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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236807/pediatric-tuberculosis-human-immunodeficiency-virus-co-infection-in-the-united-kingdom-highlights-the-need-for-better-therapy-monitoring-tools-a-case-report
#1
Dimitrios Evangelopoulos, Elizabeth Whittaker, Isobella Honeyborne, Timothy D McHugh, Nigel Klein, Delane Shingadia
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is an infection that requires at least 6 months of chemotherapy in order to clear the bacteria from the patient's lungs. Usually, therapeutic monitoring is dependent on smear microscopy where a decline in acid-fast bacilli is observed. However, this might not be indicative of the actual decline of bacterial load and thus other tools such as culture and molecular assays are required for patient management. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we report the case of a 12-year-old Black African boy co-infected with tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus who remained smear culture positive and liquid culture negative for a prolonged period of time following chemotherapy...
February 26, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179741/innovations-in-medication-preparation-safety-and-wastage-reduction-use-of-a-workflow-management-system-in-a-pediatric-hospital
#2
Stephen Jerome Davis, Josephine Hurtado, Rosemary Nguyen, Tran Huynh, Ivan Lindon, Cedric Hudnall, Sara Bork
Background: USP <797> regulatory requirements have mandated that pharmacies improve aseptic techniques and cleanliness of the medication preparation areas. In addition, the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) recommends that technology and automation be used as much as possible for preparing and verifying compounded sterile products. Objective: To determine the benefits associated with the implementation of the workflow management system, such as reducing medication preparation and delivery errors, reducing quantity and frequency of medication errors, avoiding costs, and enhancing the organization's decision to move toward positive patient identification (PPID)...
January 2017: Hospital Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174747/a-disease-associated-microbial-and-metabolomics-state-in-relatives-of-pediatric-inflammatory-bowel-disease-patients
#3
Jonathan P Jacobs, Maryam Goudarzi, Namita Singh, Maomeng Tong, Ian H McHardy, Paul Ruegger, Miro Asadourian, Bo-Hyun Moon, Allyson Ayson, James Borneman, Dermot P B McGovern, Albert J Fornace, Jonathan Braun, Marla Dubinsky
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Microbes may increase susceptibility to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) by producing bioactive metabolites that affect immune activity and epithelial function. We undertook a family based study to identify microbial and metabolic features of IBD that may represent a predisease risk state when found in healthy first-degree relatives. METHODS: Twenty-one families with pediatric IBD were recruited, comprising 26 Crohn's disease patients in clinical remission, 10 ulcerative colitis patients in clinical remission, and 54 healthy siblings/parents...
November 2016: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170388/lung-liquid-clearance-in-preterm-lambs-assessed-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#4
Ali Houeijeh, Pierre Tourneux, Sébastien Mur, Estelle Aubry, Romain Viard, Dyuti Sharma, Laurent Storme
BACKGROUND: Postnatal adaptation requires liquid clearance and lung aeration. However, their relative contribution to the expansion of functional residual capacity (FRC) has not been fully investigated. We studied evolution of lung liquid removal and lung aeration after birth in preterm lambs. METHODS: Lung liquid content and lung volume were assessed at birth and every 30 minutes over 2 hours using MRI in 3 groups of lambs delivered by cesarean: preterm, late preterm, and late preterm with antenatal steroids...
February 7, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167004/e-cigarettes-an-update-on-considerations-for-the-otolaryngologist
#5
REVIEW
Sneh Biyani, Craig S Derkay
PURPOSE: We provide an update in the literature and national regulations regarding electronic cigarettes with special attention to the pediatric population. BACKGROUND: Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) are handheld battery operated devices that vaporize nicotine-containing liquids for inhalation. Use of these products has dramatically increased over the last several years, particularly among the youth. ENDS are being marketed with advertising techniques and flavors which appeal to the adolescent and young adult population...
March 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166854/an-outbreak-of-burkholderia-cepacia-complex-infections-associated-with-contaminated-liquid-docusate
#6
Lucila Marquez, Katie N Jones, Elaine M Whaley, Tjin H Koy, Paula A Revell, Ruston S Taylor, M Brooke Bernhardt, Jeffrey L Wagner, James J Dunn, John J LiPuma, Judith R Campbell
OBJECTIVE To investigate an outbreak of Burkholderia cepacia complex and describe the measures that revealed the source. SETTING A 629-bed, tertiary-care, pediatric hospital in Houston, Texas. PATIENTS Pediatric patients without cystic fibrosis (CF) hospitalized in the pediatric and cardiovascular intensive care units. METHODS We investigated an outbreak of B. cepacia complex from February through July 2016. Isolates were evaluated for molecular relatedness with repetitive extragenic palindromic polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR); specific species identification and genotyping were performed at an independent laboratory...
February 7, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157838/purification-and-characterization-of-micrornas-within-middle-ear-fluid-exosomes-implication-in-otitis-media-pathophysiology
#7
Stéphanie Val, Stephanie Jeong, Marian Poley, Anna Krueger, Gustavo Nino, Kristy Brown, Diego Preciado
BACKGROUND: Otitis Media (OM) is characterized by acute infection progressing to chronic middle ear effusion (MEE). Extracellular secretion of microRNAs (miRNAs) in exosomes is a newly discovered mechanism for cells exerting distant cell genetic regulation. Whether MEE contains exosomes with specific miRNAs is unknown. This study aimed to purify and characterize the exosomal and miRNA content of MEE. METHOD: MEEs were subjected to Exoquick exosomal purification and EXOCET exosomal quantification...
February 3, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151005/allograft-heart-valves-current-aspects-and-future-applications
#8
Milan Lisy, Guenay Kalender, Katja Schenke-Layland, Kelvin G M Brockbank, Anna Biermann, Ulrich Alfred Stock
Human heart valve allografts continue to represent almost perfect substitutes for heart valves. They have optimal hemodynamic characteristics and are highly resistant to infections. The first clinical use of allograft heart valves was as homovitals being transplanted after antibiotic incubation without any preservation. Since 1968, relatively standardized frozen cryopreservation (SFC) has been employed, including storage in vapor-phase liquid nitrogen. Disadvantages, particularly in pediatric patients, are limited availability due to organ scarcity, inability to grow, degeneration, immune response, and long-term failure...
February 2, 2017: Biopreservation and Biobanking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141725/acute-agitation-and-self-injury-in-a-5-year-old-with-autism
#9
Jason Schweitzer, Christine James, Willough Jenkins, Michael I Reiff, Martin T Stein
A 5-year-old nonverbal child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was admitted to inpatient pediatrics with new onset agitation and self-injurious behavior. His parents described him as a pleasant child without previous episodes of self-injury. Four days before admission, the parents noted new irritability followed by 2 days of self-injury to the face without clear precipitant. His hitting intensified with closed fist to face, and he required parental physical restraint to prevent further injury. Car rides and ibuprofen provided only temporary relief...
February 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133719/the-toxicology-of-methadone-related-death-in-infants-under-1-year-three-case-series-and-review-of-the-literature
#10
Anthea B Mahesan Paul, Lary Simms, Arnold M Mahesan
Methadone-related fatalities occur rarely in infants under 1 year, with five confirmed cases in the literature. The interpretation of pediatric postmortem toxicology relies on adult data; however, infants have crucial physiological differences that may impact interpretation of results. Retrospective case review included scene investigation, interviews, autopsy, and NIH/CDC Sudden Unexplained Infant Death Investigation Reporting Form. Methadone levels were confirmed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131674/milrinone-therapeutic-drug-monitoring-in-a-pediatric-population-development-and-validation-of-a-quantitative-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-method
#11
Joshua E Raizman, Katherine Taylor, Christopher Parshuram, David A Colantonio
BACKGROUND: Milrinone is a potent selective phosphodiesterase type III inhibitor which stimulates myocardial function and improves myocardial relaxation. Although therapeutic monitoring is crucial to maintain therapeutic outcome, little data is available. A proof-of-principle study has been initiated in our institution to evaluate the clinical impact of optimizing milrinone dosing through therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) in children following cardiac surgery. We developed a robust LC-MS/MS method to quantify milrinone in serum from pediatric patients in real-time...
January 25, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098395/first-uhplc-ms-ms-method-coupled-with-automated-on-line-spe-for-quantification-both-of-tacrolimus-and-everolimus-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-and-its-application-on-samples-from-co-treated-pediatric-patients
#12
Debora Pensi, Amedeo De Nicolò, Michele Pinon, Clarissa Pisciotta, Pier Luigi Calvo, Antonello Nonnato, Renato Romagnoli, Francesco Tandoi, Giovanni Di Perri, Antonio D'Avolio
Tacrolimus (TAC, FK-506) and everolimus (EVE, RAD001) are immunosuppressors used to treat pediatric patients undergoing liver transplantation. Their hematic TDM by liquid chromatography became standard practice. However, it does not always reflect concentrations at their active site. Our aim was to develop and validate a new method for the simultaneous TAC and EVE quantification into target cells: Peripheral-Blood-Mononuclear-Cells (PBMCs). PBMCs were collected using Cell-Preparation-Tubes; cells number and MCV were evaluated by an automatic cell counter...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074348/challenges-and-opportunities-in-the-development-of-hiv-medications-in-pediatric-patients
#13
Gueorgui Dubrocq, Natella Rakhmanina, B Ryan Phelps
Successful management of pediatric HIV disease requires high therapeutic efficacy and adherence, which can be achieved by providing affordable, easy to store, and palatable antiretrovirals. Current challenges in pediatric antiretroviral drug development include poor palatability, large pill size, limited oral liquid formulations, and few incentives for development by drug manufacturers as the number of children with HIV continues to decline due to successful worldwide preventive interventions and improved access to antiretrovirals...
January 10, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040557/measurement-of-pyridoxal-5-phosphate-pyridoxal-and-4-pyridoxic-acid-in-the-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-children
#14
Tomoyuki Akiyama, Mari Akiyama, Yumiko Hayashi, Takashi Shibata, Yoshiyuki Hanaoka, Soichiro Toda, Katsumi Imai, Shin-Ichiro Hamano, Tohru Okanishi, Harumi Yoshinaga, Katsuhiro Kobayashi
BACKGROUND: We quantified pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), pyridoxal (PL), and 4-pyridoxic acid (PA) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of children and to investigate the effect of age, sex, epilepsy, and anti-epileptic drug (AED) therapy on these vitamers. METHODS: CSF samples prospectively collected from 116 pediatric patients were analyzed. PLP, PL, and PA were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection, using pre-column derivatization by semicarbazide...
December 28, 2016: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028334/liquid-based-versus-conventional-cytology-in-solid-pediatric-neoplasm-comparison-of-their-diagnostic-and-morphological-spectra
#15
Preeti Agarwal, Sunita Yadav, Archana Kumar, Madhu M Goel
BACKGROUND: Conventional cytology (CC) is a well-established and effective methodology for the evaluation of pediatric tumors. Liquid-based cytology (LBC) is a better technique of smear preparation and is at present the standard protocol in cervical cytology samples. AIMS: In the present study, we analyzed both smear preparatory techniques in fine-needle aspiration (FNA) samples from solid pediatric neoplasms in terms of adequacy and efficacy with objectives to study the changes in background and morphology of tumor cells in LBC smears...
October 2016: Journal of Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988056/unintentional-pediatric-ingestion-of-electronic%C3%A2-cigarette-nicotine-refill-liquid-necessitating-intubation
#16
Matthew J Noble, Beck Longstreet, Robert G Hendrickson, Roy Gerona
Liquid nicotine used in electronic cigarette devices is highly concentrated, unreliably packaged, and poorly regulated. We present a case report of a 6-year-old female who developed severe toxicity and required intubation after an unintentional oral ingestion of approximately 703 mg (35 mg/kg) of liquid nicotine, with accompanying serum and urine concentrations of nicotine and its metabolites. Analysis of the ingested liquid suggests a nicotine concentration of 140.6 mg/mL in the purchased commercial product, or 234% of its labeled concentration...
January 2017: Annals of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987364/effect-of-the-polymorphism-of-folylpolyglutamate-synthetase-on-treatment-of-high-dose-methotrexate-in-pediatric-patients-with-acute-lymphocytic-leukemia
#17
Zhen Huang, Hong-Fei Tong, Yuan Li, Jiang-Chao Qian, Ju-Xiang Wang, Zhe Wang, Ji-Chen Ruan
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate the association of the polymorphism of folylpolyglutamate synthetase (FPGS) with the dynamic plasma concentration of methotrexate (MTX) in pediatric patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), as well as the prognosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS 57 ALL patients and 31 age and sex-matched children (control) were included in this study. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism was performed for the analysis of the genotype of FPGS rs1544105 and high-performance liquid chromatography for measurement of MTX plasma concentration after 24-h and 44-h treatment...
December 17, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977534/acute-mercury-poisoning-in-a-group-of-school-children
#18
Olcay Güngör, Ahmet Kağan Özkaya, Serkan Kirik, Tahir Dalkiran, Gülay Güngör, Sedat Işikay, Mehmet Davutoğlu, Cengiz Dilber
OBJECTIVE: Elemental mercury is a toxic liquid element that is used widely in the home, medicine, agriculture, and industry. It is readily vaporized and inhaled at room temperature. Thereby, inhalation can cause acute or chronic poisoning. Mercury can be found in environmental naturally find but some dangers sources give rise to contaminations. It can be very dangerous to all living organisms, especially children. METHODS: This study presents the features of mercury poisoning in a group of pediatric cases...
December 12, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973472/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-comparison-between-poractant-alfa-and-the-new-generation-synthetic-surfactant-chf5633
#19
Francesca Ricci, Xabier Murgia, Roberta Razzetti, Nicola Pelizzi, Fabrizio Salomone
BACKGROUND: CHF5633 is a new generation synthetic surfactant containing both SP-B and SP-C analogues developed for the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome. Here, the optimal dose and its performance in comparison to the animal-derived surfactant poractant alfa were investigated. METHODS: In vitro surfactant activity was determined by means of the Wilhelmy balance and the capillary surfactometer. The dose-finding study was performed in preterm rabbits with severe surfactant deficiency...
December 14, 2016: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966809/delayed-elimination-of-high-dose-methotrexate-and-use-of-carboxypeptidase-g2-in-pediatric-patients-during-treatment-for-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#20
Thommy Svahn, Karin Mellgren, Arja Harila-Saari, Ann Åsberg, Jukka Kanerva, Ólafur Jónsson, Goda Vaitkeviciene, Torben Stamm Mikkelssen, Kjeld Schmiegelow, Jesper Heldrup
BACKGROUND: Carboxypeptidase G2 (CPDG2 ) can be used as rescue treatment in cases of delayed methotrexate elimination (DME) and Mtx-induced nephrotoxicity. PROCEDURE: Between July 2008 and December 2014, all children (1.0-17.9 years) in the Nordic countries diagnosed with Philadelphia chromosome negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) were treated according to the Nordic Organization for Pediatric Hematology and Oncology (NOPHO) ALL 2008 protocol, including administration of six to eight high-dose (5 g/m(2) /24 hr) Mtx (HDMtx) courses...
December 14, 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
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