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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343637/investigation-of-preoperative-fasting-times-in-children
#1
Eda Dolgun, Meryem Yavuz, Birsen Eroğlu, Ayşe Islamoğlu
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate preoperative fasting times of children. DESIGN: A prospective and descriptive design was used. METHODS: The study was carried out in the pediatric surgery departments of a University Faculty of Medicine Hospital, between January 1 and May 31, 2012. The sample included 332 pediatric patients having surgery with general anesthesia and their family. Data were collected via patient and family interview using a 28-item questionnaire developed by the researchers...
April 2017: Journal of Perianesthesia Nursing: Official Journal of the American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339378/stability-of-allopurinol-amitriptyline-hydrochloride-carbamazepine-domperidone-isoniazid-ketoconazole-lisinopril-naproxen-paracetamol-acetaminophen-and-sertraline-hydrochloride-in-syrspend-sf-ph4-oral-suspensions
#2
Hudson C Polonini, Sharlene Loures, Edson Peter de Araujo, Marcos Antônio F Brandão, Anderson O Ferreira
Oral liquids are safe alternatives to solid dosage forms, notably for elderly and pediatric patients that present dysphagia. The use of ready-to-use suspending vehicles such as SyrSpend SF PH4 is a suitable resource for pharmacists as they constitute a safe and timesaving option that has been studied often. The objective of this study was to evaluate the stability of 10 commonly used active pharmaceutical ingredients (allopurinol 20 mg/mL; amitriptyline hydrochloride 10 mg/mL; carbamazepine 25 mg/mL; domperidone 5 mg/mL; isoniazid 10 mg/mL; ketoconazole 20 mg/mL; lisinopril 1 mg/mL; naproxen 25 mg/mL; paracetamol [acetaminophen] 50 mg/mL; and sertraline hydrochloride 10 mg/mL) compounded in oral suspensions using SyrSpend SF PH4 as the vehicle throughout the study period and stored both at controlled refrigerated (2°C to 8°C) and room temperature (20°C to 25°C)...
September 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339377/stability-of-clindamycin-hydrochloride-in-pcca-base-suspendit
#3
Yashoda V Pramar, Richard A Graves, Grace A Ledet, Kelly V Phan, Levon A Bostanian, Tarun K Mandal
Clindamycin is an effective antibiotic in the treatment of infections caused by certain gram-positive and gram-negative anaerobic microorganisms. While manufactured forms of the drug for pediatric use are available, there are instances when a compounded liquid dosage form is essential to meet unique patient needs. The purpose of this study was to determine the chemical stability of clindamycin hydrochloride in the PCCA base SuspendIt, a sugar-free, paraben- free, dye-free, and gluten-free thixotropic vehicle containing a natural sweetener obtained from the monk fruit...
September 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333668/development-of-extemporaneously-compounded-aripiprazole-oral-suspensions-for-use-in-children
#4
Lance A Pramann, Lawrence W Davidow, Leon van Haandel, Ryan S Funk
The purpose of this study was to develop extemporaneously compounded oral liquid formulations of aripiprazole for use in pediatric patients and those patients unable to swallow the solid oral dosage forms. Aripiprazole tablets(30 mg) were ground to a fine powder and suspended at a concentration of 1.0 mg/mL in either a 1:1 blend of Ora-Plus and Ora-Sweet, or 1% methylcellulose and Simple Syrup NF. Five amber, plastic liquid prescription bottles of each formulation were stored at 4°C, and aripiprazole content was measured by ultra-performance liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry at 0, 14, 32, 67, and 91 days...
May 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328658/a-systematic-review-on-the-epidemiology-of-pediatric-burn-in-iran
#5
Sayed Saeed Hashemi, Asaad Sharhani, Bahare Lotfi, Toraj Ahmadi-Juibari, Zahra Shaahmadi, Abbas Aghaei
Burn is the most common pediatric injuries all over the world. The aim of this study was to study the epidemiology of burn in under 15-year-old Iranian children by applying a systematic review. The related articles published before 2016 have been gathered from international databases by using the keywords in term of pediatric burns such as ScienceDirect, PubMed, Iranmedex, Google Scholar, Embase, Magiran, and SID. The checklists of STROBE have been applied to evaluate the quality of the reviewed data. A total of 35 relevant studies were extracted and evaluated...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296824/multicentric-case-control-study-on-azathioprine-dose-and-pharmacokinetics-in-early-onset-pediatric-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#6
Gabriele Stocco, Stefano Martelossi, Serena Arrigo, Arrigo Barabino, Marina Aloi, Massimo Martinelli, Erasmo Miele, Daniela Knafelz, Claudio Romano, Samuele Naviglio, Diego Favretto, Eva Cuzzoni, Raffaella Franca, Giuliana Decorti, Alessandro Ventura
BACKGROUND: Early-onset inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is generally aggressive, with a high probability of complications and need of surgery. Despite the introduction of highly effective biological drugs, treatment with azathioprine continues to be important even for early-onset IBD; however, in these patients azathioprine response seems to be reduced. This study evaluated azathioprine doses, metabolite concentrations, and their associations with patients' age in children with IBD treated at 6 tertiary pediatric referral centers...
April 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288290/effect-of-commonly-prescribed-liquid-medications-on-streptococcus-mutans-biofilm-an-in-vitro-study
#7
Samantha A Clark, LaQuia A Vinson, George Eckert, Richard L Gregory
OBJECTIVE: This study addressed the effect of pediatric liquid antibiotic medications on Streptococcus mutans UA159. These suspensions commonly contain sugars such as sucrose to make them more palatable for children. The study was designed to evaluate the effects of oral liquid antibiotics on Streptococcus mutans growth and biofilm formation. STUDY DESIGN: A 24 hour culture of S. mutans was treated with various concentrations of liquid medications commonly prescribed to children for odontogenic or fungal infections- amoxicillin, penicillin VK, clindamycin, and nystatin...
2017: Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263737/simple-dilute-and-shoot-method-for-urinary-vanillylmandelic-acid-and-homovanillic-acid-by-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#8
Zlatuse D Clark, Jeaneah M Cutler, Igor Y Pavlov, Frederick G Strathmann, Elizabeth L Frank
BACKGROUND: Neuroblastomas are pediatric tumors characterized by overproduction of catecholamines. The catecholamine metabolites, vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and homovanillic acid (HVA), are used in clinical evaluation of neuroblastoma. Tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is an effective analytical method for measurement of VMA and HVA in urine. METHODS: Dilute-and-shoot sample preparation was performed in a 96-well format using a liquid handler. Chromatographic separation was achieved using a reverse phase column; detection was accomplished by triple quadrupole mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization in positive mode...
March 3, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259866/verification-of-propofol-sulfate-as-a-further-human-propofol-metabolite-using-lc-esi-qqq-ms-and-lc-esi-qtof-ms-analysis
#9
Alexandra Maas, Christoph Maier, Beate Michel-Lauter, Sebastian Broecker, Burkhard Madea, Cornelius Hess
BACKGROUND: Propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol) is a water-insoluble, intravenous anesthetic that is widely used for the induction and maintenance of anesthesia as well as for endoscopic and pediatric sedation. After admission, propofol undergoes extensive hepatic and extrahepatic metabolism, including direct conjugation to propofol glucuronide and hydroxylation to 2,6-diisopropyl-1,4-quinol. The latter substance subsequently undergoes phase II metabolism, resulting in the formation of further metabolites (1quinolglucuronide, 4quinolglucuronide and 4quinol-sulfate)...
March 1, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Personalized Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240622/oxandrolone-coadministration-does-not-alter-plasma-propranolol-concentrations-in-severely-burned-pediatric-patients
#10
Ashley N Guillory, David N Herndon, Michael B Silva, Clark R Andersen, Oscar E Suman, Celeste C Finnerty
The systemic impact of severe burn injury results in a variety of disorders that require therapeutic intervention. Propranolol, a nonselective β1, β2-adrenergic receptor antagonist, reduces resting heart rate and cardiac work caused by elevated circulating catecholamines. Oxandrolone, a testosterone mimetic, promotes protein synthesis and anabolism to counter muscle wasting. Coadministration of these drugs is expected to synergistically improve patient outcomes. Testosterone administration is known to alter β-adrenergic receptor-mediated signaling...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236807/pediatric-tuberculosis-human-immunodeficiency-virus-co-infection-in-the-united-kingdom-highlights-the-need-for-better-therapy-monitoring-tools-a-case-report
#11
Dimitrios Evangelopoulos, Elizabeth Whittaker, Isobella Honeyborne, Timothy D McHugh, Nigel Klein, Delane Shingadia
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is an infection that requires at least 6 months of chemotherapy in order to clear the bacteria from the patient's lungs. Usually, therapeutic monitoring is dependent on smear microscopy where a decline in acid-fast bacilli is observed. However, this might not be indicative of the actual decline of bacterial load and thus other tools such as culture and molecular assays are required for patient management. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we report the case of a 12-year-old Black African boy co-infected with tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus who remained smear culture positive and liquid culture negative for a prolonged period of time following chemotherapy...
February 26, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179741/innovations-in-medication-preparation-safety-and-wastage-reduction-use-of-a-workflow-management-system-in-a-pediatric-hospital
#12
Stephen Jerome Davis, Josephine Hurtado, Rosemary Nguyen, Tran Huynh, Ivan Lindon, Cedric Hudnall, Sara Bork
Background: USP <797> regulatory requirements have mandated that pharmacies improve aseptic techniques and cleanliness of the medication preparation areas. In addition, the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) recommends that technology and automation be used as much as possible for preparing and verifying compounded sterile products. Objective: To determine the benefits associated with the implementation of the workflow management system, such as reducing medication preparation and delivery errors, reducing quantity and frequency of medication errors, avoiding costs, and enhancing the organization's decision to move toward positive patient identification (PPID)...
January 2017: Hospital Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174747/a-disease-associated-microbial-and-metabolomics-state-in-relatives-of-pediatric-inflammatory-bowel-disease-patients
#13
Jonathan P Jacobs, Maryam Goudarzi, Namita Singh, Maomeng Tong, Ian H McHardy, Paul Ruegger, Miro Asadourian, Bo-Hyun Moon, Allyson Ayson, James Borneman, Dermot P B McGovern, Albert J Fornace, Jonathan Braun, Marla Dubinsky
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Microbes may increase susceptibility to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) by producing bioactive metabolites that affect immune activity and epithelial function. We undertook a family based study to identify microbial and metabolic features of IBD that may represent a predisease risk state when found in healthy first-degree relatives. METHODS: Twenty-one families with pediatric IBD were recruited, comprising 26 Crohn's disease patients in clinical remission, 10 ulcerative colitis patients in clinical remission, and 54 healthy siblings/parents...
November 2016: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170388/lung-liquid-clearance-in-preterm-lambs-assessed-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#14
Ali Houeijeh, Pierre Tourneux, Sébastien Mur, Estelle Aubry, Romain Viard, Dyuti Sharma, Laurent Storme
BACKGROUND: Postnatal adaptation requires liquid clearance and lung aeration. However, their relative contribution to the expansion of functional residual capacity (FRC) has not been fully investigated. We studied evolution of lung liquid removal and lung aeration after birth in preterm lambs. METHODS: Lung liquid content and lung volume were assessed at birth and every 30 minutes over 2 hours using MRI in 3 groups of lambs delivered by cesarean: preterm, late preterm, and late preterm with antenatal steroids...
February 7, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167004/e-cigarettes-an-update-on-considerations-for-the-otolaryngologist
#15
REVIEW
Sneh Biyani, Craig S Derkay
PURPOSE: We provide an update in the literature and national regulations regarding electronic cigarettes with special attention to the pediatric population. BACKGROUND: Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) are handheld battery operated devices that vaporize nicotine-containing liquids for inhalation. Use of these products has dramatically increased over the last several years, particularly among the youth. ENDS are being marketed with advertising techniques and flavors which appeal to the adolescent and young adult population...
March 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166854/an-outbreak-of-burkholderia-cepacia-complex-infections-associated-with-contaminated-liquid-docusate
#16
Lucila Marquez, Katie N Jones, Elaine M Whaley, Tjin H Koy, Paula A Revell, Ruston S Taylor, M Brooke Bernhardt, Jeffrey L Wagner, James J Dunn, John J LiPuma, Judith R Campbell
OBJECTIVE To investigate an outbreak of Burkholderia cepacia complex and describe the measures that revealed the source. SETTING A 629-bed, tertiary-care, pediatric hospital in Houston, Texas. PATIENTS Pediatric patients without cystic fibrosis (CF) hospitalized in the pediatric and cardiovascular intensive care units. METHODS We investigated an outbreak of B. cepacia complex from February through July 2016. Isolates were evaluated for molecular relatedness with repetitive extragenic palindromic polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR); specific species identification and genotyping were performed at an independent laboratory...
February 7, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157838/purification-and-characterization-of-micrornas-within-middle-ear-fluid-exosomes-implication-in-otitis-media-pathophysiology
#17
Stéphanie Val, Stephanie Jeong, Marian Poley, Anna Krueger, Gustavo Nino, Kristy Brown, Diego Preciado
BACKGROUND: Otitis Media (OM) is characterized by acute infection progressing to chronic middle ear effusion (MEE). Extracellular secretion of microRNAs (miRNAs) in exosomes is a newly discovered mechanism for cells exerting distant cell genetic regulation. Whether MEE contains exosomes with specific miRNAs is unknown. This study aimed to purify and characterize the exosomal and miRNA content of MEE. METHOD: MEEs were subjected to Exoquick exosomal purification and EXOCET exosomal quantification...
February 3, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151005/allograft-heart-valves-current-aspects-and-future-applications
#18
Milan Lisy, Guenay Kalender, Katja Schenke-Layland, Kelvin G M Brockbank, Anna Biermann, Ulrich Alfred Stock
Human heart valve allografts continue to represent almost perfect substitutes for heart valves. They have optimal hemodynamic characteristics and are highly resistant to infections. The first clinical use of allograft heart valves was as homovitals being transplanted after antibiotic incubation without any preservation. Since 1968, relatively standardized frozen cryopreservation (SFC) has been employed, including storage in vapor-phase liquid nitrogen. Disadvantages, particularly in pediatric patients, are limited availability due to organ scarcity, inability to grow, degeneration, immune response, and long-term failure...
February 2, 2017: Biopreservation and Biobanking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141725/acute-agitation-and-self-injury-in-a-5-year-old-with-autism
#19
Jason Schweitzer, Christine James, Willough Jenkins, Michael I Reiff, Martin T Stein
A 5-year-old nonverbal child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was admitted to inpatient pediatrics with new onset agitation and self-injurious behavior. His parents described him as a pleasant child without previous episodes of self-injury. Four days before admission, the parents noted new irritability followed by 2 days of self-injury to the face without clear precipitant. His hitting intensified with closed fist to face, and he required parental physical restraint to prevent further injury. Car rides and ibuprofen provided only temporary relief...
February 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133719/the-toxicology-of-methadone-related-death-in-infants-under-1-year-three-case-series-and-review-of-the-literature
#20
Anthea B Mahesan Paul, Lary Simms, Arnold M Mahesan
Methadone-related fatalities occur rarely in infants under 1 year, with five confirmed cases in the literature. The interpretation of pediatric postmortem toxicology relies on adult data; however, infants have crucial physiological differences that may impact interpretation of results. Retrospective case review included scene investigation, interviews, autopsy, and NIH/CDC Sudden Unexplained Infant Death Investigation Reporting Form. Methadone levels were confirmed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
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