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Opiate overdose

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127666/examining-fatal-opioid-overdoses-in-marion-county-indiana
#1
Bradley Ray, Kenna Quinet, Timothy Dickinson, Dennis P Watson, Alfarena Ballew
Drug-related overdoses are now the leading injury-related death in the USA, and many of these deaths are associated with illicit opioids and prescription opiate pain medication. This study uses multiple sources of data to examine accidental opioid overdoses across 6 years, 2010 through 2015, in Marion County, IN, an urban jurisdiction in the USA. The primary sources of data are toxicology reports from the county coroner, which reveal that during this period, the most commonly detected opioid substance was heroin...
January 26, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100012/characterization-and-management-of-patients-with-heroin-versus-non-heroin-opioid-overdoses-experience-at-an-academic-medical-center
#2
Kate M Morizio, Regan A Baum, Adam Dugan, Julia E Marin, Abby M Bailey
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To characterize the differences between patients who had heroin and non-heroin opioid overdoses and to determine whether there were any significant differences in their management with regard to the naloxone use. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Large, academic medical center. PATIENTS: A total of 923 patients admitted to the medical center who were identified for overdose by heroin or other opiate-related narcotics between January 2010 and September 2015; 480 patients experienced a non-heroin opioid overdose event, and 443 patients experienced a heroin overdose event...
January 18, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051839/social-context-and-perspectives-of-non-medical-prescription-opioid-use-among-young-adults-in-rhode-island-a-qualitative-study
#3
Jesse L Yedinak, Elizabeth N Kinnard, Scott E Hadland, Traci C Green, Melissa A Clark, Brandon D L Marshall
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This pilot study examined the context of nonmedical prescription opioid (NMPO) use and related risk behaviors among young adults in Rhode Island, a New England region with markedly high prevalence of NMPO use and overdose mortality. METHODS: We conducted semi-structured interviews (n = 13) with young adults (18-29 year-olds) who reported current or recent NMPO use. We also conducted focus groups (two groups, n = 14 total) with professional service providers recruited from service organizations...
December 2016: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009632/anti-nerve-growth-factor-therapy-increases-spontaneous-day-night-activity-in-mice-with-orthopedic-surgery-induced-pain
#4
Lisa A Majuta, Jean-Marc G Guedon, Stefanie A T Mitchell, Michael H Ossipov, Patrick W Mantyh
Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and total hip arthroplasty (THA) are two of the most common and successful surgical interventions to relieve osteoarthritis pain. Control of postoperative pain is critical for patients to fully participate in the required physical therapy which is the most influential factor in effective postoperative knee rehabilitation. Currently opiates are a mainstay for managing postoperative orthopedic surgery pain including TKA/THA pain. Recently, issues including efficacy, dependence, overdose and death from opiates have made clinicians and researchers more critical of use of opioids for treating non-malignant skeletal pain...
December 15, 2016: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986693/cautious-use-and-optimal-dose-of-morphine-for-relieving-malignant-pain-in-a-complex-patient-with-multiple-comorbidities
#5
Vinod Kumar, Rakesh Garg, Nishkarsh Gupta, Sachidanand Jee Bharati
Oral morphine remains the drug of choice for the management of severe pain due to cancer as per WHO ladder of analgesia. Providing adequate pain relief in palliative care settings for pain due to cancer is challenging. Options become limited in cases of associated systemic comorbidities such as renal dysfunction, hypoproteinaemia, anaemia. Patients with renal dysfunction and other comorbidities may develop drug overdose due to abnormal pharmacokinetics. Renal dysfunction affects the pharmacokinetics of morphine by altering its absorption, metabolism and clearance...
December 16, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984493/anti-nerve-growth-factor-therapy-increases-spontaneous-day-night-activity-in-mice-with-orthopedic-surgery-induced-pain
#6
Lisa A Majuta, Jean-Marc G Guedon, Stefanie A T Mitchell, Michael H Ossipov, Patrick W Mantyh
Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and total hip arthroplasty (THA) are two of the most common and successful surgical interventions to relieve osteoarthritis pain. Control of postoperative pain is critical for patients to fully participate in the required physical therapy which is the most influential factor in effective postoperative knee rehabilitation. Currently opiates are a mainstay for managing postoperative orthopedic surgery pain including TKA/THA pain. Recently, issues including efficacy, dependence, overdose and death from opiates have made clinicians and researchers more critical of use of opioids for treating non-malignant skeletal pain...
December 15, 2016: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863698/striatal-h3k27-acetylation-linked-to-glutamatergic-gene-dysregulation-in-human-heroin-abusers-holds-promise-as-therapeutic-target
#7
Gabor Egervari, Joseph Landry, James Callens, John F Fullard, Panos Roussos, Eva Keller, Yasmin L Hurd
BACKGROUND: Opiate abuse and overdose reached epidemic levels in the United States. However, despite significant advances in animal and in vitro models, little knowledge has been directly accrued regarding the neurobiology of the opiate-addicted human brain. METHODS: We used postmortem human brain specimens from a homogeneous European Caucasian population of heroin users for transcriptional and epigenetic profiling, as well as direct assessment of chromatin accessibility in the striatum, a brain region central to reward and emotion...
September 28, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859761/methadone-complications-amongst-opioid-dependent-patients-in-malaysia-a-case-series
#8
Philip George, Balasingam Vicknasingam, Sivakumar Thurairajasingam, Parameswaran Ramasamy, Haslina Mohd Yusof, Mohd Azhar Bin Mohd Yasin, Zia U Bahkt Sultan Shah
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Opioid dependence remains the main type of illicit substance used in Malaysia, which has an estimated 187 771 opiate users. There are currently 333 active methadone maintenance treatment centres nationwide. Although methadone has proven to be an effective maintenance therapy, it has clinical concerns which can have an impact on its effectiveness and safety. DESIGN, METHODS AND RESULTS: A case series of seven patients from Malaysian private and public hospital settings who had an adverse reaction with methadone is discussed...
November 8, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27727036/an-unusual-case-of-alternating-ventricular-morphology-on-the-12-lead-electrocardiogram
#9
Maura Sammon, Alveena Dawood, Scott Beaudoin, Richard A Harrigan
BACKGROUND: One of the principal tasks of an emergency physician is identifying potentially life-threatening conditions in the undifferentiated patient; cardiac dysrhythmia is an example of such a condition. A systematic approach to a patient with atypical dysrhythmia enables proper identification of such-life threatening conditions. CASE REPORT: We describe a 31-year-old man presenting to the emergency department with an undifferentiated dysrhythmia after naloxone reversal of an opiate overdose...
March 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27673424/drugs-guns-and-cars-how-far-we-have-come-to-improve-safety-in-the-united-states-yet-we-still-have-far-to-go
#10
REVIEW
James Dodington, Pina Violano, Carl R Baum, Kirsten Bechtel
Significant breakthroughs in the field of injury prevention and childhood safety have occurred during the past half-century. For example, the Poison Prevention Packaging Act of 1970 and the institution of child passenger safety laws are responsible for a significant reduction in injuries among children and adolescents. This review will focus on the following three topics because of their significant contribution to pediatric injury morbidity, especially among adolescents, and their promise for further effective prevention research...
October 26, 2016: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27542337/development-of-a-proto-typology-of-opiate-overdose-onset
#11
Joanne Neale, Julia Bradford, John Strang
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The time available to act is a crucial factor affecting the probable success of interventions to manage opiate overdose. We analyse opiate users' accounts of non-fatal overdose incidents to (i) construct a proto-typology of non-fatal opiate overdose onset and (ii) assess the implications for overdose management and prevention of fatalities. METHODS: Re-analysis of a subset of data from a large qualitative study of non-fatal opiate overdose conducted from 1997 to 1999...
January 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27397582/prevalence-and-correlates-of-prescription-opioid-residue-injection
#12
Élise Roy, Nelson Arruda, Karine Bertrand, Magali Dufour, Émélie Laverdière, Didier Jutras-Aswad, Michel Perreault, Djamal Berbiche, Julie Bruneau
BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence of intravenous administration of prescription opioids (POs) in several countries. Preparation of POs for injection may leave residues in containers and filters used by people who inject drugs and may lead to adverse health outcomes if they are injected. METHODS: This exploratory study used cross-sectional data from the COSMO study, a prospective cohort of out-of-treatment cocaine users carried out in Montréal (Canada) between October 2010 and August 2015...
September 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27306499/opiate-of-the-masses
#13
EDITORIAL
P B Persson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27235991/academic-physicians-and-medical-students-perceived-barriers-toward-bystander-administered-naloxone-as-an-overdose-prevention-strategy
#14
Amanda K Gatewood, Michael J Van Wert, Andrew P Andrada, Pamela J Surkan
AIMS: To identify perceived barriers to the prescription of naloxone to third-party contacts of opiate users. DESIGN: Qualitative descriptive study. SETTING: Two academic hospitals in Baltimore, MD, USA. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty medical providers, including both physicians and medical students. MEASUREMENTS: Qualitative; in-depth interviews and focus groups analyzed using line-by-line, focused, and axial coding based on methods adapted from grounded theory...
October 2016: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27195614/is-the-recent-emergence-of-mephedrone-injecting-in-the-united-kingdom-associated-with-elevated-risk-behaviours-and-blood-borne-virus-infection
#15
Vivian D Hope, Katelyn J Cullen, Josie Smith, Lucy Jessop, John Parry, Fortune Ncube
The recent, and rapid, emergence of injection of the short-acting stimulant mephedrone (4-methylmethcathione) has resulted in concerns about increased infection risks among people who inject drugs (PWID). Data from the bio-behavioural surveillance of PWID in the United Kingdom were analysed to examine the impact of mephedrone injection on infections among PWID. During the year preceding the survey, 8.0% of PWID (163/2,047) had injected mephedrone. In multivariable analyses, those injecting mephedrone were younger, less likely to have injected opiates, and more likely to have injected cocaine or amphetamines, used needle/syringe programmes or sexual health clinics, been recruited in Wales and Northern Ireland or shared needles/syringes...
May 12, 2016: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27180088/the-somatics-collaborative-introduction-to-a-national-institute-on-drug-abuse-cooperative-study-of-pharmacotherapy-for-opioid-treatment-in-criminal-justice-settings
#16
Redonna K Chandler, Matthew S Finger, David Farabee, Robert P Schwartz, Timothy Condon, Laura J Dunlap, Gary A Zarkin, Kathryn McCollister, Ryan D McDonald, Eugene Laska, David Bennett, Sharon M Kelly, Maureen Hillhouse, Shannon G Mitchell, Kevin E O'Grady, Joshua D Lee
BACKGROUND: Among the nearly 750,000 inmates in U.S. jails, 12% report using opioids regularly, 8% report use in the month prior to their offense, and 4% report use at the time of their offense. Although ample evidence exists that medications effectively treat Opiate Use Disorder (OUD) in the community, strong evidence is lacking in jail settings. The general lack of medications for OUD in jail settings may place persons suffering from OUD at high risk for relapse to drug use and overdose following release from jail...
May 2016: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27145977/pharmacokinetic-properties-and-human-use-characteristics-of-an-fda-approved-intranasal-naloxone-product-for-the-treatment-of-opioid-overdose
#17
Philip Krieter, Nora Chiang, Shwe Gyaw, Phil Skolnick, Roger Crystal, Fintan Keegan, Julie Aker, Melissa Beck, Jennifer Harris
Parenteral naloxone has been approved to treat opiate overdose for over 4 decades. Intranasal naloxone, administered "off label" using improvised devices, has been widely used by both first responders and the lay public to treat overdose. However, these improvised devices require training for effective use, and the recommended volumes (2 to 4 mL) exceed those considered optimum for intranasal administration. The present study compared the pharmacokinetic properties of intranasal naloxone (2 to 8 mg) delivered in low volumes (0...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27116939/removal-of-methadone-by-extended-dialysis-using-a-high-cut-off-dialyzer-implications-for-the-treatment-of-overdose-and-for-pain-management-in-patients-undergoing-light-chain-removal
#18
Viktor Arelin, Julius J Schmidt, Nathalie Kayser, W Nikolaus Kühn-Velten, Hendrik Suhling, Gabriele Eden, Jan T Kielstein
The synthetic opioid methadone hydrochloride has a low molecular weight of 346 D, a high volume of distribution (4 - 7 L/kg), and is lipophilic. It is used as an analgesic and for the maintenance treatment of opiate dependence. In drug addicts, methadone is frequently involved in mixed intoxications that can lead to death. Here we present the case of a drug addict in whom a high cut-off dialysis membrane together with extended dialysis was used in the setting of suspected overdose and acute kidney injury. Although the observed dialyzer plasma clearance (31...
June 2016: Clinical Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27028542/are-take-home-naloxone-programmes-effective-systematic-review-utilizing-application-of-the-bradford-hill-criteria
#19
REVIEW
Rebecca McDonald, John Strang
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Fatal outcome of opioid overdose, once detected, is preventable through timely administration of the antidote naloxone. Take-home naloxone provision directly to opioid users for emergency use has been implemented recently in more than 15 countries worldwide, albeit mainly as pilot schemes and without formal evaluation. This systematic review assesses the effectiveness of take-home naloxone, with two specific aims: (1) to study the impact of take-home naloxone distribution on overdose-related mortality; and (2) to assess the safety of take-home naloxone in terms of adverse events...
July 2016: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27001005/medical-cannabis-use-is-associated-with-decreased-opiate-medication-use-in-a-retrospective-cross-sectional-survey-of-patients-with-chronic-pain
#20
Kevin F Boehnke, Evangelos Litinas, Daniel J Clauw
UNLABELLED: Opioids are commonly used to treat patients with chronic pain (CP), though there is little evidence that they are effective for long term CP treatment. Previous studies reported strong associations between passage of medical cannabis laws and decrease in opioid overdose statewide. Our aim was to examine whether using medical cannabis for CP changed individual patterns of opioid use. Using an online questionnaire, we conducted a cross-sectional retrospective survey of 244 medical cannabis patients with CP who patronized a medical cannabis dispensary in Michigan between November 2013 and February 2015...
June 2016: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
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