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Crop rotation

Jinfei Feng, Fengbo Li, Xiyue Zhou, Chunchun Xu, Long Ji, Zhongdu Chen, Fuping Fang
The effect of no- and reduced tillage (NT/RT) on greenhouse gas (GHG) emission was highly variable and may depend on other agronomy practices. However, how the other practices affect the effect of NT/RT on GHG emission remains elusive. Therefore, we conducted a global meta-analysis (including 49 papers with 196 comparisons) to assess the effect of five options (i.e. cropping system, crop residue management, split application of N fertilizer, irrigation, and tillage duration) on the effect of NT/RT on CH4 and N2O emissions from agricultural fields...
2018: PloS One
Daniele De Rosa, David W Rowlings, Johannes Biala, Clemens Scheer, Bruno Basso, Peter R Grace
Accounting for nitrogen (N) release from organic amendments (OA) can reduce the use of synthetic N-fertiliser, sustain crop production, and potentially reduce soil borne greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. However, it is difficult to assess the GHG mitigation potential for OA as a substitute of N-fertiliser over the long term due to only part of the organic N added to soil is being released in the first year after application. High-resolution nitrous oxide (N2 O) and carbon dioxide (CO2 ) emissions monitored from a horticultural crop rotation over 2...
May 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Leticia Bao, Juaquín Ginella, Mónica Cadenazzi, Enrique A Castiglioni, Sebastián Martínez, Luis Casales, María P Caraballo, Álvaro Laborda, Miguel Simo
The rice crop and associated ecosystems constitute a rich mosaic of habitats that preserve a rich biological diversity. Spiders are an abundant and successful group of natural predators that are considered efficient in the biocontrol of the major insect pests in agroecosystems. Spider diversity in different stages of the rice crop growth from eastern Uruguay was analysed. Field study was developed on six rice farms with rotation system with pasture, installed during intercropping stage as cover crop. Six rice crops distributed in three locations were sampled with pitfall and entomological vaccum suction machine...
2018: Biodiversity Data Journal
Fatemeh Hashemi, Jørgen E Olesen, Christen D Børgesen, Henrik Tornbjerg, Hans Thodsen, Tommy Dalgaard
To comply with the EU Water Framework Directive, Denmark must further reduce the nitrate (N)-load to marine ecosystems from agricultural areas. Under the anticipated future spatially targeted regulation, the required N-load reductions will differ between catchments, and these are expected to be mitigated by a combination of land and water management measures. Here, we explored how the expected N-load reduction target of 38% for a Danish catchment (River Odense) could be achieved through a combination of farm and landscape measures...
May 8, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Reinhard Prestele, Annette L Hirsch, Edouard L Davin, Sonia I Seneviratne, Peter H Verburg
Conservation agriculture (CA) is widely promoted as a sustainable agricultural management strategy with the potential to alleviate some of the adverse effects of modern, industrial agriculture such as large-scale soil erosion, nutrient leaching and overexploitation of water resources. Moreover, agricultural land managed under CA is proposed to contribute to climate change mitigation and adaptation through reduced emission of greenhouse gases, increased solar radiation reflection, and the sustainable use of soil and water resources...
May 10, 2018: Global Change Biology
Jingyan Jiang, Hui Fan, Bingkun Pang, Jingsha Zhang, Zhilin Li, Shanshan Jiang, Jie Wu
The reactive nitrogen (Nr) pollution is a serious environmental problem. A wise application of nitrogen fertilizer is important for mitigating Nr loss. Field experiments were undertaken during the direct-seeded rice and winter-wheat growing seasons from 2014 to 2015 in Nanjing, one of the typical rice-wheat rotation regions in China, to evaluate the potential of different nitrogen fertilizers for mitigating Nr (N2 O, NH3 emissions, and NO3 - leaching) losses. Seven different fertilizer treatments were included in this study: a no fertilizer treatment (NF), conventional fertilizer (CF), urea-ammonium mixed nitrogen fertilizer (UA), stabilized urea (UHD; urea + hydroquinone + dicyandiamide), sulfur-coated urea (SCU), urea formaldehyde (UF) and organic fertilizer (OF)...
May 11, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Xing Liu, Hui Zhen Qiu, Wen Ming Zhang, Chun Hong Zhang, Ya Fei Wang, Xing Ma
The Yellow River irrigation area in middle Gansu Province is one of the main production bases for processing potato and potato tuber seeds in China. However, continuous potato cropping (CPC), resulting from intensive cultivation, has been affecting the sound development of the potato industry. A long-term field experiment was carried out in order to reveal the mechanisms of CPC obstacles. Five treatments, with different years of continuous potato cropping, were designed marking as 0-5 a, 0 a was maize-potato rotation, used as the control (CK)...
May 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Ting Miao Huang, Zhao Hui Wang, Yang Yi Hou, Chi Ming Gu, Xiao Li, Xian Feng Zheng
With 15 N isotope labeled maize straw in nylon net bags and buried in the wheat field at two N rates of 0 and 200 kg N·hm-2 , the effects of nitrogen application on the decomposition of straw dry matter and the release dynamics of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (C, N, P and K) after maize straw retention were investigated in the winter wheat-summer maize rotation system in Guanzhong Plain, Shaanxi, China. Results showed that N application did not affect the decomposition of the returned straw C and dry matter, but promoted the release of P and inhibited the release of N and K from straw during sowing to wintering periods of winter wheat...
July 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Steven C Haring, Michael L Flessner
Problems associated with simplified weed management motivate efforts for diversification. Integrated weed management uses fundamentals of weed biology and applied ecology to provide a framework for diversified weed management programs; the soil seed bank comprises a necessary part of this framework. By targeting seeds, growers can inhibit the propagule pressure on which annual weeds depend for agricultural invasion. Some current management practices affect weed seed banks, such as crop rotation and tillage, but these tools are often used without specific intention to manage weed seeds...
May 8, 2018: Pest Management Science
Peng Peng Zhang, Xiao Zhen Pu, Wang Feng Zhang
To reveal the regulatory mechanism of agricultural management practices on soil quality, an experiment was carried out to study the different cropping system and straw management on soil organic carbon and fractions and soil enzyme activity in farmland of arid oasis region, which would provide a scientific basic for enhancing agricultural resources utilization and sustainable development. In crop planting planning area, we took the mainly crop (cotton, wheat, maize) as research objects and designed long-term continues cropping and crop rotation experiments...
March 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Yunqi Wang, Yinghua Zhang, Shunli Zhou, Zhimin Wang
No-tillage (NT) is a popular agricultural technique worldwide, but it remains unclear how NT affects the yield, evapotranspiration (ET), and water use efficiency (WUE) of maize and wheat. We performed a meta-analysis of the NT effects on the yield, ET and WUE for wheat and maize based on the literatures published during 1950-2018. Yield, ET, and WUE varied by species, region, and agronomic and environmental factors. Averaged across all the geographic locations NT had no effect on the yield, ET, or WUE of wheat in northwestern and northern China, and no effect on the yield or ET of maize, but significantly increased the maize WUE by 5...
April 25, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Laila A Puntel, John E Sawyer, Daniel W Barker, Peter J Thorburn, Michael J Castellano, Kenneth J Moore, Andrew VanLoocke, Emily A Heaton, Sotirios V Archontoulis
Historically crop models have been used to evaluate crop yield responses to nitrogen (N) rates after harvest when it is too late for the farmers to make in-season adjustments. We hypothesize that the use of a crop model as an in-season forecast tool will improve current N decision-making. To explore this, we used the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM) calibrated with long-term experimental data for central Iowa, USA (16-years in continuous corn and 15-years in soybean-corn rotation) combined with actual weather data up to a specific crop stage and historical weather data thereafter...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Chih Lin, Chia-Hsin Tsai, Pi-Yu Chen, Chia-Yen Wu, Ya-Lin Chang, Yu-Liang Yang, Ying-Lien Chen
Potato common scab, which is caused by soil-borne Streptomyces species, is a severe plant disease that results in a significant reduction in the economic value of potatoes worldwide. Due to the lack of efficacious pesticides, crop rotations, and resistant potato cultivars against the disease, we investigated whether biological control can serve as an alternative approach. In this study, multiple Bacillus species were isolated from healthy potato tubers, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Ba01 was chosen for further analyses based on its potency against the potato common scab pathogen Streptomyces scabies...
2018: PloS One
Ming Jun Zhang, Ling Ling Li, Jun Hong Xie, Zheng Kai Peng, Jin Hu Ren
A field experiment was conducted to explore the mechanism of cultivation measures in affecting crop yield by investigating root distribution in spring wheat-pea rotation based on a long-term conservation tillage practices in a farming region of Gansu. The results showed that with the develo-pment of growth period, the total root length, root surface area of spring wheat and pea showed a consistent trend of increase after initial decrease and reached the maximum at flowering stage. Higher root distribution was found in the 0-10 cm soil layer at seedling and 10-30 cm soil layer at flowering and maturity stages in spring wheat, while in the field pea, higher root distribution was found in the 0-10 cm soil layer at seedling and maturity, and in the 10-30 cm soil layer at flowering stages...
December 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Juan J Villaverde, Inés Santín-Montanyá, Beatriz Sevilla-Morán, José L Alonso-Prados, Pilar Sandín-España
Once applied, an herbicide first makes contact with leaves and soil. It is known that photolysis can be one of the most important processes of dissipation of herbicides in the field. However, degradation does not guarantee detoxification and can give rise to byproducts that could be more toxic and/or persistent than the active substance. In this work, the photodegradation of alloxydim herbicide in soil and leaf cuticle surrogates was studied and a detailed study on the phytotoxicity of the main byproduct on sugar beet, tomato, and rotational crops was performed...
April 24, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Dan Liu, Xia Zhang, Jun Li, Xu-Dong Wang
An eight-year field experiment of straw returning was conducted on dark loessial soil in Weibei Highland to investigate the effects of tillage patterns on soil aggregate, soil organic carbon (SOC), corn yield and soil water use efficiency (WUE). There were six tillage patterns, including conventional tillage (CT/CT), no-tillage (NT/NT), subsoiling tillage (ST/ST), no-tillage/subsoiling tillage (NT/ST), conventional tillage/no-tillage (CT/NT) and conventional tillage/subsoiling tillage (CT/ST). The results showed that compared with CT/CT, the patterns of NT/NT, ST/ST and the rotational tillage patterns (NT/ST, CT/NT and CT/ST) decreased the mean mass diameter of soil mechanical stable aggregate...
February 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Jin Zhao, Xu Zhao, Shen Qiang Wang, Guang Xi Xing
A five-year successive rice straw-derived biochar (BC) amendment pot trial was conducted to investigate the BC effects on crop growth responses, soil properties and ammonia volatilization in a calcareous alkaline soil from 2010-2015 under the greenhouse condition. We adopted 0 (the control; BC0 ), 2.25 t·hm-2 (BC2.25 ) and 22.5 t·hm-2 (BC22.5 ) for each wheat/millet crop season with an identical dose of NPK fertilizers. The results showed that BC treatments (BC2.25 and BC22.5 ) improved soil fertility and crop growth compared to the no BC control...
January 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Zhen Wu, Yu Bing Dong, Zheng Qin Xiong
To evaluate the long-term effects of biochar amendment on greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs), a field experiment was conducted to examine the effects of 3-year field-aged biochar (B3 ) and fresh biochar (B0 ) on global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) of methane (CH4 ) and nitrous oxide (N2 O) in a typical rice-wheat rotation system. Four treatments were established as control without nitrogen fertilizer (CK), urea without biochar (N), urea with fresh biochar amended in 2015 (NB0 ), and urea with 3-year field-aged biochar amended in 2012 (NB3 )...
January 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Azhar Mehmood, Muhammad Naeem, Farhan Khalid, Yousaf Saeed, Tasawer Abbas, Khawar Jabran, Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar, Asif Tanveer, Muhammad Mansoor Javaid
Plants in Brassica genus have been found to possess strong allelopathic potential. They may inhibit seed germination and emergence of subsequent crops following them in a rotation system. Series of laboratory and greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine the allelopathic impacts of Brassica napus L. against mung bean. We studied (1) the effects of aqueous extract (5%) of different plant parts (root, stem, leaf, flower, and whole plant) of B. napus, (2) the effects of leaf and flower extracts of B. napus at 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4% concentrations, and (3) the effect of residues of different B...
April 24, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Cecilia I Sánchez, María C Benintende, Silvia M Benintende
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different rice rotations on cyanobacteria populations during the growing season. The study was conducted in Entre Ríos (Argentina). Four crop rotations were evaluated: rice-soybean (AS); rice-soybean-corn-soybean (ASMS); rice-rice (AA) and rice-pasture (AP). Soil and water samples were collected in 4 stages: implantation, tillering, booting and physiological maturity. The potential number of cyanobacteria population was lowerin relation to other rice sites previously reported...
April 21, 2018: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
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