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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823025/nanomedicine-associated-with-photodynamic-therapy-for-glioblastoma-treatment
#1
REVIEW
Leonardo B de Paula, Fernando L Primo, Antonio C Tedesco
Glioblastoma, also known as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), is the most recurrent and malignant astrocytic glioma found in adults. Biologically, GBMs are highly aggressive tumors that often show diffuse infiltration of the brain parenchyma, making complete surgical resection difficult. GBM is not curable with surgery alone because tumor cells typically invade the surrounding brain, rendering complete resection unsafe. Consequently, present-day therapy for malignant glioma remains a great challenge. The location of the invasive tumor cells presents several barriers to therapeutic delivery...
August 19, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822114/glycosylation-of-dentin-matrix-protein-1-is-a-novel-key-element-for-astrocyte-maturation-and-bbb-integrity
#2
Bo Jing, Chunxue Zhang, Xianjun Liu, Liqiang Zhou, Jiping Liu, Yinan Yao, Juehua Yu, Yuteng Weng, Min Pan, Jie Liu, Zuolin Wang, Yao Sun, Yi Eve Sun
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a tight boundary formed between endothelial cells and astrocytes, which separates and protects brain from most pathogens as well as neural toxins in circulation. However, detailed molecular players involved in formation of BBB are not completely known. Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1)-proteoglycan (PG), which is known to be involved in mineralization of bones and dentin, is also expressed in soft tissues including brain with unknown functions. In the present study, we reported that DMP1-PG was expressed in brain astrocytes and enriched in BBB units...
August 18, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822066/do-evolutionary-changes-in-astrocytes-contribute-to-the-computational-power-of-the-hominid-brain
#3
Nancy Ann Oberheim Bush, Maiken Nedergaard
It is now well accepted that astrocytes are essential in all major nervous system functions of the rodent brain, including neurotransmission, energy metabolism, modulation of blood flow, ion and water homeostasis, and, indeed, higher cognitive functions, although the contribution of astrocytes in cognition is still in early stages of study. Here we review the most current research findings on human astrocytes, including their structure, molecular characterization, and functional properties. We also highlight novel tools that have been established for translational approaches to the comparative study of astrocytes from humans and experimental animals...
August 19, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822019/gypenoside-ix-suppresses-p38-mapk-akt-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway-activation-and-inflammatory-responses-in-astrocytes-stimulated-by-proinflammatory-mediators
#4
Xiaoshuang Wang, Liu Yang, Li Yang, Faping Xing, Hua Yang, Liyue Qin, Yunyi Lan, Hui Wu, Beibei Zhang, Hailian Shi, Cheng Lu, Fei Huang, Xiaojun Wu, Zhengtao Wang
Gypenoside IX (GP IX) is a pure compound isolated from Panax notoginseng. Gypenosides have been implicated to benefit the recovery of enormous neurological disorders. By suppressing the activation of astrocytes, gypenosides can improve the cognitive impairment. However, so far, little is known about whether GP IX could restrain the inflammatory responses in astrocytes or reactive astrogliosis. In present study, the anti-inflammatory effects of GP IX were investigated in reactive astrocytes induced by proinflammatory mediators both in vitro and in vivo...
August 18, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821999/developmental-neurotoxicity-of-the-hippocampus-following-in-utero-exposure-to-methylmercury-impairment-in-cell-signaling
#5
Luana Heimfarth, Jeferson Delgado, Moara Rodrigues Mignori, Daniel Pens Gelain, José Cláudio Fonseca Moreira, Regina Pessoa-Pureur
In this study, we assessed some hippocampal signaling cascades and behavioral impairments in 30-day-old rat pups prenatally exposed to methylmercury (MeHg). Pregnant rats were exposed to 1.0 or 2.0 mg/kg MeHg by gavage in alternated days from gestational day 5 until parturition. We found increased anxiety-like and decreased exploration behavior evaluated by open field test and deficit of both short- and long-term memories by novel object recognition task, respectively, in MeHg-treated pups. Downregulated PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway and activated/hypophosphorylated (Ser9) GSK3β in MeHg-treated pups could be upstream of hyperphosphorylated Tau (Ser396) destabilizing microtubules and contributing to neural dysfunction in the hippocampus of these rats...
August 18, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821991/transcranial-doppler-in-autonomic-testing-standards-and-clinical-applications
#6
REVIEW
Lucy Norcliffe-Kaufmann, Brahyan Galindo-Mendez, Ana-Lucia Garcia-Guarniz, Estibaliz Villarreal-Vitorica, Vera Novak
When cerebral blood flow falls below a critical limit, syncope occurs and, if prolonged, ischemia leads to neuronal death. The cerebral circulation has its own complex finely tuned autoregulatory mechanisms to ensure blood supply to the brain can meet the high metabolic demands of the underlying neuronal tissue. This involves the interplay between myogenic and metabolic mechanisms, input from noradrenergic and cholinergic neurons, and the release of vasoactive substrates, including adenosine from astrocytes and nitric oxide from the endothelium...
August 18, 2017: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821953/astrocyte-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
REVIEW
Zhiyou Cai, Cheng-Qun Wan, Zhou Liu
The past several decades have given rise to more insights into the role of astrocytes in normal brain function and diseases. Astrocytes elicit an effect which may be neuroprotective or deleterious in the process of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Impairments in astrocytes and their other functions, as well as physiological reactions of astrocytes to external injury, can trigger or exacerbate hyperphosphorylated tau and amyloid-beta (Aβ) pathologies, leading to the formation of both amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), as well as neuronal dysfunction...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821831/targeted-inhibition-of-rage-in-substantia-nigra-of-rats-blocks-6-ohda-induced-dopaminergic-denervation
#8
Juciano Gasparotto, Camila Tiefensee Ribeiro, Rafael Calixto Bortolin, Nauana Somensi, Thallita Kelly Rabelo, Alice Kunzler, Natália Cabral Souza, Matheus Augusto de Bittencourt Pasquali, José Claudio Fonseca Moreira, Daniel Pens Gelain
The receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) is a pattern-recognition receptor associated with inflammation in most cell types. RAGE up-regulates the expression of proinflammatory mediators and its own expression via activation of NF-kB. Recent works have proposed a role for RAGE in Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, we used the multimodal blocker of RAGE FPS-ZM1, which has become available recently, to selectively inhibit RAGE in the substantia nigra (SN) of rats intracranially injected with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821749/dna-methylation-in-demyelinated-multiple-sclerosis-hippocampus
#9
Anthony M Chomyk, Christina Volsko, Ajai Tripathi, Sadie A Deckard, Bruce D Trapp, Robert J Fox, Ranjan Dutta
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated demyelinating disease of the human central nervous system (CNS). Memory impairments and hippocampal demyelination are common features in MS patients. Our previous data have shown that demyelination alters neuronal gene expression in the hippocampus. DNA methylation is a common epigenetic modifier of gene expression. In this study, we investigated whether DNA methylation is altered in MS hippocampus following demyelination. Our results show that mRNA levels of DNA methyltransferase were increased in demyelinated MS hippocampus, while de-methylation enzymes were decreased...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821675/synergistic-toxicity-of-polyglutamine-expanded-tbp-in-glia-and-neuronal-cells-therapeutic-implications-for-sca17
#10
Yang Yang, Su Yang, Jifeng Guo, Yiting Cui, Baisha Tang, Xiao-Jiang Li, Shihua Li
Spinocerebellar ataxia 17 (SCA17) is caused by polyglutamine (polyQ) repeat expansion in the TATA-binding protein (TBP) and is among a family of neurodegenerative diseases in which polyQ expansion leads to preferential neuronal loss in the brain. Although previous studies have demonstrated that expression of polyQ-expanded proteins in glial cells can cause neuronal injury via non-cell-autonomous mechanisms, these studies investigated animal models that overexpress transgenic mutant proteins. Since glial cells are particularly reactive to overexpressed mutant proteins, it is important to investigate the in vivo role of glial dysfunction in neurodegeneration when mutant polyQ proteins are endogenously expressed...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821665/molecular-and-functional-properties-of-regional-astrocytes-in-the-adult-brain
#11
Lydie Morel, Ming Sum R Chiang, Haruki Higashimori, Temitope Shoneye, Lakshmanan K Iyer, Julia Yelick, Albert Tai, Yongjie Yang
The molecular signature and functional properties of astroglial subtypes in the adult central nervous system (CNS) remain largely undefined. By employing translational ribosome affinity purification (TRAP) followed by RNA-seq, we profiled astroglial ribosome-associated (presumably translating) mRNAs in major cortical and subcortical brain regions (cortex, hippocampus, caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens, thalamus, and hypothalamus) of BAC aldh1l1-TRAP mice (both sexes). We found that the expression of astroglial translating mRNAs closely follows the dorsoventral axis especially from cortex/hippocampus to thalamus/hypothalamus posteriorly...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821660/contribution-of-astroglial-cx43-hemichannels-to-the-modulation-of-glutamatergic-currents-by-d-serine-in-the-mouse-prefrontal-cortex
#12
Claire Meunier, Nan Wang, Chenju Yi, Glenn Dallerac, Pascal Ezan, Annette Koulakoff, Luc Leybaert, Christian Giaume
Astrocytes interact dynamically with neurons by modifying synaptic activity and plasticity. This interplay occurs through a process named gliotransmission, meaning that neuroactive molecules are released by astrocytes. Acting as a gliotransmitter, D-serine co-agonist of the NMDA receptor at the glycine binding site, can be released by astrocytes in a calcium [Ca(2+)]i-dependent manner. A typical feature of astrocytes is their high expression level of connexin43 (Cx43), a protein forming gap junction channels and hemichannels associated with dynamic neuroglial interactions...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820735/the-use-of-sirna-as-a-pharmacological-tool-to-assess-a-role-for-the-transcription-factor-nf-il6-in-the-brain-under-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-conditions-during-lps-induced-inflammatory-stimulation
#13
Jelena Damm, Joachim Roth, Rüdiger Gerstberger, Christoph Rummel
BACKGROUND: Studies with NF-IL6-deficient mice indicate that this transcription factor plays a dual role during systemic inflammation with pro- and anti-inflammatory capacities. Here, we aimed to characterize the role of NF-IL6 specifically within the brain. METHODS: In this study, we tested the capacity of short interfering (si) RNA to silence the inflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor-interleukin 6 (NF-IL6) in brain cells under in vitro and in vivo conditions...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820467/aquaporin-4-functionality-and-virchow-robin-space-water-dynamics-physiological-model-for-neurovascular-coupling-and-glymphatic-flow
#14
REVIEW
Tsutomu Nakada, Ingrid L Kwee, Hironaka Igarashi, Yuji Suzuki
The unique properties of brain capillary endothelium, critical in maintaining the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and restricting water permeability across the BBB, have important consequences on fluid hydrodynamics inside the BBB hereto inadequately recognized. Recent studies indicate that the mechanisms underlying brain water dynamics are distinct from systemic tissue water dynamics. Hydrostatic pressure created by the systolic force of the heart, essential for interstitial circulation and lymphatic flow in systemic circulation, is effectively impeded from propagating into the interstitial fluid inside the BBB by the tightly sealed endothelium of brain capillaries...
August 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820437/are-astrocytes-the-predominant-cell-type-for-activation-of-nrf2-in-aging-and-neurodegeneration
#15
REVIEW
Jeffrey R Liddell
Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that regulates hundreds of antioxidant genes, and is activated in response to oxidative stress. Given that many neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington's disease and multiple sclerosis are characterised by oxidative stress, Nrf2 is commonly activated in these diseases. Evidence demonstrates that Nrf2 activity is repressed in neurons in vitro, and only cultured astrocytes respond strongly to Nrf2 inducers, leading to the interpretation that Nrf2 signalling is largely restricted to astrocytes...
August 18, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820078/effects-of-excitotoxic-lesion-with-inhaled-anesthetics-on-nervous-system-cells-of-rodents
#16
Maria Fernanda Quiroz Padilla, Gemma Guillazo-Blanch, Magdy Sanchez, Maria Andrea Dominguez, Rosa Margaria Gomez
Different anesthesia methods can variably influence excitotoxic lesion effects on the brain. The main purpose of this review is to identify potential differences in the toxicity to nervous system cells of two common inhalation anesthesia methods, isoflurane and sevoflurane, used in combination with an excitotoxic lesion procedure in rodents. The use of bioassays in animal models has provided the opportunity to examine the role of specific molecules and cellular interactions that underlie important aspects of neurotoxic effects relating to calcium homeostasis and apoptosis activation...
August 17, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817799/human-astrocyte-maturation-captured-in-3d-cerebral-cortical-spheroids-derived-from-pluripotent-stem-cells
#17
Steven A Sloan, Spyros Darmanis, Nina Huber, Themasap A Khan, Fikri Birey, Christine Caneda, Richard Reimer, Stephen R Quake, Ben A Barres, Sergiu P Paşca
There is significant need to develop physiologically relevant models for investigating human astrocytes in health and disease. Here, we present an approach for generating astrocyte lineage cells in a three-dimensional (3D) cytoarchitecture using human cerebral cortical spheroids (hCSs) derived from pluripotent stem cells. We acutely purified astrocyte-lineage cells from hCSs at varying stages up to 20 months in vitro using immunopanning and cell sorting and performed high-depth bulk and single-cell RNA sequencing to directly compare them to purified primary human brain cells...
August 16, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817792/making-human-stars-a-new-method-to-generate-human-astrocytes
#18
Nicola J Allen
Human astrocytes are increasingly appreciated as important contributors to brain function in health and disease, but techniques to study them are limited. In this issue of Neuron, Sloan and colleagues (2017) describe a new 3D culture model that generates mature human astrocytes, opening the door to future studies of their function.
August 16, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817112/monoallelic-and-biallelic-creb3l1-variant-causes-mild-and-severe-osteogenesis-imperfecta-respectively
#19
Rachel B Keller, Thao T Tran, Shawna M Pyott, Melanie G Pepin, Ravi Savarirayan, George McGillivray, Deborah A Nickerson, Michael J Bamshad, Peter H Byers
PurposeOsteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heritable skeletal dysplasia. Dominant pathogenic variants in COL1A1 and COL1A2 explain the majority of OI cases. At least 15 additional genes have been identified, but those still do not account for all OI phenotypes that present. We sought the genetic cause of mild and lethal OI phenotypes in an unsolved family.MethodsWe performed exome sequencing on seven members of the family, both affected and unaffected.ResultsWe identified a variant in cyclic AMP responsive element binding protein 3-like 1 (CREB3L1) in a consanguineous family...
August 17, 2017: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816095/new-astroglial-injury-defined-biomarkers-for-neurotrauma-assessment
#20
Julia Halford, Sean Shen, Kyohei Itamura, Jaclynn Levine, Albert C Chong, Gregg Czerwieniec, Thomas C Glenn, David A Hovda, Paul Vespa, Ross Bullock, W Dalton Dietrich, Stefania Mondello, Joseph A Loo, Ina-Beate Wanner
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an expanding public health epidemic with pathophysiology that is difficult to diagnose and thus treat. TBI biomarkers should assess patients across severities and reveal pathophysiology, but currently, their kinetics and specificity are unclear. No single ideal TBI biomarker exists. We identified new candidates from a TBI CSF proteome by selecting trauma-released, astrocyte-enriched proteins including aldolase C (ALDOC), its 38kD breakdown product (BDP), brain lipid binding protein (BLBP), astrocytic phosphoprotein (PEA15), glutamine synthetase (GS) and new 18-25kD-GFAP-BDPs...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
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