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Alexander J Lin, Jian L Campian, Caressa Hui, Soumon Rudra, Yuan J Rao, Dinesh Thotala, Dennis Hallahan, Jiayi Huang
Prolonged severe lymphopenia has been shown to persist beyond a year in glioma patients after radiation therapy (RT) with concurrent and adjuvant chemotherapy. This study examines the differential impact of concurrent versus adjuvant chemotherapy on lymphopenia after RT. WHO grade II-III glioma patients who received RT with concurrent and/or adjuvant chemotherapy from 2007 to 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. Concurrent chemotherapy was temozolomide (TMZ), and adjuvant chemotherapy was either TMZ or procarbazine/lomustine/vincristine (PCV)...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Seema Patel, Shiyang Wang, Matija Snuderl, Matthias A Karajannis
The presence of tumor-induced systemic immune suppression, including lymphopenia, has been recognized in adult patients with glioblastoma for several decades, and pre-treatment neutrophil-to-lymphocyte count ratio (NLCR) is associated with inferior clinical outcome in patients with glioblastoma. Whether tumor-induced systemic immune suppression is also present in children with malignant brain tumors is not known. We performed a retrospective analysis of pretreatment neutrophil and lymphocyte counts in pediatric patients with medulloblastoma (MB) compared to a control group of children with posterior fossa pilocytic astrocytoma (PA)...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Michel P Laforge, Nicole L Michel, Ryan K Brook
Large-scale climatic fluctuations have caused species range shifts. Moose (Alces alces) have expanded their range southward into agricultural areas previously not considered moose habitat. We found that moose expansion into agro-ecosystems is mediated by broad-scale climatic factors and access to high-quality forage (i.e., crops). We used crop damage records to quantify moose presence across the Canadian Prairies. We regressed latitude of crop damage against North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and crop area to test the hypotheses that NAO-mediated wetland recharge and occurrence of more nutritious crop types would result in more frequent occurrences of crop damage by moose at southerly latitudes...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jan Frohlich, Svatava Kubickova, Petra Musilova, Halina Cernohorska, Helena Muskova, Roman Vodicka, Jiri Rubes
The Cervidae family comprises more than fifty species divided into three subfamilies: Capreolinae, Cervinae and Hydropotinae. A characteristic attribute for the species included in this family is the great karyotype diversity, with the chromosomal numbers ranging from 2n = 6 observed in female Muntiacus muntjak vaginalis to 2n = 70 found in Mazama gouazoubira as a result of numerous Robertsonian and tandem fusions. This work reports chromosomal homologies between cattle (Bos taurus, 2n = 60) and nine cervid species using a combination of whole chromosome and region-specific paints and BAC clones derived from cattle...
2017: PloS One
Nicola Veronese, Brendon Stubbs, Marco Solmi, Olesya Ajnakina, Andre F Carvalho, Stefania Maggi
OBJECTIVE: Deficiency of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) appears to play a role in the risk of developing depression, indicating dysregulation of fatty acids transport across the inner membrane of mitochondria. However, the data regarding ALC supplementation in humans are limited.. We thus conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis investigating the effect of ALC on depressive symptoms across randomized controlled trials (RCTs). METHODS: A literature search in major databases, without language restriction, was undertaken from inception until 30 December 2016...
October 25, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
Sourav Mishra, Venkatraman Radhakrishnan, Prasanth Ganesan, Rejiv Rajendranath, Swaminathan Rajaraman, Trivadi S Ganesan, Tenali Gnana Sagar
Identification of baseline parameters that predict chemotherapy related morbidities in elderly lymphoma patients can help in tailoring treatment. However, there is a paucity of tools to predict the risk of chemotherapy related toxicity in elderly lymphoma patients from India. We retrospectively analyzed 203 lymphoma patients more than 60 years of age for predictors of grade III or higher haematological and non-haematological toxicity due to chemotherapy. Eighty-five (42%) and seventy-one (35%) lymphoma patients developed grade III or IV haematological and non-haematological toxicities respectively...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Hematology & Blood Transfusion
Jill K Hiney, Vinod K Srivastava, Danielle N Vaden Anderson, Nicole L Hartzoge, William L Dees
Alcohol (ALC) causes suppressed secretion of prepubertal luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH). Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and kisspeptin (Kp) are major regulators of LHRH and are critical for puberty. IGF-1 may be an upstream mediator of Kp in the preoptic area and rostral hypothalamic area (POA/RHA) of the rat brain, a region containing both Kp and LHRH neurons. We investigated the ability of IGF-1 to stimulate prepubertal Kp synthesis and release in POA/RHA, and the potential inhibitory effects of ALC METHODS: Immature female rats were administered either ALC (3g/Kg) or water via gastric gavage at 0730 h...
October 26, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Octavian Andercou, Gabriel Olteanu, Florin Mihaileanu, Bogdan Stancu, Marian Dorin
BACKGROUND: Acute cholecystitis is still frequent in emergency surgical departments. As surgical technique, nowadays laparoscopy is widely used and with low complications and with low postoperative morbidity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We perform an analytical study about the safety of laparoscopic surgery in patients with acute cholecystitis in a single Surgical Department with an experience of over 20 years in laparoscopic surgery. We included 193 patient admitted in our department during 2014 and 2015...
2017: Annali Italiani di Chirurgia
Jaya Benjamin, Varsha Shasthry, Chetan Ramesh Kaal, Lovkesh Anand, Ankit Bhardwaj, Vanshja Pandit, Ankur Arora, Sasidharan Rajesh, Viniyendra Pamecha, Vikas Jain, Guresh Kumar, Anthony Loria, Puneet Puri, Yogendra Kumar Joshi, Shiv Kumar Sarin
BACKGROUND: Alterations in body composition (BC) as loss of fat and muscle mass (sarcopenia) are associated with poor outcome in alcoholic cirrhosis (ALC). Prevalence of sarcopenia depends upon the method of assessment. Computed Tomography (CT) is a gold standard tool for assessing BC. AIM: To characterize BC and define sarcopenia in ALC patients using CT. METHODS: Single slice CT images at L3 vertebrae of healthy controls (HC) - organ transplant donors and ALC patients were analysed to give cross-sectional area of five skeletal muscles normalized for height -skeletal muscle index (SMI; cm(2) /m(2) ), area of subcutaneous (SAT;cm(2) ) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT;cm(2) )...
November 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Sebastian Rios, Christopher M Perlman, Andrew Costa, George Heckman, John P Hirdes, Lori Mitchell
BACKGROUND: Antipsychotic medications are not recommended for the management of symptoms of dementia, particularly among persons with no behavioral or psychological symptoms. We examine patterns of antipsychotic medication use among persons with dementia across health sectors in Canada, with a focus on factors related to use among those without behavioral or psychotic symptoms. METHODS: Using a retrospective cross-sectional design, this study examines antipsychotic use among adults aged 65 or older with dementia in home care (HC), complex continuing care (CCC), long-term care (LTC), and among alternate level care patients in acute hospitals (ALC)...
October 23, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
Giulio Grandi, Henrik Uhlhorn, Erik Ågren, Torsten Mörner, Federico Righi, Eva Osterman-Lind, Aleksija Neimanis
Our objectives were to determine prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal parasites of dead or euthanized emaciated moose in central and southern Sweden (n=50) and to assess parasite intensity as a major contributing factor in the poor condition of these moose. All animals were infected and most had gastrointestinal nematodes. Seven parasite species were found in the abomasa and 10 species were found in the small intestine. Coinfections were commonly found in the abomasum (Ostertagia antipini and Mazamastrongylus dagestanica) and in the small intestine (Nematodirella alcidis and Trichostrongylus capricola)...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Nina Rolf, Kinga K Smolen, Amina Kariminia, Adam Velenosi, Mario Fidanza, Caron Strahlendorf, Alix E Seif, Gregor S D Reid
Several retrospective studies in children with B cell precursor (BCP) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) provided clinical evidence that higher absolute lymphocyte counts (ALC) early into treatment significantly correlated with improved relapse-free and overall survival. It still remains unknown, however, whether the predictive role of higher ALCs reflects general bone marrow recovery or a more specific attribute of immune function. To investigate this question, we implemented a prospective observational cohort study in 20 children with BCP ALL on day 29 (D29) of induction chemotherapy and immunophenotyped their lymphoid (T, B and natural killer cells) and myeloid (neutrophils, monocytes, dendritic cells) compartments...
October 20, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
Melia T DeVivo, David R Edmunds, Matthew J Kauffman, Brant A Schumaker, Justin Binfet, Terry J Kreeger, Bryan J Richards, Hermann M Schätzl, Todd E Cornish
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal transmissible spongiform encephalopathy affecting white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), and moose (Alces alces shirasi) in North America. In southeastern Wyoming average annual CWD prevalence in mule deer exceeds 20% and appears to contribute to regional population declines. We determined the effect of CWD on mule deer demography using age-specific, female-only, CWD transition matrix models to estimate the population growth rate (λ)...
2017: PloS One
A Kansagra, D J Inwards, S M Ansell, I N Micallef, P B Johnston, W J Hogan, S N Markovic, L F Porrata
The infusion of autograft absolute lymphocyte count (A-ALC) and autograft natural killer cells (A-NKC) are prognostic factors for overall survival (OS) and PFS in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) patients undergoing autologous peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (APBHSCT). The human monocytic CD14(+)HLA-DR(DIM) cells are associated with worse prognosis in NHL. Thus, we investigated whether the autograft A-NKC/A-CD14(+)HLA-DR(DIM) ratio predicts survival in NHL. In a total of 111 NHL patients, we analyzed apheresis collection samples for the content of A-NKC and A-CD14(+)HLA-DR(DIM)...
October 16, 2017: Bone Marrow Transplantation
Christine Muench, Corinde E Wiers, Carlos R Cortes, Reza Momenan, Falk W Lohoff
BACKGROUND: Alcohol's reinforcement is mediated by dopamine signaling in the ventral striatum, which is modulated by the dopamine transporter (DAT). We hypothesized that methylomic variation in the DAT gene (SLC6A3) affects DAT expression thus contributing to differences in brain reward circuitry in individuals with alcohol dependence (ALC). METHODS: Blood from 45 recently detoxified ALC and 45 healthy control (HC) individuals was used to assess DNA methylation across 5 functional regions of SLC6A3...
October 14, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Yanhan Fei, Taotao Ai, Qunfei Niu, Wenhu Li, Xinqiang Yuan, Ran Jing, Hongfeng Dong
TiC-Ti-Al mixed powders and TC4 titanium alloy foils were overlapped layer-by-layer in the graphite die. The TC4-based laminated composite sheets reinforced by Ti aluminide and carbide were successfully fabricated via spark plasma sintering (SPS) at 1100 °C with a well-bonded interface. The composite layers were mainly composed of TiAl, Ti₃Al, Ti₂AlC, and Ti₃AlC₂ phases. The carbides particles distributed in the matrix played an important role in the deflection of cracks and the passivation of microcracks...
October 13, 2017: Materials
Octavian Andercou, Gabriel Olteanu, Florin Mihaileanu, Bogdan Stancu, Marian Dorin
laparoscopy is widely used and with low complications and with low postoperative morbidity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We perform an analytical study about the safety of laparoscopic surgery in patients with acute cholecystitis in a single Surgical Department with an experience of over 20 years in laparoscopic surgery. We included 193 patient admitted in our department during 2014 and 2015. RESULTS: Of the 193 patients, 43% were diagnosed with acute lithiasic cholecystitis (ALC) whereas 56% had chronic lithiasic cholecystitis (CLC)...
August 30, 2017: Annali Italiani di Chirurgia
Katy Wright, Mandy D Winkler, Braeden D Newton, Maria Pia Sormani, Darin T Okuda
OBJECTIVE: To examine the temporal profile of absolute and lymphocyte subset data from dimethyl fumarate (DMF) start and relationships to disease behavior. METHODS: A retrospective study performed on patients with an existing diagnosis of MS and a history of DMF exposure from a single MS center. Demographic, laboratory, and corresponding clinical relapse and MRI data were recorded from baseline and in 3-4-month intervals after treatment initiation extending to 3 years...
November 2017: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
Jing-Fei Chen, Qi-Hui Luo, Chao Huang, Wen-Tao Liu, Wen Zeng, Qi Gao, Ping Chen, Bing Chen, Zheng-Li Chen
OBJECTIVE: To explore the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) in early stage of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in Macaca mulatta. METHODS: Three diabetic Macaca mulattas induced by high-fat diet were identified for early stage of diabetic retinopathy according to the fasting plasma glucose, hemoglobin Alc (HbA1c), fundus photograph and duration of diabetes, with another 3 age-matched healthy Macaca mulattas as control...
September 20, 2017: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
Kemal Tekin, Yasemin Ozdamar Erol, Merve Inanc, Mustafa Fevzi Sargon, Cigdem Ulku Can, Sibel Polat, Pelin Yilmazbas
PURPOSE: To investigate the ultrastructure of the lens epithelial cells (LECs) in patients with idiopathic congenital cataract. METHODS: This is a prospective interventional study. The anterior lens capsules (aLC: basement membrane and associated LECs) were taken from 16 eyes of 12 consecutive patients who were diagnosed as having idiopathic congenital cataracts. The aLCs were obtained from cataract surgery and prepared for transmission electron microscopy (TEM)...
September 23, 2017: International Ophthalmology
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