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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223561/microglia-and-astrocyte-activation-in-the-spinal-cord-of-lame-horses
#1
Constanza S Meneses, Heine Y Müller, Daniel E Herzberg, Benjamin Uberti, Marianne P Werner, Hedie A Bustamante
OBJECTIVE: To determine the microglial and astrocyte response to painful lameness in horses. STUDY DESIGN: Ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba-1) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression, cell density and morphology were determined through immunofluorescence within the dorsal horn of equine spinal cord. ANIMALS: A total of five adult horses with acute or chronic unilateral lameness, previously scheduled for euthanasia...
November 2, 2017: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223529/corticosterone-impairs-gap-junctions-in-the-prefrontal-cortical-and-hippocampal-astrocytes-via-different-mechanisms
#2
Cong-Yuan Xia, Zhen-Zhen Wang, Zhao Zhang, Jiao Chen, Ying-Ying Wang, Yu-Xia Lou, Yan Gao, Piao Luo, Qian Ren, Guo-Hua Du, Nai-Hong Chen
Increasing evidence has implicated astrocyte pathology in the etiopathology of major depressive disorder (MDD). In particular, dysfunction of gap junctions in astrocytes is a potential target for MDD treatment. However, the mechanism underlying stress-induced dysfunction of gap junctions is still unknown. We therefore studied the mechanism of stress-induced dysfunction of gap junctions in prefrontal cortical and hippocampal astrocytes. Corticosterone (CORT) was used to induce stress conditions; CORT damaged the function of gap junctions, which resulted from less distribution of connexin43 (Cx43) on membranes and the enhanced phosphorylation of Cx43 at S368...
December 6, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223504/potential-pathogenic-mechanisms-underlying-fragile-x-tremor-ataxia-syndrome-ran-translation-and-or-rna-gain-of-function
#3
REVIEW
Manon Boivin, Rob Willemsen, Renate K Hukema, Chantal Sellier
Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is an inherited neurodegenerative disease caused by an expansion of 55-200 CGG repeats located in the FMR1 gene. The main clinical and neuropathological features of FXTAS are progressive intention tremor and gait ataxia associated with brain atrophy, neuronal cell loss and presence of ubiquitin-positive intranuclear inclusions in both neurons and astrocytes. At the molecular level, FXTAS is characterized by increased expression of FMR1 sense and antisense RNA containing expanded CGG or GGC repeats, respectively...
December 6, 2017: European Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223359/in-niemann-pick-c1-mouse-models-glial-only-expression-of-the-normal-gene-extends-survival-much-further-than-do-changes-in-genetic-background-or-treatment-with-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin
#4
Craig A Marshall, Dawn E Watkins-Chow, Giampiero Palladino, Gail Deutsch, Keshav Chandran, William J Pavan, Robert P Erickson
The Npc1nmf164 allele of Npc1 provides a mouse model for Niemann-Pick disease type C1 (NPC1), a genetic disease known to have a widely variable phenotype. The transfer of the Npc1nmf164 mutation from the C57BL/6J inbred strain to the BALB/cJ inbred strain increased the mean lifespan from 117.8days to 153.1days, confirming that the severity of the NPC1 phenotype is strongly influenced by genetic background. The transfer of another Npc1 allele, Npc1nih, to this background also extended survival of the homozygotes indicating that the modifying effect of BALB/cJ is not limited to a single allele of Npc1...
December 6, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223154/antiinflammatory-effect-of-rosiglitazone-via-modulation-of-mrna-stability-of-interleukin-10-and-cyclooxygenase-2-in-astrocytes
#5
E V Pankevich, A A Astakhova, D V Chistyakov, M G Sergeeva
Investigation of molecular mechanisms of proinflammatory stimuli signaling in astrocytes is important for understanding their role in pathogenesis of central nervous system diseases as well as in functioning of the innate immunity system in non-immune cells. Here we show that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation of primary rat astrocytes led to conventional inflammatory response: increase in both proinflammatory (tumor necrosis factor, TNFα; prostaglandin E2, PGE2) and antiinflammatory marker (interleukin 10, IL-10) levels...
November 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223144/role-of-carbon-monoxide-in-neurovascular-repair-processing
#6
REVIEW
Yoon Kyung Choi
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a gaseous molecule produced from heme by heme oxygenase (HO). Endogenous CO production occurring at low concentrations is thought to have several useful biological roles. In mammals, especially humans, a proper neurovascular unit comprising endothelial cells, pericytes, astrocytes, microglia, and neurons is essential for the homeostasis and survival of the central nervous system (CNS). In addition, the regeneration of neurovascular systems from neural stem cells and endothelial precursor cells after CNS diseases is responsible for functional repair...
December 8, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222909/an-emerging-role-of-astrocytes-in-vascular-contributions-to-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia-vcid
#7
REVIEW
Brittani R Price, Christopher M Norris, Pradoldej Sompol, Donna M Wilcock
Vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) is understood to be the second most common cause of dementia after Alzheimer's disease (AD), and is also a frequent co-morbidity with AD. While VCID is widely acknowledged as a key contributor to dementia, the mechanistic underpinnings of VCID remain poorly understood. In this review, we address the potential role of astrocytes in the pathophysiology of VCID. The vast majority of the blood vessels in the brain are surrounded by astrocytic end-feet...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222907/the-ameliorative-effect-of-fluoxetine-on-neuroinflammation-induced-by-sleep-deprivation
#8
Maosheng Xia, Xiaowei Li, Li Yang, Jiaan Ren, Guangfeng Sun, Shuang Qi, Alexei Verkhratsky, Baoman Li
It is well known that sleep disorders are harmful to people's health and performance, and growing evidence suggests that sleep deprivation (SD) can trigger neuroinflammation in the brain. The nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat protein-3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is reported to be relevant to the neuroinflammation induced by SD, but the regulatory signaling that governs the NLRP3 inflammasome in SD is still unknown. Meanwhile, whether the regulatory action of antidepressants in astrocytes could affect the neuroinflammation induced by SD also remains obscure...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222871/myelin-extracellular-leaflet-compaction-requires-apolipoprotein-d-membrane-management-to-optimize-lysosomal-dependent-recycling-and-glycocalyx-removal
#9
Nadia García-Mateo, Raquel Pascua-Maestro, Alberto Pérez-Castellanos, Concepción Lillo, Diego Sanchez, Maria D Ganfornina
To compact the extracellular sides of myelin, an important transition must take place: from membrane sliding, while building the wraps, to membrane adhesion and water exclusion. Removal of the negatively charged glycocalyx becomes the limiting factor in such transition. What is required to initiate this membrane-zipping process? Knocking-out the Lipocalin Apolipoprotein D (ApoD), essential for lysosomal functional integrity in glial cells, results in a specific defect in myelin extracellular leaflet compaction in peripheral and central nervous system, which results in reduced conduction velocity and suboptimal behavioral outputs: motor learning is compromised...
December 9, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222778/astrocyte-microglia-cocultures-as-a-model-to-study-neuroinflammation
#10
Laura Facci, Massimo Barbierato, Stephen D Skaper
Glial cell activation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative disorders as well as in chronic and neuropathic pain. This chapter describes a model which allows one to assess the individual and combined contributions of astrocytes and microglia in response to a pro-inflammatory stimulus, with emphasis on ionotropic purinergic receptors.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222772/culture-of-neonatal-rodent-microglia-astrocytes-and-oligodendrocytes-from-the-cortex-spinal-cord-and-cerebellum
#11
Stephen D Skaper, Laura Facci
The protocol described in this chapter covers the preparation and culture of enriched populations of microglia, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes from the cortex and spinal cord of neonatal rat and mouse. The procedure is based on enzymatic digestion of the tissue, followed by the culture of a mixed glial cell population which is then utilized as the starting point for the isolation, via differential attachment, of the different cell types.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222622/toll-like-receptor-4-knockdown-attenuates-brain-damage-and-neuroinflammation-after-traumatic-brain-injury-via-inhibiting-neuronal-autophagy-and-astrocyte-activation
#12
Hongsheng Jiang, Yanzhou Wang, Xin Liang, Xiaofeng Xing, Xiuzhen Xu, Caifeng Zhou
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been linked to various pathophysiological conditions, such as traumatic brain injury (TBI). It is reported that posttraumatic neuroinflammation is an essential event in the progression of brain injury after TBI. Recent evidences indicate that TLR4 mediates glial phagocytic activity and inflammatory cytokines production. Thus, TLR4 may be an important therapeutic target for neuroinflammatory injury post-TBI. This study was designed to explore potential effects and underlying mechanisms of TLR4 in rats suffered from TBI...
December 8, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221640/threshold-based-segmentation-of-fluorescent-and-chromogenic-images-of-microglia-astrocytes-and-oligodendrocytes-in-fiji
#13
Sinead Healy, Jill McMahon, Peter Owens, Peter Dockery, Una FitzGerald
BACKGROUND: Image segmentation is often imperfect, particularly in complex image sets such z-stack micrographs of slice cultures and there is a need for sufficient details of parameters used in quantitative image analysis to allow independent repeatability and appraisal. NEW METHOD: For the first time, we have critically evaluated, quantified and validated the performance of different segmentation methodologies using z-stack images of ex vivo glial cells. The BioVoxxel toolbox plugin, available in FIJI, was used to measure the relative quality, accuracy, specificity and sensitivity of 16 global and 9 local threshold automatic thresholding algorithms...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221639/nerve-growth-factor-released-from-collagen-scaffolds-protects-axotomized-cholinergic-neurons-of-the-basal-nucleus-of-meynert-in-organotypic-brain-slices
#14
Bettina M Foidl, Buket Ucar, Alina Schwarz, Ana L Rebelo, Abhay Pandit, Christian Humpel
BACKGROUND: Alzheimeŕs disease is accompanied by cell death of cholinergic neurons, resulting in cognitive impairment and memory loss. Nerve growth factor (NGF) is the most potent protein to support survival of cholinergic neurons. New METHOD: Organotypic brain slices of the basal nucleus of Meynert (nBM) are a valuable tool to study cell death of axotomized cholinergic neurons, as well as protective effects of NGF added into the medium. The aim of the present study is to use collagen scaffolds crosslinked with polyethylineglycole and load with NGF to target delivery of NGF to organotypic nBM brain slices...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221210/the-molecular-classification-of-astrocytic-tumors
#15
Chen-Xue Mao, Ji-Ye Yin, Ying Zhang, Zhi-Bin Wang, Zhi-Quan Yang, Zheng-Wen He, Xiang-Min Li, Xiao-Yuan Mao, Ru-Tao Cui, Xue-Jun Li, Xi Li, Wei Zhang, Hong-Hao Zhou, Zhao-Qian Liu
Aim: This study will explore the genetic and epigenetic alterations in astrocytomas, and identify the critical molecular signatures and signaling pathways for prognosis assessment by multiplatform comprehensive analysis. Method: We performed integration analyses of incorporating DNA methylation, mRNA expression, microRNA expression, and long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) expression in 33 astrocytic tumor tissues and 9 non-tumor brain tissues. Result: We observed that 11,795 DNA methylation sites, 3,627 genes, 136 microRNAs, and 3,334 lncRNAs were significantly differential between tumors and non-tumor brain tissues, and the filtered signatures through comprehensive analysis were significantly enriched in calcium signaling pathway...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218848/shank1-is-differentially-expressed-during-development-in-ca1-hippocampal-neurons-and-astrocytes
#16
Sean M Collins, Amogh P Belagodu, Samantha L Reed, Roberto Galvez
Recent studies have strongly suggested a role for the synaptic scaffolding protein SHANK1 in normal synaptic structure and signaling. Global SHANK1 knockout (SHANK1-/-) mice demonstrate reduced dendritic spine density, an immature dendritic spine phenotype and impairments in various cognitive tasks. SHANK1 overexpression is associated with increased dendritic spine size and impairments in fear conditioning. These studies suggest proper regulation of SHANK1 is crucial for appropriate synaptic structure and cognition...
December 8, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218547/expression-of-class-i%C3%A2-histone-deacetylases-in-ipsilateral-and-contralateral-hemispheres-after-the-focal-photothrombotic-infarction-in-the-mouse-brain
#17
Svetlana Demyanenko, Maria Neginskaya, Elena Berezhnaya
Histone acetylation and deacetylation are among the most important epigenetic processes that regulate gene expression. Nonselective inhibitors of histone deacetylases (HDAC) can protect brain cells during ischemia and stroke. However, which HDAC isoform is involved in this effect is unknown. Some isoforms of histone deacetylases (HDACs) protect brain cells after ischemia, whereas others can promote their death. Most studies consider early periods (1-24 h) after stroke, whereas little is known on the involvement of HDACs during recovery after stroke...
December 7, 2017: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218499/effect-of-clip3-upregulation-on-astrocyte-proliferation-and-subsequent-glial-scar-formation-in-the-rat-spinal-cord-via-stat3-pathway-after-injury
#18
Xiaoqing Chen, Cheng Chen, Jie Hao, Jiyun Zhang, Feng Zhang
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating event resulting in neuron degeneration and permanent paralysis through inflammatory cytokine overproduction and glial scar formation. Presently, the endogenous molecular mechanisms coordinating glial scar formation in the injured spinal cord remain elusive. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a well-known transcription factor particularly involving in cell proliferation and inflammation in the lesion site following SCI. Meanwhile, CAP-Gly domain containing linker protein 3(CLIP3), a vital cytoplasmic protein, has been confirmed to providing an optimal conduit for intracellular signal transduction and interacting with STAT3 with mass spectrometry analysis...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218049/immunoglobulins-g-from-sera-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-patients-induce-oxidative-stress-and-upregulation-of-antioxidative-system-in-bv-2-microglial-cell-line
#19
Milena Milošević, Katarina Milićević, Iva Božić, Irena Lavrnja, Ivana Stevanović, Dunja Bijelić, Marija Dubaić, Irena Živković, Zorica Stević, Rashid Giniatullin, Pavle Andjus
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disorder with a very fast progression, no diagnostic tool for the presymptomatic phase, and still no effective treatment of the disease. Although ALS affects motor neurons, the overall pathophysiological condition points out to the non-cell autonomous mechanisms, where astrocytes and microglia play crucial roles in the disease progression. We have already shown that IgG from sera of ALS patients (ALS IgG) induce calcium transients and an increase in the mobility of acidic vesicles in cultured rat astrocytes...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218000/synapse-specific-regulation-revealed-at-single-synapses-is-concealed-when-recording-multiple-synapses
#20
Justin Lines, Ana Covelo, Ricardo Gómez, Lan Liu, Alfonso Araque
Synaptic transmission and its activity-dependent modulation, known as synaptic plasticity, are fundamental processes in nervous system function. Neurons may receive thousands of synaptic contacts, but synaptic regulation may occur only at individual or discrete subsets of synapses, which may have important consequences on the spatial extension of the modulation of synaptic information. Moreover, while several electrophysiological methods are used to assess synaptic transmission at different levels of observation, i...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
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