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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040813/developmental-neurotoxic-effects-of-a-low-dose-of-tce-on-3d-neurosphere-system
#1
Mohamed Elsaid Abdraboh, Sherif H Abdeen, Mohamed Salama, Mahmoud Elhussiny, Yasser M El-Sherbini, Nada M Eldeen
Trichloroethylene (TCE) is one of the industrial toxic products that ever-present in air, soil and water. Several studies illustrated the toxicity of high doses of TCE on several organs. This study aims to determine the toxic effect of a low dose of TCE on development of rat neural stem cells (NSCs). Rat pups brains were collected, minced and harvested cells were cultured in the presence of neural growth factors B27/N8 to develop neurospheres. Afterwards, cells were subjected to a dose of 1µM TCE for 1 and 2 weeks...
October 17, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040322/dexamethasone-mediated-inhibition-of-glioblastoma-neurosphere-dispersal-in-an-ex-vivo-organotypic-neural-assay
#2
Ahmed M Meleis, Aria Mahtabfar, Shabbar Danish, Ramsey A Foty
Glioblastoma is highly aggressive. Early dispersal of the primary tumor renders localized therapy ineffective. Recurrence always occurs and leads to patient death. Prior studies have shown that dispersal of Glioblastoma can be significantly reduced by Dexamethasone (Dex), a drug currently used to control brain tumor related edema. However, due to high doses and significant side effects, treatment is tapered and discontinued as soon as edema has resolved. Prior analyses of the dispersal inhibitory effects of Dex were performed on tissue culture plastic, or polystyrene filters seeded with normal human astrocytes, conditions which inherently differ from the parenchymal architecture of neuronal tissue...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036922/microrna-and-mrna-dysregulation-in-astrocytes-infected-with-zika-virus
#3
Robert A Kozak, Anna Majer, Mia J Biondi, Sarah J Medina, Lee W Goneau, Babu V Sajesh, Jessy A Slota, Vanessa Zubach, Alberto Severini, David Safronetz, Shannon L Hiebert, Daniel R Beniac, Timothy F Booth, Stephanie A Booth, Gary P Kobinger
The Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic is an ongoing public health concern. ZIKV is a flavivirus reported to be associated with microcephaly, and recent work in animal models demonstrates the ability of the virus to cross the placenta and affect fetal brain development. Recent findings suggest that the virus preferentially infects neural stem cells and thereby deregulates gene expression, cell cycle progression, and increases cell death. However, neuronal stem cells are not the only brain cells that are susceptible to ZIKV and infection of other brain cells may contribute to disease progression...
October 14, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036908/propofol-induces-apoptosis-of-neurons-but-not-astrocytes-oligodendrocytes-or-neural-stem-cells-in-the-neonatal-mouse-hippocampus
#4
Yasheng Yan, Shigang Qiao, Chika Kikuchi, Ivan Zaja, Sarah Logan, Congshan Jiang, Thiago Arzua, Xiaowen Bai
It has been shown that propofol can induce widespread apoptosis in neonatal mouse brains followed by long-term cognitive dysfunction. However, selective brain area and cell vulnerability to propofol remains unknown. This study was aimed to dissect toxic effect of propofol on multiple brain cells, including neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and neural stem cells (NSCs). Seven-day-old mice were intraperitoneally administrated propofol or intralipid as a vehicle control for 6 hours. To identify vulnerable cells undergoing apoptosis following propofol exposure, brain sagittal sections were co-stained with antibodies against an apoptosis marker along with neuron, astrocyte, oligodendrocyte, or NSC markers using immunofluorescence staining...
October 14, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034181/inhibitory-effect-of-yokukansan-on-the-decrease-in-the-hippocampal-excitatory-amino-acid-transporter-eaat2-in-stress-maladaptive-mice
#5
Hiroko Miyagishi, Minoru Tsuji, Atsumi Saito, Kazuya Miyagawa, Hiroshi Takeda
Chronic stress is widely recognized as a risk factor for the development of major depression and anxiety disorders. Recently, we reported that yokukansan (YKS), a traditional Japanese herbal medicine, alleviated emotional abnormality in stress-maladaptive mice. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of YKS on the expression of excitatory amino acid transporter (EAAT) 1-4 in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in stress-maladaptive mice. Mice were chronically exposed to inadaptable stress, i...
October 2017: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034126/development-and-characterization-of-methylene-blue-oleate-salt-loaded-polymeric-nanoparticles-and-their-potential-application-as-a-treatment-for-glioblastoma
#6
J M Castañeda-Gill, A P Ranjan, J K Vishwanatha
Glioblastoma (GBM) is an aggressive, grade IV brain tumor that develops from astrocytes located within the cerebrum, resulting in poor prognosis and survival rates following an accepted treatment regimen of surgery, radiation, and temozolomide. Thus, development of new therapeutics is necessary. During the last two decades, methylene blue (MB) has received increased attention as a potential neurotherapeutic due to its duality in brain cancers and neurodegenerative diseases. While MB is capable of easily permeating the blood-brain barrier, its therapeutic concentrations in GBM are known to induce off-target cytotoxicity and thus, another mode of drug delivery must be considered...
August 2017: Journal of Nanomedicine & Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033790/non-aggregated-a%C3%AE-25-35-upregulates-primary-astrocyte-proliferation-in-vitro
#7
Elise C Ohki, Thomas J Langan, Kyla R Rodgers, Richard C Chou
Amyloid beta (Aβ) is a peptide cleaved from amyloid precursor protein that contributes to the formation of senile plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The relationship between Aβ and astrocyte proliferation in AD remains controversial. Despite pathological findings of increased astrocytic mitosis in AD brains, in vitro studies show an inhibitory effect of Aβ on astrocyte proliferation. In this study, we determined the effect of an active fragment of Aβ (Aβ25-35) on the cell cycle progression of primary rat astrocytes...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033188/ppp1cc-is-associated-with-astrocyte-and-microglia-proliferation-after-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats
#8
Xiaojuan Liu, Shen Huang, Chun Liu, Xia Liu, Yuntian Shen, Zhiming Cui
Reactive astrogliosis and microgliosis after spinal cord injury (SCI) contribute to glial scar formation that impedes axonal regeneration. The mechanisms underlying reactive astrocyte and microglia proliferation upon injury remain partially understood. Protein phosphatase 1, catalytic subunit, gamma isozyme (PPP1CC) participates in cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. However, the expression and functions of PPP1CC following SCI are still unknown. In this study, an acute spinal cord contusion injury model in adult rats was established to investigate the potential role of PPP1CC during the pathological process of SCI...
September 28, 2017: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032505/impaired-chemosensory-control-of-breathing-after-depletion-of-bulbospinal-catecholaminergic-neurons-in-rats
#9
Milene R Malheiros-Lima, Leonardo T Totola, Ana C Takakura, Thiago S Moreira
Bulbospinal catecholaminergic neurons located in the rostral aspect of the ventrolateral medulla (C1 neurons) or within the ventrolateral pons (A5 neurons) are involved in the regulation of blood pressure and sympathetic outflow. A stimulus that commonly activates the C1 or A5 neurons is hypoxia, which is also involved in breathing activation. Although pharmacological and optogenetic evidence suggests that catecholaminergic neurons also regulate breathing, a specific contribution of the bulbospinal neurons to respiratory control has not been demonstrated...
October 14, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032009/potential-for-stem-cell-treatment-in-manganism
#10
Thatiane C de Moura, Szeifoul Afadlal, Alan S Hazell
Development of manganism (also known as manganese neurotoxicity) is a major complication of manganese exposure in which neurological dysfunction is linked to accumulation of the metal in brain. Due to neuronal cell death in basal ganglia structures, particularly the globus pallidus, functional recovery is limited. Bearing a resemblance to Parkinson's disease, effective treatment for manganism is currently limited. However, the rapidly developing field of stem cell research offers new hope for the treatment of illnesses in which neurodegeneration is a major feature...
October 11, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031856/relationship-between-sigma-1-receptor-and-bdnf-in-the-visual-system
#11
Barbara A Mysona, Jing Zhao, Sylvia Smith, Kathryn E Bollinger
Glaucoma is an incurable optic neuropathy characterized by dysfunction and death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is an essential neurotrophin that supports RGC function and survival. Despite BDNF's importance, our knowledge of molecular mechanisms that modulate BDNF processing and secretion is incomplete. Sigma-1 receptor (S1R) is associated with increased BDNF in hippocampus and with BDNF secretion by brain-derived astrocytes and neuronal cell lines. Much less is known about the relationship between S1R and BDNF in the visual system...
October 12, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031551/neuroinflammation-and-neurosteroidogenesis-reciprocal-modulation-during-injury-to-the-adult-zebra-finch-brain
#12
Alyssa L Pedersen, Jenna L Brownrout, Colin J Saldanha
Estrogens like estradiol (E2) via its receptors are pluripotent steroid hormones that exert a profound influence on the developing and adult brain in many vertebrates. In songbirds and mammals, acute brain injury resulting from mechanical damage, anoxia and ischemia rapidly upregulates aromatase and E2 synthesis. Interestingly, this E2 provision occurs due to the induction of aromatase expression in reactive astrocytes in areas surrounding brain injury. The resultant increase in E2 is neuroprotective with established influences on apoptosis, gliosis, cytogenesis, neurogenesis and neuroinflammation...
October 12, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030613/lipopolysaccharide-enters-the-rat-brain-by-a-lipoprotein-mediated-transport-mechanism-in-physiological-conditions
#13
Alejandra Vargas-Caraveo, Aline Sayd, Sandra R Maus, Javier R Caso, José L M Madrigal, Borja García-Bueno, Juan C Leza
Physiologically, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is present in the bloodstream and can be bound to several proteins for its transport (i.e.) LPS binding protein (LBP) and plasma lipoproteins). LPS receptors CD14 and TLR-4 are constitutively expressed in the Central Nervous System (CNS). To our knowledge, LPS infiltration in CNS has not been clearly demonstrated. A naturalistic experiment with healthy rats was performed to investigate whether LPS is present with its receptors in brain. Immunofluorescences showed that lipid A and core LPS were present in circumventricular organs, choroid plexus, meningeal cells, astrocytes, tanycytes and endothelial cells...
October 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030575/adolescent-ethanol-exposure-enhances-nmda-receptor-mediated-currents-in-hippocampal-neurons-reversal-by-gabapentin
#14
H S Swartzwelder, Maeng-Hee Park, Shawn Acheson
Adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) exposure compromises neural function into adulthood. We have reported that astrocyte-secreted thrombospondins, and their target neuronal receptors (α2δ-1) are upregulated in the hippocampus in adulthood after AIE, suggesting aberrant excitatory synaptogenesis and hyperexcitability in memory-related circuits. Gabapentin antagonizes the interaction of thrombospondins (TSPs) with the α2δ-1 receptor, and thus may reverse or ameliorate the effects of AIE on hippocampal function...
October 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030562/astrocyte-calcium-waves-propagate-proximally-by-gap-junction-and-distally-by-extracellular-diffusion-of-atp-released-from-volume-regulated-anion-channels
#15
Yuki Fujii, Shohei Maekawa, Mitsuhiro Morita
Wave-like propagation of [Ca(2+)]i increases is a remarkable intercellular communication characteristic in astrocyte networks, intercalating neural circuits and vasculature. Mechanically-induced [Ca(2+)]i increases and their subsequent propagation to neighboring astrocytes in culture is a classical model of astrocyte calcium wave and is known to be mediated by gap junction and extracellular ATP, but the role of each pathway remains unclear. Pharmacologic analysis of time-dependent distribution of [Ca(2+)]i revealed three distinct [Ca(2+)]i increases, the largest being in stimulated cells independent of extracellular Ca(2+) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-induced Ca(2+) release...
October 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030320/atp-released-from-astrocytes-modulates-action-potential-threshold-and-spontaneous-excitatory-postsynaptic-currents-in-the-neonatal-rat-prefrontal-cortex
#16
Edward Beamer, Gergely Kovács, Beata Sperlágh
Maternal immune activation during pregnancy is a risk factor for neurodevelopmental disorders, such as schizophrenia; however, a full mechanistic understanding has yet to be established. The activity of a transient cell population, the subplate neurons, is critical for the development of cortical inhibition and functional thalamocortical connections. Sensitivity of these cells to factors released during inflammation, therefore, may offer a link between maternal immune activation and the aberrant cortical development underlying some neuropsychiatric disorders...
October 10, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030217/impact-of-peripheral-immune-status-on-central-molecular-responses-to-facial-nerve-axotomy
#17
D O Setter, E M Runge, N D Schartz, F M Kennedy, B L Brown, K P McMillan, W M Miller, K M Shah, M M Haulcomb, V M Sanders, K J Jones
When facial nerve axotomy (FNA) is performed on immunodeficient recombinase activating gene-2 knockout (RAG-2(-/-)) mice, there is greater facial motoneuron (FMN) death relative to wild type (WT) mice. Reconstituting RAG-2(-/-) mice with whole splenocytes rescues FMN survival after FNA, and CD4+ T cells specifically drive immune-mediated neuroprotection. Evidence suggests that immunodysregulation may contribute to motoneuron death in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Immunoreconstitution of RAG-2(-/-) mice with lymphocytes from the mutant superoxide dismutase (mSOD1) mouse model of ALS revealed that the mSOD1 whole splenocyte environment suppresses mSOD1 CD4+ T cell-mediated neuroprotection after FNA...
October 10, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030079/quantitative-temporal-changes-in-dti-values-coupled-with-histological-properties-in-cuprizone-induced-demyelination-and-remyelination
#18
Ryutaro Yano, Junichi Hata, Yoshifumi Abe, Fumiko Seki, Keitaro Yoshida, Yuji Komaki, Hideyuki Okano, Kenji F Tanaka
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is widely used to evaluate microstructural variations in brain tissue. In particular, fractional anisotropy (FA), reflecting the magnitude and orientation of anisotropic water diffusion, allows us to detect pathological events in white matter. An ex vivo DTI study coupled with histological assessment is an efficient strategy to evaluate the myelination process, i.e. demyelination and remyelination. The relationship between DTI values and myelin content or the individual cellular components such as oligodendrocytes, microglia, and astrocytes during both processes of demyelination and remyelination are not well-understood...
October 10, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029445/microrna-200c-increases-radiosensitivity-of-human-cancer-cells-with-activated-egfr-associated-signaling
#19
Taeryool Koo, Bong Jun Cho, Dan Hyo Kim, Ji Min Park, Eun Jung Choi, Hans H Kim, David J Lee, In Ah Kim
MicroRNA-200c (miR-200c) recently was found to have tumor-suppressive properties by inhibiting the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in several cancers. miR-200c also interacts with various cellular signaling molecules and regulates many important signaling pathways. In this study, we investigated the radiosensitizing effect of miR-200c and its mechanism in a panel of human cancer cell lines. Malignant glioma (U251, T98G), breast cancer (MDA-MB-468), and lung carcinoma (A549) cells were transfected with control pre-microRNA, pre-miR-200c, or anti-miR-200c...
September 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028815/striatal-astrocytes-engulf-dopaminergic-debris-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-study-in-an-animal-model
#20
Ingrid Morales, Alberto Sanchez, Clara Rodriguez-Sabate, Manuel Rodriguez
The role of astrocytes in Parkinson's disease is still not well understood. This work studied the astrocytic response to the dopaminergic denervation. Rats were injected in the lateral ventricles with 6-hydroxydopamine (25μg), inducing a dopaminergic denervation of the striatum not accompanied by non-selective tissue damage. The dopaminergic debris were found within spheroids (free-spheroids) which retained some proteins of dopaminergic neurons (e.g., tyrosine hydroxylase, the dopamine transporter protein, and APP) but not others (e...
2017: PloS One
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