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Crop rotation

Maria-Soledad Benitez, Shannon L Osborne, R Michael Lehman
To evaluate crop rotation effects on maize seedling performance and its associated microbiome, maize plants were grown in the greenhouse in soils preceded by either maize, pea, soybean or sunflower. Soils originated from a replicated field experiment evaluating different four-year rotation combinations. In the greenhouse, a stressor was introduced by soil infestation with western corn rootworm (WCR) or Fusarium graminearum. Under non-infested conditions, maize seedlings grown in soils preceded by sunflower or pea had greater vigor...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
Xin Zhao, Fadong Li, Zhipin Ai, Jing Li, Congke Gu
Better managing agricultural water resources, which are increasingly stressed by climate change and anthropogenic activities, is difficult, particularly because of variations in water uptake patterns associated with crop type and growth stage. Thus, the stable isotopes δ(18)O and δ(2)H were employed to investigate the water uptake patterns of a summer maize (Zea mays L.) and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) rotation system in the North China Plain. Based on the soil water content, soil layers were divided into four groups (0-20cm, 20-40cm, 40-120cm, and 120-200cm) using a hierarchical cluster analysis...
November 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Yunqi Wang, Yinghua Zhang, Rui Zhang, Jinpeng Li, Meng Zhang, Shunli Zhou, Zhimin Wang
The groundwater table has fallen sharply over the last 30years on the North China Plain, resulting in a shortage of water for winter wheat irrigation. Reducing irrigation may be an important strategy to maintain agricultural sustainability in the region; however, few studies have evaluated the transition from conventional irrigation management practices to reduced irrigation management practices in the winter wheat-summer maize rotation system. Here, we compare the yield, water consumption, and water use efficiency of winter wheat-summer maize rotation under conventional irrigation and reduced irrigation on the North China Plain from 2012 to 2015...
November 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Emily M Carrollo, Heather E Johnson, Justin W Fischer, Matthew Hammond, Patricia D Dorsey, Charles Anderson, Kurt C Vercauteren, W David Walter
Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) populations in the western United States provide many benefits to local economies but can also cause considerable damage to agriculture, particularly damage to lucrative crops. Limited information exists to understand resource selection of mule deer in response to annual variation in crop rotation and climatic conditions. We tested the hypothesis that mule deer select certain crops, and in particular sunflower, based on annual climatic variability. Our objective was to use movements, estimates of home range, and resource selection analysis to identify resources selected by mule deer...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
Ademir de Oliveira Ferreira, João Carlos de Moraes Sá, Rattan Lal, Florent Tivet, Clever Briedis, Thiago Massao Inagaki, Daniel Ruiz Potma Gonçalves, Jucimare Romaniw
Conclusions based on studies of the impacts of soil organic carbon (SOC) fractions and soil texture on macroaggregation and SOC stabilization in long-term (>20years) no-till (NT) fields remain debatable. This study was based on the hypothesis that the amount and frequency of biomass-C input associated with NT can be a pathway to formation of macroaggregates and to SOC buildup. The objectives were to: 1) assess the macroaggregate distribution (proportional mass, class mass) and the SOC and particulate organic carbon (POC) stocks of extra-large (8-19mm), large (2-8mm) and small (0...
November 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Ognjen Žurovec, Bishal Kumar Sitaula, Hamid Čustović, Jasminka Žurovec, Peter Dörsch
Conservation tillage is expected to have a positive effect on soil physical properties, soil Carbon (C) storage, while reducing fuel, labour and machinery costs. However, reduced tillage could increase soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and offset the expected gains from increased C sequestration. To date, conservation tillage is barely practiced or studied in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH). Here, we report a field study on the short-term effects of reduced (RT) and no tillage (NT) on N2O emission dynamics, yield-scaled N2O emissions, soil structure and the economics of cereal production, as compared with conventional tillage (CT)...
2017: PloS One
Alison E King, Jennifer Blesh
More diverse crop rotations have been promoted for their potential to remediate the range of ecosystem services compromised by biologically simplified grain-based agroecosystems, including increasing soil organic carbon (SOC). We hypothesized that functional diversity offers a more predictive means of characterizing the impact of crop rotations on SOC concentrations than species diversity per se. Furthermore, we hypothesized that functional diversity can either increase or decrease SOC depending on its associated carbon (C) input to soil...
November 7, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Edmar I Teixeira, John de Ruiter, Anne-Gaelle Ausseil, Adam Daigneault, Paul Johnstone, Allister Holmes, Andrew Tait, Frank Ewert
The environmental and economic sustainability of future cropping systems depends on adaptation to climate change. Adaptation studies commonly rely on agricultural systems models to integrate multiple components of production systems such as crops, weather, soil and farmers' management decisions. Previous adaptation studies have mostly focused on isolated monocultures. However, in many agricultural regions worldwide, multi-crop rotations better represent local production systems. It is unclear how adaptation interventions influence crops grown in sequences...
November 2, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Hannah N Phillips, Bradley J Heins, Kathleen Delate, Robert Turnbull
Meat from Holstein and crossbred organic dairy steers finished on winter rye and winter wheat pastures was evaluated and compared for meat quality, fatty acid and amino acid profiles, and consumer acceptability. Two adjacent 4-ha plots were established with winter rye or winter wheat cover crops in September 2015 at the University of Minnesota West Central Research and Outreach Center (Morris, MN). During spring of 2015, 30 steers were assigned to one of three replicate breed groups at birth. Breed groups were comprised of: Holstein (HOL; n = 10), crossbreds comprised of Montbéliarde, Viking Red, and HOL (MVH; n = 10), and crossbreds comprised of Normande, Jersey, and Viking Red (NJV; n = 10)...
2017: PloS One
Fuyu Guo, Changfeng Ding, Zhigao Zhou, Gaoxiang Huang, Xingxiang Wang
Soil cadmium (Cd) contamination in China has become a serious concern due to its high toxicity to human health through food chains. A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of hydrated lime (L), hydroxyapatite (H) and organic fertilizer (F) alone or in combination to remedy a mild (DY) and a moderate (YX) Cd contaminated agricultural soil under rice-wheat rotation. Results showed that crops grain yield and Cd concentration, soil pH, CaCl2 extractable Cd and Cd speciation were markedly affected by the amendments...
October 25, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Fiona Ehrhardt, Jean-François Soussana, Gianni Bellocchi, Peter Grace, Russel McAuliffe, Sylvie Recous, Renáta Sándor, Pete Smith, Val Snow, Massimiliano D A Migliorati, Bruno Basso, Arti Bhatia, Lorenzo Brilli, Jordi Doltra, Christopher D Dorich, Luca Doro, Nuala Fitton, Sandro J Giacomini, Brian Grant, Matthew T Harrison, Stephanie K Jones, Miko U F Kirschbaum, Katja Klumpp, Patricia Laville, Joël Léonard, Mark Liebig, Mark Lieffering, Raphaël Martin, Raia Silvia Massad, Elizabeth Meier, Lutz Merbold, Andrew D Moore, Vasileios Myrgiotis, Paul Newton, Elizabeth Pattey, Susanne Rolinski, Joanna Sharp, Ward N Smith, Lianhai Wu, Qing Zhang
Simulation models are extensively used to predict agricultural productivity and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, the uncertainties of (reduced) model ensemble simulations have not been assessed systematically for variables affecting food security and climate change mitigation, within multispecies agricultural contexts. We report an international model comparison and benchmarking exercise, showing the potential of multimodel ensembles to predict productivity and nitrous oxide (N2 O) emissions for wheat, maize, rice and temperate grasslands...
October 28, 2017: Global Change Biology
K Gillette, R W Malone, T C Kaspar, L Ma, T B Parkin, D B Jaynes, Q X Fang, J L Hatfield, G W Feyereisen, K C Kersebaum
Anthropogenic perturbation of the global nitrogen cycle and its effects on the environment such as hypoxia in coastal regions and increased N2O emissions is of increasing, multi-disciplinary, worldwide concern, and agricultural production is a major contributor. Only limited studies, however, have simultaneously investigated NO3(-) losses to subsurface drain flow and N2O emissions under corn-soybean production. We used the Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM) to evaluate NO3(-) losses to drain flow and N2O emissions in a corn-soybean system with a winter rye cover crop (CC) in central Iowa over a nine year period...
October 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Pietro Barbieri, Sylvain Pellerin, Thomas Nesme
Cropland use activities are major drivers of global environmental changes and of farming system resilience. Rotating crops is a critical land-use driver, and a farmers' key strategy to control environmental stresses and crop performances. Evidence has accumulated that crop rotations have been dramatically simplified over the last 50 years. In contrast, organic farming stands as an alternative production way that promotes crop diversification. However, our understanding of crop rotations is surprisingly limited...
October 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
S K Samal, K K Rao, S P Poonia, Rakesh Kumar, J S Mishra, Ved Prakash, S Mondal, S K Dwivedi, B P Bhatt, Sushanta Kumar Naik, Anup Kumar Choubey, V Kumar, R K Malik, Andrew Mc Donald
In the context of deteriorating soil health, stagnation of yield in rice-wheat cropping system (RWCS) across Indo- Gangetic plains (IGP) and environmental pollution, a long term field experiment was conducted during 2009-2016 taking four crop scenarios with conservation agriculture (CA), crop intensification and diversified cropping as intervening technology aiming to evaluate the sustainability of the systems. Scenario 1 (S1) represented conventional farmers' practice of growing rice and wheat with summer fallow...
October 2017: European Journal of Agronomy: the Journal of the European Society for Agronomy
Yitao Zhang, Hongyuan Wang, Qiuliang Lei, Jiafa Luo, Stuart Lindsey, Jizong Zhang, Limei Zhai, Shuxia Wu, Jingsuo Zhang, Xiaoxia Liu, Tianzhi Ren, Hongbin Liu
Optimizing the nitrogen (N) application rate can increase crop yield while reducing the environmental risks. However, the optimal N rates vary substantially when different targets such as maximum yield or maximum economic benefit are considered. Taking the wheat-maize rotation cropping system on the North China Plain as a case study, we quantified the variation of N application rates when targeting constraints on yield, economic performance, N uptake and N utilization, by conducting field experiments between 2011 and 2013...
October 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Sen Li, Linda Juhász-Horváth, László Pintér, Mark D A Rounsevell, Paula A Harrison
Impacts of socio-economic, political and climatic change on agricultural land systems are inherently uncertain. The role of regional and local-level actors is critical in developing effective policy responses that accommodate such uncertainty in a flexible and informed way across governance levels. This study identified potential regional challenges in arable land use systems, which may arise from climate and socio-economic change for two counties in western Hungary: Veszprém and Tolna. An empirically-grounded, agent-based model was developed from an extensive farmer household survey about local land use practices...
October 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Cícero Célio de Figueiredo, Alexsandra Duarte de Oliveira, Isis Lima Dos Santos, Eloisa Aparecida Belleza Ferreira, Juaci Vitoria Malaquias, Marcos Aurélio Carolino de Sá, Arminda Moreira de Carvalho, João de Deus Gomes Dos Santos
In the Brazilian Cerrado, despite the increasing adoption of no-till systems, there are still extended areas under conventional soil management systems that reduce soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stocks and increase the emissions of greenhouse gases, such as nitrous oxide (N2O). Conservation agroecosystems, such as no-till, have been proposed as a strategy to mitigate agriculture-induced climatic changes through reductions in N2O emissions. However, the relationship between organic matter and N2O emissions from soils under different agroecosystems is not yet clear...
October 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Muhammad Umair, Yanjun Shen, Yongqing Qi, Yucui Zhang, Ayesha Ahmad, Hongwei Pei, Meiying Liu
The North China Plain (NCP) is a major grain production zone that plays a critical role in ensuring China's food supply. Irrigation is commonly used during grain production; however, the high annual water deficit [precipitation (P) minus evapotranspiration (ET)] in typical irrigated cropland does not support double cropping systems (such as maize and wheat) and this has resulted in the steep decline in the water table (~0.8 m year(-1) at the Luancheng station) that has taken place since the 1970s. The current study aimed to adapt and check the ability of the CropSyst model (Suite-4) to simulate actual evapotranspiration (ETa), biomass, and grain yield, and to identify major evaporation (E) losses from winter wheat (WW) and summer maize (SM) rotations...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Zhongfu Yang, Gang Nie, Ling Pan, Yan Zhang, Linkai Huang, Xiao Ma, Xinquan Zhang
Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) is an important cool-season, annual forage crop for the grassland rotation system in Southern China. The primary aim of breeding programs is always to seek to improve forage quality in the animal productivity system; however, it is time- and labor-consuming when analyzed excessive large number of samples. The main objectives of this study were to construct near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) models to predict the forage chemistry quality of Italian ryegrass including the concentrations of crude protein (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and water soluble carbohydrate (WSC)...
2017: PeerJ
Cameron M Pittelkow, Matthew W Clover, Robert G Hoeft, Emerson D Nafziger, Jeffery J Warren, Lisa C Gonzini, Kristin D Greer
Nitrogen (N) management strategies that maintain high crop productivity with reduced water quality impacts are needed for tile-drained landscapes of the US Midwest. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of N application rate, timing, and fall nitrapyrin addition on tile drainage nitrate losses, corn ( L.) yield, N recovery efficiency, and postharvest soil nitrate content over 3 yr in a corn-soybean [ (L.) Merr.] rotation. In addition to an unfertilized control, the following eight N treatments were applied as anhydrous ammonia in a replicated, field-scale experiment with both corn and soybean phases present each year in Illinois: fall and spring applications of 78, 156, and 234 kg N ha, fall application of 156 kg N ha + nitrapyrin, and sidedress (V5-V6) application of 156 kg N ha...
September 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
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