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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016178/jerome-s-bruner-1915-2016
#1
Helen Haste, Howard Gardner
Presents an obituary for Jerome S. Bruner, who died in 2016. His long, and productive, life spanned much of the first century of experimental psychology and coincided with the launching of cognitive psychology, a field in which he played an indispensable and pioneering role. His innovative and provocative work constantly challenged the current "mainstream." His impact on education has been equated with that of John Dewey. He was driven throughout his life to pursue the nature of the "human" in both his conceptual and empirical work...
October 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940350/urgently-creating-the-better-in-global-health
#2
Richard Marlink
In this issue of the Hastings Center Report, Govind Persad and Ezekiel Emanuel argue that "[t]he provision of cheaper, less effective health care is frequently the most effective way of promoting health and realizing the ethical values of utility, equality, and priority to the worst off." I agree that we should not let the perfect get in the way of the good, but just providing cheaper, less effective treatment for utilitarian or other reasons is not a comprehensive approach to global health. In my experience as an on-the-ground global health practitioner, the choice is never that simple...
September 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940347/field-notes
#3
(no author information available yet)
I live in Newburgh, New York, a city of thirty thousand a short drive from the Hastings Center's Garrison campus. In 2016, residents were informed that our drinking water contained elevated levels of perfluorooctane sulfonate, a chemical the Environmental Protection Agency calls an "emerging contaminant of concern." The contaminant's long-term health effects are poorly understood: it might cause cancer, or birth defects, or thyroid issues, or it might not. Newburgh's water contamination is a problem that is both mine and not mine...
September 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940344/standards-of-care-in-global-health-identifying-the-right-question
#4
Paul Ndebele
Govind Persad and Ezekiel Emanuel's article "The Case for Resource Sensitivity: Why It Is Ethical to Provide Cheaper, Less Effective Treatments in Global Health," in this issue of the Hastings Center Report, is a reminder of the debates around resources for health care that raged during the years immediately preceding and following the fifth revision of the Declaration of Helsinki, in 2000. In global health, it is a common expectation for rich countries to assist poor countries in resolving health challenges, yet global health involves not only the governments of rich and poor nations but also nongovernmental organizations, pharmaceutical companies, the World Health Organization, philanthropic organizations, and other parties-all of whom take roles in ensuring that health interventions become available to poor countries, including deciding which types of interventions to make available...
September 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940339/rough-justice
#5
(no author information available yet)
In the Perspective in this issue of the Hastings Center Report (September-October 2017), Barron Lerner contrasts the "true believers" in public health schools-"people willing to crusade for any program designed to reduce morbidity and mortality"-and the political operators in the "real world" who often stand in their way. Lerner takes us through some of those programs, both past efforts that were successful and widely accepted and current endeavors that look promising but face all sorts of obstacles. Keep the faith, he admonishes...
September 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930977/fourier-based-diffraction-analysis-of-live-caenorhabditis-elegans
#6
Jenny Magnes, Harold M Hastings, Kathleen M Raley-Susman, Clara Alivisatos, Adam Warner, Miranda Hulsey-Vincent
This manuscript describes how to classify nematodes using temporal far-field diffraction signatures. A single C. elegans is suspended in a water column inside an optical cuvette. A 632 nm continuous wave HeNe laser is directed through the cuvette using front surface mirrors. A significant distance of at least 20-30 cm traveled after the light passes through the cuvette ensures a useful far-field (Fraunhofer) diffraction pattern. The diffraction pattern changes in real time as the nematode swims within the laser beam...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870480/propofol-sedation-substantially-increases-the-caloric-and-lipid-intake-in-critically-ill-patients
#7
Mélanie Charrière, Emma Ridley, Jennifer Hastings, Oliver Bianchet, Carlos Scheinkestel, Mette M Berger
OBJECTIVE: The amount of lipid delivered to patients varies considerably depending on the non-nutritional intake from sedation, and on the feeding solution. The aim of this study was to quantify the magnitude and proportion of lipids and energy provided from propofol sedation in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data in consecutive patients admitted to the ICUs of two university hospitals. Inclusion criterion included an ICU stay >5 d...
October 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814630/inverted-region-electron-transfer-as-a-mechanism-for-enhancing-photosynthetic-solar-energy-conversion-efficiency
#8
Hiroki Makita, Gary Hastings
In all photosynthetic organisms, light energy is used to drive electrons from a donor chlorophyll species via a series of acceptors across a biological membrane. These light-induced electron-transfer processes display a remarkably high quantum efficiency, indicating a near-complete inhibition of unproductive charge recombination reactions. It has been suggested that unproductive charge recombination could be inhibited if the reaction occurs in the so-called inverted region. However, inverted-region electron transfer has never been demonstrated in any native photosynthetic system...
August 29, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749059/expanding-the-horizon-of-our-obligations-in-the-clinician-patient-relationship
#9
Robert D Truog
Johan Brännmark's article "Patients as Rights Holders," in this issue of the Hastings Center Report, squarely identifies some important problems with the way we in clinical practice conceive of our obligations to our patients. As a solution, he helpfully suggests augmenting our focus on autonomy and informed consent with a broader menu of considerations drawn from the literature on human rights. Respect for autonomy is, of course, one of the hallowed principles of bioethics. In our traditional understanding, our patients deserve our respect because they are capable of autonomous choice, and the way we demonstrate our respect is by seeking their informed consent for our care...
July 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749058/conservationism-and-bioethic
#10
EDITORIAL
Gregory E Kaebnick
The lead article in this issue of the Hastings Center Report (July-August 2017) explores the ideas underpinning the Precision Medicine Initiative, the effort announced by President Obama in 2015 to promote the development of treatments adjusted to genetic and other variations. Authors Maya Sabatello and Paul Appelbaum hold that the effort works by appealing to a sense of collective identity and shared commitment-an understanding that they call the "PMI nation." But what are the moral implications of this idea? Sabatello and Appelbaum's question about the impact of an imagined community is an unusual way of exploring a set of values questions...
July 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749051/genomic-justice-and-imagined-communities
#11
Ernesto Schwartz-Marin
In this issue of the Hastings Center Report, Maya Sabatello and Paul Appelbaum explore the assumptions about community embedded in the U.S. Precision Medicine Initiative, which aims to recruit donor-partners who reflect the United States' racial and ethnic diversity. As Sabatello and Appelbaum discuss, the initiative is like other national biobanking efforts in bringing to life an imagined genetic community in need of critical attention, and given the public-private forms of partnership at the heart of the PMI, such efforts could become avenues to deepen existing inequalities rather than to alleviate them...
July 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746758/about-the-hastings-center
#12
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656018/zika-virus-and-sexual-transmission-a-new-route-of-transmission-for-mosquito-borne-flaviviruses%C3%A2
#13
REVIEW
Andrew K Hastings, Erol Fikrig
Beginning in 2015, concern over a new global epidemic has spread in the media, governmental agencies, legislative bodies and the public at large. This newly emerging threat has been reported to cause symptoms ranging from mild fever, rash, and body aches, to severe birth defects and acute onset paralysis. The causative agent of this disease, Zika virus, is closely related to two other important human pathogens, dengue and West Nile Virus (WNV), but has some distinguishing features that has raised alarms from the scientific community...
June 2017: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543420/from-the-foundation-up
#14
Daniel Callahan
In 2019, The Hastings Center will celebrate its fiftieth anniversary. It is more than a bit staggering to think how far we have come since 1969. When I floated the idea of a center on bioethics to my friend and neighbor, psychiatrist Willard Gaylin, at a Christmas party in 1968-even before the word "bioethics" was used-I had only the fuzziest idea of where that would take us. Neither Will nor I had run anything, nor did we know how to raise money to support an organization. We would and did learn how, but much of what we did in those early years was made up on the fly...
May 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543418/reconciling-patient-safety-and-epistemic-humility-an-ethical-use-of-opioid-treatment-plans
#15
Anita Ho
In this issue of the Hastings Center Report, Joshua Rager and Peter Schwartz suggest using opioid treatment agreements as public health monitoring tools to inform patients about "the requirements entailed by undergoing opioid therapy," rather than as contractual agreements to alter patients' individual behavior or to benefit them directly. Because Rager and Schwartz's argument presents suspected OTA violations as a justification to stop providing opioids yet does not highlight the broader epistemic and systemic context within which clinicians prescribe these medications, their proposal may perpetuate a climate of distrust and stigmatization without correcting systemic factors that may have placed patients and others at risk in the first place...
May 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543417/toward-public-bioethics
#16
EDITORIAL
Gregory E Kaebnick
This issue of the Hastings Center Report (May-June 2017) features a couple of interesting takes on the governance challenges of emerging technologies. In an essay on the National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine report published this February on human germ-line gene editing, Eric Juengst, a philosopher at the University of North Carolina, argues that the NASEM committee did not manage to rethink the rules. Juengst reaches what he calls an "eccentric conclusion": "The committee's 2017 consensus report has been widely interpreted as 'opening the door' to inheritable human genetic modification and holding a line against enhancement interventions...
May 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543412/opioid-treatment-agreements-repurposed-but-who-monitors-the-monitors
#17
Richard Payne
In this issue of the Hastings Center Report, Joshua Rager and Peter Schwartz reframe the justification for the use of opioid treatment agreements. Instead of documents used to define the roles and responsibilities of doctors and patients to one another in the course of opioid treatment for chronic pain and to describe the risks and benefits of therapy for the individual, OTAs are now proposed for use as "surveillance and monitoring" instruments. As such, they are specifically meant to disclose the risks of opioid therapy and to describe the other processes and tools used to monitor abuse and diversion of medications...
May 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388818/enhancing-quality-of-provider-practices-for-older-adults-in-the-emergency-department-equipped
#18
Melissa Stevens, Susan N Hastings, Alayne D Markland, Ula Hwang, William Hung, Ann E Vandenberg, William Bryan, Dewayne Cross, James Powers, Gerald McGwin, Noor Fattouh, William Ho, Carolyn Clevenger, Camille P Vaughan
EQUiPPED is a multicomponent quality improvement initiative combining education, electronic clinical decision support, and individual provider feedback to influence prescribing and improve medication safety for older adults. The objective here was to evaluate the effectiveness and sustainability of EQUiPPED to reduce the use of potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs), as defined by the American Geriatrics Society 2012 Beers Criteria, prescribed to older Veterans at the time of emergency department (ED) discharge...
July 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360508/new-applications-of-schr%C3%A3-dinger-type-inequalities-to-the-existence-and-uniqueness-of-schr%C3%A3-dingerean-equilibrium
#19
Jianjie Wang, Hugo Roncalver
As new applications of Schrödinger type inequalities appearing in Jiang (J. Inequal. Appl. 2016:247, 2016), we first investigate the existence and uniqueness of a Schrödingerean equilibrium. Next we propose a tritrophic Hastings-Powell model with two different Schrödingerean time delays. Finally, the stability and direction of the Schrödingerean Hopf bifurcation are also investigated by using the center manifold theorem and normal form theorem.
2017: Journal of Inequalities and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301707/authenticity-best-interest-and-clinical-nudging
#20
Søren Holm
In this issue of the Hastings Center Report, Moti Gorin, Steven Joffe, Neal Dickert, and Scott Halpern offer a comprehensive defense of the use of nudging techniques in the clinical context, with the aim of promoting the best interests of patients. Their argument is built on three important claims: Nudging is ubiquitous and inescapable in clinical choice situations, and there is no neutral way of informing patients about their treatment choices; many patients do not have authentic (preexisting) preferences concerning their treatment choices, and those that do can easily resist nudging; and, finally, since many people lack authentic preferences and those that do can still act on their preferences, nudging in the patients' best interest is justified...
March 2017: Hastings Center Report
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