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Stephane L Ngahang Kamte, Farahnaz Ranjbarian, Kevin Cianfaglione, Stefania Sut, Stefano Dall'Acqua, Maurizio Bruno, Fariba Heshmati Afshar, Romilde Iannarelli, Giovanni Benelli, Loredana Cappellacci, Anders Hofer, Filippo Maggi, Riccardo Petrelli
The Apiaceae family encompasses aromatic plants of economic importance employed in foodstuffs, beverages, perfumery, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. Apiaceae are rich sources of essential oils because of the wealth of secretory structures (ducts and vittae) they are endowed with. The Apiaceae essential oils are available on an industrial level because of the wide cultivation and disposability of the bulky material from which they are extracted as well as their relatively cheap price. In the fight against protozoal infections, essential oils may represent new therapeutic options...
March 14, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Chanchan Liu, Narayanan Srividya, Amber N Parrish, Wei Yue, Mingqiu Shan, Qinan Wu, B Markus Lange
Schizonepeta tenuifolia Briquet, commonly known as Japanese catnip, is used for the treatment of colds, headaches, fevers, and skin rashes in traditional Asian medicine (China, Japan and Korea). The volatile oil and its constituents have various demonstrated biological activities, but there is currently limited information regarding the site of biosynthesis. Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy indicated the presence of three distinct glandular trichome types which, based on their morphological features, are referred to as peltate, capitate and digitiform glandular trichomes...
March 10, 2018: Phytochemistry
Tiffany Schroder, Sharyn Gaskin, Kirstin Ross, Harriet Whiley
Fungal contamination of indoor air is an issue of increasing public health concern. Essential oils have been demonstrated to have antifungal capabilities, but there are limited studies investigating the efficacy of essential oils against fungi relevant to air quality. This study provides a preliminary screening of the antifungal properties of clove, lavender and eucalyptus essential oils against a range of fungal species isolated from environmental air samples. The ability of the essential oils to inhibit fungal growth was examined using the disk diffusion assay on malt extract agar and was compared with vinegar, bleach and limonene, with phenol as a positive control...
March 8, 2018: International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health
József Vuts, Christine M Woodcock, John C Caulfield, Stephen J Powers, John A Pickett, Michael A Birkett
BACKGROUND: The response of virgin females of the legume pest Acanthoscelides obtectus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) to headspace extracts of volatiles collected from flowers of a nectar plant, Daucus carota, was investigated using behaviour (four-arm olfactometry) and coupled gas chromatography-electrophysiology (GC-EAG). RESULTS: Odours from inflorescences were significantly more attractive to virgin female beetles than clean air. Similarly, a sample of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) collected by air entrainment (dynamic headspace collection) was more attractive to beetles than a solvent control...
March 8, 2018: Pest Management Science
Razieh Mohebat, Mina Zare Bidoki
The volatile compounds from various parts of Echinops ilicifolius (Compositae) such as flowers, leaves and roots obtained by hydrodistillation (HD) and headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) methods were subsequently analysed by GC and GC/MS and compared. Thirty-seven and 20 components of the flower of E. ilicifolius were characterized, representing 99.7% and 100.0% of the total compositions using the HD and HS-SPME methods, respectively. The major constituents of the hydrodistilled oil were identified as linalool (58...
February 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Xujun Chen, Hao Chen, Joshua S Yuan, Tobias G Köllner, Yuying Chen, Yufen Guo, Xiaofeng Zhuang, Xinlu Chen, Yong-Jun Zhang, Jianyu Fu, Andreas Nebenführ, Zejian Guo, Feng Chen
Rice blast disease, caused by the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, is the most devastating disease of rice. In our ongoing characterization of the defense mechanisms of rice plants against M. oryzae, a terpene synthase gene OsTPS19 was identified as a candidate defense gene. Here, we report the functional characterization of OsTPS19, which is upregulated by M. oryzae infection. Overexpression of OsTPS19 in rice plants enhanced resistance against M. oryzae, while OsTPS19 RNAi lines were more susceptible to the pathogen...
March 6, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Muhammad Rouf Akram, Mahmood Ahmad, Asad Abrar, Rai Muhammad Sarfraz, Asif Mahmood
Background: The present work was conducted to prepare and evaluate transdermal patches with optimization of suitable polymeric blend of poly(meth) acrylates (Eudragit® ) (Ammonio Methacrylate Copolymer Ph Eur) for sustained transdermal delivery of glimepiride. Method: Polymeric matrix transdermal films were prepared by using Ammonio Methacrylate Copolymer Ph Eur RL 100 and Ammonio Methacrylate Copolymer Ph Eur RS 100 as the film former, and dibutyl phthalate (30% w/w) as the plasticizer...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Bagora Bayala, Imaël H N Bassole, Salwan Maqdasy, Silvère Baron, Jacques Simpore, Jean-Marc A Lobaccaro
Cymbopogon species are used as traditional remedies in Burkina Faso for treating several diseases. We aimed to study the effects of their essential oils on cancer cell lines. For that purpose, Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf. and Cymbopogon giganteus Chiov. were studied for their essential oils after various chemical extractions. Antioxidant, potential anti-inflammatory action (inhibition of lipoxygenase) and cytotoxic activities were also tested on various prostate cancer and glioblastoma cell lines. Thirty-three compounds were identified in the essential oil of C...
February 28, 2018: Biochimie
Laura Berliocchi, Carlotta Chiappini, Annagrazia Adornetto, Debora Gentile, Silvia Cerri, Rossella Russo, Giacinto Bagetta, Maria Tiziana Corasaniti
BACKGROUND: d-Limonene is a natural monoterpene abundant in Citrus essential oils. It is endowed with several biological activities, including inhibition of carcinogenesis and promotion of tumour regression. Recently, d-limonene has been shown to modulate autophagic markers in vitro at concentrations found in vivo, in clinical pharmacokinetic studies. Autophagy is an intracellular catabolic process serving as both an adaptive metabolic response and a quality control mechanism. Because autophagy defects have been linked to a wide range of human pathologies, including neurodegeneration and cancer, there is a need for new pharmacological tools to control deregulated autophagy...
February 1, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Haimin Chen, Hongxia Wu, Bin Yan, Hongguang Zhao, Fenghua Liu, Haihua Zhang, Qing Sheng, Fang Miao, Zongsuo Liang
Seed microbiome includes special endophytic or epiphytic microbial taxa associated with seeds, which affects seed germination, plant growth, and health. Here, we analyzed the core microbiome of 21 Salvia miltiorrhiza seeds from seven different geographic origins using 16S rDNA and ITS amplicon sequencing, followed by bioinformatics analysis. The whole bacterial microbiome was classified into 17 microbial phyla and 39 classes. Gammaproteobacteria (67.6%), Alphaproteobacteria (15.6%), Betaproteobacteria (2.6%), Sphingobacteria (5...
February 27, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Cristina M Pérez Zamora, Carola A Torres, María B Nuñez
The Verbenaceae family includes 2600 species grouped into 100 genera with a pantropical distribution. Many of them are important elements of the floras of warm-temperature and tropical regions of America. This family is known in folk medicine, and its species are used as digestive, carminative, antipyretic, antitussive, antiseptic, and healing agents. This review aims to collect information about the essential oils from the most reported species of the Verbenaceae family growing in South America, focusing on their chemical composition, antimicrobial activity, and synergism with commercial antimicrobials...
March 1, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Rafael Torres-Martínez, Yolanda Magdalena García-Rodríguez, Patricia Ríos-Chávez, Alfredo Saavedra-Molina, Joel Edmundo López-Meza, Alejandra Ochoa-Zarzosa, Rafael Salgado Garciglia
Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro antioxidant activity of Satureja macrostema (Moc. and Sessé ex Benth.) Briq. (Lamiaceae) essential oil, a Mexican medicinal plant known as nurite. Materials and Methods: Fresh aerial parts of S. macrostema plants cultivated in greenhouse for 3 months were subjected to hydrodistillation in a Clevenger apparatus to obtain essential oil. Volatile compounds were identified by gas chromatography (GC) and GC/mass spectrometry...
January 2018: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Tadataka Tsuji, Susumu Tanaka, Sanam Bakhshishayan, Mikihiko Kogo, Takashi Yamamoto
In both humans and animals, chemosensory stimuli, including odors and tastes, induce a variety of physiologic and mental responses related to energy homeostasis, such as glucose kinetics. The present study examined the importance of olfactory function in glucose kinetics following ingestion behavior in a simplified experimental scenario. We applied a conventional glucose tolerance test to rats with and without olfactory function and analyzed subsequent blood glucose (BG) curves in detail. The loss of olfactory input due to experimental damage to the olfactory mucosa induced a marked decrease in the area under the BG curve...
2018: International Journal of Medical Sciences
Delia M Pinto-Zevallos, Ranna H S Bezerra, Silvia R Souza, Bianca G Ambrogi
Upon damage by herbivores, plants induce an array of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that mediate ecological interactions involving communication with organisms of the second and third trophic levels. VOC-mediated tritrophic interactions have largely been studied in various systems, including cassava (Manihot esculenta), but little is known about the chemical nature of herbivore-induced VOCs in this crop and the response they evoke in natural enemies. Several tetranychid and predatory mites are associated with cassava...
February 24, 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Chengyu Li, Jianbo Jiang, Kanghyun Kim, Bradley A Otto, Alexander A Farag, Beverly J Cowart, Edmund A Pribitkin, Pamela Dalton, Kai Zhao
Nasal airflow that effectively transports ambient odors to the olfactory receptors is important for human olfaction. Yet, the impact of nasal anatomical variations on airflow pattern and olfactory function are not fully understood. In this study, 22 healthy volunteers were recruited and underwent CT scans for computational simulations of nasal airflow patterns. Unilateral odor detection thresholds (ODT) to l-Carvone, phenylethyl alcohol (PEA) and d-Limonene were also obtained for all participants. Significant normative variations in both nasal anatomy and aerodynamics were found...
February 21, 2018: Chemical Senses
Tao Lu, Mingjing Ke, W J G M Peijnenburg, Youchao Zhu, Meng Zhang, Liwei Sun, Zhengwei Fu, Haifeng Qian
The plant rhizosphere microbiota plays multiple roles in plant growth. We investigated the taxonomic and functional variations in the rhizosphere microbial community, examining both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, of four crops at the seedling stage: wheat, barley and two rice varieties (indica and japonica) seeded in paddy soil. The diversity of rhizosphere communities in these four species were determined. Results showed that wheat and barley had much stronger selection effects than rice for the rhizosphere microbial community...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Ren-Hui Zheng, Wen-Mei Wei, Meng Xu, Qiang Shi
Using quantum computations we study sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy of limonene chiral liquids due to the nonadiabatic effect in the non-resonant case for the first time. The nonadiabatic effect has an important impact on non-resonant antisymmetric polarizability and chiral sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy. The theoretical spectroscopy agrees with the experimental spectroscopy. However, the nonadiabatic effect only has a small influence on non-resonant Raman. Bulk sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy may become a powerful method of investigating the nonadiabatic effect and the nonradiative transition between excited electronic states for chiral molecules...
February 23, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Bingyin Peng, Lars K Nielsen, Sotirios C Kampranis, Claudia E Vickers
Monoterpene production in Saccharomyces cerevisae requires the introduction of heterologous monoterpene synthases (MTSs). The endogenous farnesyl pyrosphosphate synthase (FPPS; Erg20p) competes with MTSs for the precursor geranyl pyrophosphate (GPP), which limits the production of monoterpenes. ERG20 is an essential gene that cannot be deleted and transcriptional down-regulation of ERG20 has failed to improve monoterpene production. Here, we investigated an N-degron-dependent protein degradation strategy to down-regulate Erg20p activity...
February 19, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
Nilufar Z Mamadalieva, Fadia S Youssef, Mohamed L Ashour, Sobirdjan A Sasmakov, Antonio Tiezzi, Shahnoz S Azimova
The chemical composition of the essential oil from the aerial parts of three Lamiaceae species from Uzbekistan was investigated by GC-MS analysis. β-Linalool (26.6%), α-terpineol (10.0%), coumarin (8.9%) and 4,5,7,7α-tetrahydro-4,4,7α-trimethyl-2(6H)-benzofuranone (5.4%) resulted as the main components of Ajuga turkestanica essential oil, while camphene (17.1%), 1,8-cineole (15.9%), β-cymene (7.9%) and limonene (7.4%) in Phlomis regelii. The essential oil of Thymus seravschanicus was dominated by thymol (37...
February 22, 2018: Natural Product Research
S Ali, M Z Ahmed, N Li, S A I Ali, M-Q Wang
The Japanese pine sawyer, Monochamus alternatus Hope (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), is a major pest of pines and it is also the key vector of the exotic pinewood nematode in China. In the present study, we cloned, expressed, and purified a chemosensory protein (CSP) in M. alternatus. We surveyed its expression in various developmental stages of male and female adult tissues and determined its binding affinities for different pine volatiles using a competitive binding fluorescence assay. A CSP known as CSP5 in M...
February 21, 2018: Bulletin of Entomological Research
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