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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136286/brompheniramine-and-chlorpheniramine-pharmacokinetics-following-single-dose-oral-administration-in-children-aged-2-to-17-years
#1
Sudam Pathirana, Shyamalie Jayawardena, Suzanne Meeves, Gary A Thompson
Two pediatric studies characterized brompheniramine and chlorpheniramine pharmacokinetics in a total of 72 subjects, aged 2 to 17 years. A single age-/weight-based oral dose, ranging from 1 to 4 mg, was administered with 2 to 6 oz of water at least 2 hours after a light breakfast. Plasma samples were obtained before and for 72 hours after dosing and analyzed using high-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using noncompartmental methods; relationships with age were assessed using linear regression...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114245/the-selective-interaction-of-pistacia-lentiscus-oil-vs-human-streptococci-an-old-functional-food-revisited-with-new-tools
#2
Germano Orrù, Cristina Demontis, Antonello Mameli, Enrica Tuveri, Pierpaolo Coni, Giuseppina Pichiri, Ferdinando Coghe, Antonella Rosa, Paola Rossi, Guy D'hallewin
Pistacia lentiscus berry oil (LBO) represents a typical vegetal product of the Mediterranean basin that has been formally used in traditional cuisine for 100s of years. In addition to its interesting alimentary properties, this product could represent an interesting candidate in the field of research on the study of new anti-infective agents. In fact, in Mediterranean countries, lentisk oil still continues to be widely used in folk medicine for oral and skin affections, in particular, acute gingivitis, pediatric skin infections such as impetigo and foot plaques, and biofilm related infections often associated with Streptococcus spp...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107733/determination-of-the-r-and-s-enantiomers-of-vigabatrin-in-human-plasma-by-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-and-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#3
Paul Duhamel, Marwa Ounissi, Thomas Le Saux, Hugues Bienayme, Catherine Chiron, Vincent Jullien
An analytical method was developed for the quantification in plasma of the R and S enantiomers of vigabatrin (VGB), a drug used for the treatment of some refractory pediatric epileptic syndromes. After adding 50μL of the internal standard, which consisted of a 15mg/L solution of deuterated racemic VGB, and 100μL of water to 100μL of plasma samples, a protein precipitation was performed by adding 600μL of methanol. The supernatant was evaporated to dryness under a stream of nitrogen and the dry residue was reconstituted with 500μL of water...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089460/measurements-obtained-from-esophageal-balloon-catheters-are-affected-by-the-esophageal-balloon-filling-volume-in-children-with-ards
#4
Justin C Hotz, Cary T Sodetani, Jeffrey Van Steenbergen, Robinder G Khemani, Timothy W Deakers, Christopher J Newth
INTRODUCTION: Esophageal balloon inflation volume may affect the accuracy of transpulmonary pressure estimates in adults, but the effect is unknown in pediatrics. Using a combination bench and human study, we sought to determine a range of optimal filling volumes for esophageal balloon catheters and to derive a technique to inflate catheters to yield the most accurate estimates of pleural pressure. METHODS: In the laboratory study, we evaluated 4 pediatric and adult esophageal balloon catheters, a liquid-filled catheter, and a micro-tip catheter, both with and without a model esophagus...
October 31, 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077177/mobile-femtosecond-laser-platform-for-pediatric-cataract-surgery
#5
Simon S M Fung, John Brookes, Mark R Wilkins, Gillian G W Adams
PURPOSE: To describe the use of a mobile femtosecond laser platform in assisting paediatric cataract surgery. METHODS: A mobile femtosecond laser was brought into the operating room and calibrated on the day of the surgery. After general anesthesia is induced, the femtosecond laser was docked onto the eyes with a liquid-filled interface, without any perioperative adaptations or additional surgical procedures. An anterior capsulotomy was created with the femtosecond laser, followed by conventional cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation...
October 26, 2017: European Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071850/-systematic-review-of-effectiveness-and-safety-of-pudilan-xiaoyan-oral-liquid-in-treating-pediatric-suppurative-tonsilitis
#6
Li-Ling Bian, Feng-Wen Wang, Yuan Yang, Li Zhang, Chun-Xiang Liu, Jun-Hua Zhang, Wen-Ke Zheng
The review aims to assess the effectiveness and safety Pudilan Xiaoyan oral liquid in treating pediatric suppurative tonsillitis systematically through searching relevant electronic database and collecting relevant literature. Meta-analysis was performed with the RevMan 5.3 software. Eighteen RCTs of 1 883 patients of pediatric suppurative tonsillitis were included. Meta-analysis showed that: compared with the application of antibiotics alone, combined with Pudilan can effectively improve the treatment of pediatric suppurative tonsillitis in efficacy rate and shorten the time of recovering normal temperature, the time of tonsil purulent discharge and can also reduce the extinction time of sore throat, antiadoncus or congestion subsided and appetite recovery...
April 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061751/intrapulmonary-pharmacokinetics-of-laninamivir-a-neuraminidase-inhibitor-after-a-single-nebulized-administration-of-laninamivir-octanoate-in-healthy-japanese-subjects
#7
Kaoru Toyama, Hidetoshi Furuie, Hitoshi Ishizuka
A single inhaled dose of laninamivir octanoate (LO) using a dry powder inhaler (DPI) is effective for the treatment and prophylaxis of influenza. Nebulizers are an option for pediatric and elderly patients who may have difficulty in using a DPI. A single-center, open-label study was conducted to evaluate the plasma and intrapulmonary pharmacokinetics (PK) of laninamivir after a single nebulized administration of LO in healthy male Japanese subjects for identifying a safe and effective dosage regimen for a nebulizer...
October 23, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054821/an-in-vitro-experiment-to-simulate-how-easy-tablets-are-to-swallow
#8
M Marconati, S Raut, A Burbidge, J Engmann, M Ramaioli
The compliance of patients to solid oral dosage forms is strongly conditioned by the perceived ease of swallowing, especially in geriatric and pediatric populations. This study proposes a method, based on an in vitro model of the human oropharyngeal cavity, to study quantitatively the oral phase of human swallowing in presence of single or multiple tablets. The dynamics of swallowing was investigated varying the size and shape of model tablets and adjusting the force applied to the mechanical setup to simulate tongue pressure variations among individuals...
October 18, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030229/elevation-of-proenkephalin-143-183-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-in-moyamoya-disease
#9
Kinya Yokoyama, Mikio Maruwaka, Kazuhiro Yoshikawa, Yoshio Araki, Sho Okamoto, Masaki Sumitomo, Akino Kawamura, Yusuke Sakamoto, Kenzo Shimizu, Takashi Izumi, Toshihiko Wakabayashi
BACKGROUND: In moyamoya disease (MMD), the causes of differences in clinical features between children and adults and of the dramatic temporal changes in moyamoya vessels are poorly understood. We previously discovered elevated levels of m/z 4588 and m/z 4473 peptides in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in MMD patients. This study examined the amino acid sequences of these peptides and quantified in specimens. METHODS: The m/z 4588 and m/z 4473 peptides in CSF from MMD patients were purified and concentrated by high-performance liquid chromatography and ultrafiltration...
October 10, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021006/determination-of-total-biotin-by-liquid-chromatography-coupled-with-immunoaffinity-column-cleanup-extraction-multilaboratory-testing-final-action-2016-02
#10
George Joseph, Ranjani Devi, Elaine C Marley, David Leeman
Single- and multilaboratory testing data have provided systematic scientific evidence that a simple, selective, accurate, and precise method can be used as a potential candidate reference method for dispute resolution in determining total biotin in all forms of infant, adult, and/or pediatric formula. Using LC coupled with immunoaffinity column cleanup extraction, the method fully meets the intended purpose and applicability statement in AOAC Standard Method Performance Requirement 2014.005. The method was applied to a cross-section of infant formula and adult nutritional matrixes, and acceptable precision and accuracy were established...
October 11, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990851/stability-study-of-a-clonidine-oral-solution-in-a-novel-vehicle-designed-for-pediatric-patients
#11
Arnaud Potier, Julien Voyat, Alain Nicolas
Clonidine hydrochloride is administered to opioid-addicted mothers' neonates to reduce neonatal abstinence syndrome. It is prescribed off-label to neonates at 0.5-1 µg/kg/6 h, alone or in combination. The commercially injectable form of clonidine-Catapressan(®) 0.15 mg/mL-is being orally given after an appropriate dilution in water. However, this practice is not suitable for a perfectly safe and accurate administration. The objectives were to design a 10 µg/mL oral solution of clonidine hydrochloride in Inorpha(®) and to study the stability of this solution by a validated stability-indicating liquid chromatography (LC) method...
October 24, 2017: Pharmaceutical Development and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980166/population-pharmacokinetic-model-to-optimize-cefotaxime-dosing-regimen-in-critically-ill-children
#12
Agathe Béranger, Mehdi Oualha, Saïk Urien, Mathieu Genuini, Sylvain Renolleau, Radia Aboura, Déborah Hirt, Claire Heilbronner, Julie Toubiana, Jean-Marc Tréluyer, Sihem Benaboud
BACKGROUND: During sepsis, optimal plasma antibiotic concentrations are mandatory. Modifications of pharmacokinetic parameters could lead to low drug concentrations and therefore, insufficient therapeutic levels. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to build a population pharmacokinetic model for cefotaxime and its metabolite desacetylcefotaxime in order to optimize individual dosing regimens for critically ill children. METHODS: All children aged < 18 years, weighing more than 2...
October 4, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978489/development-and-validation-of-a-sensitive-assay-for-analysis-of-midazolam-free-and-conjugated-1-hydroxymidazolam-and-4-hydroxymidazolam-in-pediatric-plasma-application-to-pediatric-pharmacokinetic-study
#13
Ganesh S Moorthy, Harini Jogiraju, Christina Vedar, Athena F Zuppa
Pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and pharmacogenomic studies of midazolam are currently being performed in critically ill children to find suitable dose regimens. Sensitive assays using small volumes of plasma are necessary to determine the concentrations of midazolam and its respective metabolites in pediatric studies. Midazolam is metabolized to hydroxylated midazolam isomers, which are present as free as well as the corresponding glucuronide conjugates. A high-performance liquid chromatographic method with tandem mass spectrometry has been developed and validated for the quantification of midazolam, and free and total 1-hydroxymidazolam and 4-hydroxymidazolam metabolites in small volumes of plasma...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977099/fluid-overload-in-children-undergoing-mechanical-ventilation
#14
Clarice Laroque Sinott Lopes, Jefferson Pedro Piva
Patients admitted to an intensive care unit are prone to cumulated fluid overload and receive intravenous volumes through the aggressive resuscitation recommended for septic shock treatment, as well as other fluid sources related to medications and nutritional support. The liberal liquid supply strategy has been associated with higher morbidity and mortality. Although there are few prospective pediatric studies, new strategies are being proposed. This non-systematic review discusses the pathophysiology of fluid overload, its consequences, and the available therapeutic strategies...
September 28, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973482/high-throughput-characterization-of-the-functional-impact-of-igg-fc-glycan-aberrancy-in-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis
#15
Hao D Cheng, Henning Stöckmann, Barbara Adamczyk, Ciara A McManus, Altan Ercan, Ingrid A Holm, Pauline M Rudd, Margaret E Ackerman, Peter A Nigrovic
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) encompasses all forms of chronic idiopathic arthritis that arise before age 16. Previous studies have found JIA to be associated with lower Fc galactosylation of circulating IgG, but the overall spectrum of glycan changes and the net impact on IgG function are unknown. Using ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), we compared IgG glycosylation in 54 subjects with recent-onset untreated JIA with 98 healthy pediatric controls, paired to biophysical profiling of affinity for 20 IgG receptors using a high-throughput multiplexed microsphere assay...
December 1, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971761/micrornas-in-neuroblastoma-biomarkers-with-therapeutic-potential
#16
Angela Galardi, Marta Colletti, Pietro Businaro, Concetta Quintarelli, Franco Locatelli, Angela Di Giannatale
BACKGROUND: Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumor in infancy. The majority of children have a disseminated disease at diagnosis with bone marrow as the most common site of metastasis. Although several prognostic factors have been defined (i.e. age, stage, histology, recurrent genetic anomalies), the identification of non-invasive biomarkers for disease follow-up and therapy monitoring is indeed still a clinical need. Aberrant regulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) expression has been implicated in several malignancies...
October 3, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971358/preparation-and-evaluation-of-taste-masking-iron-suspension-taking-advantage-of-weak-cationic-exchange-resin
#17
Maryam Kouchak, Zahra Ramezani, Farid Bagheri
The objective of this study is to use weak acid cation exchange resin to mask the taste and eliminate the teeth staining problems of ferrous sulfate liquid preparations for use in pediatrics. Amberlite IPR64 was loaded by Fe(II). Then, different suspensions of the iron-resin complex were prepared using various polymers as the suspending agents, and sorbitol as well as sucrose as sweeteners. Physical stability, rheological assessment, kinetics of Fe(II) release, and taste evaluation of suspensions were studied...
October 2, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943818/factors-associated-with-dispensing-dosage-delivery-devices
#18
Eva Wojewoda, Katherine J Chou
OBJECTIVES: A potential cause of medication errors in children is imprecise measurements, particularly using household spoons. There are no regulations requiring dispensing dose delivery devices (DDDs) with liquid prescription medications. Local, regional, and national pharmacy practice patterns are largely unknown. This study sought to determine how frequently devices are provided with prescription pediatric liquid medications with instructions for their use at pharmacies in Bronx, New York, and to examine which pharmacy and pharmacist characteristics are associated with reported practices...
July 2017: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933918/pharmacokinetics-of-a-new-amphetamine-extended-release-oral-suspension-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#19
Carolyn R Sikes, Russ L McMahen, Jeffrey G Stark, Dorothy Engelking
OBJECTIVE: An extended-release amphetamine (AMP) oral suspension has been developed to facilitate medication ingestion and dose titration. This study sought to determine the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of this new formulation in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: This was an open-label, single-period, PK study in 29 pediatric participants with ADHD. Participants were stratified into age groups 1 (6-7 years), 2 (8-9 years), and 3 (10-12 years), and dosed with 15 mL extended-release AMP liquid suspension (equivalent to 30 mg mixed AMP salts) after an overnight fast...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930953/proposed-clinical-pathway-for-nonoperative-management-of-high-grade-pediatric-pancreatic-injuries-based-on-a-multicenter-analysis-a-pediatric-trauma-society-collaborative
#20
MULTICENTER STUDY
Bindi J Naik-Mathuria, Eric H Rosenfeld, Ankush Gosain, Randall Burd, Richard A Falcone, Rajan Thakkar, Barbara Gaines, David Mooney, Mauricio Escobar, Mubeen Jafri, Anthony Stallion, Denise B Klinkner, Robert Russell, Brendan Campbell, Rita V Burke, Jeffrey Upperman, David Juang, Shawn St Peter, Stephon J Fenton, Marianne Beaudin, Hale Wills, Adam Vogel, Stephanie Polites, Adam Pattyn, Christine Leeper, Laura V Veras, Ilan Maizlin, Shefali Thaker, Alexis Smith, Megan Waddell, Joseph Drews, James Gilmore, Lindsey Armstrong, Alexis Sandler, Suzanne Moody, Brandon Behrens, Laurence Carmant
BACKGROUND: Guidelines for nonoperative management (NOM) of high-grade pancreatic injuries in children have not been established, and wide practice variability exists. The purpose of this study was to evaluate common clinical strategies across multiple pediatric trauma centers to develop a consensus-based standard clinical pathway. METHODS: A multicenter, retrospective review was conducted of children with high-grade (American Association of Surgeons for Trauma grade III-V) pancreatic injuries treated with NOM between 2010 and 2015...
October 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
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