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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627958/better-kitchens-and-toilets-both-needed-for-better-health
#1
EDITORIAL
Khaiwal Ravindra, Kirk R Smith
Both poor water, sanitation, hygiene (WaSH) and household air pollution (HAP) adversely affect the health of millions of people each year around the globe and specifically in developing countries. The objective of current work is to highlight the importance of HAP in parallel to WaSH for decision making to achieve better health specially in developing countries. There are examples, where developing countries are strengthening efforts to tackle the issue of poor water and sanitation such as 'Clean India Mission' was recently launched by the Government of India...
April 7, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626738/return-on-investment-analysis-of-breast-cancer-screening-and-downstaging-in-egypt-implications-for-developing-countries
#2
Alena N Skrundevskiy, Omar S Omar, Jungyoon Kim, Amr S Soliman, Theodore A Korolchuk, Fernando A Wilson
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to perform a return-on-investment (ROI) analysis of a breast cancer screening program in Egypt by comparing net profit in treatment costs saved to program cost investment. METHODS: The breast cancer downstaging program targeted women living in an Egyptian slum, where residents have low access to health care. Program costs were estimated by using data from interviews with program administrative staff. Screening and treatment costs were estimated by using Ministry of Health medical reimbursement data...
April 4, 2018: Value in Health Regional Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623096/drinking-water-supply-sanitation-and-hygiene-promotion-interventions-in-two-slum-communities-in-central-uganda
#3
David Musoke, Rawlance Ndejjo, Abdullah Ali Halage, Simon Kasasa, John C Ssempebwa, David O Carpenter
Poor water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) continue to contribute to the high prevalence of diarrhoeal diseases in low-income countries such as Uganda particularly in slums. We implemented a 3-year WASH project in two urban slums in Uganda with a focus on safe drinking water and improvement in sanitation. The project implemented community and school interventions in addition to capacity building initiatives. Community interventions included home improvement campaigns, clean-up exercises, water quality assessment, promotion of drinking safe water through household point-of-use chlorination, promotion of hand washing, and support towards solid waste management...
2018: Journal of Environmental and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589512/non-communicable-diseases-in-indian-slums-re-framing-the-social-determinants-of-health
#4
Lily Beth Lumagbas, Harry Laurence Selby Coleman, Joske Bunders, Antoine Pariente, Anne Belonje, Tjard de Cock Buning
BACKGROUND: The epidemic of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in slums has pushed its residents to heightened vulnerability. The Social Determinants of Health (SDH) framework has been used to understand the social dynamics and impact of NCDs, especially in poorly resourced communities. Whilst the SDH has helped to discredit the characterisation of NCDs as diseases of affluence, its impact on policy has been less definite. Given the multitude of factors that interact in the presentation of NCDs, operationalising the SDH for policies and programmes that account for the contextual complexity of slums has stalled...
2018: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576021/caregiver-perceptions-of-children-s-linear-growth-in-bangladesh-a-qualitative-analysis
#5
Muttaquina Hossain, Scott Ickes, Lauren Rice, Gaelen Ritter, Nurun Nahar Naila, Tasnia Zia, Baitun Nahar, Mustafa Mahfuz, Donna M Denno, Tahmeed Ahmed, Judd Walson
OBJECTIVE: To understand caregivers' perceptions of children's linear growth and to identify the cultural meanings and perceptions of risk associated with poor height attainment. DESIGN: Three investigators from Bangladesh conducted twelve focus group discussions. SETTING: The study was conducted in rural and slum settings in Bangladesh. SUBJECTS: Participants included mothers and alternative caregivers (n 81) who were recruited by household screening...
March 26, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574855/pathotyping-of-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-community-toilet-wastewater-and-stored-drinking-water-in-a-slum-in-bangladesh
#6
Hidenori Harada, Yuji Fujimori, Ryota Gomi, Nazmul Ahsan, Shigeo Fujii, Akira Sakai, Tomonari Matsuda
This study investigated the occurrence of Escherichia coli pathotypes in sanitary wastewater and drinking water in a Bangladeshi urban slum and the potential associations between these sources. We examined 621 E. coli isolates from sanitary wastewater and stored drinking water by multiplex PCR and dual index sequencing, classifying them into eight pathotypes based on 14 virulence genes and additionally evaluating the possession of the human-specific E. coli genetic biomarker H8. The proportions of pathogenic E...
March 25, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558253/-inexperienced-patterns-in-romantic-and-sexual-experiences-among-urban-poor-early-adolescents-in-nairobi-kenya
#7
Anna E Kågesten, Caroline W Kabiru, Beatrice Maina, Danielle German, Robert Wm Blum
The need for early prevention approaches to improve young people's sexual and reproductive health is gaining attention, yet little is known about the sexual experiences of early adolescents aged 10-14 years. Drawing on cross-sectional survey data collected from 365 early adolescents in a Nairobi slum, we used latent class analysis to identify subgroups based on self-reported awareness about sex and involvement in romantic and sexual activities. Multivariate regression models were fitted to examine the characteristics of each subgroup...
March 20, 2018: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554964/implementing-community-based-health-planning-and-services-in-impoverished-urban-communities-health-workers-perspective
#8
Adanna Uloaku Nwameme, Philip Teg-Nefaah Tabong, Philip Baba Adongo
BACKGROUND: Three-quarters of sub-Saharan Africa's urban population currently live under slum conditions making them susceptible to ill health and diseases. Ghana characterizes the situation in many developing countries where the urban poor have become a group much afflicted by complex health problems associated with their living conditions, and the intra-city inequity between them and the more privileged urban dwellers with respect to health care accessibility. Adopting Ghana's rural Community-Based Health Planning and Service (CHPS) programme in urban areas is challenging due to the differences in social networks and health challenges thus making modifications necessary...
March 20, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540970/effectiveness-of-awareness-package-on-occupational-health-hazards-among-ragpickers-of-new-delhi-india
#9
Rashmi Agarwalla, Rambha Pathak, Mitasha Singh, Farzana Islam, Mamta Parashar
Background: Ragpickers are informal workers who collect recyclable materials to earn a small wage on daily basis. They work in vulnerable conditions and awareness regarding occupational and environmental hazard is essential for them. Objective: To study the effectiveness of awareness program on various occupational health hazards among the ragpickers. Materials and Methods: This interventional study was conducted from May through October 2016 among the ragpickers living near field practice area of Department of Community Medicine and those living in slum areas around HAHC Hospital, New Delhi, India...
May 2017: Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530663/maternal-breastfeeding-indicators-and-factors-associated-with-exclusive-breastfeeding-in-a-subnormal-urban-cluster-assisted-by-the-family-health-strategy
#10
Vera A A L Silva, Maria F C Caminha, Suzana L Silva, Vilneide M S B D Serva, Pedro T A C C Azevedo, Malaquias Batista Filho
OBJECTIVE: To describe and analyze indicators of feeding practices related to breastfeeding and factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) in a subnormal urban cluster (slums) in Pernambuco, Brazil. METHODS: Four breastfeeding indicators were used to interview mothers of children under 3 years of age. An inventory of the families' socioeconomic and environmental factors, maternal obstetric history, and basic health care access was undertaken. The sample consisted of all 310 children under the age of 3 years from Coelhos, PE, Brazil...
March 9, 2018: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503303/water-sanitation-and-hygiene-situation-in-kenya-s-urban-slums
#11
Njoroge Kamau, Haron Njiru
Kenya has undergone rapid urbanization as people migrate to the cities in search of economic opportunities. This has given rise to informal settlements characterized by overcrowding, poor infrastructure, and inadequate social amenities. A cross-sectional study on water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) status was carried out in Mathare, an informal settlement in Nairobi. A random sample of 380 households was used. The average household size was five people, and 26% of the household heads had completed secondary or higher level of education...
2018: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499698/identification-of-priority-health-conditions-for-field-based-screening-in-urban-slums-in-bangalore-india
#12
Sarah Abdi, Avanti Wadugodapitiya, Sandra Bedaf, Carolin Elizabeth George, Gift Norman, Mark Hawley, Luc de Witte
BACKGROUND: Urban slums are characterised by unique challenging living conditions, which increase their inhabitants' vulnerability to specific health conditions. The identification and prioritization of the key health issues occurring in these settings is essential for the development of programmes that aim to enhance the health of local slum communities effectively. As such, the present study sought to identify and prioritise the key health issues occurring in urban slums, with a focus on the perceptions of health professionals and community workers, in the rapidly growing city of Bangalore, India...
March 2, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497507/research-priorities-for-adolescent-health-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-mixed-methods-synthesis-of-two-separate-exercises
#13
Jason M Nagata, Sejal Hathi, B Jane Ferguson, Michele J Hindin, Sachiyo Yoshida, David A Ross
Background: In order to clarify priorities and stimulate research in adolescent health in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), the World Health Organization (WHO) conducted two priority-setting exercises based on the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI) methodology related to 1) adolescent sexual and reproductive health and 2) eight areas of adolescent health including communicable diseases prevention and management, injuries and violence, mental health, non-communicable diseases management, nutrition, physical activity, substance use, and health policy...
June 2018: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444674/the-gendered-experience-with-respect-to-health-seeking-behaviour-in-an-urban-slum-of-kolkata-india
#14
Moumita Das, Federica Angeli, Anja J S M Krumeich, Onno C P van Schayck
BACKGROUND: Empirical evidence shows that the relationship between health-seeking behaviour and diverse gender elements, such as gendered social status, social control, ideology, gender process, marital status and procreative status, changes across settings. Given the high relevance of social settings, this paper intends to explore how gender elements interact with health-seeking practices among men and women residing in an Indian urban slum, in consideration of the unique socio-cultural context that characterises India's slums...
February 14, 2018: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419791/unintentional-childhood-injuries-in-urban-and-rural-ujjain-india-a-community-based-survey
#15
Aditya Mathur, Love Mehra, Vishal Diwan, Ashish Pathak
Injuries are a major global public health problem. There are very few community-based studies on childhood injury from India. The objective of this cross-sectional, community-based survey was to identify the incidence, type, and risk factors of unintentional childhood injuries. The study was done in seven villages and ten contiguous urban slums in Ujjain, India. World Health Organization (WHO) tested tools and definitions were used for the survey, which included 2518 households having 6308 children up to 18 years of age, with 2907 children from urban households and 3401 from rural households...
February 8, 2018: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415040/the-role-of-family-size-employment-and-education-of-parents-in-the-prevalence-of-intestinal-parasitic-infections-in-school-children-in-accra
#16
Akua Obeng Forson, Isaac Arthur, Patrick F Ayeh-Kumi
INTRODUCTION: Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) in school children are a public health problem in most developing countries. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross sectional survey was conducted from May to July 2016 with school children living in overcrowded urban slums in Accra, Ghana. A simple random sample of 300 children aged 2-9 years was collected. The study used structured pre-tested questionnaire and stool tests to obtain information on epidemiological, sanitation habits, employment and education status of parents and children...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408453/a-randomized-control-trial-to-establish-the-feasibility-and-safety-of-rapamycin-treatment-in-an-older-human-cohort-immunological-physical-performance-and-cognitive-effects
#17
Ellen Kraig, Leslie A Linehan, Hanyu Liang, Terry Q Romo, Qianqian Liu, Yubo Wu, Adriana D Benavides, Tyler J Curiel, Martin A Javors, Nicolas Musi, Laura Chiodo, Wouter Koek, Jonathan A L Gelfond, Dean L Kellogg
Inhibition of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway by rapamycin (RAPA), an FDA-approved immunosuppressive drug used as a clinical therapy to prevent solid organ allograft rejection, enhances longevity in mice. Importantly, RAPA was efficacious even when initiated in relatively old animals, suggesting that mTOR inhibition could potentially slow the progression of aging-associated pathologies in older humans (Harrison et al., 2009; Miller et al., 2011). However, the safety and tolerability of RAPA in older human subjects have not yet been demonstrated...
February 3, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402106/creating-a-sustainable-participatory-palliative-care-programme-in-an-urban-slum-in-dhaka-bangladesh
#18
Nezamuddin Ahmad
The Centre for Palliative Care, based at the only medical university [Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU)] in Dhaka, Bangladesh, in collaboration with Worldwide Hospice Palliative Care Alliance, piloted a one-year project focussed on improving the quality of life of 100 older people and their families in two slum settings in Dhaka. This project was developed following the identification of significant palliative care needs of older people in the slum settings. In addition, the project was formed in response to the absence of programmes delivering palliative care to the poorest and most marginalised in poor urban settings, in a sustainable manner within the context of the low development of palliative care and the human and financial resource limitations in Bangladesh...
January 2018: Annals of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358419/disparities-in-spread-and-control-of-influenza-in-slums-of-delhi-findings-from-an-agent-based-modelling-study
#19
Abhijin Adiga, Shuyu Chu, Stephen Eubank, Christopher J Kuhlman, Bryan Lewis, Achla Marathe, Madhav Marathe, Eric K Nordberg, Samarth Swarup, Anil Vullikanti, Mandy L Wilson
OBJECTIVES: This research studies the role of slums in the spread and control of infectious diseases in the National Capital Territory of India, Delhi, using detailed social contact networks of its residents. METHODS: We use an agent-based model to study the spread of influenza in Delhi through person-to-person contact. Two different networks are used: one in which slum and non-slum regions are treated the same, and the other in which 298 slum zones are identified...
January 21, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355149/prevalence-of-vibrio-cholerae-o1-serogroup-in-assam-india-a-hospital-based-study
#20
Ajanta Sharma, Bornali Sarmah Dutta, Elmy Samsun Rasul, Dipa Barkataki, Anjanamoyee Saikia, Naba Kumar Hazarika
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Although cholera remains to be an important public health problem, studies on reliable population-based estimates of laboratory confirmed cholera in endemic areas are limited worldwide. The aim of this hospital-based study was to evaluate the prevalence of Vibrio cholerae serogroup in Assam, India, during 2003-2013. METHODS: Stool samples/rectal swabs were collected from acute watery diarrhoea (AWD) cases during 2003-2013 and processed by standard microbiological procedures...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
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