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pediatrics liquids

Benjamin H Goot, Jon Kaufman, Zhaoxing Pan, David W A Bourne, Francis Hickey, Mark Twite, Jeffrey Galinkin, Uwe Christians, Jeannie Zuk, Eduardo M da Cruz
OBJECTIVES: To assess if morphine pharmacokinetics are different in children with Down syndrome when compared with children without Down syndrome. DESIGN: Prospective single-center study including subjects with Down syndrome undergoing cardiac surgery (neonate to 18 yr old) matched by age and cardiac lesion with non-Down syndrome controls. Subjects were placed on a postoperative morphine infusion that was adjusted as clinically necessary, and blood was sampled to measure morphine and its metabolites concentrations...
March 15, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Shoji Tsuji, Chikushi Suruda, Masaki Hashiyada, Takahisa Kimata, Sohsaku Yamanouchi, Tetsuya Kitao, Jiro Kino, Atsushi Akane, Kazunari Kaneko
BACKGROUND: While the etiology of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (idiopathic nephrotic syndrome [INS]; characterized by repeated relapses and comorbid allergic conditions) remains unknown, recent evidence suggests that dysfunction in regulatory T cells (Tregs) plays an important role in the development of INS as well as allergic diseases. We hypothesized that dysbiosis involving decreased butyric acid-producing gut microbiota leads to defective induction and differentiation of peripherally induced Tregs, resulting in INS relapse...
March 13, 2018: American Journal of Nephrology
Shelley A Deeke, Amanda E Starr, Zhibin Ning, Sara Ahmadi, Xu Zhang, Janice Mayne, Cheng-Kang Chiang, Ruth Singleton, Eric I Benchimol, David R Mack, Alain Stintzi, Daniel Figeys
OBJECTIVE: Improved biomarkers are an unmet clinical need for suspected inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Need is greatest for children, since current biomarkers suffers from low specificity, particularly in this population; thus, invasive testing methods, with the accompanying risk of complications, are necessary. Additionally, current biomarkers do not delineate disease extent assessment for ulcerative colitis (UC), a factor involved in therapeutic decisions. METHODS: Intestinal mucosal-luminal interface (MLI) aspirates from the ascending colon (AC) and descending colon (DC) were collected during diagnostic colonoscopy from treatment-naïve children...
March 12, 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Ahizechukwu C Eke, Nahida Chakhtoura, Angela Kashuba, Brookie M Best, Craig Sykes, Jiajia Wang, Alice M Stek, Elizabeth Smith, Samantha Calabrese, Edmund V Capparelli, Mark Mirochnick
BACKGROUND: Concentrations of antiretrovirals (ARVs) in the genital tract play a key role in pre-exposure prophylaxis. This study aims to describe rilpivirine (Edurant) concentrations in the genital tract in pregnant and postpartum women. METHODS: International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials Protocol P1026s is an ongoing, prospective study of antiretroviral pharmacokinetics (PK) in HIV infected pregnant women that include a cohort receiving rilpivirine combination regimen...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Eric P Brass, Kate M Reynolds, Randy I Burnham, Jody L Green
OBJECTIVE: The impact of the 2011 changes in pediatric single ingredient liquid acetaminophen product packaging and standardization of the acetaminophen concentration (160 mg/5 mL) on poison center exposures due to medication errors was assessed. METHODS: National Poison Data System (NPDS) data from January 1, 2007 through December 31, 2016 were used to identify medication error exposures involving single ingredient liquid acetaminophen in children less than 12 years of age...
March 6, 2018: Academic Pediatrics
Lara Hart, Humaira Nael, Natasha M Longmire, Mary Zachos
BACKGROUND: A well-visualized colon during colonoscopy has a direct impact on interpretation of findings and need for repeat procedure. Studies have been conducted in the adult population to assess factors contributing to improved bowel preparation. The primary aim of this study was to determine barriers and facilitators to good preparation in children. METHODS: A qualitative descriptive approach was utilized. Children age 2 to 18 years old, and their parents were recruited from the McMaster University Gastroenterology clinic from May 2015 to January 2016...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
C Rehn, E Odouard, F Poncet, P Cochat, V Breant, X Dode
BACKGROUND AND GOAL OF THIS STUDY: Few available galenic formulations of drugs have pediatric doses, so that many of them are used off label in children. The influence of such pharmaceutical formulation on therapeutic adherence was evaluated in a systematic review of the literature. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This search was performed in 4 data bases: Medline, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science and Science Direct. Included articles were in French or English and focused on therapeutic adherence and route of administration...
March 1, 2018: Annales Pharmaceutiques Françaises
Lucyna Konieczna, Magdalena Pyszka, Magdalena Okońska, Maciej Niedźwiecki, Tomasz Bączek
Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is receiving increased attention as a novel, entirely non-invasive technique for collecting biomarker samples. This increased attention is due to the fact that EBC is simple, effort independent, rapid, can be repeated frequently, and can be performed on young children and patients suffering from a variety of diseases. By having a subject breathe tidally through a cooling system for 15-20 min, a sufficient amount of condensate is collected for analysis of biomarkers in clinical studies...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Ala K Shaikhkhalil, Wallace Crandall
Enteral nutrition (EN) for the treatment of Crohn's disease (CD) involves administration of a liquid nutrition product, administered orally or through tube feeding, while excluding typical dietary components. It is a safe and effective, but largely underused, therapy in the United States as a treatment for CD. EN is a particularly attractive option for pediatric CD as it avoids side effects of corticosteroids, improves growth, and may have a higher likelihood of achieving mucosal healing than some traditional medications...
February 15, 2018: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
M M Youssef, Ems El-Din, M M AbuShady, N R El-Baroudy, T A Abd El Hamid, A F Armaneus, A S El Refay, J Hussein, D Medhat, Y A Latif
BACKGROUND: Bronchial asthma is one of the top disabling diseases in pediatrics. Limited research has been studied the association of the widely used plastic monomer bisphenol A (BPA) with childhood asthma. OBJECTIVE: To compare the levels of urinary BPA in asthmatic and control children and to investigate the implication of BPA among other risk factors for the development of asthma. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This case-control study included 97 children (45 asthmatic and 52 healthy controls) aged 3-8 years...
January 1, 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Louisa Ferrara, Ranjith Kamity, Shahidul Islam, Irene Sher, Dan Barlev, Laurie Wennerholm, Fran Redstone, Nazeeh Hanna
Cold stimulation reduces airway compromise in adults with dysphagia. However, there is no sufficient evidence to support its use in the pediatric population. The primary goal of this pilot study is to assess the effect of cold liquid on the pharyngeal swallow mechanism in preterm infants with dysphagia. We hypothesized that thermal stimulation from cold liquid will decrease the risk of airway compromise in dysphagic preterm infants. Nine preterm infants with clinical symptoms of dysphagia were included. Video fluoroscopic swallow studies were used to assess the swallowing mechanism of each participant...
February 12, 2018: Dysphagia
X Yang, S Y Qian, Y M Zhu, X Xu, C F Liu, F Xu, X X Ren, Y Wang, Y C Zhang, G P Lu
Objective: To investigate the current application status of continuous blood purification (CBP) technology and equipment in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) in China. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted to understand the current popularization of CBP technology and equipment, the management of CBP equipment and consumables, and the application of CBP in different diseases. A questionnaire named Application Status of Continuous Blood Purification Technology was applied. Children's hospitals and polyclinic hospitals with the pediatric qualification (pediatric emergency or critical care unit members of Chinese Medical Association and Chinese Medical Doctor Association) were selected...
February 2, 2018: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
Amrita Sil, Chaitali Sengupta, Alak Kumar Das, Puspita Das Sil, Supratim Datta, Avijit Hazra
Context: Caregivers of sick children have to be careful with medicine dosing and giving medicines to a reluctant child can be challenging. Aim: To assess the knowledge, attitude, and practices of caregivers regarding pediatric medicine administration and health literacy allied to this task. Settings and Design: This cross-sectional study was carried out on outpatient and inpatient basis in the pediatrics department of a teaching hospital over 6 months...
July 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
E Durmaz, A Asci, P Erkekoglu, A Balcı, I Bircan, B Koçer-Gumusel
There is a growing concern over the timing of pubertal breast development and its possible association with exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), such as bisphenol A (BPA). BPA is abundantly used to harden plastics. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between premature thelarche (PT) and BPA by comparing the urinary BPA levels of PT girls with those of healthy subjects. Twenty-five newly diagnosed nonobese PT subjects (aged 4-8 years) who were admitted to the Pediatric Endocrinology Department at Akdeniz University were recruited...
January 1, 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Tânia A P Fernandes, João P Aguiar, Ana I Fernandes, João F Pinto
A simple, accurate and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed, validated and applied to the determination of either theophylline or paracetamol in milk-based samples. The method allowed drug quantification in fresh and powdered milk with a relatively short run time of analysis and it was also successfully applied to the quantification of the drugs in solid dosage forms intended for pediatric use. Moreover, the main significant advantages over other published works are the simplicity of the sample preparation, reduced assay time and sample loss...
December 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis
Samira Filali, Charlotte Bergamelli, Mamadou Lamine Tall, Damien Salmon, Diane Laleye, Carole Dhelens, Elhadji Diouf, Christine Pivot, Fabrice Pirot
A new institutional clinical trial assessed the improvement of sleep disorders in 40 children with autism treated by immediate-release melatonin formulation in different regimens (0.5 mg, 2 mg, and 6 mg daily) for one month. The objectives of present study were to (i) prepare low-dose melatonin hard capsules for pediatric use controlled by two complementary methods and (ii) carry out a stability study in order to determine a use-by-date. Validation of preparation process was claimed as ascertained by mass uniformity of hard capsules...
August 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis
K O Rove, M A Brockel, A F Saltzman, M I Dönmez, K E Brodie, D J Chalmers, B T Caldwell, V M Vemulakonda, D T Wilcox
BACKGROUND: Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocol is a set of peri-operative strategies to increase speed of recovery. ERAS is well established in adults but has not been well studied in children. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the current study was to establish the safety and efficacy of an ERAS protocol in pediatric urology patients undergoing reconstructive operations. It was hypothesized that ERAS would reduce length of stay and decrease complications when compared with historical controls...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Urology
S Ménétré, M Weber, M Socha, S Le Tacon, I May, C Schweitzer, B Demoré
In hospitals, the nursing staff is often confronted with the problem of the preparation and administration of drugs for their pediatric patients because of the lack of indication, pediatric dosage, and appropriate galenic form. The goal of this study was to give an overview of the nurses' preparation habits in pediatric units and highlight their daily problems. This single-center prospective study was conducted through an observation of the nursing staff during the drug preparation process in medicine, surgery and intensive care units...
January 29, 2018: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Victoria Higgins, Dorothy Truong, Nicole M A White-Al Habeeb, Angela W S Fung, Barry Hoffman, Khosrow Adeli
BACKGROUND: 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D), the biologically active vitamin D metabolite, plays a critical role in calcium and phosphate homeostasis. 1,25(OH)2D is measured to assess calcium and phosphate metabolism, particularly during periods of profound growth and development. Despite its importance, no reliable pediatric reference interval exists, with those available developed using adult populations or out-dated methodologies. Using the fully automated chemiluminescence immunoassay by DiaSorin, we established 1,25(OH)2D pediatric reference intervals using healthy children and adolescents from the CALIPER cohort...
February 1, 2018: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
Jesús Javier Martínez-García, Nidia Maribel León-Sicairos, Adrián Canizalez-Román, Bianca Azucena García-Arellano
BACKGROUND: In patients with septic shock, excessive fluid administration can lead to increased morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between fluid balance, acute kidney injury and mortality in patients with septic shock. METHODS: A study of cases and controls was conducted in a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit. The fluid balance in the first 72h and the presence of acute kidney injury was compared in patients diagnosed with septic shock who died against patients who survived the same condition...
July 2017: Boletín Médico del Hospital Infantil de México
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