected from children below 5 years of age and taken to Kenya Medical Research Institute virology laboratory...
July 17, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711437/intestinal-parasitic-infections-current-status-and-associated-risk-factors-among-school-aged-children-in-an-archetypal-african-urban-slum-in-nigeria
#19
Vincent P Gyang, Ting-Wu Chuang, Chien-Wei Liao, Yueh-Lun Lee, Olaoluwa P Akinwale, Akwaowo Orok, Olusola Ajibaye, Ajayi J Babasola, Po-Ching Cheng, Chia-Mei Chou, Ying-Chieh Huang, Pasaiko Sonko, Chia-Kwung Fan
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) among school aged children (SAC) in Nigeria remains endemic, hence the need for regular surveillance to attract the attention of policy makers. This cross-sectional study investigated the current prevalence and factors associated with intestinal parasitic infections among school aged children in an urban slum of Lagos City, Nigeria. METHODS: Single stool samples from 384 school aged children (188 boys and 196 girls) were examined by employing Merthiolate-iodine-formaldehyde concentration (MIFC) and Kato-Katz methods...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658883/artificial-neural-network-ann-model-to-predict-depression-among-geriatric-population-at-a-slum-in-kolkata-india
#20
Arkaprabha Sau, Ishita Bhakta
INTRODUCTION: Depression is one of the most important causes of mortality and morbidity among the geriatric population. Although, the aging brain is more vulnerable to depression, it cannot be considered as physiological and an inevitable part of ageing. Various sociodemographic and morbidity factors are responsible for the depression among them. Using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model depression can be predicted from various sociodemographic variables and co morbid conditions even at community level by the grass root level health care workers...
May 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
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