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Eugénia Pinto, Maria-José Gonçalves, Carlos Cavaleiro, Lígia Salgueiro
The composition of the essential oil (EO) of Thapsia villosa (Apiaceae), isolated by hydrodistillation from the plant's aerial parts, was analysed by GC and GC-MS. Antifungal activity of the EO and its main components, limonene (57.5%) and methyleugenol (35.9%), were evaluated against clinically relevant yeasts (Candida spp., Cryptococcus neoformans and Malassezia furfur) and moulds (Aspergillus spp. and dermatophytes). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were measured according to the broth macrodilution protocols by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI)...
September 22, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Sebastião Antonio Mendanha, Cássia Alessandra Marquezin, Amando Siuiti Ito, Antonio Alonso
The sesquiterpene nerolidol and the monoterpene limonene are potent skin-permeation enhancers that have also been shown to have antitumor, antibacterial, antifungal and antiparasitic activities. Because terpenes are membrane-active compounds, we used electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy of three membrane spin labels combined with the fluorescence spectroscopy of three lipid probes to study the interactions of these terpenes with stratum corneum (SC) intercellular membranes. An experimental apparatus was developed to assess the lipid fluidity of hydrated SC membranes via the fluorescence anisotropy of extrinsic membrane probes...
September 18, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Nativ Dudai, Alona Shachter, Prabodh Satyal, William N Setzer
Background:Commiphora gileadensis (Hebrew: apharsemon) has been used since Biblical times to treat various ailments, and is used today in the traditional medicine of some Middle Eastern cultures. Methods: The essential oils from the stem bark, leaves, and fruits of Commiphora gileadensis-collected at the Ein Gedi Botanical Garden, Israel-were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In addition, the enantiomeric distributions of the monoterpenoids in the essential oils have been determined by chiral gas chromatography...
September 12, 2017: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
Cristina Avonto, Mei Wang, Amar G Chittiboyina, Stanislav Vukmanovic, Ikhlas A Khan
Twenty-four pure fragrance ingredients have been identified as potential concern for skin sensitization. Several of these compounds are chemically unstable and convert into reactive species upon exposure to air or light. In the present work, a systematic investigation of the correlation between chemical stability and reactivity has been undertaken. The compounds were subjected to forced photodegradation for three months and the chemical changes were studied with GC-MS. At the end of the stability study, two-thirds of the samples were found to be unstable...
September 16, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Pritam Sukul, Jochen Schubert, Svend Kamysek, Phillip Trefz, Wolfram Miekisch
Respiratory parameters such as flow or rate have complex effects onto exhalation of volatile substances and can hamper clinical interpretation of breath biomarkers. We investigated effects of progressively applied upper-airway resistances onto exhalation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in healthy humans. We performed real-time mass-spectrometric determination of breath volatiles in 50 subjects with parallel non-invasive hemodynamic monitoring, breath-resolved spirometry and capnometry during controlled tidal breathing (12 breaths/min)...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
Merve Bacanli, Hatice Gül Anlar, Sevtap Aydin, Tuğbagül Çal, Nuray Ari, Ülkü Ündeğer Bucurgat, A Ahmet Başaran, Nurşen Başaran
It is known that diabetes causes some complications including alterations in lipid profile, hepatic enzyme levels but also it causes oxidative stress. Limonene, a major component of Citrus oils, has important health beneficial effects in lowering the level of oxidative stress due to its antioxidant activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of D-limonene on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in Wistar albino rats. For this purpose, DNA damage was evaluated by alkaline comet assay. Changes in the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) and the levels of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), total glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), insulin, total bilirubin and BCA protein, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), total cholesterol and triglyceride were also evaluated...
September 15, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Makoto Kashiwayanagi, Sadaharu Miyazono, Kazumi Osada
Urine excreted from the common grey wolf (Canis lupus) contains a kairomone, inducing fear-related behaviors in various mammals. Numerous fear-inducing substances activate neurons at the main and/or accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), medial and central amygdala, and hypothalamus. Our previous study showed that the mixture of pyrazine analogues (P-mix) contained in wolf urine induced avoidance and fear-related behaviors in laboratory mice and Hokkaido deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis), a species native to Japan. Exposure to wolf urine or P-mix induced expression of Fos, a marker of neuronal excitation, in the AOB of mice...
August 2017: Heliyon
Ghaya Zouaghi, Asma Najar, Olfa Chiboub, Ines Sifaoui, Manef Abderrabba, Jacob Lorenzo Morales
In order to promote a local Tunisian product, this study was designed to examine, for the first time, the anti-Acanthamoeba activity (Acanthamoeba castellanii Neff) of the essential oils of Tunisian Citrus sinensis peels (Maltese half-blood) and the effect of viroid plant infection on this activity. To do so, three samples of peels' essential oils were studied: from a healthy plant (Control), a plant inoculated with Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd) and one inoculated with hot stunt cachexia viroid (HSVd). The samples were extracted by hydrodistillation from dried peels and characterized by GC-MS...
September 12, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
Nilufar Z Mamadalieva, Nilufar S Abdullaeva, Thomas Rosenau, Mashkura Fakhrutdinova, Shakhnoz S Azimova, Stefan Böhmdorfer
The chemical composition of essential oils isolated from the aerial parts of Heracleum lehmannianum, Prangos pabularia, Pseudohandelia umbellifera and Pulicaria salviifolia, all of them growing in Uzbekistan, were determined by GC-MS analysis. The main components of the oil from H. lehmannianum were α-phellandrene (10.5%), 1-butanol (9.0%), δ-cadinene (6.2%), α-cadinol (5.7%), τ-muurolol (3.1%), 4-terpineol (2.4%) and α-muurolene (2.6%), while cis-allo-ocimene (17.6%), δ-3-carene (14.2%), limonene (7...
September 14, 2017: Natural Product Research
Chun-Yan Shen, Jian-Guo Jiang, Qin Ou-Yang, Wei Zhu
Essential oil has been popularly used as an alternative for the treatment of inflammation. The bioactivities of essential oil from blossoms of Citrus aurantium L. var. amara Engl (CAVAO) showed greater anti-inflammation potential than that of antioxidant, anticancer, and 3T3-L1 proliferation inhibition. CAVAO (250 μg/mL) significantly inhibited production of nitric oxide (NO) (99.54%±2.81), interleukin-6 (IL-6) (98.11%±1.62), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) (41.84%±1.52) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) (56...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Tomáš Zárybnický, Iva Boušová, Martin Ambrož, Lenka Skálová
Public interest in natural therapies has increased significantly over past decades. Herbs and herbal products are extensively consumed worldwide and they are generally considered as safe. However, this may not always be true as many cases of herb-induced liver injury are reported every year. The liver is a frequent target tissue of toxicity from all classes of toxicants as liver structure and function predispose it to high sensitivity to xenobiotics. The present review is focused on the hepatotoxic properties of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, plant secondary metabolites that represent the major components of essential oils wildly used in folk medicines, pharmaceutical industry and cosmetics...
September 13, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
J D Toscano-Garibay, M Arriaga-Alba, J Sánchez-Navarrete, M Mendoza-García, J J Flores-Estrada, M A Moreno-Eutimio, J J Espinosa-Aguirre, M González-Ávila, N J Ruiz-Pérez
The essential oils of Citrus sinensis and Citrus latifolia showed antimycotic activity against Candida spp. isolated from the oral cavity; they are neither mutagenic on the Ames test nor cytotoxic. Their main components are R-(+)-limonene, β-thujene, α-myrcene and γ-terpinene. The aim of this work was to evaluate their antimutagenic and antioxidant capacities. Antimutagenic properties were evaluated against MNNG and ENNG on S. typhimurium TA100; against 2AA on strain TA98 and in front of 4NQO and NOR on strain TA102...
September 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
Livy Williams, Cesar Rodriguez-Saona, Sandra C Castle Del Conte
Natural or synthetic elicitors can affect plant physiology by stimulating direct and indirect defence responses to herbivores. For example, increased production of plant secondary metabolites, a direct response, can negatively affect herbivore survival, development and fecundity. Indirect responses include increased emission of plant volatiles that influence herbivore and natural enemy behaviour, and production of extrafloral nectar that serves as a food source for natural enemies after their arrival on induced plants...
September 2017: AoB Plants
Zuobing Xiao, Jiaying Chen, Yunwei Niu, Feng Chen
The key odorants and the aroma profile of six fennel essential oils from different regions were investigated by using gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and sensory evaluation. A total of 30 volatile compounds were determined by GC-O with aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) and the odor activity values (OAV) of them were calculated. Among these compounds, α-pinene, α-phellandrene, limonene, α-cubebene, β-caryophyllene, estragole, α-humulene, trans-anethole, δ-cadinene and p-anisaldehyde contributed greatly to the aroma of fennel essential oil due to their high flavor dilution (FD) factors and high OAVs...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Merve Bacanlı, Sevtap Aydın, A Ahmet Başaran, Nurşen Başaran
Phytochemicals derived from natural plants have been used commonly for the prevention and/or treatment of different diseases due to the belief of their safety. Many plant species synthesize toxic chemicals. New natural chemicals are being discovered but their toxic effects are unknown. Phytochemicals have been regarded as possible antioxidants. But on the other hand it is suggested that various phenolic antioxidants can display pro-oxidant properties at high doses. In this review, the role of some phytochemicals (epigallocathecin gallate, carvacrol, galangin, limonene, lycopene, naringin, puerarin, terpinene, thymol and ursolic acid) on the prevention of DNA damage will be discussed...
September 6, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Amanda Schober, Jian Zhang, Anand Subramaniam, Valery Normand
The present study aims at quantifying interfacial coverage of a biosurfactant (Quillaja saponins) and understanding the impact of flavor and fragrance alcohols on emulsification efficacy of the biosurfactant in a surfactant-oil-matrix system. Emulsions were prepared using limonene, alkanes (C8, C12, and C16) or limonene ̶ alcohol (linalool and C6C10 alcohols) mixtures at different ratios as oil phase stabilized by Quillaja saponins at very low concentrations (0.005-0.05% w/w). Droplet size was measured and size distributions were numerized to determine surface and volume average droplet diameters of bimodal emulsions...
September 6, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Neel Som Nath, Beiyu Liu, Cynthia Green, Amber Reck Atwater
BACKGROUND: Linalool and D-limonene are common fragrance ingredients that readily oxidize on exposure to air. The resulting hydroperoxides of linalool and D-limonene have been shown to have high frequencies of positive patch test reactions in several European and international studies. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of contact allergy to the hydroperoxides of linalool and D-limonene in a US population. METHODS: In this retrospective study, 103 patients with suspected fragrance allergy were patch tested to linalool 10% petrolatum (pet), hydroperoxides of linalool 1% pet, D-limonene 10% pet, and/or the hydroperoxides of D-limonene 0...
September 2017: Dermatitis
Zuobing Xiao, Quyang Wu, Yunwei Niu, Minling Wu, Jiancai Zhu, Xuan Zhou, Xiaomei Chen, Hongling Wang, Jing Li, Jiali Kong
In this study, volatile compounds of five varieties mandarin juices (Tankan, JG; Miyagawa, YQ; Mashui, MS; Skiranui, CJ; Ponkan, PG) were investigated by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 47 volatile compounds were identified by use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Partial least squares regression (PLSR) was used to process the mean scores from sensory evaluation by the panelists, volatile compounds and samples. The sample PG was associated with "fruity", "floral" and "sweet" notes, while MS was correlated with "green" and "peely"...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Shunji Tamaru, Noriyuki Igura, Mitsuya Shimoda
Flavor release from food matrices depends on the partition of volatile flavor compounds between the food matrix and the vapor phase. Thus, we herein investigated the relationship between released flavor concentrations and three different partition coefficients, namely octanol-water, octanol-air, and water-air, which represented the oil, water, and air phases present in emulsions. Limonene, 2-methylpyrazine, nonanal, benzaldehyde, ethyl benzoate, α-terpineol, benzyl alcohol, and octanoic acid were employed...
January 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Fei He, YanPing L Qian, Michael C Qian
Flavor stability of hard tea beverage was investigated over eight weeks of storage. The volatile compounds were analyzed using solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) and two-dimensional GC-MS. Quantitative analysis showed that the concentrations of linalool, citronellol, geranial, neral, geraniol, and nerol decreased dramatically during storage, whereas α-terpineol showed an increasing trend during storage. Heart-cut two-dimensional GC-MS (2D-GC-MS) chirality analysis showed that (R)-(+)-limonene, (R)-(-)-linalool, (S)-(-)-α-terpineol and (S)-(-)-4-terpineol dominated in the fresh hard tea samples, however, the configuration changed during storage for the terpene alcohols...
January 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
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