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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875644/skepticism-in-the-genomic-era
#1
Rachel L Zacharias
I joined The Hastings Center this past summer, after graduating from Duke University, where I researched advancements in neuroscience and genomics and their import for law, ethics, and policy. This research required, to an extent, faith in the idea that researchers can identify pathways by which genes combine with epigenetic and environmental factors to affect neuronal activity and influence behaviors. Throughout my first months here, I have puzzled over broad critiques of "genomic hype" in recent literature, which clash with the optimistic rhetoric found in the Human Genome Project and the Precision Medicine Initiative...
November 2016: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875641/saving-science-by-doing-less-of-it
#2
Gregory E Kaebnick
In the current issue of The New Atlantis, Daniel Sarewitz, professor of science and society at Arizona State University, argues that science is broken because it is managed and judged by scientists themselves, operating under Vannevar Bush's famous 1945 declaration that scientific progress depends on the "free play of free intellects … dictated by their curiosity." With that scientific agenda, society ends up with a lot of unnecessary, uncoordinated, and unproductive research. To save science, holds Sarewitz, we need to put it in the hands of people who are looking for practical solutions to specific problems...
November 2016: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868105/feasibility-of-automated-3-dimensional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-pancreas-segmentation
#3
Shuiping Gou, Percy Lee, Peng Hu, Jean-Claude Rwigema, Ke Sheng
PURPOSE: With the advent of MR guided radiotherapy, internal organ motion can be imaged simultaneously during treatment. In this study, we evaluate the feasibility of pancreas MRI segmentation using state-of-the-art segmentation methods. METHODS AND MATERIAL: T2 weighted HASTE and T1 weighted VIBE images were acquired on 3 patients and 2 healthy volunteers for a total of 12 imaging volumes. A novel dictionary learning (DL) method was used to segment the pancreas and compared to t mean-shift merging (MSM), distance regularized level set (DRLS), graph cuts (GC) and the segmentation results were compared to manual contours using Dice's index (DI), Hausdorff distance and shift of the-center-of-the-organ (SHIFT)...
July 2016: Advances in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852639/improving-geriatric-prescribing-in-the-ed-a-qualitative-study-of-facilitators-and-barriers-to-clinical-decision-support-tool-use
#4
Ann E Vandenberg, Camille P Vaughan, Melissa Stevens, Susan N Hastings, James Powers, Alayne Markland, Ula Hwang, William Hung, Katharina V Echt
QUALITY PROBLEM OR ISSUE: Clinical decision support (CDS) may improve prescribing for older adults in the Emergency Department (ED) if adopted by providers. INITIAL ASSESSMENT: Existing prescribing order entry processes were mapped at an initial Veterans Administration Medical Center site, demonstrating cognitive burden, effort and safety concerns. CHOICE OF SOLUTION: Geriatric order sets incorporating 2012 Beers guidelines and including geriatric prescribing advice and prepopulated order options were developed...
November 16, 2016: International Journal for Quality in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729957/fetal-central-nervous-system-anomalies-detected-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging-a-two-year-experience
#5
Sepideh Sefidbakht, Sakineh Dehghani, Maryam Safari, Homeira Vafaei, Maryam Kasraeian
BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is gradually becoming more common for thorough visualization of the fetus than ultrasound (US), especially for neurological anomalies, which are the most common indications for fetal MRI and are a matter of concern for both families and society. OBJECTIVES: We investigated fetal MRIs carried out in our center for frequency of central nervous system anomalies. This is the first such report in southern Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and seven (107) pregnant women with suspicious fetal anomalies in prenatal ultrasound entered a cross-sectional retrospective study from 2011 to 2013...
August 2016: Iranian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660905/sources-of-circuit-thrombosis-in-pediatric-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-ecmo
#6
Susan M Hastings, Shriprasad Deshpande, Scott Wagoner, Kevin O Maher, David N Ku
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for cardiopulmonary support of critically ill patients is used frequently in the pediatric population. ECMO is burdened by complications, including thrombosis and hemorrhage. Here we demonstrate the focused location of clots, their histological composition, and the relationship of in situ thrombus to local hemodynamics in ECMO circuits.Pediatric ECMO circuits from Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, Emory University (Atlanta, GA) were obtained following removal from extracorporeal support over a 2...
September 20, 2016: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649914/nurses-at-the-table
#7
Connie M Ulrich
Few bioethicists are educated with a view into nursing. Thus, much of the conceptual and empirical research on ethical issues in nursing practice has been conducted by nurse ethicists themselves and, to a lesser degree, by individuals with a strong interest in nursing ethics. Although this work has internally shaped nursing practice, education, and policy, the broader field of bioethics has seldom examined and acknowledged the everyday ethical concerns of practicing nurses and their important contributions to bioethics discourse...
September 2016: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649829/telos-versus-praxis-in-bioethics
#8
Tod S Chambers
The authors of "A Conceptual Model for the Translation of Bioethics Research and Scholarship" argue that bioethics must respond to institutional pressures by demonstrating that it is having an impact in the world. Any impact, the authors observe, must be "informed" by the goals of the discipline of bioethics. The concept of bioethics as a discipline is central to their argument. They begin by citing an essay that Daniel Callahan wrote in the first issue of Hastings Center Studies. Callahan argued in this 1973 piece that bioethics had yet to attain the status of a discipline, and he lauded the freedom of being able to define a new discipline...
September 2016: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649818/where-shall-we-go
#9
Gregory E Kaebnick
This issue of the Hastings Center Report coincides with the annual conference of the American Society for Bioethics and Humanities, whose theme this year is "Where do we stand?" The issue addresses that theme with the article by Debra Mathews and colleagues and the set of brief response essays that follow it. Mathews et al., drawing on work carried out by the Association of Bioethics Program Directors, pose questions about how to understand and evaluate the worth of bioethics research. Those questions require them to think very broadly about what bioethics is, in the first place, and how it is related to medicine, health policy, science, and society generally...
September 2016: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635769/healthcare-provider-perceptions-of-causes-and-consequences-of-icu-capacity-strain-in-a-large-publicly-funded-integrated-health-region-a-qualitative-study
#10
Sean M Bagshaw, Dawn Opgenorth, Melissa Potestio, Stephanie E Hastings, Shelanne L Hepp, Elaine Gilfoyle, David McKinlay, Paul Boucher, Michael Meier, Jeanna Parsons-Leigh, R T Noel Gibney, David A Zygun, Henry T Stelfox
OBJECTIVES: Discrepancy in the supply-demand relationship for critical care services precipitates a strain on ICU capacity. Strain can lead to suboptimal quality of care and burnout among providers and contribute to inefficient health resource utilization. We engaged interprofessional healthcare providers to explore their perceptions of the sources, impact, and strategies to manage capacity strain. DESIGN: Qualitative study using a conventional thematic analysis...
September 15, 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27579825/how-do-pharmacists-assist-medicare-beneficiaries-with-limited-income-a-cross-sectional-study-of-community-pharmacies-in-alabama
#11
Salisa C Westrick, Tessa J Hastings, Stuart J McFarland, Lindsey A Hohmann, Natalie S Hohmann
BACKGROUND: Many Medicare beneficiaries have limited income and report problems paying for their medications. Programs are available to assist these low-income individuals. However, these programs are underused because of lack of general awareness and perceived complexity of program applications. OBJECTIVES: To (a) determine the frequency of encounters by pharmacists with Medicare beneficiaries who cannot afford prescription drugs; (b) identify strategies that pharmacists use to assist Medicare beneficiaries who cannot afford prescription drugs; and (c) explore what pharmacists know about programs for Medicare beneficiaries with limited income...
September 2016: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27574745/how-do-pharmacists-assist-medicare-beneficiaries-with-limited-income-a-cross-sectional-study-of-community-pharmacies-in-alabama
#12
Salisa C Westrick, Tessa J Hastings, Stuart J McFarland, Lindsey A Hohmann, Natalie S Hohmann
BACKGROUND: Many Medicare beneficiaries have limited income and report problems paying for their medications. Programs are available to assist these low-income individuals. However, these programs are underused because of lack of general awareness and perceived complexity of program applications. OBJECTIVES: To (a) determine the frequency of encounters by pharmacists with Medicare beneficiaries who cannot afford prescription drugs; (b) identify strategies that pharmacists use to assist Medicare beneficiaries who cannot afford prescription drugs; and (c) explore what pharmacists know about programs for Medicare beneficiaries with limited income...
September 2016: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27389301/early-identification-and-prevention-of-the-spread-of-ebola-in-high-risk-african-countries
#13
Lucy Breakwell, A Russell Gerber, Ashley L Greiner, Deborah L Hastings, Kelsey Mirkovic, Magdalena M Paczkowski, Sekou Sidibe, James Banaski, Chastity L Walker, Jennifer C Brooks, Victor M Caceres, Ray R Arthur, Frederick J Angulo
In the late summer of 2014, it became apparent that improved preparedness was needed for Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in at-risk countries surrounding the three highly affected West African countries (Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia). The World Health Organization (WHO) identified 14 nearby African countries as high priority to receive technical assistance for Ebola preparedness; two additional African countries were identified at high risk for Ebola introduction because of travel and trade connections. To enhance the capacity of these countries to rapidly detect and contain Ebola, CDC established the High-Risk Countries Team (HRCT) to work with ministries of health, CDC country offices, WHO, and other international organizations...
2016: MMWR Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27150424/field-notes
#14
(no author information available yet)
For the last six months or so, some of us at The Hastings Center have been participating in a kind of short-term book group. Together we have been thinking about the contribution of moral psychology to bioethics. One of our questions is whether bioethics' understanding of moral values should draw on what moral psychology tells us about moral values. Bioethics tends to look to philosophy for guidance. Can it learn from insights in moral psychology into the biological, environmental, and cultural influences on morality? The question can be taken in many directions...
May 2016: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27150409/the-psychology-of-autonomy
#15
EDITORIAL
(no author information available yet)
In May 2016, right around the time that this issue of the Hastings Center Report should be published, The Hastings Center is holding a conference in New York City titled "Bioethics Meets Moral Psychology." The goal of the conference is to consider the lessons that bioethicists should learn from the raft of literature now accumulating on how the mental processes of perception, emotion, and thinking affect things that bioethicists care about, from the education of health care professionals to the conflicts that arise in clinical care, the "culture wars" over bioethical policy issues, the status of different cultures' value systems, and the very understanding of the values that are foundational in moral thinking...
May 2016: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27133511/a-call-to-develop-evidence-based-interventions-to-reduce-sexually-transmitted-infections-in-juvenile-justice-populations
#16
Madison L Gates, Michelle Staples-Horne, Jeanne Cartier, Candace Best, Rebecca Stone, Veronica Walker, Beverly Hastings, Wonsuk Yoo, Nancy C Webb, Ronald L Braithwaite
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk, are a significant health issue for young women (ages 16-21), especially African Americans with a juvenile justice history. Studies have found that 44% of young African American women have had at least one STI compared to 24.1% for all young women. The rate of STIs among young women with juvenile justice histories, particularly African Americans, is likely much higher than their non-detained peers. Yet, there are few evidence-based interventions (EBIs) designed specifically for the detained population...
2016: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27120288/mental-shortcuts
#17
Brian D Earp
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2016: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27120280/emergence-of-a-discipline-growth-in-u-s-postsecondary-bioethics-degrees
#18
Lisa M Lee, Frances A McCarty
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2016: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27120279/why-bioethics-has-a-race-problem
#19
John Hoberman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2016: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27120275/keep-it-complicated
#20
EDITORIAL
Gregory E Kaebnick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2016: Hastings Center Report
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