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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444324/fitness-trade-off-associated-with-spinosad-resistance-in-frankliniella-occidentalis-thysanoptera-thripidae
#1
Xiaoyu Li, Yanran Wan, Guangdi Yuan, Sabir Hussain, Baoyun Xu, Wen Xie, Shaoli Wang, Youjun Zhang, Qingjun Wu
Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) is an economically important pest of agricultural crops. High resistance has been detected in field populations of F. occidentalis against the insecticide spinosad. In this study, we compared life history traits, body sizes, and feeding behaviors (recorded via an electrical penetration graph) of spinosad-susceptible (Ivf03) and spinosad-resistant (NIL-R) near-isogenic lines of F. occidentalis. Life table analysis showed that NIL-R had reduced female longevity and reduced fecundity...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444179/a-novel-method-for-superimposition-and-measurements-on-maxillary-digital-3d-models-studies-on-validity-and-reliability
#2
Niels Ganzer, Ingalill Feldmann, Per Liv, Lars Bondemark
Background: Serial 3D models can be used to analyze changes, but correct superimposition is crucial before measurements can be assessed. Earlier studies show that every palatal structure changes due to growth or treatment. Here, we describe a new method that uses an algorithm-based analysis to perform superimpositions and measurements in maxillary 3D models. This method can be used to identify deformations. In a second step, only unchanged areas are used for superimposition. Objectives: This study investigates the validity and reliability of this novel method...
April 22, 2017: European Journal of Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415005/agricultural-sustainable-intensification-improved-nitrogen-use-efficiency-and-maintained-high-crop-yield-during-1980-2014-in-northern-china
#3
Xin Zhang, Roland Bol, Clive Rahn, Guangmin Xiao, Fanqiao Meng, Wenliang Wu
Global population increase will require rapid increase of food production from existing agricultural land by 2050, which will inevitably mean the increase of agricultural productivity. Due to agricultural sustainable intensification since the 1990s, crop production in Huantai County of northern China has risen to 15tha(-1)yr(-1) for the annual wheat-maize rotation system. We examined the temporal dynamics of nitrogen (N) budget, N losses, and N use efficiency (NUE) during the 35years (1980-2014) in Huantai...
April 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412572/quantitative-analysis-of-patients-with-celiac-disease-by-video-capsule-endoscopy-a-deep-learning-method
#4
Teng Zhou, Guoqiang Han, Bing Nan Li, Zhizhe Lin, Edward J Ciaccio, Peter H Green, Jing Qin
BACKGROUND: Celiac disease is one of the most common diseases in the world. Capsule endoscopy is an alternative way to visualize the entire small intestine without invasiveness to the patient. It is useful to characterize celiac disease, but hours are need to manually analyze the retrospective data of a single patient. Computer-aided quantitative analysis by a deep learning method helps in alleviating the workload during analysis of the retrospective videos. METHOD: Capsule endoscopy clips from 6 celiac disease patients and 5 controls were preprocessed for training...
April 8, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390314/trade-off-between-soil-organic-carbon-sequestration-and-nitrous-oxide-emissions-from-winter-wheat-summer-maize-rotations-implications-of-a-25-year-fertilization-experiment-in-northwestern-china
#5
Jiangxin Gu, Mengxuan Yuan, Jixuan Liu, Yaoxu Hao, Yingtian Zhou, Dong Qu, Xueyun Yang
The primary aims of this study were to (i) quantify the variations in nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration rates under winter wheat-summer maize cropping systems in Guanzhong Plain and (ii) evaluate the impact of organic amendments on greenhouse gas mitigation over a long-term period. We measured N2O fluxes during the maize season in 2015 under four fertilizer regimes in a long-term fertilization experiment. Soil was treated with only synthetic fertilizers in the maize season and with synthetic fertilizers, synthetic fertilizers plus crop residues and synthetic fertilizers plus low and high levels of dairy manure in the winter wheat season from 1990...
April 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381956/wheat-blast-a-new-fungal-inhabitant-to-bangladesh-threatening-world-wheat-production
#6
REVIEW
Md Abu Sadat, Jaehyuk Choi
World wheat production is now under threat due to the wheat blast outbreak in Bangladesh in early March 2016. This is a new disease in this area, indicating the higher possibility of this pathogen spreading throughout the Asia, the world's largest wheat producing area. Occurrence of this disease caused ~3.5% reduction of the total wheat fields in Bangladesh. Its economic effect on the Bangladesh wheat market was little because wheat contributes to 3% of total cereal consumption, among which ~70% have been imported from other countries...
April 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380573/meta-analyses-of-biosolids-effect-in-dryland-wheat-agroecosystems
#7
Kenneth Barbarick, James Ippolito, Jacob McDaniel
Land application to cropping systems is USEPA's preferred method of recycling biosolids. Determination of biosolids effect size through meta-analyses from two decades of field-location research at three sites should answer the question: Does 20 yr of biosolids application affect dryland wheat ( L.) grain production, grain nutrient concentrations, and soil elemental extractability compared with equivalent rates of commercial N fertilizer? At two sites, biennial biosolids application rates to a wheat-fallow (WF) rotation were up to 11...
March 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346980/ecological-intensification-to-mitigate-impacts-of-conventional-intensive-land-use-on-pollinators-and-pollination
#8
REVIEW
Anikó Kovács-Hostyánszki, Anahí Espíndola, Adam J Vanbergen, Josef Settele, Claire Kremen, Lynn V Dicks
Worldwide, human appropriation of ecosystems is disrupting plant-pollinator communities and pollination function through habitat conversion and landscape homogenisation. Conversion to agriculture is destroying and degrading semi-natural ecosystems while conventional land-use intensification (e.g. industrial management of large-scale monocultures with high chemical inputs) homogenises landscape structure and quality. Together, these anthropogenic processes reduce the connectivity of populations and erode floral and nesting resources to undermine pollinator abundance and diversity, and ultimately pollination services...
March 27, 2017: Ecology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346463/changes-in-soil-bacterial-community-structure-as-a-result-of-incorporation-of-brassica-plants-compared-with-continuous-planting-eggplant-and-chemical-disinfection-in-greenhouses
#9
Tianzhu Li, Tongtong Liu, Chengyu Zheng, Chunsheng Kang, Zichao Yang, Xiaotong Yao, Fengbin Song, Runzhi Zhang, Xuerong Wang, Ning Xu, Chunyi Zhang, Wei Li, Shumin Li
Greenhouse eggplant monocropping in China has contributed to the aggravation of soil-borne diseases, reductions in crop quality and yield, and the degradation of physical and chemical soil properties. Crop rotation is one effective way of alleviating the problems of continuous cropping worldwide; however, few studies have reported changes in soil bacterial community structures and physical and chemical soil properties after Brassica vegetables had been rotated with eggplant in greenhouses. In this experiment, mustard-eggplant (BFN) and oilseed rape-eggplant (BFC) rotations were studied to identify changes in the physicochemical properties and bacterial community structure in soil that was previously subject to monocropping...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342413/efficacies-of-biochar-and-biochar-based-amendment-on-vegetable-yield-and-nitrogen-utilization-in-four-consecutive-planting-seasons
#10
Hefang Wang, Hao Zheng, Zhixiang Jiang, Yanhui Dai, Guocheng Liu, Lei Chen, Xianxiang Luo, Minhui Liu, Zhenyu Wang
Biochar has been suggested as a potential tailored technology for mediating soil conditions and improving crop yields. However, the efficacies of biochar and biochar-based amendments (e.g., composted biochar) in agricultural soils under a rotation system remain uncertain. In this study, an arable soil was subjected to peanut shell biochar (PBC) and biochar-based amendment (PAD) combined with or without nitrogen (N) fertilizer to evaluate their effects on vegetable yield, N bioavailability, and their relative contribution to vegetable biomass in four consecutive planting seasons...
March 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334190/limited-impact-of-a-fall-seeded-spring-terminated-rye-cover-crop-on-beneficial-arthropods
#11
Mike W Dunbar, Aaron J Gassmann, Matthew E O'Neal
Cover crops are beneficial to agroecosystems because they decrease soil erosion and nutrient loss while increasing within-field plant diversity. Greater plant diversity within cropping systems can positively affect beneficial arthropod communities. We hypothesized that increasing plant diversity within annually rotated corn and soybean with the addition of a rye cover crop would positively affect the beneficial ground and canopy-dwelling communities compared with rotated corn and soybean grown without a cover crop...
April 1, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327632/assessment-of-residential-environmental-exposure-to-pesticides-from-agricultural-fields-in-the-netherlands
#12
Maartje Brouwer, Hans Kromhout, Roel Vermeulen, Jan Duyzer, Henk Kramer, Gerard Hazeu, Geert de Snoo, Anke Huss
We developed a spatio-temporal model for the Netherlands to estimate environmental exposure to individual agricultural pesticides at the residential address for application in a national case-control study on Parkinson's disease (PD). Data on agricultural land use and pesticide use were combined to estimate environmental exposure to pesticides for the period 1961 onwards. Distance categories of 0-50 m, >50-100 m, >100-500 m and >500-1000 m around residences were considered. For illustration purposes, exposure was estimated for the control population (n=607) in the PD case-control study...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319708/effect-of-application-of-dairy-manure-effluent-and-inorganic-fertilizer-on-nitrogen-leaching-in-clayey-fluvo-aquic-soil-a-lysimeter-study
#13
Jianling Fan, Jiao Xiao, Deyan Liu, Guiping Ye, Jiafa Luo, David Houlbrooke, Seth Laurenson, Jing Yan, Lvjun Chen, Jinping Tian, Weixin Ding
Dairy farm manure and effluent are applied to cropland in China to provide a source of plant nutrients, but there are concerns over its effect on nitrogen (N) leaching loss and groundwater quality. To investigate the effects of land application of dairy manure and effluent on potential N leaching loss, two lysimeter trials were set up in clayey fluvo-aquic soil in a winter wheat-summer maize rotation cropping system on the North China Plain. The solid dairy manure trial included control without N fertilization (CK), inorganic N fertilizer (SNPK), and fresh (RAW) and composted (COM) dairy manure...
March 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266551/nitrification-inhibitors-can-increase-post-harvest-nitrous-oxide-emissions-in-an-intensive-vegetable-production-system
#14
Clemens Scheer, David Rowlings, Mary Firrell, Peter Deuter, Stephen Morris, David Riches, Ian Porter, Peter Grace
To investigate the effect of nitrification inhibitors (NIs) 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) and 3-methylpyrazole 1,2,4-triazole (3MP + TZ), on N2O emissions and yield from a typical vegetable rotation in sub-tropical Australia we monitored soil N2O fluxes continuously over an entire year using an automated greenhouse gas measurement system. The temporal variation of N2O fluxes showed only low emissions over the vegetable cropping phases, but significantly higher emissions were observed post-harvest accounting for 50-70% of the annual emissions...
March 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261329/soil-carbon-and-belowground-carbon-balance-of-a-short-rotation-coppice-assessments-from-three-different-approaches
#15
Gonzalo Berhongaray, Melanie S Verlinden, Laura S Broeckx, Ivan A Janssens, Reinhart Ceulemans
Uncertainty in soil carbon (C) fluxes across different land-use transitions is an issue that needs to be addressed for the further deployment of perennial bioenergy crops. A large-scale short-rotation coppice (SRC) site with poplar (Populus) and willow (Salix) was established to examine the land-use transitions of arable and pasture to bioenergy. Soil C pools, output fluxes of soil CO 2, CH 4, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and volatile organic compounds, as well as input fluxes from litter fall and from roots, were measured over a 4-year period, along with environmental parameters...
February 2017: Global Change Biology. Bioenergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251545/impact-of-tillage-practices-on-soil-bacterial-diversity-and-composition-under-the-tobacco-rice-rotation-in-china
#16
Yanping Lei, Yongliang Xiao, Lifeng Li, Chaoqiang Jiang, Chaolong Zu, Tian Li, Hui Cao
Tobacco-rice rotation is a common farming system in south China, and many tillage practices such as straw mulching, dolomite dust, and quicklime application have been adopted to improve crop production. These agricultural management practices alter soil physical and chemical properties and affect microbial life environment and community composition. In this research, six tillage practices including no tobacco and rice straw mulching (CK), tobacco and rice straw mulching (TrSr), rice straw returning fire (TrSc), tobacco and rice straw mulching with dolomite dust (TSD), rice straw returning fire and quicklime (TSQ), and rice straw returning fire, quicklime and reduced fertilizer (TSQf) were conducted to detect changes in soil bacterial diversity and composition using Illumina sequencing...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248976/residual-soil-nitrate-content-and-profitability-of-five-cropping-systems-in-northwest-iowa
#17
Robert L De Haan, Matthew A Schuiteman, Ronald J Vos
Many communities in the Midwestern United States obtain their drinking water from shallow alluvial wells that are vulnerable to contamination by NO3-N from the surrounding agricultural landscape. The objective of this research was to assess cropping systems with the potential to produce a reasonable return for farmers while simultaneously reducing the risk of NO3-N movement into these shallow aquifers. From 2009 to 2013 we conducted a field experiment in northwest Iowa in which we evaluated five cropping systems for residual (late fall) soil NO3-N content and profitability...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247124/projective-analysis-of-staple-food-crop-productivity-in-adaptation-to-future-climate-change-in-china
#18
Qing Zhang, Wen Zhang, Tingting Li, Wenjuan Sun, Yongqiang Yu, Guocheng Wang
Climate change continually affects our capabilities to feed the increasing population. Rising temperatures have the potential to shorten the crop growth duration and therefore reduce crop yields. In the past decades, China has successfully improved crop cultivars to stabilize, and even lengthen, the crop growth duration to make use of increasing heat resources. However, because of the complex cropping systems in the different regions of China, the possibility and the effectiveness of regulating crop growth duration to reduce the negative impacts of future climate change remain questionable...
February 28, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238122/amelioration-of-drought-induced-negative-responses-by-elevated-co2-in-field-grown-short-rotation-coppice-mulberry-morus-spp-a-potential-bio-energy-tree-crop
#19
Kalva Madhana Sekhar, Kanubothula Sitarami Reddy, Attipalli Ramachandra Reddy
Present study describes the responses of short rotation coppice (SRC) mulberry, a potential bio-energy tree, grown under interactive environment of elevated CO2 (E) and water stress (WS). Growth in E stimulated photosynthetic performance in well-watered (WW) as well as during WS with significant increases in light-saturated photosynthetic rates (A Sat), water use efficiency (WUEi), intercellular [CO2], and photosystem-II efficiency (F V/F M and ∆F/F M') with concomitant reduction in stomatal conductance (g s) and transpiration (E) compared to ambient CO2 (A) grown plants...
February 25, 2017: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228772/responses-of-nitrogen-utilization-and-apparent-nitrogen-loss-to-different-control-measures-in-the-wheat-and-maize-rotation-system
#20
Zhengping Peng, Yanan Liu, Yingchun Li, Yahya Abawi, Yanqun Wang, Mingxin Men, Duc-Anh An-Vo
Nitrogen (N) is an essential macronutrient for plant growth and excessive application rates can decrease crop yield and increase N loss into the environment. Field experiments were carried out to understand the effects of N fertilizers on N utilization, crop yield and net income in wheat and maize rotation system of the North China Plain (NCP). Compared to farmers' N rate (FN), the yield of wheat and maize in reduction N rate by 21-24% based on FN (RN) was improved by 451 kg ha(-1), N uptakes improved by 17 kg ha(-1) and net income increased by 1671 CNY ha(-1), while apparent N loss was reduced by 156 kg ha(-1)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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