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Slum health

Ipsa Mohapatra, Adrija Roy
INTRODUCTION: Breast milk provides nutritional, immunological, behavioral, and economic benefits and helps to build mother-infant bonding. Antenatal mothers need to be sufficiently aware about the benefits of breastfeeding. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to assess the awareness and perception of breastfeeding among antenatal mothers and to find out any association between sociodemographic factors and breastfeeding awareness. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 250 antenatal women residing in the urban slums of field-practice area of urban health and training center; using a predesigned, pretested, semi-structured interview schedule...
2018: Journal of Education and Health Promotion
Vilius Černauskas, Federica Angeli, Anand Kumar Jaiswal, Milena Pavlova
BACKGROUND: Severe underutilization of healthcare facilities and lack of timely, affordable and effective access to healthcare services in resource-constrained, bottom of pyramid (BoP) settings are well-known issues, which foster a negative cycle of poor health outcomes, catastrophic health expenditures and poverty. Understanding BoP patients' healthcare choices is vital to inform policymakers' effective resource allocation and improve population health and livelihood in these areas. This paper examines the factors affecting the choice of health care provider in low-income settings, specifically the urban slums in India...
June 19, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Laura B Nolan, David E Bloom, Ramnath Subbaraman
In India, 59% of urban slums are "non-notified" or lack legal recognition by the government. We use data on 2,901 slums from four waves of the National Sample Survey spanning nearly 20 years to assess the relationship between a slum's legal status and the severity of deprivation in access to basic services, including piped water, latrines, and electricity. Our analysis reveals a progressive reduction in deprivation the longer that a slum has been notified. These findings suggest that legally recognizing non-notified slums and targeting government aid to these settlements may be crucial for improving health outcomes and diminishing urban disparities...
April 14, 2018: Economic and Political Weekly
Ruchira Tabassum Naved, Mahfuz Al Mamun, Sanjida Akhter Mourin, Kausar Parvin
BACKGROUND: Bangladesh reports one of the highest rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) in the world. Despite wide recognition of IPV as an important public health and human rights issue, evidence for IPV prevention is still inadequate. Lack of guidance on effective IPV prevention in Bangladesh resulted in targeting only women in most of the programmes. METHODS: This paper assesses impact of SAFE, a 20-month intervention (March 2012 to October 2013) in slums of Dhaka on IPV and tests effectiveness of female only groups vs...
2018: PloS One
David Satterthwaite, Alice Sverdlik, Donald Brown
This paper underscores the need for detailed data on health and disaster risks for sub-Saharan African cities, particularly for their informal settlements. Systems that should contribute to the information base on health and health risks in each locality are rarely functional. In most cities, there is a lack of data on health risks, health outcomes, and health determinants; where data are available, they are usually too aggregated to be useful to urban governments. Such data shortfalls likely hide the scale of premature death, serious illness, and injury in informal settlements; limited data can also curtail the identification of particularly vulnerable urban residents...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
Jacqueline Wallace
The world is becoming increasingly urban. For the first time in history, more than 50% of human beings live in cities (United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, ed. (2015)). Rapid urbanization is often chaotic and unstructured, leading to the formation of informal settlements or slums. Informal settlements are frequently located in environmentally hazardous areas and typically lack adequate sanitation and clean water, leading to poor health outcomes for residents. In these difficult circumstances women and children fair the worst, and reproductive outcomes for women living in informal settlements are grim...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
Abdhalah Ziraba, Benedict Orindi, Sheru Muuo, Sian Floyd, Isolde J Birdthistle, Joyce Mumah, Jane Osindo, Pauline Njoroge, Caroline W Kabiru
INTRODUCTION: High incidence of HIV infection among adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) has been attributed to the numerous and often layered vulnerabilities that they encounter including violence against women, unfavourable power relations that are worsened by age-disparate sexual relations, and limited access to sexual and reproductive health information and services. For AGYW living in urban informal settlements (slums), these vulnerabilities are compounded by pervasive poverty, fragmented social networks, and limited access to social services including health and education...
2018: PloS One
Yadlapalli Sriparvati Kusuma, Sonia Kaushal, Rishi Garg, Bontha Veerraju Babu
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper is to report birth preparedness and place of birth and its determinants among recent- and settled- migrant households living in slums of Delhi. METHODS: In a cross-sectional survey, 458 migrant mothers with a child aged below one year of age were identified. Socio-demographic details, data on the place of childbirth, antenatal care (ANC) and birth preparedness in terms of planning for home birth or hospital birth, transport, saving money, knowledge of danger signs were collected through interviewer-administered pretested questionnaire...
June 2018: Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare: Official Journal of the Swedish Association of Midwives
Ambarish Dutta, Sarthak Pattanaik, Rajendra Choudhury, Pritish Nanda, Suvanand Sahu, Rajendra Panigrahi, Bijaya K Padhi, Krushna Chandra Sahoo, P R Mishra, Pinaki Panigrahi, Daisy Lekharu, Robert H Stevens
BACKGROUND: Migrant labourers living in the slums of urban and industrial patches across India make up a key sub-population so far controlling Tuberculosis (TB) in the country is concerned. This is because many TB patients from these communities- remain under reached by the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) of India. This marginalized community usually seeks early-stage healthcare from "friendly neighbourhood" non-formal health providers (NFHPs). Because, RNTCP has limited capacity to involve the NFHPs, an implementation research project was conceived, whereby an external partner would engage with the NFHPs to enable them to identify early TB symptomatics from this key sub-population who would be then tested using Xpert MTB/RIF technology...
2018: PloS One
Peter J Hotez
By 2050 our civilized planet may be comprised predominantly of networked megacities embedded in warm subtropical and tropical climates, and under stress from climate change and catastrophic weather events. Urban slum areas in these cities, including those found in wealthier middle- and high-income nations (blue marble health), will be especially vulnerable to disease. Moreover, regional conflicts fought over shifting and limited resources, including water, will collapse health systems infrastructures to further promote disease emergence and reemergence...
2018: Advances in Parasitology
Kazuyo Machiyama, Fauzia Akhter Huda, Faisal Ahmmed, George Odwe, Francis Obare, Joyce N Mumah, Marylene Wamukoya, John B Casterline, John Cleland
BACKGROUND: Missing from the huge literature on women's attitudes and beliefs concerning specific contraceptive methods is any detailed quantitative documentation for all major methods in low- and middle-income countries. The objectives are to provide such a documentation for women living in Matlab (rural Bangladesh), Nairobi slums and Homa Bay (rural Kenya) and to compare the opinions and beliefs of current, past and never users towards the three most commonly used methods (oral contraceptives, injectables and implants)...
May 8, 2018: Reproductive Health
Tamara Ricardo, Laura C Bergero, Esteban P Bulgarella, M Andrea Previtali
BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is a global and re-emerging zoonotic disease caused by Leptospira spirochetes that are shed into the environment by infected animals. Humans can get infected via contact with animal hosts or contaminated environment. In Argentina, the highest annual incidences were reported in the province of Santa Fe, where epidemic outbreaks occurred during flooding events. This study examined the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) regarding leptospirosis among residents of riverside slum settlements from Santa Fe after a major flood...
May 7, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Abdur Rahman Aleemi, Hina Khaliqui, Asima Faisal
This study aimed to evaluate the challenges and patterns of seeking primary health care services in slums of Karachi, where about 60% of the population lives in various informal settlements. We surveyed 8 largest slums of the metropolitan, and analyzed the data both descriptively and inferentially to evaluate the factors associated with health care seeking behavior. Significantly positive association of quality health care seeking behavior and various socioeconomic indicators were found. In addition, substantial insights about the conditions of slum dwellers and health challenges of the population, such as low immunization and low vaccinations, among others, were reported...
April 1, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health
Khaiwal Ravindra, Kirk R Smith
Both poor water, sanitation, hygiene (WaSH) and household air pollution (HAP) adversely affect the health of millions of people each year around the globe and specifically in developing countries. The objective of current work is to highlight the importance of HAP in parallel to WaSH for decision making to achieve better health specially in developing countries. There are examples, where developing countries are strengthening efforts to tackle the issue of poor water and sanitation such as 'Clean India Mission' was recently launched by the Government of India...
May 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Alena N Skrundevskiy, Omar S Omar, Jungyoon Kim, Amr S Soliman, Theodore A Korolchuk, Fernando A Wilson
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to perform a return-on-investment (ROI) analysis of a breast cancer screening program in Egypt by comparing net profit in treatment costs saved to program cost investment. METHODS: The breast cancer downstaging program targeted women living in an Egyptian slum, where residents have low access to health care. Program costs were estimated by using data from interviews with program administrative staff. Screening and treatment costs were estimated by using Ministry of Health medical reimbursement data...
April 4, 2018: Value in Health Regional Issues
David Musoke, Rawlance Ndejjo, Abdullah Ali Halage, Simon Kasasa, John C Ssempebwa, David O Carpenter
Poor water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) continue to contribute to the high prevalence of diarrhoeal diseases in low-income countries such as Uganda particularly in slums. We implemented a 3-year WASH project in two urban slums in Uganda with a focus on safe drinking water and improvement in sanitation. The project implemented community and school interventions in addition to capacity building initiatives. Community interventions included home improvement campaigns, clean-up exercises, water quality assessment, promotion of drinking safe water through household point-of-use chlorination, promotion of hand washing, and support towards solid waste management...
2018: Journal of Environmental and Public Health
Lily Beth Lumagbas, Harry Laurence Selby Coleman, Joske Bunders, Antoine Pariente, Anne Belonje, Tjard de Cock Buning
BACKGROUND: The epidemic of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in slums has pushed its residents to heightened vulnerability. The Social Determinants of Health (SDH) framework has been used to understand the social dynamics and impact of NCDs, especially in poorly resourced communities. Whilst the SDH has helped to discredit the characterisation of NCDs as diseases of affluence, its impact on policy has been less definite. Given the multitude of factors that interact in the presentation of NCDs, operationalising the SDH for policies and programmes that account for the contextual complexity of slums has stalled...
2018: Global Health Action
Muttaquina Hossain, Scott Ickes, Lauren Rice, Gaelen Ritter, Nurun Nahar Naila, Tasnia Zia, Baitun Nahar, Mustafa Mahfuz, Donna M Denno, Tahmeed Ahmed, Judd Walson
OBJECTIVE: To understand caregivers' perceptions of children's linear growth and to identify the cultural meanings and perceptions of risk associated with poor height attainment. DESIGN: Three investigators from Bangladesh conducted twelve focus group discussions. SETTING: The study was conducted in rural and slum settings in Bangladesh. SUBJECTS: Participants included mothers and alternative caregivers (n 81) who were recruited by household screening...
March 26, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
H Harada, Y Fujimori, R Gomi, Md N Ahsan, S Fujii, A Sakai, T Matsuda
This study investigated the occurrence of Escherichia coli pathotypes in sanitary wastewater and drinking water in a Bangladeshi urban slum and the potential associations between these sources. We examined 621 E. coli isolates from sanitary wastewater and stored drinking water by multiplex PCR and dual-index sequencing, classifying them into eight pathotypes based on 14 virulence genes and additionally evaluating the possession of the human-specific E. coli genetic biomarker H8. The proportions of pathogenic E...
June 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Anna E Kågesten, Caroline W Kabiru, Beatrice Maina, Danielle German, Robert Wm Blum
The need for early prevention approaches to improve young people's sexual and reproductive health is gaining attention, yet little is known about the sexual experiences of early adolescents aged 10-14 years. Drawing on cross-sectional survey data collected from 365 early adolescents in a Nairobi slum, we used latent class analysis to identify subgroups based on self-reported awareness about sex and involvement in romantic and sexual activities. Multivariate regression models were fitted to examine the characteristics of each subgroup...
March 20, 2018: Culture, Health & Sexuality
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