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Crop rotation

Liwei Wang, Cheng Wang, Zhihua Pan, Hui Xu, Lin Gao, Peiyi Zhao, Zhiqiang Dong, Jingting Zhang, Guohui Cui, Sen Wang, Guolin Han, Hui Zhao
Representing an important greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from cultivated land is a hot topic in current climate change research. This study examined the influences of nitrogen fertilisation, temperature and soil moisture on the ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) gene copy numbers and N2O emission characteristics. The experimental observation of N2O fluxes was based on the static chamber-gas chromatographic method. The ammonia-oxidising bacteria (AOB) and ammonia-oxidising archaea (AOA) gene copy numbers in different periods were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
December 3, 2016: International Journal of Biometeorology
Gabriele Villarini, Christopher S Jones, Keith E Schilling
Improved understanding of the drivers of stream nitrate is necessary to improve water quality. This is particularly true for Iowa, a large contributor to Mississippi River Basin nitrate loads. Here, we focus on the Raccoon River at Des Moines, Iowa, and develop statistical models to describe the monthly (from March to August) nitrate concentrations in terms of eight drivers representing monthly climate, monthly hydrology, and yearly cropping practices. We consider six two-parameter distributions, linear and nonlinear dependencies between the predictors, and the distributions' parameters...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
Laila A Puntel, John E Sawyer, Daniel W Barker, Ranae Dietzel, Hanna Poffenbarger, Michael J Castellano, Kenneth J Moore, Peter Thorburn, Sotirios V Archontoulis
Improved prediction of optimal N fertilizer rates for corn (Zea mays L.) can reduce N losses and increase profits. We tested the ability of the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM) to simulate corn and soybean (Glycine max L.) yields, the economic optimum N rate (EONR) using a 16-year field-experiment dataset from central Iowa, USA that included two crop sequences (continuous corn and soybean-corn) and five N fertilizer rates (0, 67, 134, 201, and 268 kg N ha(-1)) applied to corn. Our objectives were to: (a) quantify model prediction accuracy before and after calibration, and report calibration steps; (b) compare crop model-based techniques in estimating optimal N rate for corn; and (c) utilize the calibrated model to explain factors causing year to year variability in yield and optimal N...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Chris R Smith, Peter L Blair, Charlie Boyd, Brianne Cody, Alexander Hazel, Ashley Hedrick, Hitesh Kathuria, Parul Khurana, Brent Kramer, Kristin Muterspaw, Charles Peck, Emily Sells, Jessica Skinner, Cara Tegeler, Zoe Wolfe
The acreage planted in corn and soybean crops is vast, and these crops contribute substantially to the world economy. The agricultural practices employed for farming these crops have major effects on ecosystem health at a worldwide scale. The microbial communities living in agricultural soils significantly contribute to nutrient uptake and cycling and can have both positive and negative impacts on the crops growing with them. In this study, we examined the impact of the crop planted and soil tillage on nutrient levels, microbial communities, and the biochemical pathways present in the soil...
November 2016: Ecology and Evolution
Pirjo Peltonen-Sainio, Lauri Jauhiainen, Heikki Lehtonen
Diversification of agriculture was one of the strengthened aims of the greening payment of European Agricultural Policy (CAP) as diversification provides numerous ecosystems services compared to cereal-intensive crop rotations. This study focuses on current minor crops in Finland that have potential for expanded production and considers changes in their cropping areas, yield trends, breeding gains, roles in crop rotations and potential for improving resilience. Long-term datasets of Natural Resources Institute Finland and farmers' land use data from the Agency of Rural Affairs were used to analyze the above-mentioned trends and changes...
2016: PloS One
Kevin N Lindegaard, Paul W R Adams, Martin Holley, Annette Lamley, Annika Henriksson, Stig Larsson, Hans-Georg von Engelbrechten, Gonzalo Esteban Lopez, Marcin Pisarek
Short rotation plantations (SRPs) are fast-growing trees (such as willow (Salix spp.), poplar (Populus spp.) and Eucalyptus) grown closely together and harvested in periods of 2-20 years. There are around 50,000 hectares of SRPs in Europe, a relatively small area considering that there have been supportive policy measures in many countries for 30 years. This paper looks at the effect that the policy measures used in different EU countries have had, and how other external factors have impacted on the development of the industry...
August 2016: Food and energy security
Alison J Haughton, David A Bohan, Suzanne J Clark, Mark D Mallott, Victoria Mallott, Rufus Sage, Angela Karp
Suggestions that novel, non-food, dedicated biomass crops used to produce bioenergy may provide opportunities to diversify and reinstate biodiversity in intensively managed farmland have not yet been fully tested at the landscape scale. Using two of the largest, currently available landscape-scale biodiversity data sets from arable and biomass bioenergy crops, we take a taxonomic and functional trait approach to quantify and contrast the consequences for biodiversity indicators of adopting dedicated biomass crops on land previously cultivated under annual, rotational arable cropping...
November 2016: Global Change Biology. Bioenergy
J De Waele, K D'Haene, J Salomez, G Hofman, S De Neve
Nitrate (NO3(-)) leaching from farmland remains the predominant source of nitrogen (N) loads to European ground- and surface water. As soil mineral N content at harvest is often high and may increase by mineralisation from crop residues and soil organic matter, it is critical to understand which post-harvest management measures can be taken to restrict the average NO3(-) concentration in ground- and surface waters below the norm of 50 mg l(-1). Nitrate leaching was simulated with the EU-rotate_N model on a silty and a sandy soil following the five main arable crops cultivated in Flanders: cut grassland, silage maize, potatoes, sugar beets and winter wheat, in scenarios of optimum fertilisation with and without post-harvest measures...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Jian-Bo Qiu, Jing-Tao Sun, Ming-Zheng Yu, Jian-Hong Xu, Jian-Rong Shi
Trichothecene genotype composition, mycotoxin production, genetic diversity, and population structure were analyzed, using 185 Fusarium strains collected from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) throughout the Jiangsu province during 1976, 1983, 1998, 2006, and 2014. The results showed that 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3ADON) was consistently the predominant type in this region over 40 years, and the nivalenol (NIV) type has emerged since 1998. Long-term rotation of wheat and rice (Oryza sativa L.), rather than fungicide application, crop fitness, or weather conditions, might be the main cause of this phenomenon...
November 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
Haixin Chen, Jingjing Liu, Afeng Zhang, Jing Chen, Gong Cheng, Benhua Sun, Xiaomin Pi, Miles Dyck, Bingcheng Si, Ying Zhao, Hao Feng
Mulching practices have long been used to modify the soil temperature and moisture conditions and thus potentially improve crop production in dryland agriculture, but few studies have focused on mulching effects on soil gaseous emissions. We monitored annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions under the regime of straw and plastic film mulching using a closed chamber method on a typical winter-wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Xiaoyan 22) and summer-maize (Zea mays L. cv Qinlong 11) rotation field over two-year period in the Loess Plateau, northwestern China...
November 12, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Zhencai Sun, Anja Sänger, Philip Rebensburg, Peter Lentzsch, Stephan Wirth, Martin Kaupenjohann, Andreas Meyer-Aurich
Biochar has been frequently suggested as an amendment to improve soil quality and mitigate climate change. To investigate the optimal management of nitrogen (N) fertilization, we examined the combined effect of biochar and N fertilizer on plant N uptake and N2O emissions in a cereal rotation system in a randomized two-factorial field experiment on a sandy loam soil in Brandenburg, Germany. The biochar treatment received 10Mgha(-1) wood-derived biochar in September 2012. Four levels of N fertilizer, corresponding to 0, 50%, 100%, 130% of the recommended fertilizer level, were applied in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L...
November 11, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Mi-Seon Hahm, Jin-Soo Son, Byung-Soo Kim, Sa-Youl Ghim
This study compared rhizobacterial communities in pepper greenhouses under a paddy-upland (rice-pepper) rotational system (PURS) and a monoculture repeated cropping system (RCS) and examined adverse effects of high salinity on soil properties. The following soil properties were analyzed: electrical conductivity (EC), pH, concentration of four cations (Na, Ca, Mg, and K), total nitrogen, and organic matter content. Rhizobacterial communities were analyzed using culture-based and culture-independent (pyrosequencing) methods...
November 9, 2016: Archives of Microbiology
Linjing Qiu, Mingde Hao, Yiping Wu
Although many studies have been conducted on crop yield in rain-fed agriculture, the possible impacts of climate change on the carbon (C) dynamics of rain-fed rotation systems, particularly their direction and magnitude at the long-term scale, are still poorly understood. In this study, the sensitivity of C dynamics of a typical rotation system to elevated CO2 and changed temperature and precipitation were first tested using the CENTURY model, based on data collected from a 30-year field experiment of a corn-wheat-wheat-millet (CWWM) rotation system in the tableland of the Loess Plateau...
January 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Ke Song, Jianjun Yang, Yong Xue, Weiguang Lv, Xianqing Zheng, Jianjun Pan
In this study, a fixed-site field experiment was conducted to study the influence of different combinations of tillage and straw incorporation management on carbon storage in different-sized soil aggregates and on crop yield after three years of rice-wheat rotation. Compared to conventional tillage, the percentages of >2 mm macroaggregates and water-stable macroaggregates in rice-wheat double-conservation tillage (zero-tillage and straw incorporation) were increased 17.22% and 36.38% in the 0-15 cm soil layer and 28...
November 4, 2016: Scientific Reports
Ali Ahsan Bajwa, Sehrish Sadia, Hafiz Haider Ali, Khawar Jabran, Arslan Masood Peerzada, Bhagirath Singh Chauhan
Weed management is one of the prime concerns for sustainable crop production. Conyza bonariensis and Conyza canadensis are two of the most problematic, noxious, invasive and widespread weeds in modern-day agriculture. The biology, ecology and interference of C. bonariensis and C. canadensis have been reviewed here to highlight pragmatic management options. Both these species share a unique set of biological features, which enables them to invade and adapt a wide range of environmental conditions. Distinct reproductive biology and an efficient seed dispersal mechanism help these species to spread rapidly...
October 31, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jinling Lv, Hua Liu, Xihe Wang, Kaihui Li, Changyan Tian, Xuejun Liu
Few systematic studies have been carried out on integrated N balance in extremely arid oasis agricultural areas. A two-year field experiment was conducted to evaluate the N input and output balances under long-term fertilization conditions. Five treatments were chosen, namely CK (no fertilizer), NPK, NPKS (10% straw return N and 90% chemical N), NPKM (one third urea-N, two thirds sheep manure) and NPKM+ (1.5 times NPKM). The results show an abundance of dry and wet N deposition (33 kg N ha-1 yr-1) in this area...
2016: PloS One
Patricia A Lazicki, Matt Liebman, Michelle M Wander
Plant-soil relations may explain why low-external input (LEI) diversified cropping systems are more efficient than their conventional counterparts. This work sought to identify links between management practices, soil quality changes, and root responses in a long-term cropping systems experiment in Iowa where grain yields of 3-year and 4-year LEI rotations have matched or exceeded yield achieved by a 2-year maize (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) rotation. The 2-year system was conventionally managed and chisel-ploughed, whereas the 3-year and 4-year systems received plant residues and animal manures and were periodically moldboard ploughed...
2016: PloS One
M Panettieri, C Rumpel, M-F Dignac, A Chabbi
Implementation of ley grassland into crop rotation could have positive influence in soil ecosystem services such as C storage. The periodical changes of land-use plus the in situ labelling given by the introduction of maize crops under ley grassland induce differences in soil organic matter (SOM) that could be traced either by stable isotopes or by the characterization of plant biomarkers such as lignin derived phenols. Evaluation of SOM dynamics is often limited by the complexity of soil matrix. To override these limitations, a hierarchical approach to decompose the soil mosaic into aggregates has been proposed in this study...
October 24, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Jiashu Chu, Tianzhe Zhang, Weidong Chang, Dan Zhang, Saman Zulfiqar, Aigen Fu, Yaqi Hao
The effect of cropping system on the distribution of organic carbon (OC) and nitrogen (N) in soil aggregates has not been well addressed, which is important for understanding the sequestration of OC and N in agricultural soils. We analyzed the distribution of OC and N associated with soil aggregates in three unfertilized cropping systems in a 27-year field experiment: continuously cropped alfalfa, continuously cropped wheat and a legume-grain rotation. The objectives were to understand the effect of cropping system on the distribution of OC and N in aggregates and to examine the relationships between the changes in OC and N stocks in total soils and in aggregates...
2016: PloS One
Sharon Downes, Darren Kriticos, Hazel Parry, Cate Paull, Nancy Schellhorn, Myron P Zalucki
Helicoverpa armigera is a major pest of agriculture, horticulture and floriculture throughout the old world and recently invaded parts of the new world. We overview of the evolution in thinking about the application of area-wide approaches to assist with its control by the Australian Cotton Industry to highlight important lessons and future challenges to achieving the same in the New World. An over-reliance of broad-spectrum insecticides led to Helicoverpa spp. in Australian cotton rapidly became resistant to DDT, synthetic pyrethroids, organophosphates, carbamates and endosulfan...
October 17, 2016: Pest Management Science
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