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Artificial ventilation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937410/cerebral-oxygenation-of-premature-lambs-supported-by-an-artificial-placenta
#1
Ahmed M El-Sabbagh, Brian W Gray, Andrew W Shaffer, Benjamin S Bryner, Joseph T Church, Jennifer S McLeod, Sara Zakem, Elena M Perkins, Renée A Shellhaas, John D E Barks, Alvaro Rojas-Peña, Robert H Bartlett, George B Mychaliska
An artificial placenta (AP) using venovenous extracorporeal life support (VV-ECLS) could represent a paradigm shift in the treatment of extremely premature infants. However, AP support could potentially alter cerebral oxygen delivery. We assessed cerebral perfusion in fetal lambs on AP support using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and carotid arterial flow (CAF). Fourteen premature lambs at EGA 130 days (term = 145) underwent cannulation of the right jugular vein and umbilical vein with initiation of VV-ECLS...
September 20, 2017: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936966/-progress-of-mechanical-ventilation-during-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation
#2
Cai Wen, Tao Yu, Lixiang Wang
Mechanical ventilation is regarded as an effective means of replacing artificial ventilation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), and has been widely used in the treatment of cardiac arrest (CA) patients. However, there are still some controversial issues remaining to be settled, such as the assessment of the effectiveness of mechanical ventilation, the selection of the optimal oxygen concentration (FiO2), tidal volume (VT), respiratory frequency, and mode of ventilation during the CPR process. The pros and cons of positive pressure ventilation are also inconclusive...
September 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930049/experience-with-the-syncardia-total-artificial-heart-in-a-canadian-centre
#3
Anthony Nguyen, Michel Pellerin, Louis P Perrault, Michel White, Anique Ducharme, Normand Racine, Michel Carrier
BACKGROUND: The SynCardia total artificial heart (TAH) provides complete circulatory support by replacing both native ventricles. Accepted indications include bridge to transplantation and destination therapy. We review our experience with TAH implantation during a period when axial flow pump became available. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the demographics, clinical characteristics and survival of all patients receiving the TAH. RESULTS: From September 2004 to November 2016, 13 patients (12 men, mean age 45 ± 13 yr) received the TAH for refractory cardiogenic shock secondary to idiopathic (56%) or ischemic (17%) cardiomyopathy and to other various causes (33%)...
October 1, 2017: Canadian Journal of Surgery. Journal Canadien de Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905374/heat-and-moisture-exchangers-versus-heated-humidifiers-for-mechanically-ventilated-adults-and-children
#4
REVIEW
Donna Gillies, David A Todd, Jann P Foster, Bisanth T Batuwitage
BACKGROUND: Invasive ventilation is used to assist or replace breathing when a person is unable to breathe adequately on their own. Because the upper airway is bypassed during mechanical ventilation, the respiratory system is no longer able to warm and moisten inhaled gases, potentially causing additional breathing problems in people who already require assisted breathing. To prevent these problems, gases are artificially warmed and humidified. There are two main forms of humidification, heat and moisture exchangers (HME) or heated humidifiers (HH)...
September 14, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879605/in-vitro-evaluation-of-limitations-and-possibilities-for-the-future-use-of-intracorporeal-gas-exchangers-placed-in-the-upper-lobe-position
#5
Erin Schumer, Klaus Höffler, Christian Kuehn, Mark Slaughter, Axel Haverich, Bettina Wiegmann
The lack of donor organs has led to the development of alternative "destination therapies", such as a bio-artificial lung (BA) for end-stage lung disease. Ultimately aiming at a fully implantable BA, general capabilities and limitations of different oxygenators were tested based on the model of BA positioning at the right upper lobe. Three different-sized oxygenators (neonatal, paediatric, and adult) were tested in a mock circulation loop regarding oxygenation and decarboxylation capacities for three respiratory pathologies...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Artificial Organs: the Official Journal of the Japanese Society for Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851379/prognosis-and-treatment-of-folfox-therapy-related-interstitial-pneumonia-a-plea-for-multimodal-immune-modulating-therapy-in-the-respiratory-insufficient-patient
#6
Annick De Weerdt, Amélie Dendooven, Annemie Snoeckx, Jan Pen, Martin Lammens, Philippe G Jorens
BACKGROUND: The FOLFOX regimen, i.e., folinic acid (FOL), fluorouracil (F) and oxaliplatin (OX), is a drug cocktail that is used to treat gastric and colorectal cancers. Despite the concomitant improvements in response rate, duration of response and patient survival, reports of serious toxic pulmonary side effects have progressively emerged. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe a patient who was treated with FOLFOX as an adjuvant to a rectosigmoidal resection of a rectosigmoidal carcinoma and who developed respiratory insufficiency requiring mechanical ventilation...
August 29, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828301/effects-of-intrapulmonary-percussive-ventilation-on-airway-mucus-clearance-a-bench-model
#7
Lorena Fernandez-Restrepo, Lauren Shaffer, Bravein Amalakuhan, Marcos I Restrepo, Jay Peters, Ruben Restrepo
AIM: To determine the ability of intrapulmonary percussive ventilation (IPV) to promote airway clearance in spontaneously breathing patients and those on mechanical ventilation. METHODS: An artificial lung was used to simulate a spontaneously breathing patient (Group 1), and was then connected to a mechanical ventilator to simulate a patient on mechanical ventilation (Group 2). An 8.5 mm endotracheal tube (ETT) connected to the test lung, simulated the patient airway...
August 4, 2017: World Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823126/current-status-and-prospective-of-in-feed-additive-antibiotics-in-the-individual-stage-of-the-pork-production
#8
Junyou Li
Antibiotics have long been of great benefit for people, both in the medical treatment of human disease and in animal food that improves the growth performance and feed utilization during animal production. Antibiotics as in-feed supplements affect all stages of pork production, including the gestation, nursing, growing, and finishing stages, although the effects show stage-dependent differences. However, the use of antibiotics in animal feed has become a worldwide concern. This review describes why sub-therapeutic levels of antibiotic additives in animal feed have become an integral part of animal feeding programs for more than 70 years, particularly in pork production...
August 16, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817604/therapeutic-flexible-airway-endoscopy-of-small-children-in-a-tertiary-referral-center-11-years-experience
#9
Wen-Jue Soong, Pei-Chen Tsao, Yu-Sheng Lee, Chia-Feng Yang
OBJECTIVES: Use of therapeutic flexible airway endoscopy (TFAE) is very limited in pediatrics. We report our clinical experiences and long term outcomes of TFAE in small children from a single tertiary referral center. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study. Small children with their body weight no more than 5.0 kg who had received TFAE between 2005 and 2015 were enrolled. Demographic information and outcomes were reviewed and analyzed from medical charts and TFAE videos...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813621/improvement-of-an-in-vitro-model-to-assess-delivered-dose-and-particle-size-for-a-vibrating-mesh-nebulizer-during-mechanical-ventilation
#10
Nani Kadrichu, Derek Daniher
BACKGROUND: In an in vitro model of mechanical ventilation with gravity-dependent filter position we observed artificially high delivered doses resulting from liquid droplet collection and precipitation of aerosolized drug. We sequentially modified the model to obtain accurate reproducible measurements of delivered dose and particle size at endotracheal tube exit. METHODS: Stepwise changes in the model included (1) altering the endotracheal tube position to a gravity-independent position, (2) adding fluid traps, (3) humidifying air near the test lung, and (4) simplifying test lung and filters...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807989/coaxial-tubing-systems-increase-artificial-airway-resistance-and-work-of-breathing
#11
Christin Wenzel, Stefan Schumann, Johannes Spaeth
BACKGROUND: Tubing systems are an essential component of the ventilation circuit, connecting the ventilator to the patient's airways. Coaxial tubing systems incorporate the inspiratory tube within the lumen of the expiratory one. We hypothesized that by design, these tubing systems increase resistance to air flow compared with conventional ones. METHODS: We investigated the flow-dependent pressure gradient across coaxial, conventional disposable, and conventional reusable tubing systems from 3 different manufacturers...
August 14, 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768223/predicting-pm10-concentration-in-seoul-metropolitan-subway-stations-using-artificial-neural-network-ann
#12
Sechan Park, Minjeong Kim, Minhae Kim, Hyeong-Gyu Namgung, Ki-Tae Kim, Kyung Hwa Cho, Soon-Bark Kwon
The indoor air quality of subway systems can significantly affect the health of passengers since these systems are widely used for short-distance transit in metropolitan urban areas in many countries. The particles generated by abrasion during subway operations and the vehicle-emitted pollutants flowing in from the street in particular affect the air quality in underground subway stations. Thus the continuous monitoring of particulate matter (PM) in underground station is important to evaluate the exposure level of PM to passengers...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763898/-effect-of-single-lumen-endobronchial-tube-and-double-lumen-endobronchial-tube-on-ventilation-and-lung-injury-in-patients-with-esophageal-cancer-undergoing-combined-thoracoscopic-and-laparoscopic-esophagectomy
#13
Y L Sun, Y Bai, T K Li, S G Lü, L Wang, X H Lu
Objective: To investigate the effect of the single lumen endobronchial tube and the double lumen endobronchial tube on ventilation and lung injury in patients with esophageal cancer undergoing combined thoracoscopic and laparoscopic esophagectomy. Methods: Sixty patients with esophageal cancer undergoing combined thoracoscopic and laparoscopic esophagectomy were divided into single lumen endobronchial tube group (D group, n=30) and double lumen endobronchial tube group (S, n=30) according to the random number table...
July 25, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717778/retention-of-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-skills-after-hands-only-training-versus-conventional-training-in-novices-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Young Joon Kim, Youngsuk Cho, Gyu Chong Cho, Hyun Kyung Ji, Song Yi Han, Jin Hyuck Lee
OBJECTIVE: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training can improve performance during simulated cardiac arrest; however, retention of skills after training remains uncertain. Recently, hands-only CPR has been shown to be as effective as conventional CPR. The purpose of this study is to compare the retention rate of CPR skills in laypersons after hands-only or conventional CPR training. METHODS: Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 CPR training methods: 80 minutes of hands-only CPR training or 180 minutes of conventional CPR training...
June 2017: Clinical and Experimental Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713236/modulation-of-calcitonin-parathyroid-hormone-and-thyroid-hormone-secretion-by-electrical-stimulation-of-sympathetic-and-parasympathetic-nerves-in-anesthetized-rats
#15
Harumi Hotta, Akiko Onda, Harue Suzuki, Philip Milliken, Arun Sridhar
The thyroid and parathyroid glands are dually innervated by sympathetic (cervical sympathetic trunk [CST]) and parasympathetic (superior laryngeal nerve [SLN]) nerve fibers. We examined the effects of electrical stimulation of efferent or afferent nerve fibers innervating the thyroid and parathyroid glands on the secretion of immunoreactive calcitonin (iCT), parathyroid hormone (iPTH), 3,3',5-triiodothyronine (iT3), and thyroxine (iT4) from the thyroid and parathyroid glands. In anesthetized and artificially ventilated rats, thyroid venous blood was collected...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701178/the-future-of-mechanical-ventilation-lessons-from-the-present-and-the-past
#16
REVIEW
Luciano Gattinoni, John J Marini, Francesca Collino, Giorgia Maiolo, Francesca Rapetti, Tommaso Tonetti, Francesco Vasques, Michael Quintel
The adverse effects of mechanical ventilation in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) arise from two main causes: unphysiological increases of transpulmonary pressure and unphysiological increases/decreases of pleural pressure during positive or negative pressure ventilation. The transpulmonary pressure-related side effects primarily account for ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) while the pleural pressure-related side effects primarily account for hemodynamic alterations. The changes of transpulmonary pressure and pleural pressure resulting from a given applied driving pressure depend on the relative elastances of the lung and chest wall...
July 12, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690533/dysphagia-in-perry-syndrome-pharyngeal-pressure-in-two-cases
#17
George Umemoto, Yoshio Tsuboi, Hirokazu Furuya, Takayasu Mishima, Shinsuke Fujioka, Naoki Fujii, Hajime Arahata, Miwa Sugahara, Mitsuaki Sakai
BACKGROUND: To investigate the impact of dysphagia in Perry syndrome (PS), an autosomal dominant parkinsonism caused by mutation of DCTN1, which is associated with hypoventilation, depression, and weight loss. CASE PRESENTATION: We used tongue pressure measurements and manofluorography to investigate swallowing function in 2 patients with PS. Case 1, a 60-year-old male showing parkinsonism, and case 2, a 49-year-old male admitted with pneumonia, were diagnosed as having PS based on the DCTN1 gene analysis...
May 2017: Case Reports in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679838/fluorocitrate-mediated-depolarization-of-astrocytes-in-the-retrotrapezoid-nucleus-stimulates-breathing
#18
Cleyton R Sobrinho, Christopher M Gonçalves, Ana C Takakura, Daniel K Mulkey, Thiago S Moreira
Evidence indicates that CO2/H(+)-evoked ATP released from retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) astrocytes modulates the activity of CO2-sensitive neurons. RTN astrocytes also sense H(+) by inhibition of Kir4.1 channels; however, the relevance of this pH-sensitive current remains unclear since ATP release appears to involve CO2-dependent gating of connexin 26 hemichannels. Considering that depolarization mediated by H(+) inhibition of Kir4.1 channels is expected to increase sodium bicarbonate cotransporter (NBC) conductance and favor Ca(2+) influx via the sodium calcium exchanger (NCX), we hypothesize that depolarization in the presence of CO2 is sufficient to facilitate ATP release and enhance respiratory output...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660425/the-fate-of-mengovirus-on-fiberglass-filter-of-air-handling-units
#19
Victor Bandaly, Aurélie Joubert, Pierre Le Cann, Yves Andres
One of the most important topics that occupy public health problems is the air quality. That is the reason why mechanical ventilation and air handling units (AHU) were imposed by the different governments in the collective or individual buildings. Many buildings create an artificial climate using heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning systems. Among the existing aerosols in the indoor air, we can distinguish the bioaerosol with biological nature such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Respiratory viral infections are a major public health issue because they are usually highly infective...
June 28, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649372/the-use-of-high-frequency-ventilation-during-general-anaesthesia-an-update
#20
REVIEW
Karolina Galmén, Piotr Harbut, Jacob Freedman, Jan G Jakobsson
Various forms of high-frequency ventilation (HFV) have been described. HFV is broadly defined as artificial ventilation of the lungs with sub-deadspace tidal volumes delivered using supra-physiological frequencies. HFV has been used in anaesthesia and intensive care for special procedures and conditions since the 1960s. Clinical interest in the use and the technical evolution of HFV has developed over time. There is a renewed interest in HFV for avoiding parenchymal movement during stereotactic tumour ablation...
2017: F1000Research
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