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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924817/in-vitro-human-epidermal-permeation-of-nicotine-from-electronic-cigarette-refill-liquids-and-implications-for-dermal-exposure-assessment
#1
H Frederick Frasch, Ana M Barbero
Nicotine plus flavorings in a propylene glycol (PG) vehicle are the components of electronic cigarette liquids (e-liquids), which are vaporized and inhaled by the user. Dermal exposure to nicotine and e-liquids may occur among workers in mixing and filling of e-cigarettes in the manufacturing process. Inadvertent skin contact among consumers is also a concern. In vitro nicotine permeation studies using heat-separated human epidermis were performed with surrogate and two commercial e-liquids, neat and aqueous nicotine donor formulations...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923141/development-and-characterization-of-electrosprayed-alyssum-homolocarpum-seed-gum-nanoparticles-for-encapsulation-of-d-limonene
#2
Khadije Khoshakhlagh, Arash Koocheki, Mohebbat Mohebbi, Alireza Allafchian
In this study, the feasibility of developing Alyssum homolocarpum seed gum (AHSG) nanocapsules containing d-limonene by electrospraying has been investigated. d-limonene emulsions with constant AHSG (0.5% w/w) and various flavor concentrations (10-30% based on gum weight) with 0.1% Tween 20 were electrosprayed at 20kV and 0.1ml/h of flow rate. The effects of key parameters of emulsions (rheological properties, droplet size, surface tension and electrical conductivity) on the morphology of structures have been studied...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911807/enhanced-limonene-production-in-cyanobacteria-reveals-photosynthesis-limitations
#3
Xin Wang, Wei Liu, Changpeng Xin, Yi Zheng, Yanbing Cheng, Su Sun, Runze Li, Xin-Guang Zhu, Susie Y Dai, Peter M Rentzepis, Joshua S Yuan
Terpenes are the major secondary metabolites produced by plants, and have diverse industrial applications as pharmaceuticals, fragrance, solvents, and biofuels. Cyanobacteria are equipped with efficient carbon fixation mechanism, and are ideal cell factories to produce various fuel and chemical products. Past efforts to produce terpenes in photosynthetic organisms have gained only limited success. Here we engineered the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 to efficiently produce limonene through modeling guided study...
November 23, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901194/seasonal-variation-of-the-essential-oil-from-two-brazilian-native-aldama-la-llave-asteraceae-species
#4
Tuane S DE Oliveira, Aline B Bombo, Adriana S S DE Oliveira, Vera L Garcia, Beatriz Appezzato-DA-Glória
Aldama arenaria and A. robusta are morphologically similar aromatic species that have seasonal development. The yield and chemical composition of essential oils from aerial and underground vegetative organs of these species were compared to verify the production of volatile metabolites in flowering and dormant phases of development and to identify if there are unique compounds for either species. The major compound in the essential oils from A. arenaria leaves was palustrol (16.22%) and for aerial stems was limonene (15...
2016: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896835/contact-sensitization-to-limonene-and-linalool-hydroperoxides-in-spain-a-geidac-prospective-study
#5
Gustavo Deza, Begoña García-Bravo, Juan F Silvestre, Maria A Pastor-Nieto, Ricardo González-Pérez, Felipe Heras-Mendaza, Pedro Mercader, Virginia Fernández-Redondo, Bo Niklasson, Ana M Giménez-Arnau
BACKGROUND: Limonene and linalool are common fragrance terpenes widely used in cosmetic, household and hygiene products. Their primary oxidation products formed after air exposure, the hydroperoxides, have been recognized as important contact haptens. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence of contact allergy to hydroperoxides of limonene (Lim-OOHs) and hydroperoxides of linalool (Lin-OOHs) in Spain, and to define the optimal concentration for screening in consecutive patients...
November 29, 2016: Contact Dermatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890582/molecular-cloning-and-characterization-of-a-perilla-frutescens-cytochrome-p450-enzyme-that-catalyzes-the-later-steps-of-perillaldehyde-biosynthesis
#6
Yumi Fujiwara, Michiho Ito
Perilla produces the cyclohexanoid monoterpene perillaldehyde as a major constituent of an essential oil that is accumulated in its glandular trichomes. Perillaldehyde is a marker compound for quality control of soyo and has biological activities such as antibacterial, sedative, or vasodilatory effects. The predicted perillaldehyde formation involves the cyclization of geranyl diphosphate, hydroxylation, and oxidation, and cytochrome P450 plays a crucial role in perillaldehyde biosynthesis. In this study, a cytochrome P450-type enzyme with perillyl alcohol and perillaldehyde synthase activities was isolated by analyzing an expressed sequence tag library from several oil types of pure lines of perilla...
November 24, 2016: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889158/fat-and-fibre-interfere-with-the-dramatic-effect-that-nanoemulsified-d-limonene-has-on-the-heat-resistance-of-listeria-monocytogenes
#7
Javier Maté, Paula M Periago, María Ros-Chumillas, Coralin Grullón, Juan Pablo Huertas, Alfredo Palop
The application of d-limonene in form of nanoemulsion has been proved to reduce dramatically the thermal resistance of Listeria monocytogenes in culture media. The present research shows very promising results on the application in food products. The thermal resistance of L. monocytogenes was reduced 90 times when 0.5 mM nanoemulsified d-limonene was added to apple juice. This is the biggest reduction in the heat resistance of a microorganism caused by an antimicrobial described ever. However, no effect was found in carrot juice...
April 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888114/limonene-reduces-hyperalgesia-induced-by-gp120-and-cytokines-by-modulation-of-il-1-%C3%AE-and-protein-expression-in-spinal-cord-of-mice
#8
Ana Claudia Piccinelli, Priscila Neder Morato, Marcelo Dos Santos Barbosa, Julio Croda, Jared Sampson, Xiangpeng Kong, Elisabete Castelon Konkiewitza, Edward B Ziff, Jaime Amaya-Farfan, Cândida Aparecida Leite Kassuya
AIMS: We have investigated the antihyperalgesic effects of limonene in mice that received intrathecal injection of gp120. MAIN METHODS: Male Swiss mice received gp120, IL-1β or TNF-α intrathecally or sterile saline as a control. A mechanicalsensitivity test was performed at 2 and 3h after the injection. Spinal cord and blood samples were isolated for protein quantification. KEY FINDINGS: Intrathecal administration of gp120 increased mechanical sensitivity measured with an electronic Von Frey apparatus, at 2 and 3h after the injections...
November 22, 2016: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880857/conformational-flexibility-of-limonene-oxide-studied-by-microwave-spectroscopy
#9
Juan Jesus Lopez Gonzalez, María Mar Quesada-Moreno, Juan Ramón Avilés-Moreno, Thérèse R Huet, M Eugenia Sanz, Donatella Loru, Natasha Jarman
Monoterpenoids are biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) that play a major role in atmospheric chemistry, participating in the formation of aerosols. In this work, the monoterpenoid R-(+)-limonene oxide (C₁₀H₁₆O) has been characterized in the gas phase by Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy in a supersonic jet. Five conformers of limonene oxide, four equatorial and one axial considering the configuration of the isopropenyl group, have been unambiguously identified from the analysis of the rotational spectrum...
November 23, 2016: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869108/limonene-in-exhaled-breath-is-elevated-in-hepatic-encephalopathy
#10
M E O'Hara, R Fernández Del Río, A Holt, P Pemberton, T Shah, T Whitehouse, C A Mayhew
Breath samples were taken from 31 patients with liver disease and 30 controls in a clinical setting and proton transfer reaction quadrupole mass spectrometry (PTR-Quad-MS) used to measure the concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). All patients had cirrhosis of various etiologies, with some also suffering from hepatocellular cancer (HCC) and/or hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Breath limonene was higher in patients with No-HCC than with HCC, median (lower/upper quartile) 14.2 (7.2/60.1) versus 3.6 (2...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867268/composition-of-the-essential-oil-from-danggui-zhiqiao-herb-pair-and-its-analgesic-activity-and-effect-on-hemorheology-in-rats-with-blood-stasis-syndrome
#11
Yuanqing Wang, Jianye Yan, Shunxiang Li, Wei Wang, Xiong Cai, Dan Huang, Limin Gong, Xin Li
BACKGROUND: Angelica sinensis and Aurantii fructu used in a pair, named Danggui-Zhiqiao herb-pair (DZHP), which was rich in essential oil and has been adopted to promote blood circulation, dispel blood stasis, and relieve pain in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). OBJECTIVE: To analyze the composition and pharmacological effects of essential oil from DZHP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The composition of the essential oil from DZHP was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS)...
October 2016: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866741/assessment-of-indoor-air-quality-in-office-buildings-across-europe-the-officair-study
#12
Corinne Mandin, Marilena Trantallidi, Andrea Cattaneo, Nuno Canha, Victor G Mihucz, Tamás Szigeti, Rosanna Mabilia, Erica Perreca, Andrea Spinazzè, Serena Fossati, Yvonne De Kluizenaar, Eric Cornelissen, Ioannis Sakellaris, Dikaia Saraga, Otto Hänninen, Eduardo De Oliveira Fernandes, Gabriela Ventura, Peder Wolkoff, Paolo Carrer, John Bartzis
The European project OFFICAIR aimed to broaden the existing knowledge regarding indoor air quality (IAQ) in modern office buildings, i.e., recently built or refurbished buildings. Thirty-seven office buildings participated in the summer campaign (2012), and thirty-five participated in the winter campaign (2012-2013). Four rooms were investigated per building. The target pollutants were twelve volatile organic compounds, seven aldehydes, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <2...
November 17, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865983/transdermal-therapeutic-systems-for-memantine-delivery-comparison-of-passive-and-iontophoretic-transport
#13
S Del Río-Sancho, C E Serna-Jiménez, M Sebastián-Morelló, M A Calatayud-Pascual, C Balaguer-Fernández, A Femenía-Font, Y N Kalia, V Merino, A López-Castellano
Memantine is a non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist used in the treatment of moderate to severe dementia including the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is administered orally but compliance, swallowing problems and the routine use of multiple medications in elderly AD patients means that an alternative route of administration would be of interest. The aim of the present study was to develop memantine hydrochloride occlusive transdermal therapeutic systems (TTS) for passive and iontophoretic delivery across the skin...
November 16, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844468/repellency-and-larvicidal-activity-of-essential-oils-from-xylopia-laevigata-xylopia-frutescens-lippia-pedunculosa-and-their-individual-compounds-against-aedes-aegypti-linnaeus
#14
A M D Nascimento, T D S Maia, T E S Soares, L R A Menezes, R Scher, E V Costa, S C H Cavalcanti, R La Corte
In order to find new alternatives for vector control and personal protection, we evaluated the larvicidal and repellent activity of essentials oils from plants found in the Northeast of Brazil against Aedes aegypti Linnaeus mosquitoes. The plants tested include Xylopia laevigata, Xylopia frutescens, and Lippia pedunculosa and their major compounds, piperitenone oxide, and (R)-limonene. The essential oil of L. pedunculosa and its major volatile compounds were shown to be toxic for Ae. aegypti larvae with a LC50 lower than 60 ppm...
November 14, 2016: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842959/indoor-secondary-organic-aerosols-formation-from-ozonolysis-of-monoterpene-an-example-of-d-limonene-with-ammonia-and-potential-impacts-on-pulmonary-inflammations
#15
Xinyi Niu, Steven Sai Hang Ho, Kin Fai Ho, Yu Huang, Junji Cao, Zhenxing Shen, Jian Sun, Xiumei Wang, Yu Wang, Shuncheng Lee, Rujin Huang
Monoterpene is one class of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) which widely presents in household cleaning products and air fresheners. It plays reactive role in secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) formation with ozone (O3) in indoor environments. Such ozonolysis can be influenced by the presence of gaseous pollutants such as ammonia (NH3). This study focuses on investigations of ozone-initiated formation of indoor SOAs with d-limonene, one of the most abundant indoor monoterpenes, in a large environmental chamber...
November 11, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833892/pharmacognostic-specification-of-zanthoxylum-limonella-dennst-alston-fruits-and-seeds-in-thailand
#16
Rawiwan Charoensup, Thidarat Duangyod, Pravaree Phuneerub, Chatubhong Singharachai
Zanthoxylum limonella (Dennst.) Alston. (Rutaceae) or Ma-khwaen is one of the medicinal plants in Thai traditional medicine. To investigate the pharmacognostic specifications and chemical constituents of Z. limonella fruits and seeds. Fruits and seeds of Z. limonella were collected from 15 sources throughout Thailand; then examined the pharmacognostic specification following WHO guideline of quality control method for medicinal plant materials. Microscopic determination of Z. limonella powders demonstrated fragment of mesocarp, fragment of brown vitta, oil glands, fragment of endocarp, and endosperm containing oil globule, trichome and pale brown stone cells...
October 2016: Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825281/modulation-of-chemical-dermal-absorption-by-14-natural-products-a-quantitative-structure-permeation-analysis-of-components-often-found-in-topical-preparations
#17
Faqir Muhammad, Majid Jaberi-Douraki, Damião Pergentino de Sousa, Jim E Riviere
A large number of cosmetics and topical pharmaceuticals contain compounds of natural origin. There is a rising concern if these compounds can interact with the activity of other topically applied components in these formulations. The current study demonstrates modulation of dermal absorption of model components often found in topical preparations ((14)C caffeine and (14)C salicylic acid) by a set of 14 synthetic compounds of natural origin using a flow through in-vitro porcine skin diffusion system. The parameters of flux and permeability were calculated and quantitative structure permeation (QSPR) analysis conducted on different molecular descriptors of modulator compounds...
November 8, 2016: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821044/comparative-transcriptome-profiling-of-two-brassica-napus-cultivars-under-chromium-toxicity-and-its-alleviation-by-reduced-glutathione
#18
Rafaqat A Gill, Basharat Ali, Peng Cui, Enhui Shen, Muhammad A Farooq, Faisal Islam, Shafaqat Ali, Bizeng Mao, Weijun Zhou
BACKGROUND: Chromium (Cr) being multifarious industrial used element, is considered a potential environmental threat. Cr found to be a prospective water and soil pollutant, and thus it is a current area of concern. Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is well known as a major source of edible oil around the globe. Due to its higher growth, larger biomass and capability to uptake toxic materials B. napus is considered a potential candidate plant against unfavorable conditions. To date, no study has been done that described the Cr and GSH mechanism at RNA-Seq level...
November 7, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817252/investigation-of-scavenging-activities-and-distribution-of-paramagnetic-species-in-zanthoxylum-limonella-seeds
#19
Kouichi Nakagawa, Apichet Promjareet, Aroonsri Priprem, Vassana Netweera, Hideyuki Hara
We investigated the scavenging activities of methanol-extracted oil and the distribution of paramagnetic species in Zanthoxylum limonella (ZL) seeds using non-invasive 9 GHz electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) imaging and continuous wave (CW) EPR. EPR detected three different stable paramagnetic species that were assigned to stable organic radicals, Mn(2+), and other paramagnetic metal complexes. Two-dimensional EPR imaging showed that the stable paramagnetic species were located in the pigmented seed region with a strong intensity...
November 6, 2016: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815129/reversal-of-resistance-in-bacteria-underlies-synergistic-effect-of-essential-oils-with-conventional-antibiotics
#20
Aida Lahmar, Ahmed Bedoui, Imen Mokdad-Bzeouich, Zaineb Dhaouifi, Zahar Kalboussi, Imed Cheraif, Kamel Ghedira, Leila Chekir-Ghedira
The pervasive of bacterial resistance earnestly threaten the prevention and the treatment of infectious diseases. Therefore, scientific communities take precedence over development of new antimicrobial agents. The aim of the study was to determine antimicrobial potency of three North-African essential oils Pituranthos chloranthus, Teucruim ramosissimum and Pistacia lentiscus individually, and in combination with antibiotics, to inhibit the growth of highly resistant clinical pathogen. Bacteria clinically isolated from patients, subsequently, challenged to a panel of drugs to determine the antibiotic-resistance profiles...
November 2, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
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