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Dan Norbäck, Jamal Hisham Hashim, Zailina Hashim, Faridah Ali
This paper studied associations between volatile organic compounds (VOC), formaldehyde, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) in schools in Malaysia and rhinitis, ocular, nasal and dermal symptoms, headache and fatigue among students. Pupils from eight randomly selected junior high schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia (N=462), participated (96%). VOC, formaldehyde and NO2 were measured by diffusion sampling (one week) and VOC also by pumped air sampling during class. Associations were calculated by multi-level logistic regression adjusting for personal factors, the home environment and microbial compounds in the school dust...
March 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Jiao Xu, Zhiyong He, Maomao Zeng, Bingbing Li, Fang Qin, Linxiang Wang, Shengfang Wu, Jie Chen
The effects of xanthan gum on the release of strawberry flavor compounds in formulated soy protein isolate (SPI) beverage were investigated by headspace gas chromatography (GC). Seven strawberry flavor compounds (limonene, ethyl hexanoate, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl butanoate, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol and diacetyl) could be detected by GC and hence analyzed the gas-matrix partition coefficients (K). The release of flavor compounds was restrained in SPI and/or xanthan gum solution. The retention of (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, limonene and diacetyl significantly changed (p<0...
August 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Tsung-Shi Yang, Tai-Ti Liu, I-Hwa Lin
The aims of this research were to conjugate chitosan (CT) with stearic acid (SA) and gallic acid (GA), and apply the modified chitosan to stabilize labile aroma compounds such as allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) and limonene in oil-in-water emulsions. Generally, the antioxidant activity of CT-SA-GA increased as the GA content in the conjugate increased. In most assays, GA had a lower IC50 value than that of CT-SA-GA; however, CT-SA-GA exhibited better performance than GA in the Fe(2+)-chelating activity. In accelerated tests (heating or illumination) for evaluating the chemical stability of AITC and limonene during storage, CT-SA and CT-SA-GA were used to prepare AITC and limonene O/W emulsions, respectively...
August 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Aline C Gomes, Angélica L Mello, Manuel G Ribeiro, Diogo G Garcia, Clovis O Da Fonseca, Marcela D'Alincourt Salazar, Axel H Schönthal, Thereza Quirico-Santos
Monoterpenes such as limonene and perillyl alcohol (POH) are promising natural compounds with pro-oxidant properties partly due to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced cytotoxicity, and antioxidant activity owing to their activity as free radical scavengers, inhibition of coenzyme Q synthesis, activation of antioxidant-responsive elements (inducing detoxification enzymes) and induction of apoptosis. Activation of ER-stress responses generates reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are highly reactive free radicals mainly produced during mitochondrial electron transfer for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis...
March 17, 2017: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis
Silvia Rinaldi, Alessandro Gori, Celeste Annovazzi, Erica Elisa Ferrandi, Daniela Monti, Giorgio Colombo
The balance between structural stability and functional plasticity in proteins that share common three-dimensional folds is the key factor that drives protein evolvability. The ability to distinguish the parts of homologous proteins that underlie common structural organization patterns from the parts acting as regulatory modules that can sustain modifications in response to evolutionary pressure may provide fundamental insights for understanding sequence-structure-dynamics relationships. In applicative terms, this would help develop rational protein design methods...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
Johannes Kiefl, Birgit Kohlenberg, Anja Hartmann, Katja Obst, Susanne Paetz, Gerhard E Krammer, Stephan Trautzsch
Orange fruits from Huanglongbing (HLB) infected trees do not fully mature and show a severe off-flavor described as bitter-harsh, metallic and less juicy and fruity. The investigation of juice from HLB infected (HLBOJ) and healthy control oranges (COJ) by gas chromatography mass spectrometry showed higher concentrations of fruity esters such as ethyl butyrate and ethyl 2-methylbutyrate, and soapy-waxy alkanals such as octanal and decanal in the COJ whereas the HLBOJ showed higher concentrations of green aldehydes like hexanal and degradation compounds of limonene and linalool like α-terpineol...
March 11, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Gabriel Garcia, Adrien Garcia, Marc Gibernau, Ange Bighelli, Félix Tomi
The aim of this survey was to determine the chemical composition of essential oils (EO) of five conifers acclimated in Corsica by GC(RI), GC-MS and (13)C NMR. L. decidua needle and wood EOs contained as majors components: α- and β-pinenes, germacrene D (needles) and bornyl acetate (wood). The EOs of needles, wood and cones of P. menziesii were characterised by β- and α-pinenes, terpinen-4-ol, sabinene, terpinolene (needles and wood), Δ-3-carene (wood) and limonene (cones). Needles and wood EOs of P. ponderosa contained as major components: β- and α-pinenes, Δ-3-carene (wood) and estragole (needles)...
February 13, 2017: Natural Product Research
Madhav M Joglekar, Laxman N Bavkar, Srinivas Sistla, Akalpita U Arvindekar
Protein glycation is a major mechanism for establishing secondary complication in diabetes mellitus. Effective inhibition of this process can prevent progression of the disorder into secondary complications. Aminoguanidine (AMG) and limonene (LM) are known protein glycation inhibitors. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate their differential mechanisms of action and to study whether combinatorial therapy can act synergistically and lower dosage, and thereby lower toxicity in treatment of secondary complications in diabetes...
March 6, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Prabodh Satyal, Tyler H Jones, Elizabeth M Lopez, Robert L McFeeters, Nasser A Awadh Ali, Iman Mansi, Ali G Al-Kaf, William N Setzer
Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) is a popular herb in cooking, traditional healing, and aromatherapy. The essential oils of R. officinalis were obtained from plants growing in Victoria (Australia), Alabama (USA), Western Cape (South Africa), Kenya, Nepal, and Yemen. Chemical compositions of the rosemary oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as well as chiral gas chromatography. The oils were dominated by (+)-α-pinene (13.5%-37.7%), 1,8-cineole (16.1%-29.3%), (+)-verbenone (0.8%-16...
March 5, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Ramasamy P Kumar, Benjamin Robert Morehouse, Jason O Matos, Karan Malik, Hongkun Lin, Isaac J Krauss, Daniel D Oprian
The stereochemical course of monoterpene synthase reactions is thought to be determined early in the reaction sequence by selective binding of distinct conformations of the geranyl diphosphate (GPP) substrate. We explore here formation of early-Michaelis complexes of the (+)-limonene synthase ((+)-LS) from Citrus sinensis using mono-fluorinated substrate analogs 2-fluoro-GPP (FGPP) and 2-fluoroneryl diphosphate (FNPP). Both are competitive inhibitors for (+)-LS with KI of 2.4 0.5 μM (FGPP) and 39.5 ± 5.2 μM (FNPP)...
March 8, 2017: Biochemistry
Benjamin Robert Morehouse, Ramasamy P Kumar, Jason O Matos, Sarah Naomi Olsen, Sonya Entova, Daniel D Oprian
Terpenes are the largest and most diverse class of natural compounds and have important commercial and medical applications. Limonene is a cyclic monoterpene (C10) present in nature as two enantiomers, (+) and (-), which are produced by different enzymes. The mechanism of production of the (-)-enantiomer has been studied in great detail, but to understand how enantiomeric selectivity is achieved in this class of enzymes, it is important to develop a thorough biochemical description of enzymes which generate (+)-limonene as well...
March 8, 2017: Biochemistry
Han-Yu Zhang, Yang Gao, Peng-Xiang Lai
Premna microphylla Turczaninow, an erect shrub, was widely used in Chinese traditional medicine to treat dysentery, appendicitis, and infections. In this study, the essential oil from P. microphylla Turcz. was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC (Gas Chromatography) and GC-MS (Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer). Fifty-six compounds were identified in the oil which comprised about 97.2% of the total composition of the oil. Major components of the oil were blumenol C (49.7%), β-cedrene (6.1%), limonene (3...
February 28, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Lihua Yu, Jing Yan, Zhiguang Sun
D-limonene has been demonstrated to have important immunomodulatory properties, including antitumor effects, and may alleviate asthma and allergies. In the present study, the anti‑inflammatory effects of D‑limonene were investigated in an ulcerative colitis (UC) rat model. Healthy male Sprague‑Dawley rats were randomly divided into control, untreated UC, and treatment with 50 or 100 mg/kg D‑limonene UC groups. In UC rats, disease activity and colonic mucosa damage were significantly reduced by the anti‑inflammatory effects of D‑limonene, via suppression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)‑2 and ‑9 gene expression...
February 22, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
Mary L Reid, Jagdeep K Sekhon, Lanielle M LaFramboise
A high diversity of plant defenses may be a response to herbivore diversity or may be collectively more toxic than single compounds, either of which may be important for understanding insect-plant associations. Monoterpenes in conifers are particularly diverse. We tested the fumigant toxicity of four monoterpenes, alone and in combination, to mountain pine beetles, Dendroctonus ponderosae, in the context of the beetles' individual body traits. Chemical structures of tested monoterpene hydrocarbons had modest effects on beetle survival, mass loss, water content and fat content, with (R)-(+)-limonene tending to be more toxic than (-)-α-pinene, (-)-β-pinene, and (+)-3-carene...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Somayeh Ghahari, Heshmatollah Alinezhad, Ghorban Ali Nematzadeh, Mahmood Tajbakhsh, Robabeh Baharfar
Glycine max (L.) Merrill (soybean) is a major leguminous crop, cultivated globally as well as in Iran. This study examines the chemical composition of soybean essential oil, and evaluates the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of seeds on various plant pathogens that commonly cause irreparable damages to agricultural crops. The essential oil of soybean seeds was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Antimicrobial activity was tested against 14 microorganisms, including three gram-positive, five gram-negative bacteria, and six fungi, using disk diffusion method and the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration technique...
April 2017: Current Microbiology
Qian Ju, Xiao-Qiang Guo, Xiao Li, Xiao-Jing Jiang, Xiang-Guo Jiang, Wan-Li Ni, Ming-Jing Qu
Holotrichia parallela (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) is a notorious pest of many crops. To improve the effectiveness of its female-produced sex pheromone (L-isoleucine methyl ester:(R)-(-)-linalool = 6:1), 14 plant volatiles, including dodecanoic acid, dodecanal, farnesol, α-farnesene, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, (E)-2-hexenyl acetate, (R)-(+)-limonene, α-phellandrene, α-pinene, ocimene, methyl benzoate, and benzaldehyde, were individually evaluated using electroantennography and olfactometer assays...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Yasutaka Enomoto, Yoko Imai, Kazuo Tajima
We present a method for vesicle formation from lamellar liquid crystals (LCs) using a cationic amphiphilic substance, namely 2-hydroxyethyl di(alkanol)oxyethyl methylammonium methylsulfate (DEAE). Vesicle formation from the DEAE lamellar dispersion occurred via a two-step chemical addition. This method required neither additional mechanical energy nor the use of special solvents. The transition was solubilized using an organic substance (e.g., limonene) in the lamellar DEAE LC, after which, a small amount of inorganic salt was added to the solubilized lamellar LC dispersion with gentle stirring...
2017: Journal of Oleo Science
Bruna Maria S de Oliveira, Carlisson R Melo, Péricles B Alves, Abraão A Santos, Ane Caroline C Santos, Alisson da S Santana, Ana Paula A Araújo, Pedro E S Nascimento, Arie F Blank, Leandro Bacci
Plants of the genus Aristolochia have been frequently reported as important medicinal plants. Despite their high bioactive potential, to date, there are no reports of their effects on leaf-cutting ants. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the insecticidal activity of the essential oil of Aristolochia trilobata and its major components on Atta sexdens and Acromyrmex balzani, two species of leaf-cutting ants. The bioassays were performed regarding routes of exposure, acute toxicity, binary mixtures of the major components and behavioral effects...
February 25, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Pritam Sukul, Peter Oertel, Svend Kamysek, Phillip Trefz
There is a need for standardisation in sampling and analysis of breath volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in order to minimise ubiquitous confounding effects. Physiological factors may mask concentration changes induced by pathophysiological effects. In humans, unconscious switching of oral and nasal breathing can occur during breath sampling, which may affect VOC patterns. Here, we investigated exhaled VOC concentrations in real-time while switching breathing routes. Breath from 15 healthy volunteers was analysed continuously by proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry during paced breathing (12 breaths min(-1))...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
Hussein El-Zaeddi, Juan Martínez-Tomé, Ángel Calín-Sánchez, Francisco Burló, Ángel A Carbonell-Barrachina
Volatile composition of essential oils from dill, parsley, coriander, and mint were investigated at different harvest dates to determine the most suitable harvest time for each these herbs. Hydrodistillation (HD), using a Deryng system, was used for isolating the essential oils. Isolation and identification of the volatile compounds were performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) instrument. The results of gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) analysis (quantification) showed that the main components in the essential oil of dill shoots were α-phellandrene, dill ether, and β-phellandrene, and the optimal harvest date was D2 (second harvest, fourth week of February 2015)...
May 25, 2016: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
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