keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Astrocyte

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457860/controlling-the-outgrowth-and-functions-of-neural-stem-cells-the-effect-of-surface-topography
#1
REVIEW
Chara Simitzi, Kanelina Karali, Anthi Ranella, Emmanuel Stratakis
Neural stem cells (NSCs) are self-renewing cells that generate the major cell types of the central nervous system, namely neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, during embryonic development and in the adult brain. NSCs reside in a complex niche where they are exposed to a plethora of signals, including both soluble and physical signals such as compressive and shear stresses, but also discontinuities and differences in morphology of the extracellular environment, termed as topographical features. Different approaches that incorporate artificial micro- and nano-scale surface topographical features have been developed aiming to recapitulate the in vivo NSC niche discontinuities and features, particularly for in vitro studies...
February 19, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456837/synaptic-neuron-astrocyte-communication-is-supported-by-an-order-of-magnitude-analysis-of-inositol-tris-phosphate-diffusion-at-the-nanoscale-in-a-model-of-peri-synaptic-astrocyte-projection
#2
Pavel Montes de Oca Balderas, Horacio Montes de Oca Balderas
Background: Astrocytes were conceived for decades only as supporting cells of the brain. However, the observation of Ca2+ waves in astrocyte synctitia, their neurotransmitter receptor expression and gliotransmitter secretion suggested a role in information handling, conception that has some controversies. Synaptic Neuron-Astrocyte metabotropic communication mediated by Inositol tris-phosphate (SN-AmcIP3) is supported by different reports. However, some models contradict this idea and Ca2+ stores are 1000 ± 325 nm apart from the Postsynaptic Density in the Perisynaptic Astrocyte Projections (PAP's), suggesting that SN-AmcIP3 is extrasynaptic...
2018: BMC Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456798/-18-f-radiolabeled-panobinostat-allows-for-positron-emission-tomography-guided-delivery-of-a-histone-deacetylase-inhibitor
#3
Harikrishna Kommidi, Umberto Tosi, Uday B Maachani, Hua Guo, Christopher S Marnell, Benedict Law, Mark M Souweidane, Richard Ting
Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition is becoming an increasingly popular approach to treat cancer, as HDAC overexpression is common in many malignancies. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) prevents systemically delivered drugs from reaching brain at effective concentration, making small-molecule-HDAC inhibition in brain tumors particularly challenging. To circumvent the BBB, novel routes for administering therapeutics are being considered in the clinic, and a need exists for drugs whose deliveries can be directly imaged, so that effective delivery across the BBB can be monitored...
February 8, 2018: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456732/two-protein-coding-genes-act-as-a-novel-clinical-signature-to-predict-prognosis-in-patients-with-ovarian-serous-cystadenocarcinoma
#4
Jue Zhang, Meng Xu, Han Gao, Jin-Chen Guo, Yu-Lin Guo, Miao Zou, Xu-Feng Wu
Ovarian cancer is the seventh most common type of cancer and the eighth most common cause of cancer-associated mortality among women. A number of studies have hypothesized that the expression status of certain genes may be used to predict prognosis in ovarian cancer. In the present study, the RNA expression data from next-generation sequencing and the clinical information of 413 patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas dataset was downloaded to identify the association between gene-expression level and the survival time of the patients with ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456714/foxk1-promotes-glioblastoma-proliferation-and-metastasis-through-activation-of-snail-transcription
#5
Haitao Xu, Shulan Huang, Xiaonan Zhu, Wangcheng Zhang, Xiangyang Zhang
Forkhead box K1 (FOXK1) has been identified to have a crucial function in development and oncogenesis. However, its role in glioblastoma has remained largely elusive and was therefore assessed in the present study. In human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tissue samples, FOXK1 was determined to be highly expressed compared with adjacent normal tissue samples. In addition, high levels of FOXK1 were detected in the T98G and LN18 GBM cell lines as compare with those in normal human astrocytes. Of note, high expression of FOXK1 was revealed to be associated with metastasis and tumor size...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456630/roles-of-eph-ephrin-bidirectional-signaling-in-central-nervous-system-injury-and-recovery
#6
Jin-Shan Yang, Hui-Xing Wei, Ping-Ping Chen, Gang Wu
Multiple cellular components are involved in the complex pathological process following central nervous system (CNS) injury, including neurons, glial cells and endothelial cells. Previous studies and neurotherapeutic clinical trials have assessed the molecular mechanisms that underlie neuronal cell death following CNS injury. However, this approach has largely failed to reduce CNS damage or improve the functional recovery of patients. Erythropoietin-producing human hepatocellular (Eph) receptors and ephrin ligands have attracted considerable attention since their discovery, due to their extensive distribution and unique bidirectional signaling between astrocytes and neurons...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456185/human-ips-derived-astroglia-from-a-stable-neural-precursor-state-show-improved-functionality-compared-with-conventional-astrocytic-models
#7
Anders Lundin, Louise Delsing, Maryam Clausen, Piero Ricchiuto, José Sanchez, Alan Sabirsh, Mei Ding, Jane Synnergren, Henrik Zetterberg, Gabriella Brolén, Ryan Hicks, Anna Herland, Anna Falk
In vivo studies of human brain cellular function face challenging ethical and practical difficulties. Animal models are typically used but display distinct cellular differences. One specific example is astrocytes, recently recognized for contribution to neurological diseases and a link to the genetic risk factor apolipoprotein E (APOE). Current astrocytic in vitro models are questioned for lack of biological characterization. Here, we report human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived astroglia (NES-Astro) developed under defined conditions through long-term neuroepithelial-like stem (ltNES) cells...
February 9, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455391/focal-ischaemic-infarcts-expand-faster-in-cerebellar-cortex-than-cerebral-cortex-in-a-mouse-photothrombotic-stroke-model
#8
Nagarajesh Gorlamandala, Jasneet Parmar, Amanda J Craig, John M Power, Andrew J Moorhouse, Arun V Krishnan, Gary D Housley
It is generally accepted that the cerebellum is particularly vulnerable to ischaemic injury, and this may contribute to the high mortality arising from posterior circulation strokes. However, this has not been systematically examined in an animal model. This study compared the development and resolution of matched photothrombotic microvascular infarcts in the cerebellar and cerebral cortices in adult 129/SvEv mice of both sexes. The photothrombotic lesions were made using tail vein injection of Rose Bengal with a 532 nm laser projected onto a 2 mm diameter aperture over the target region of the brain (with skull thinning)...
February 17, 2018: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454966/effects-of-pq-s-cytotoxicity-on-secretory-vesicles-in-astroglia-expression-alternation-of-secretogranin-ii-and-its-potential-interaction-with-intracellular-factors
#9
Xiaoni Zhan, Fengrui Li, Qiaohong Chu, Hao Pang
It has been extensively characterized that paraquat (PQ) selectively targets to the substantia nigra and exerts neurotoxic actions on dopaminergic neurons. However, a little knowledge is available about astroglia in PQ exposure, especially its complex secretory machinery. To explore this point, we built up a PQ-induced model in cultural U118 astrocyte. Since the granin family is considered as a master regulator of cargo sorting and large dense core vesicles (LDCVs) biogenesis in the regulated secretory pathway of nervous and neuroendocrine cells, the current study focused on one member, secretogranin II (SCG2) and investigated its alternation and potential relationship with other astrocyte-derived factors under PQ insult...
February 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454932/preserved-canonicality-of-the-bold-hemodynamic-response-reflects-healthy-cognition-insights-into-the-healthy-brain-through-the-window-of-multiple-sclerosis
#10
REVIEW
Monroe P Turner, Nicholas A Hubbard, Dinesh K Sivakolundu, Lyndahl M Himes, Joanna L Hutchison, John Hart, Jeffrey Spence, Elliot Frohman, Teresa Frohman, Darin Okuda, Bart Rypma
The hemodynamic response function (HRF), a model of brain blood-flow changes in response to neural activity, reflects communication between neurons and the vasculature that supplies these neurons in part by means of glial cell intermediaries (e.g., astrocytes). Intact neural-vascular communication might play a central role in optimal cognitive performance. This hypothesis can be tested by comparing healthy individuals to those with known white-matter damage and impaired performance, as seen in Multiple Sclerosis (MS)...
February 15, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454881/curcumin-treatment-leads-to-better-cognitive-and-mood-function-in-a-model-of-gulf-war-illness-with-enhanced-neurogenesis-and-alleviation-of-inflammation-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-the-hippocampus
#11
M Kodali, B Hattiangady, G A Shetty, A Bates, B Shuai, A K Shetty
Diminished cognitive and mood function are among the most conspicuous symptoms of Gulf WarIllness(GWI). Our previous studies in a rat model of GWI have demonstrated that persistent cognitive and mood impairments are associated with substantially declined neurogenesis, chronic low-grade inflammation, increased oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in the hippocampus. We tested the efficacy of curcumin (CUR) to maintain better cognitive and mood function in a rat model of GWI because of its neurogenic, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and memory and mood enhancing properties...
February 15, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454667/pten-expression-in-astrocytic-processes-after-spinal-cord-injury
#12
T V Povysheva, Y O Mukhamedshina, A A Rizvanov, Y A Chelyshev
The role of the Rho/ROCK/PTEN signaling pathway in the regulation of astrocyte function for consolidation/stabilization of the synapse has not been thoroughly studied. In this study, the expression of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) in GFAP-positive astrocytic processes in the ventral horns (VH) of the rat spinal cord has been evaluated in the normal condition and in a delayed period (30 days) after dosed contusion spinal cord injury (SCI) in caudal thoracic segments. In intact rats and at 30 days post-injury (dpi), semi-quantitative immunohistochemical analysis showed that there is approximately 2 folds less synaptophysin reactivity in the motoneuron perikarya than outside the perikarya, i...
February 15, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453986/sterol-o-acyltransferase-1-deficiency-improves-defective-insulin-signaling-in-the-brains-of-mice-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#13
Ning Xu, Hao Meng, Tian-Yi Liu, Ying-Li Feng, Yuan Qi, Dong-Huan Zhang, Hong-Lei Wang
Insulin resistance induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) is related to metabolic diseases, and sterol O-acyltransferase 1 (SOAT1) is a key enzyme for the biosynthesis of cholesteryl ester. In the present study, wild-type (WT) mice and SOAT1-knockout (KO) mice with a C57BL6 background fed a HFD were used to explore the role of SOAT1 in the hypothalamus. The results show that the WT mice exhibited a significant increase in body weight as well as hepatic histologic changes; they also had a lower glucose and insulin tolerance than the WT mice fed a normal diet...
February 14, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453985/zika-virus-infected-primary-microglia-impairs-npcs-proliferation-and-differentiation
#14
Jin Wang, Jing Liu, Rui Zhou, Xin Ding, Qipeng Zhang, Chenyu Zhang, Liang Li
Zika virus (ZIKV) can lead to severe birth defects especially microcephaly in newborns by infecting human neural progenitors and impairing brain development. However, as the resident immune cells in the brain, the role of microglia in the ZIKV pathology is not clearly defined. To understand the interplay between immune response and neural cells, we investigate the interaction between microglia and NPCs during ZIKV infection. Our results demonstrate that primary microglia infected with ZIKV induces an inflammatory response similar to that in human, producing high level of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)...
February 14, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453753/pediatric-astrocytic-tumor-grading-comparison-between-arterial-spin-labeling-and-dynamic-susceptibility-contrast-mri-perfusion
#15
Giovanni Morana, Domenico Tortora, Serena Staglianò, Paolo Nozza, Samantha Mascelli, Mariasavina Severino, Gianluca Piatelli, Alessandro Consales, Maarten Lequin, Maria Luisa Garrè, Andrea Rossi
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare arterial spin labeling (ASL) and dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) MRI perfusion with respect to diagnostic performance in tumor grading in pediatric patients with low- and high-grade astrocytic tumors (AT). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 37 children with histologically proven treatment naive low- and high-grade AT who underwent concomitant pre-operative ASL and DSC MRI perfusion. Studies were performed on a 1...
February 16, 2018: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452577/polymerase-delta-interacting-protein-2-deficiency-protects-against-blood-brain-barrier-permeability-in-the-ischemic-brain
#16
Marina S Hernandes, Bernard Lassègue, Lula L Hilenski, Jonathan Adams, Ning Gao, Chia-Yi Kuan, Yu-Yo Sun, Lihong Cheng, Daniel S Kikuchi, Manuel Yepes, Kathy K Griendling
BACKGROUND: Polymerase δ-interacting protein 2 (Poldip2) is a multifunctional protein that regulates vascular extracellular matrix composition and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a dynamic system assembled by endothelial cells, basal lamina, and perivascular astrocytes, raising the possibility that Poldip2 may be involved in maintaining its structure. We investigated the role of Poldip2 in the late BBB permeability induced by cerebral ischemia...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451327/microrna-365-modulates-astrocyte-conversion-into-neuron-in-adult-rat-brain-after-stroke-by-targeting-pax6
#17
Jia-Lin Mo, Qi Liu, Zeng-Wei Kou, Kun-Wei Wu, Ping Yang, Xian-Hua Chen, Feng-Yan Sun
Reactive astrocytes induced by ischemia can transdifferentiate into mature neurons. This neurogenic potential of astrocytes may have therapeutic value for brain injury. Epigenetic modifications are widely known to involve in developmental and adult neurogenesis. PAX6, a neurogenic fate determinant, contributes to the astrocyte-to-neuron conversion. However, it is unclear whether microRNAs (miRs) modulate PAX6-mediated astrocyte-to-neuron conversion. In the present study we used bioinformatic approaches to predict miRs potentially targeting Pax6, and transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) to model cerebral ischemic injury in adult rats...
February 16, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451219/low-frequency-pulsed-electromagnetic-field-pretreated-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-promote-the-regeneration-of-crush-injured-rat-mental-nerve
#18
NaRi Seo, Sung-Ho Lee, Kyung Won Ju, JaeMan Woo, BongJu Kim, SoungMin Kim, Jeong Won Jahng, Jong-Ho Lee
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have been shown to promote the regeneration of injured peripheral nerves. Pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) reportedly promotes the proliferation and neuronal differentiation of BMSCs. Low-frequency PEMF can induce the neuronal differentiation of BMSCs in the absence of nerve growth factors. This study was designed to investigate the effects of low-frequency PEMF pretreatment on the proliferation and function of BMSCs and the effects of low-frequency PEMF pre-treated BMSCs on the regeneration of injured peripheral nerve using in vitro and in vivo experiments...
January 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451208/astrocytes-in-the-cerebral-cortex-play-a-role-in-the-spontaneous-motor-recovery-following-experimental-striatal-hemorrhage
#19
Juliana Dalibor Neves, Régis Gemerasca Mestriner, Carlos Alexandre Netto
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449895/dnm3-p65-and-p53-from-exosomes-represent-potential-clinical-diagnosis-markers-for-glioblastoma-multiforme
#20
Jian-Kai Yang, Jian Song, Hao-Ran Huo, Yin-Long Zhao, Guang-Yu Zhang, Zong-Mao Zhao, Guo-Zhu Sun, Bao-Hua Jiao
Background: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive and deadly primary brain cancer that arises from astrocytes and classified as grade IV. Recently, exosomes have been reported as an essential mediator in diverse cancer carcinogenesis and metastasis. However, their role in GBM is still unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether blood exosomes can be potential clinical diagnostic markers for GBM. Methods: We used a xenograft orthotopic mouse model to detect the differentially expressed genes in the brain and blood exosomes of original/recurrent GBM...
December 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
keyword
keyword
4687
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"