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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643581/a-white-paper-on-global-wheat-health-based-on-scenario-development-and-analysis
#1
Serge Savary, Annika Djurle, Jonathan Yuen, Andrea Ficke, Vittorio Rossi, Paul Esker, Jose M Fernandes, Emerson Del Ponte, Jatindra Kumar, Laurence V Madden, Pierce A Paul, Neil McRoberts, Pawan Kumar Singh, Laurent Huber, Claude Pope de Vallavieille, Sébastien Saint-Jean, Laetitia Willocquet
Scenario analysis constitutes a useful approach to synthesize knowledge and derive hypotheses in the case of complex systems which are documented with mainly qualitative or very diverse information. In this article, a framework for scenario analysis is designed and then, applied to global wheat health within a timeframe from today to 2050. Scenario analysis entails the choice of settings, the definition of scenarios of change, and the analysis of outcomes of these scenarios in the chosen settings. Three idealized agrosystems, representing a large fraction of the global diversity of wheat-based agrosystems, are considered, which represent the settings of the analysis...
June 23, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642779/mitigating-groundwater-depletion-in-north-china-plain-with-cropping-system-that-alternate-deep-and-shallow-rooted-crops
#2
Xiao-Lin Yang, Yuan-Quan Chen, Tammo S Steenhuis, Steven Pacenka, Wang-Sheng Gao, Li Ma, Min Zhang, Peng Sui
In the North China Plain, groundwater tables have been dropping at unsustainable rates of 1 m per year due to irrigation of a double cropping system of winter wheat and summer maize. To reverse the trend, we examined whether alternative crop rotations could save water. Moisture contents were measured weekly at 20 cm intervals in the top 180 cm of soil as part of a 12-year field experiment with four crop rotations: sweet potato→ cotton→ sweet potato→ winter wheat-summer maize (SpCSpWS, 4-year cycle); peanuts → winter wheat-summer maize (PWS, 2-year cycle); ryegrass-cotton→ peanuts→ winter wheat-summer maize (RCPWS, 3-year cycle); and winter wheat-summer maize (WS, each year)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620216/chinese-milk-vetch-improves-plant-growth-development-and-15-n-recovery-in-the-rice-based-rotation-system-of-south-china
#3
Zhijian Xie, Yaqin He, Shuxin Tu, Changxu Xu, Guangrong Liu, Huimin Wang, Weidong Cao, Hui Liu
Chinese milk vetch (CMV) is vital for agriculture and environment in China. A pot experiment combined with (15)N labeling (including three treatments: control, no fertilizer N and CMV; (15)N-labeled urea alone, (15)NU; substituting partial (15)NU with CMV, (15)NU-M) was conducted to evaluate the impact of CMV on plant growth, development and (15)NU recovery in rice-based rotation system. The (15)NU-M mitigated oxidative damage by increasing antioxidant enzymes activities and chlorophyll content while decreased malondialdehyde content in rice root and shoot, increased the biomass, total N and (15)N uptake of plant shoots by 8%, 12% and 39% respectively, thus inducing a noticeable increase of annual (15)N recovery by 77% versus (15)NU alone...
June 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603557/can-the-agricultural-aquacrop-model-simulate-water-use-and-yield-of-a-poplar-short-rotation-coppice
#4
Joanna A Horemans, Hanne Van Gaelen, Dirk Raes, Terenzio Zenone, Reinhart Ceulemans
We calibrated and evaluated the agricultural model AquaCrop for the simulation of water use and yield of a short-rotation coppice (SRC) plantation with poplar (Populus) in East Flanders (Belgium) during the second and the third rotation (first 2 years only). Differences in crop development and growth during the course of the rotations were taken into account during the model calibration. Overall, the AquaCrop model showed good performance for the daily simulation of soil water content (R(2) of 0.57-0.85), of green canopy cover (R(2) > 0...
June 2017: Global Change Biology. Bioenergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603450/changes-in-soil-organic-matter-over-70%C3%A2-years-in-continuous-arable-and-ley-arable-rotations-on-a-sandy-loam-soil-in-england
#5
A E Johnston, P R Poulton, K Coleman, A J Macdonald, R P White
The sequestration in soil of organic carbon (SOC) derived from atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) by replacing arable crops with leys, has been measured over 70 years on a sandy loam soil. The experiment was designed initially to test the effect of leys on the yields of arable crops. A 3-year grazed grass with clover (grass + clover) ley in a 5-year rotation with arable crops increased percentage organic carbon (%OC) in the top 25 cm of the soil from 0.98 to 1.23 in 28 years, but with little further increase during the next 40 years with all-grass leys given fertilizer nitrogen (N)...
May 2017: European Journal of Soil Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584528/pigeon-pea-and-cowpea-based-cropping-systems-improve-vesicular-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungal-colonisation-of-subsequent-maize-on-the-alfisols-in-central-malawi
#6
Keston O W Njira, Ernest Semu, Jerome P Mrema, Patson C Nalivata
Mycorrhizal associations contribute to the sustainability of crop production systems through their roles in nutrient cycling and other benefits in the soil-plant ecosystems. A two-year study was conducted on the Alfisols of Lilongwe and Dowa districts, Central Malawi, to assess the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungal colonisation levels in pigeon pea, cowpea, and maize grown in sole cropping, legume-cereal, and legume-legume intercropping systems and in the maize grown in short rotation (year 2) as influenced by the previous cropping systems and N fertilizer application...
2017: International Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580003/rna-interference-a-novel-source-of-resistance-to-combat-plant-parasitic-nematodes
#7
REVIEW
Sagar Banerjee, Anamika Banerjee, Sarvajeet S Gill, Om P Gupta, Anil Dahuja, Pradeep K Jain, Anil Sirohi
Plant parasitic nematodes cause severe damage and yield loss in major crops all over the world. Available control strategies include use of insecticides/nematicides but these have proved detrimental to the environment, while other strategies like crop rotation and resistant cultivars have serious limitations. This scenario provides an opportunity for the utilization of technological advances like RNA interference (RNAi) to engineer resistance against these devastating parasites. First demonstrated in the model free living nematode, Caenorhabtidis elegans; the phenomenon of RNAi has been successfully used to suppress essential genes of plant parasitic nematodes involved in parasitism, nematode development and mRNA metabolism...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579031/the-antiparasitic-activity-of-avenacosides-against-intestinal-nematodes
#8
Maria Doligalska, Kinga Jóźwicka, Katarzyna Donskow-Łysoniewska, Małgorzata Kalinowska
Avena sativa L., 1753 (Poaceae) is used as feed for livestock and as a crop rotation agent. The purpose of the study was to examine the molecular mechanisms behind the antihelminth activity of the oat saponins avenacoside B (AveB) and 26-desglucoavenacoside B (26DGAveB) by evaluating their effect on Heligmosomoides bakeri, a parasitic nematode of mice. The avenacosides AveB and 26DGAveB were separated and purified from A. sativa green leaves, and their mycotoxic activity was confirmed against the fungus Trichoderma harzianum...
July 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544252/soil-organic-carbon-dynamics-jointly-controlled-by-climate-carbon-inputs-soil-properties-and-soil-carbon-fractions
#9
Zhongkui Luo, Wenting Feng, Yiqi Luo, Jeff Baldock, Enli Wang
Soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics are regulated by the complex interplay of climatic, edaphic and biotic conditions. However, the interrelation of SOC and these drivers and their potential connection networks are rarely assessed quantitatively. Using observations of SOC dynamics with detailed soil properties from 90 field trials at 28 sites under different agroecosystems across the Australian cropping regions, we investigated the direct and indirect effects of climate, soil properties, carbon (C) inputs and soil C pools (a total of 17 variables) on SOC change rate (rC , Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1) )...
May 19, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541218/fast-post-processing-pipeline-for-optical-projection-tomography
#10
Xiaoqin Tang, Dennis V D Zwaan, Alan Zammit, Kristian F D Rietveld, Fons J Verbeek
To improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the optical projection tomography (OPT) 3D reconstruction, we presented a fast post-processing pipeline including cropping, background subtraction, center of rotation (COR) correction and 3D reconstruction. Regarding to the COR correction, a novel algorithm based on interest point detection of sinogram is proposed by considering the principle of OPT imaging. Instead of locating the COR on single sinogram, we intermittently and evenly select sinograms in the detected full range of specimen to make the located COR more convincing...
May 23, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535127/modelling-virus-coinfection-to-inform-management-of-maize-lethal-necrosis-in-kenya
#11
Frank Hilker, Linda Allen, Vrushali Bokil, Cheryl Briggs, Zhilan Feng, Karen A Garrett, Louis Gross, Frédéric Hamelin, Michael J Jeger, Carrie Manore, Alison Power, Margaret Redinbaugh, Megan Rúa, Nik J Cunniffe
Maize lethal necrosis (MLN) has emerged as a serious threat to food security in sub-Saharan Africa. MLN is caused by coinfection with two viruses, maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) and a potyvirus, often sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV). To better understand dynamics of MLN and to provide insight into disease management, we model the spread of the viruses causing MLN within and between growing seasons. The model allows for transmission via vectors, soil and seeds, as well as exogenous sources of infection. Following model parameterisation, we predict how management affects disease prevalence and crop performance over multiple seasons...
May 23, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501770/effect-of-limestone-lignite-and-biochar-applied-alone-and-combined-on-cadmium-uptake-in-wheat-and-rice-under-rotation-in-an-effluent-irrigated-field
#12
Muhammad Zia Ur Rehman, Hinnan Khalid, Fatima Akmal, Shafaqat Ali, Muhammad Rizwan, Muhammad Farooq Qayyum, Muhammad Iqbal, Muhammad Usman Khalid, Muhammad Azhar
Cadmium (Cd) uptake and accumulation in crop plants, especially in wheat (Triticum aestivum) and rice (Oryza sativa) is one of the main concerns for food security worldwide. A field experiment was done to investigate the effects of limestone, lignite, and biochar on growth, physiology and Cd uptake in wheat and rice under rotation irrigated with raw effluents. Initially, each treatment was applied alone at 0.1% and combined at 0.05% each and wheat was grown in the field and then, after wheat harvesting, rice was grown in the same field without additional application of amendments...
August 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501399/effect-of-feeding-strategies-and-cropping-systems-on-greenhouse-gas-emission-from-wisconsin-certified-organic-dairy-farms
#13
D Liang, F Sun, M A Wattiaux, V E Cabrera, J L Hedtcke, E M Silva
Organic agriculture continues to expand in the United States, both in total hectares and market share. However, management practices used by dairy organic producers, and their resulting environmental impacts, vary across farms. This study used a partial life cycle assessment approach to estimate the effect of different feeding strategies and associated crop production on greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) from Wisconsin certified organic dairy farms. Field and livestock-driven emissions were calculated using 2 data sets...
July 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497168/relationship-between-geographical-origin-seed-size-and-genetic-diversity-in-faba-bean-vicia-faba-l-as-revealed-by-ssr-markers
#14
Şurhan Göl, Sami Doğanlar, Anne Frary
Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is an important legume species because of its high protein and starch content. Broad bean can be grown in different climatic conditions and is an ideal rotation crop because of the nitrogen fixing bacteria in its roots. In this work, 255 faba bean germplasm accessions were characterized using 32 SSR primers which yielded 302 polymorphic fragments. According to the results, faba bean individuals were divided into two main groups based on the neighbor-joining algorithm (r = 0.91) with some clustering based on geographical origin as well as seed size...
May 11, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485118/relationship-between-weed-dormancy-and-herbicide-rotations-implications-in-resistance-evolution
#15
REVIEW
Henri Darmency, Nathalie Colbach, Valérie Le Corre
It was suggested that selection for late germinating seed cohorts is significantly associated to herbicide-resistance in some cropping systems. In turn, it is conceivable that rotating herbicide modes of action selects for populations with mutations for increased secondary dormancy, thus partially overcoming the delaying effect of rotation on resistance evolution. Modified seed dormancy could affect management strategies-like herbicide rotation-that are used to prevent or control herbicide-resistance. Here, we review literature for data on seed dormancy and germination dynamics of herbicide-resistant versus susceptible plants...
May 9, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463981/breaking-continuous-potato-cropping-with-legumes-improves-soil-microbial-communities-enzyme-activities-and-tuber-yield
#16
Shuhao Qin, Stephen Yeboah, Li Cao, Junlian Zhang, Shangli Shi, Yuhui Liu
This study was conducted to explore the changes in soil microbial populations, enzyme activity, and tuber yield under the rotation sequences of Potato-Common vetch (P-C), Potato-Black medic (P-B) and Potato-Longdong alfalfa (P-L) in a semi-arid area of China. The study also determined the effects of continuous potato cropping (without legumes) on the above mentioned soil properties and yield. The number of bacteria increased significantly (p < 0.05) under P-B rotation by 78%, 85% and 83% in the 2, 4 and 7-year continuous cropping soils, respectively compared to P-C rotation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455510/effects-of-fertilization-on-crop-production-and-nutrient-supplying-capacity-under-rice-oilseed-rape-rotation-system
#17
Muhammad Yousaf, Jifu Li, Jianwei Lu, Tao Ren, Rihuan Cong, Shah Fahad, Xiaokun Li
Incredible accomplishments have been achieved in agricultural production in China, but many demanding challenges for ensuring food security and environmental sustainability remain. Field experiments were conducted from 2011-2013 at three different sites, including Honghu, Shayang, and Jingzhou in China, to determine the effects of fertilization on enhancing crop productivity and indigenous nutrient-supplying capacity (INuS) in a rice (Oryza sativa L.)-rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) rotation. Four mineral fertilizer treatments (NPK, NP, NK and PK) were applied in a randomized complete block design with three replicates...
April 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454714/growth-promotion-of-peanut-arachis-hypogaea-l-and-maize-zea-mays-l-plants-by-single-and-mixed-cultures-of-efficient-phosphate-solubilizing-bacteria-that-are-tolerant-to-abiotic-stress-and-pesticides
#18
María Soledad Anzuay, María Gabriela Ruiz Ciancio, Liliana Mercedes Ludueña, Jorge Guillermo Angelini, Germán Barros, Nicolás Pastor, Tania Taurian
The aims of this study were, to analyze in vitro phosphate solubilization activity of six native peanut bacteria and to determine the effect of single and mixed inoculation of these bacteria on peanut and maize plants. Ability to produce organic acids and cofactor PQQ, to solubilize FePO4 and AlPO4 and phosphatase activity were analyzed. Also, the ability to solubilize phosphate under abiotic stress and in the presence of pesticides of the selected bacteria was determined. The effect of single and mixed bacterial inocula was analyzed on seed germination, maize plant growth and in a crop rotation plant assay with peanut and maize...
June 2017: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449326/area-wide-mass-trapping-by-pheromone-based-attractants-for-the-control-of-sugar-beet-weevil-bothynoderes-punctiventris-germar-coleoptera-curculionidae
#19
Z Drmić, M Toth, D Lemić, D Grubišić, M Pospišil, R Bažok
BACKGROUND: Due to the changing climate, narrow crop rotation, and changes in insecticide application practice, sugar beet weevil (SBW) (Bothynoderes punctiventris Germar) has become the most important economic pest in sugar beet. To develop alternative control methods, an area-wide (AW) control program using aggregation pheromones was implemented over four years on an area of 6 and 14.8 km(2) in east Croatia. RESULTS: The mass trapping of SBW on the "old" sugar beet fields reduced the population from 0...
April 27, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449073/genetics-of-phenotypic-plasticity-and-biomass-traits-in-hybrid-willows-across-contrasting-environments-and-years
#20
Sofia Berlin, Henrik R Hallingbäck, Friderike Beyer, Nils-Erik Nordh, Martin Weih, Ann-Christin Rönnberg-Wästljung
Background and Aims: Phenotypic plasticity can affect the geographical distribution of taxa and greatly impact the productivity of crops across contrasting and variable environments. The main objectives of this study were to identify genotype-phenotype associations in key biomass and phenology traits and the strength of phenotypic plasticity of these traits in a short-rotation coppice willow population across multiple years and contrasting environments to facilitate marker-assisted selection for these traits...
April 25, 2017: Annals of Botany
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