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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352369/analysis-of-the-succession-of-structure-of-the-bacteria-community-in-soil-from-long-term-continuous-cotton-cropping-in-xinjiang-using-high-throughput-sequencing
#1
Zhang Wei, Du Yu
The present study aimed to identify the structural succession of the bacteria community in soil during long-term continuous cotton cropping and its relationship with continuous cropping obstacles in Xinjiang, China. High-throughput sequencing was used to analyze and compare the composition of the bacterial community in the soil at the cotton root zone after years of continuous cotton cropping and crop rotation over 30 years of cultivation. Cotton cultivation increased the structural diversity of the bacterial community, among which the populations of Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, Firmicutes, Nitrospirae, and Chloroflexi changed considerably...
January 19, 2018: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339780/extractable-pool-of-biochar-controls-on-crop-productivity-rather-than-greenhouse-gas-emission-from-a-rice-paddy-under-rice-wheat-rotation
#2
Punhoon Khan Korai, Xin Xia, Xiaoyu Liu, Rongjun Bian, Morris Oduor Omondi, Alphonse Nahayo, Genxing Pan
The role of extractable pool of biochar in crop productivity and soil greenhouse gas (GHGs) emission is not yet clear. In this study, two biochars with and without extraction was added to a paddy before rice transplantation at 20 t·ha-1. Crop yield, plant traits and greenhouse gas emission monitored throughout a rice-wheat rotation. Between the biochar treatments, changes in bulk density and microbial biomass carbon were insignificant. However, the increase in organic carbon was similar between maize and wheat biochars while higher under bulk wheat biochar than extracted one...
January 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331518/microwave-assisted-ionic-liquid-mediated-rapid-catalytic-conversion-of-non-edible-lignocellulosic-sunn-hemp-fibres-to-biofuels
#3
Souvik Kumar Paul, Saikat Chakraborty
Sunn hemp fibre - a cellulose-rich crystalline non-food energy crop, containing 75.6% cellulose, 10.05% hemicellulose, 10.32% lignin, with high crystallinity (80.17%) and degree of polymerization (650) - is identified as a new non-food substrate for lignocellulosic biofuel production. Microwave irradiation is employed to rapidly rupture the cellulose's glycosidic bonds and enhance glucose yield to 78.7% at 160 °C in only 46 min. The reactants - long-chain cellulose, ionic liquid, transition metal catalyst, and water - form a polar supramolecular complex that rotates under the microwave's alternating polarity and rapidly dissipates the electromagnetic energy through molecular collisions, thus accelerating glycosidic bond breakage...
January 3, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324377/ammonia-emissions-from-paddy-fields-are-underestimated-in-china
#4
Hongyuan Wang, Dan Zhang, Yitao Zhang, Limei Zhai, Bin Yin, Feng Zhou, Yucong Geng, Junting Pan, Jiafa Luo, Baojing Gu, Hongbin Liu
Excessive nitrogen (N) fertilizers are often used in China, and a large proportion of the N can be lost as ammonia (NH3). However, quantifying the NH3 emission from paddy fields is always affected by large uncertainties due to different measuring methods and other factors such as climate. In this study, using a standardized method, we measured the NH3 emissions in three typical annual rice cropping systems: single rice, double rice and rotation with other crops. The measurements were conducted for 2 years with a total of 3131 observations across China...
January 8, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322104/soil-total-carbon-and-nitrogen-and-crop-yields-after-eight-years-of-tillage-crop-rotation-and-cultural-practice
#5
Upendra M Sainju, Andrew W Lenssen, Brett L Allen, William B Stevens, Jalal D Jabro
Information on the long-term effect of management practices on soil C and N stocks is lacking. An experiment was conducted from 2004 to 2011 in the northern Great Plains, USA to examine the effects of tillage, crop rotation, and cultural practice on annualized crop residue (stems + leaves) returned to the soil and grain yield, and soil total C (STC) and total N (STN) stocks at the 0-120 cm depth. Tillage practices were no-tillage (NT) and conventional tillage (CT) and crop rotations were continuous spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L...
December 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286995/the-americleft-project-comparison-of-ratings-using-two-dimensional-versus-three-dimensional-images-for-evaluation-of-nasolabial-appearance-in-patients-with-unilateral-cleft-lip-and-palate
#6
Christine M Jones, Benjamin Roth, Ana M Mercado, Kathy A Russell, John Daskalogiannakis, Thomas D Samson, Ronald R Hathaway, Andrea Smith, Donald R Mackay, Ross E Long
This study was conducted to determine if nasolabial appearance is rated with comparable results and reliability on 3-dimensional stereophotogrammetric facial images versus standard clinical photographs (2-dimensional). Twenty-seven consecutively treated patients with repaired complete unilateral cleft lip and palate were selected. Six trained and calibrated raters assessed cropped 2- and 3-dimensional facial images. Nasolabial profile, nasolabial frontal, and vermillion border esthetics were rated with the 5-point scale described by Asher-McDade using the modified Q-sort method...
January 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273775/cropping-system-conversion-led-to-organic-carbon-change-in-china-s-mollisols-regions
#7
Yuxin Tong, Jianguo Liu, Xiaolin Li, Jing Sun, Anna Herzberger, Dan Wei, Weifeng Zhang, Zhengxia Dou, Fusuo Zhang
Land use change driven by diet, globalization, and technology advancement have greatly influenced agricultural production and environment in the mollisols region of China, with a marked impact on the depletion of soil organic matter, a signature property of mollisols. Here we report findings on soil organic carbon (SOC) change in three different cropping systems (soybean, soybean/maize, corn) in Northeast China during a 10-year time span. The results indicated that the decline rate of SOC in recent ten years (0...
December 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248789/spatially-differentiated-strategies-for-reducing-nitrate-loads-from-agriculture-in-two-danish-catchments
#8
Fatemeh Hashemi, Jørgen E Olesen, Anne L Hansen, Christen D Børgesen, Tommy Dalgaard
Nutrient loss from agriculture is the largest source of diffuse water pollution in Denmark. To reduce nutrient loads a number of solutions have been implemented, but this has been insufficient to achieve the environmental objectives without unacceptable repercussions for agricultural production. This has substantiated the need to develop a new approach to achieve nitrogen (N) load reduction to the aquatic environments with lower costs to farmers. The new approach imply targeting N leaching mitigation to those parts of the landscape which contribute most to the N-loadings...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239602/improving-estimates-of-nitrogen-emissions-for-life-cycle-assessment-of-cropping-systems-at-the-scale-of-an-agricultural-territory
#9
Laure Nitschelm, Virginie Parnaudeau, Francoise Vertès, Hayo M G van der Werf, Michael S Corson, Valerie Viaud, Joel Aubin, Christian Walter
In life cycle assessment (LCA), simple models are currently used to estimate cropping system nitrogen (N) emissions on farms. At large spatial scales (e.g., countries), these models are valid. At a smaller spatial scale (e.g., territories), these models may be less accurate, since they completely or partially ignore local conditions such as management practices, soil or climate. The purpose of this study was to consider the variability of those factors when estimating N emissions in LCA at the watershed scale...
December 14, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223900/driving-factors-of-soil-carbon-accumulation-in-oxisols-in-long-term-no-till-systems-of-south-brazil
#10
Ademir de Oliveira Ferreira, Telmo Jorge Carneiro Amado, Charles W Rice, Dorivar A Ruiz Diaz, Clever Briedis, Thiago Massao Inagaki, Daniel Ruiz Potma Gonçalves
In a climate change scenario, it is important to understand the factors that lead to changes in a soil carbon (C) sink. It is recognized that such process is highly dependent on climate, soil properties, topography, and vegetation. However, few studies demonstrate how these mechanisms operate in highly weathered Oxisols. Therefore, this study evaluated the driving factors for C recovery and accumulation and its relations with fertility attributes in the soil profile (0 to 1m depth) in no-till (NT) croplands of south Brazil...
December 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209063/effect-of-different-organic-fertilizers-application-on-growth-and-environmental-risk-of-nitrate-under-a-vegetable-field
#11
Shuyan Li, Jijin Li, Bangxi Zhang, Danyang Li, Guoxue Li, Yangyang Li
The effect of chicken manure after different disposal methods (water-logged composting, GOF; anaerobic digestion, BR; thermophilic composting, ROF) on vegetable growth and environmental risk was investigated under the tomato-celery-tomato field. Results showed that organic fertilizers significantly increased vegetable yield and quality, but with inappropriate application may cause serious environmental risk such as nitrate pollution. Maximum vegetable yield of 80.9, 68.3, 112.7 t·ha-1 (first, second and third rotation crop, respectively) with best vegetable quality was obtained in ROF treatment...
December 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196695/legume-crop-rotation-suppressed-nitrifying-microbial-community-in-a-sugarcane-cropping-soil
#12
Chanyarat Paungfoo-Lonhienne, Weijin Wang, Yun Kit Yeoh, Neil Halpin
Nitrifying microorganisms play an important role in nitrogen (N) cycling in agricultural soils as nitrification leads to accumulation of nitrate (NO3-) that is readily lost through leaching and denitrification, particularly in high rainfall regions. Legume crop rotation in sugarcane farming systems can suppress soil pathogens and improve soil health, but its effects on soil nitrifying microorganisms are not well understood. Using shotgun metagenomic sequencing, we investigated the impact of two legume break crops, peanut (Arachis hypogaea) and soybean (Glycine max), on the nitrifying communities in a sugarcane cropping soil...
December 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187571/the-brassicaceae-family-displays-divergent-shoot-skewed-nlr-resistance-gene-expression
#13
David Munch, Vikas Gupta, Terry Mun, Asger Bachmann, Wolfgang Busch, Simon Kelly, Stig U Andersen
Nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat resistance genes (NLRs) allow plants to detect microbial effectors. We hypothesized that NLR expression patterns could reflect organ-specific differences in effector challenge and tested this by carrying out a meta-analysis of expression data for 1,235 NLRs from 9 plant species. We found stable NLR root/shoot expression ratios within species, suggesting organ-specific hardwiring of NLR expression patterns in anticipation of distinct challenges. Most monocot and dicot plant species preferentially expressed NLRs in roots...
November 29, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178058/interaction-of-soil-ph-and-phosphorus-efficacy-long-term-effects-of-p-fertilizer-and-lime-applications-on-wheat-barley-and-sugar-beet
#14
Sabine von Tucher, Dorothea Hörndl, Urs Schmidhalter
Phosphorus (P), a plant macronutrient, must be adequately supplied for crop growth. In Germany, many soils are high in plant-available P; specifically in arable farming, P fertilizer application has been reduced or even omitted in the last decade. Therefore, it is important to understand how long these soils can support sustainable crop production, and what concentrations of soil P are required for it. We analyzed a 36-year long-term field experiment regarding the effects of different P application and liming rates on plant growth and soil P concentrations with a crop rotation of sugar beet, wheat, and barley...
November 24, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166981/organic-vs-organic-soil-arthropods-as-bioindicators-of-ecological-sustainability-in-greenhouse-system-experiment-under-mediterranean-conditions
#15
Suzana Madzaric, F G Ceglie, L Depalo, L Al Bitar, G Mimiola, F Tittarelli, G Burgio
Organic greenhouse (OGH) production is characterized by different systems and agricultural practices with diverse environmental impact. Soil arthropods are widely used as bioindicators of ecological sustainability in open field studies, while there is a lack of research on organic production for protected systems. This study assessed the soil arthropod abundance and diversity over a 2-year crop rotation in three systems of OGH production in the Mediterranean. The systems under assessment differed in soil fertility management: SUBST - a simplified system of organic production, based on an input substitution approach (use of guano and organic liquid fertilizers), AGROCOM - soil fertility mainly based on compost application and agroecological services crops (ASC) cultivation (tailored use of cover crops) as part of crop rotation, and AGROMAN - animal manure and ASC cultivation as part of crop rotation...
November 23, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146930/previous-crop-and-rotation-history-effects-on-maize-seedling-health-and-associated-rhizosphere-microbiome
#16
Maria-Soledad Benitez, Shannon L Osborne, R Michael Lehman
To evaluate crop rotation effects on maize seedling performance and its associated microbiome, maize plants were grown in the greenhouse in soils preceded by either maize, pea, soybean or sunflower. Soils originated from a replicated field experiment evaluating different four-year rotation combinations. In the greenhouse, a stressor was introduced by soil infestation with western corn rootworm (WCR) or Fusarium graminearum. Under non-infested conditions, maize seedlings grown in soils preceded by sunflower or pea had greater vigor...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128762/stable-isotope-evidences-for-identifying-crop-water-uptake-in-a-typical-winter-wheat-summer-maize-rotation-field-in-the-north-china-plain
#17
Xin Zhao, Fadong Li, Zhipin Ai, Jing Li, Congke Gu
Better managing agricultural water resources, which are increasingly stressed by climate change and anthropogenic activities, is difficult, particularly because of variations in water uptake patterns associated with crop type and growth stage. Thus, the stable isotopes δ(18)O and δ(2)H were employed to investigate the water uptake patterns of a summer maize (Zea mays L.) and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) rotation system in the North China Plain. Based on the soil water content, soil layers were divided into four groups (0-20cm, 20-40cm, 40-120cm, and 120-200cm) using a hierarchical cluster analysis...
November 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127868/reduced-irrigation-increases-the-water-use-efficiency-and-productivity-of-winter-wheat-summer-maize-rotation-on-the-north-china-plain
#18
Yunqi Wang, Yinghua Zhang, Rui Zhang, Jinpeng Li, Meng Zhang, Shunli Zhou, Zhimin Wang
The groundwater table has fallen sharply over the last 30years on the North China Plain, resulting in a shortage of water for winter wheat irrigation. Reducing irrigation may be an important strategy to maintain agricultural sustainability in the region; however, few studies have evaluated the transition from conventional irrigation management practices to reduced irrigation management practices in the winter wheat-summer maize rotation system. Here, we compare the yield, water consumption, and water use efficiency of winter wheat-summer maize rotation under conventional irrigation and reduced irrigation on the North China Plain from 2012 to 2015...
November 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123212/influence-of-precipitation-and-crop-germination-on-resource-selection-by-mule-deer-odocoileus-hemionus-in-southwest-colorado
#19
Emily M Carrollo, Heather E Johnson, Justin W Fischer, Matthew Hammond, Patricia D Dorsey, Charles Anderson, Kurt C Vercauteren, W David Walter
Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) populations in the western United States provide many benefits to local economies but can also cause considerable damage to agriculture, particularly damage to lucrative crops. Limited information exists to understand resource selection of mule deer in response to annual variation in crop rotation and climatic conditions. We tested the hypothesis that mule deer select certain crops, and in particular sunflower, based on annual climatic variability. Our objective was to use movements, estimates of home range, and resource selection analysis to identify resources selected by mule deer...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122351/macroaggregation-and-soil-organic-carbon-restoration-in-a-highly-weathered-brazilian-oxisol-after-two-decades-under-no-till
#20
Ademir de Oliveira Ferreira, João Carlos de Moraes Sá, Rattan Lal, Florent Tivet, Clever Briedis, Thiago Massao Inagaki, Daniel Ruiz Potma Gonçalves, Jucimare Romaniw
Conclusions based on studies of the impacts of soil organic carbon (SOC) fractions and soil texture on macroaggregation and SOC stabilization in long-term (>20years) no-till (NT) fields remain debatable. This study was based on the hypothesis that the amount and frequency of biomass-C input associated with NT can be a pathway to formation of macroaggregates and to SOC buildup. The objectives were to: 1) assess the macroaggregate distribution (proportional mass, class mass) and the SOC and particulate organic carbon (POC) stocks of extra-large (8-19mm), large (2-8mm) and small (0...
November 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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