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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759078/transcriptome-analysis-of-alcohol-treated-microglia-reveals-downregulation-of-beta-amyloid-phagocytosis
#1
Sergey Kalinin, Marta González-Prieto, Hannah Scheiblich, Lucia Lisi, Handojo Kusumo, Michael T Heneka, Jose L M Madrigal, Subhash C Pandey, Douglas L Feinstein
BACKGROUND: Microglial activation contributes to the neuropathology associated with chronic alcohol exposure and withdrawal, including the expression of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory genes. In the current study, we examined the transcriptome of primary rat microglial cells following incubation with alcohol alone, or alcohol together with a robust inflammatory stimulus. METHODS: Primary microglia were prepared from mixed rat glial cultures. Cells were incubated with 75 mM ethanol alone or with proinflammatory cytokines ("TII": IL1β, IFNγ, and TNFα)...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757455/cells-cytokines-chemokines-and-cancer-stress-a-biobehavioral-study-of-patients-with-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#2
Barbara L Andersen, Neha Godiwala Goyal, David M Weiss, Travis D Westbrook, Kami J Maddocks, John C Byrd, Amy J Johnson
BACKGROUND: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most prevalent adult leukemia, with profound disease-related cellular, humoral, and innate immune suppression. The objective of this study was to study the correlations between stress and disease-specific, negative prognostic cellular, cytokine, and chemokine markers in patients with CLL. METHODS: A single-group, observational design was used. Patients with relapsed/refractory CLL (N = 96) who were entering a phase 2 trial of an experimental therapy (ibrutinib) were studied...
May 14, 2018: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749734/theoretical-prediction-and-synthesis-of-cr-2-3-zr-1-3-2-alc-i-max-phase
#3
Liugang Chen, Martin Dahlqvist, Thomas Lapauw, Bensu Tunca, Fei Wang, Jun Lu, Rahele Meshkian, Konstantina Lambrinou, Bart Blanpain, Jozef Vleugels, Johanna Rosen
Guided by predictive theory, a new compound with chemical composition (Cr2/3 Zr1/3 )2 AlC was synthesized by hot pressing of Cr, ZrH2 , Al, and C mixtures at 1300 °C. The crystal structure is monoclinic of space group C2/ c and displays in-plane chemical order in the metal layers, a so-called i-MAX phase. Quantitative chemical composition analyses confirmed that the primary phase had a (Cr2/3 Zr1/3 )2 AlC stoichiometry, with secondary Cr2 AlC, AlZrC2 , and ZrC phases and a small amount of Al-Cr intermetallics...
May 11, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748008/predicting-outcomes-in-patients-with-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-enrolled-in-early-phase-immunotherapy-trials
#4
Hossein Maymani, Kenneth Hess, Roman Groisberg, David S Hong, Aung Naing, Sarina Piha-Paul, Filip Janku, Siqing Fu, Apostolia M Tsimberidou, Shubham Pant, Daniel Karp, Shuang Liu, Ming Sun, John Heymach, George Simon, Funda Meric-Bernstam, Vivek Subbiah
OBJECTIVES: Immunotherapy (IO) has altered the non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) therapeutic landscape. However, the majority of patients do not respond to immune-checkpoint blockade, and subsequently either receive further chemotherapy or are referred for clinical trials. Here we examined the outcomes and predictors of response to IO in early phase clinical trials. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed the records of 74 patients with metastatic NSCLC that were enrolled on phase 1 IO trials within MD Anderson Cancer Center from 1/2010 to 7/2017...
June 2018: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746722/pharmacometric-analysis-of-the-relationship-between-absolute-lymphocyte-count-and-expanded-disability-status-scale-and-relapse-rate-efficacy-end-points-in-multiple-sclerosis-trials
#5
A M Novakovic, A Thorsted, E Schindler, S Jönsson, A Munafo, M O Karlsson
The aim of this work was to assess the relationship between the absolute lymphocyte count (ALC), and disability (as measured by the Expanded Disability Status Scale [EDSS]) and occurrence of relapses, 2 efficacy endpoints, respectively, in patients with remitting-relasping multiple sclerosis. Data for ALC, EDSS, and relapse rate were available from 1319 patients receiving placebo and/or cladribine tablets. Pharmacodynamic models were developed to characterize the time course of the endpoints. ALC-related measures were then evaluated as predictors of the efficacy endpoints...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744581/incorporating-road-crossing-data-into-vehicle-collision-risk-models-for-moose-alces-americanus-in-massachusetts-usa
#6
Katherine A Zeller, David W Wattles, Stephen DeStefano
Wildlife-vehicle collisions are a human safety issue and may negatively impact wildlife populations. Most wildlife-vehicle collision studies predict high-risk road segments using only collision data. However, these data lack biologically relevant information such as wildlife population densities and successful road-crossing locations. We overcome this shortcoming with a new method that combines successful road crossings with vehicle collision data, to identify road segments that have both high biological relevance and high risk...
May 9, 2018: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728732/affordable-laparoscopic-camera-system-alcs-designed-for-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-feasibility-study
#7
Federico Gheza, Fadekemi O Oginni, Simone Crivellaro, Mario A Masrur, Adewale O Adisa
BACKGROUND: Minimally invasive surgical techniques (MISTs) could have tremendous benefits in resource-poor environment. There is growing interest in MISTs in most low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), but its adoption has remained limited; this is largely due to high cost of the initial setup, lack of technological backup and limited access to training among others. An affordable laparoscopic setup will go a long way in improving access to MISTs. METHODS: A common zero degrees 10 mm scope is attached on the camera of a low-price smartphone...
May 4, 2018: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727487/kinetics-of-torque-teno-virus-dna-load-in-saliva-and-plasma-following-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#8
Eliseo Albert, Ignacio Torres, Alberto Talaya, Estela Giménez, José Luis Piñana, Juan Carlos Hernández-Boluda, Daniele Focosi, Lisa Macera, Fabrizio Maggi, Carlos Solano, David Navarro
Plasma Torque Teno virus (TTV) DNA load directly correlates with the degree of T-cell immune reconstitution early after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Here, the kinetics of oral TTV DNA shedding was examined to assess whether quantitation of TTV DNA load in saliva may either replace or complement that in plasma for predicting lymphocyte (ALC) reconstitution following engraftment. This prospective observational study enrolled 38 non-consecutive allo-HSCT recipients. Saliva and plasma specimens were collected at baseline (pre-transplant) and at around days +30, +50 and +90 after allo-HSCT...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725844/historical-biogeography-among-species-of-varestrongylus-lungworms-nematoda-protostrongylidae-in-ungulates-episodic-expansion-and-host-colonization-linking-eurasia-and-north-america
#9
Guilherme G Verocai, Susan J Kutz, Eric P Hoberg
Varestrongylus lungworms (Nematoda: Protostrongylidae) include 10 nominal species that parasitize wild and domesticated artiodactyles. Eight species are endemic to the western Palearctic and Eurasia, whereas two are limited in distribution to the Nearctic. Complex host associations, primarily among Cervidae and Bovidae (Caprinae), and biogeography were explored based on direct comparisons of parasite and host phylogenies to reveal the historical development of this fauna. Diversification among Varestrongylus species has an intricate history extending over the Pliocene and Quaternary involving episodic processes for geographic and host colonization: (1) Varestrongylus has origins in Eurasia with independent expansion events into bordering ecozones; (2) cervids are ancestral hosts; (3) the caprine-associated V...
May 3, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721655/varestrongylus-nematoda-protostrongylidae-lungworms-of-ungulates-a-phylogenetic-framework-based-on-comparative-morphology
#10
Guilherme G Verocai, Susan J Kutz, Eric P Hoberg
Varestrongylus Bhalerao, 1932 comprises ten valid lungworm species infecting wild and domestic ungulates from Eurasia and North America. Here, we present a phylogenetic hypothesis for the genus based on morphological characters in a broader context for the family Protostrongylidae and discuss species relationships and aspects of character evolution. Phylogenetic analysis of 25 structural attributes, including binary and multistate characters, among the 10 species of Varestrongylus resulted in one fully resolved most parsimonious tree (61 steps; consistency index = 0...
May 2, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721290/an-in-vitro-evaluation-of-browser-and-grazer-fermentation-efficiency-and-microbiota-using-european-moose-spring-and-summer-foods
#11
Sophie J Krizsan, Alejandro Mateos-Rivera, Stefan Bertilsson, Annika Felton, Anne Anttila, Mohammad Ramin, Merko Vaga, Helena Gidlund, Pekka Huhtanen
Evolutionary morphological and physiological differences between browsers and grazers contribute to species-specific digestion efficiency of food resources. Rumen microbial community structure of browsers is supposedly adapted to characteristic nutrient composition of the diet source. If this assumption is correct, domesticated ruminants, or grazers, are poor model animals for assessing the nutritional value of food consumed by browsing game species. In this study, typical spring and summer foods of the European moose ( Alces alces ) were combined with rumen fluid collected from both dairy cows ( Bos taurus ) and from moose, with the aim of comparing fermentation efficiency and microbial community composition...
April 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696241/blood-pressure-and-metabolic-effects-of-acetyl-l-carnitine-in-type-2-diabetes-diabasi-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
Aneliya Parvanova, Matias Trillini, Manuel A Podestà, Ilian P Iliev, Carolina Aparicio, Annalisa Perna, Francesco Peraro, Nadia Rubis, Flavio Gaspari, Antonio Cannata, Silvia Ferrari, Antonio C Bossi, Roberto Trevisan, Sreejith Parameswaran, Jonathan S Chávez-Iñiguez, Fahrudin Masnic, Sidy Mohamed Seck, Teerayuth Jiamjariyaporn, Monica Cortinovis, Luca Perico, Kanishka Sharma, Giuseppe Remuzzi, Piero Ruggenenti, David G Warnock
Context: Acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC), a mitochondrial carrier involved in lipid oxidation and glucose metabolism, decreased systolic blood pressure (SBP), and ameliorated insulin sensitivity in hypertensive nondiabetic subjects at high cardiovascular risk. Objective: To assess the effects of ALC on SBP and glycemic and lipid control in patients with hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), and dyslipidemia on background statin therapy. Design: After 4-week run-in period and stratification according to previous statin therapy, patients were randomized to 6-month, double-blind treatment with ALC or placebo added-on simvastatin...
May 1, 2018: Journal of the Endocrine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689132/alcohol-delays-the-onset-of-puberty-in-the-female-rat-by-altering-key-hypothalamic-events
#13
Vinod K Srivastava, Jill K Hiney, William L Dees
BACKGROUND: Because alcohol (ALC) delays signs of pubertal development, we assessed the time course of events associated with the synthesis of critical hypothalamic peptides that regulate secretion of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH), the peptide that drives the pubertal process. METHODS: Immature female rats were administered either lab chow or Bio-Serve isocaloric control or ALC liquid diets from 27 through 33 days of age. On days 28, 29, 31 and 33 animals were killed by decapitation and tissue blocks containing the medial basal hypothalamus (MBH) and the rostral hypothalamic area (RHA) were isolated and stored frozen until assessed by Western blot analysis...
April 24, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682463/reasons-for-conversion-during-vats-lobectomy-what-happens-with-increased-experience
#14
REVIEW
Dario Amore, Davide Di Natale, Roberto Scaramuzzi, Carlo Curcio
Although controlled studies have demonstrated the benefits of a minimally invasive approach for pulmonary lobectomy over thoracotomy, reports have also documented that significant complications can occur during thoracoscopic lobectomy and sometimes require planned or emergent conversion to open surgery. Several authors have identified and reported causes and implications of intraoperative conversion to thoracotomy using different types of classification. The aim of this single centre retrospective review is to evaluate how the reasons for conversion change with increased experience, dividing patients who were converted to thoracotomy during video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) lobectomy, between 2011 and 2017, in two groups: those treated during learning curve (LC group) and those treated after learning curve (ALC group)...
2018: Journal of Visualized Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672876/regional-brain-volume-changes-in-alcohol-dependent-individuals-during-short-term-and-long-term-abstinence
#15
Xiaowei Zou, Timothy C Durazzo, Dieter J Meyerhoff
BACKGROUND: Widespread brain atrophy in alcohol-dependent individuals (ALC) has been consistently documented in pathological and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. Longitudinal MRI studies have shown that the regional brain volume losses in ALC are partially reversible during abstinence from alcohol. The goal of this study was to determine volume reductions in cortical and subcortical regions functionally important to substance use behavior and their changes during short-term (1 week to 1 month) and long-term abstinence (1 month to 7 months) from alcohol...
April 19, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658435/combined-immunotherapy-ok-432-il-2-with-chemotherapy-decrease-the-recurrence-rate-in-advanced-ovarian-cancer
#16
Yi-Lun Wang, Hsiu-Huei Peng, Sheng-Yuan Su, Cheng-Tao Lin
OBJECTIVE: In advanced ovarian cancer, traditional therapy included debulking surgery and postoperative chemotherapy. We proposed immunochemotherapy (IMCT) combined with picibanil (OK-432), interleukin-2 (IL-2), and traditional platinum- and taxol-based chemotherapy as a better treatment option for advanced ovarian cancer. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 51 patients with advanced ovarian cancer between 2007 and 2015 at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital Linkou Medical Center, including 26 patients who were treated with OK-432, IL-2, and platinum- and taxol-based chemotherapy (IMCT group) after debulking surgery; another 25 were treated with traditional platinum- and taxol-based chemotherapy (traditional chemotherapy group) after debulking surgery...
January 1, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651719/epilepsy-in-popular-medicine-from-the-classic-age-to-the-modern-age-a-study-on-elk-hoof-as-an-original-treatment
#17
Antonio Tagarelli, Anna Piro
European people believed that epilepsy was both a sacred and demoniac disease in the pre- and post-Hippocratic Age, and this belief continued into the Christian era. Epilepsy was wrapped in mystery. The present work shows an epileptic treatment using elk (Alces alces) hoof, which was better known among Northern European people, and explains its historical and popular origins that lead to its importance and success within the Official Medicine in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries until its gradual decline as a specific treatment in the subsequent centuries...
April 12, 2018: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649534/a-modified-microemulsion-method-for-fabrication-of-hydrogel-tragacanth-nanofibers
#18
Soraya Ghayempour, Majid Montazer
Tragacanth is a nontoxic, biodegradable and biocompatible polymer applied as a nanostructure form in various fields such as biomedicine and food industry. Here, hydrogel Tragacanth nanofibers were fabricated using a modified microemulsion method. The effective parameters on the fabrication of nanofibers such as emulsifier type, stirrer type, processing time and concentrations of emulsifier, Tragacanth and aluminum chloride were studied and the conditions were optimized for high quality nanofibers. SEM images indicated uniform distribution of the successfully produced Tragacanth nanofibers with the average diameter of 50 nm...
April 9, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616870/the-influence-of-lymphoid-reconstitution-kinetics-on-clinical-outcomes-in-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation
#19
David J Kobulnicky, Roy T Sabo, Shashank Sharma, Ali S Shubar Ali, Kristen M Kobulnicky, Catherine H Roberts, William B Clark, Harold M Chung, John M McCarty, Amir A Toor
Lymphoid recovery following myeloablative stem cell transplantation (SCT) displays a logistic pattern of exponential growth followed by a plateau. Within this logistic framework, lymphoid recovery is characterized by the parameters R (slope of ascent), a (time of maximal rate of ascent) and K (plateau), the 'steady-state' lymphocyte count. A retrospective analysis of allogeneic SCT performed from 2008 to 2013 was undertaken to compare lymphoid recovery and clinical outcomes in 131 patients with acute myelogenous leukemia, acute lymphocytic leukemia, and myelodysplastic syndromes...
April 4, 2018: Leukemia & Lymphoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614331/carnitine-levels-and-mutations-in-the-slc22a5-gene-in-faroes-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#20
Súsanna A Crooks, Sára Bech, Jónrit Halling, Debes H Christiansen, Beate Ritz, Maria Skaalum Petersen
INTRODUCTION: Mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and energy production have been implicated in the etiology of Parkinson's disease (PD). Several agents are under investigation for potential neuroprotective effects including acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC). OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether low carnitine levels and mutations in the SLC22A5 gene encoding the carnitine transporter are associates with PD risk in the Faroe Islands where the prevalence of both PD and carnitine transporter deficiency (CTD) is high...
March 31, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
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