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Crop rotation

Sharon Downes, Darren Kriticos, Hazel Parry, Cate Paull, Nancy Schellhorn, Myron P Zalucki
Helicoverpa armigera is a major pest of agriculture, horticulture and floriculture throughout the old world and recently invaded parts of the new world. We overview of the evolution in thinking about the application of area-wide approaches to assist with its control by the Australian Cotton Industry to highlight important lessons and future challenges to achieving the same in the New World. An over-reliance of broad-spectrum insecticides led to Helicoverpa spp. in Australian cotton rapidly became resistant to DDT, synthetic pyrethroids, organophosphates, carbamates and endosulfan...
October 17, 2016: Pest Management Science
Muhammad Yousaf, Xiaokun Li, Zhi Zhang, Tao Ren, Rihuan Cong, Syed Tahir Ata-Ul-Karim, Shah Fahad, Adnan N Shah, Jianwei Lu
The use of efficient rates of nitrogen (N) fertilizer application is important with regard to increasing crop productivity and maintaining environmental sustainability. Rice-oilseed rape rotations are a mainstay of the economy and food security of China. Therefore, a field experiment was carried out during 2011-2013 in Honghu to identify the most appropriate N application rates for enhancing crop productivity and N use efficiency for rice (Oryza sativa L.)-oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) rotations. Six N fertilizer treatments (RO1, RO2, RO3, RO4, RO5, and RO6) were laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replicates...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Shuiqing Zhang, Shaomin Huang, Jianwei Li, Doudou Guo, Shan Lin, Guoan Lu
BACKGROUND: The carbon sequestration potential is affected by cropping system and management practices, but soil organic carbon(SOC) sequestration potential under fertilizations remains unclear in north China. This study examined SOC change, total C input to soil, and via integration of these estimates over years, C sequestration efficiency (CSE, the ratio of SOC change over C input) under no fertilization (CK), chemical nitrogen fertilizer alone (N) or combined with phosphorus and potassium fertilizers (NP, NK, PK, NPK), or chemical fertilizers combined with low or high (1...
October 8, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Jiaojiao Niu, Zhongwen Rang, Chao Zhang, Wu Chen, Feng Tian, Huaqun Yin, Linjian Dai
BACKGROUND: The interaction mechanism between crop and soil microbial communities is a key issue in both agriculture and soil ecology. However, how soil microbial communities respond to crop planting and ultimately affect crop health still remain unclear. In this research, we explored how soil microbial communities shifted during tobacco cultivation under different rotation systems (control, maize rotation, lily rotation and turnip rotation). RESULTS: Our analyses showed that soil microbial communities had a general response pattern to tobacco planting, as the abundances of Proteobacteria and Planctomycetes increased while Acidobacteria and Verrucomicrobia decreased during tobacco cultivation, no matter which rotation system was adopted...
October 6, 2016: BMC Microbiology
L Furlan, B Contiero, F Chiarini, M Colauzzi, E Sartori, I Benvegnù, F Fracasso, P Giandon
A survey of maize fields was conducted in northeast Italy from 1986 to 2014, resulting in a dataset of 1296 records including information on wireworm damage to maize, plant-attacking species, agronomic characteristics, landscape and climate. Three wireworm species, Agriotes brevis Candeze, A. sordidus Illiger and A. ustulatus Schäller, were identified as the dominant pest species in maize fields. Over the 29-year period surveyed, no yield reduction was observed when wireworm plant damage was below 15 % of the stand...
October 6, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Alexandra J Burgess, Renata Retkute, Simon P Preston, Oliver E Jensen, Michael P Pound, Tony P Pridmore, Erik H Murchie
Physical perturbation of a plant canopy brought about by wind is a ubiquitous phenomenon and yet its biological importance has often been overlooked. This is partly due to the complexity of the issue at hand: wind-induced movement (or mechanical excitation) is a stochastic process which is difficult to measure and quantify; plant motion is dependent upon canopy architectural features which, until recently, were difficult to accurately represent and model in 3-dimensions; light patterning throughout a canopy is difficult to compute at high-resolutions, especially when confounded by other environmental variables...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Peter A Turner, John M Baker, Timothy J Griffis, Rodney T Venterea
Nitrous oxide (NO), produced primarily in agricultural soils, is a potent greenhouse gas and is the dominant ozone-depleting substance. Efforts to reduce NO emissions are underway, but mitigation results have been inconsistent. The leguminous perennial kura clover ( M. Bieb.) (KC) can grow side-by-side with cash crops in rotational corn ( L.)-soybean ( L.) systems. With biological nitrogen fixation, KC provides land managers an opportunity to reduce external fertilizer inputs, which may diminish problematic NO emissions...
September 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
Sanâa Wahbi, Yves Prin, Jean Thioulouse, Hervé Sanguin, Ezékiel Baudoin, Tasnime Maghraoui, Khalid Oufdou, Christine Le Roux, Antoine Galiana, Mohamed Hafidi, Robin Duponnois
Cropping systems based on carefully designed species mixtures reveal many potential advantages in terms of enhancing crop productivity, reducing pest and diseases, and enhancing ecological services. Associating cereals and legume production either through intercropping or rotations might be a relevant strategy of producing both type of culture, while benefiting from combined nitrogen fixed by the legume through its symbiotic association with nitrogen-fixing bacteria, and from a better use of P and water through mycorrhizal associations...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Sebastián Horacio Villarino, Guillermo Alberto Studdert, Pablo Baldassini, María Gabriela Cendoya, Lucía Ciuffoli, Matias Mastrángelo, Gervasio Piñeiro
Land use change affects soil organic carbon (SOC) and generates CO2 emissions. Moreover, SOC depletion entails degradation of soil functions that support ecosystem services. Large areas covered by dry forests have been cleared in the Semiarid Chaco Region of Argentina for cropping expansion. However, deforestation impacts on the SOC stock and its distribution in the soil profile have been scarcely reported. We assessed these impacts based on the analysis of field data along a time-since-deforestation-for-cropping chronosequence, and remote sensing indices...
September 29, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Andrew J Dougill, Stephen Whitfield, Lindsay C Stringer, Katharine Vincent, Benjamin T Wood, Edna L Chinseu, Peter Steward, David D Mkwambisi
Conservation agriculture (CA) practices of reduced soil tillage, permanent organic soil coverage and intercropping/crop rotation, are being advocated globally, based on perceived benefits for crop yields, soil carbon storage, weed suppression, reduced soil erosion and improved soil water retention. However, some have questioned their efficacy due to uncertainty around the performance and trade-offs associated with CA practices, and their compatibility with the diverse livelihood strategies and varied agro-ecological conditions across African smallholder systems...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Jiaojiao Niu, Jin Chao, Yunhua Xiao, Wu Chen, Chao Zhang, Xueduan Liu, Zhongwen Rang, Huaqun Yin, Linjian Dai
Rotation is an effective strategy to control crop disease and improve plant health. However, the effects of crop rotation on soil bacterial community composition and structure, and crop health remain unclear. In this study, using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, we explored the soil bacterial communities under four different cropping systems, continuous tobacco cropping (control group), tobacco-maize rotation, tobacco-lily rotation, and tobacco-turnip rotation. Results of detrended correspondence analysis and dissimilarity tests showed that soil bacterial community composition and structure changed significantly among the four groups, such that Acidobacteria and Actinobacteria were more abundant in the maize rotation group (16...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Basic Microbiology
S M F Rabbi, H Daniel, P V Lockwood, C Macdonald, L Pereg, M Tighe, B R Wilson, I M Young
Aggregates play a key role in protecting soil organic carbon (SOC) from microbial decomposition. The objectives of this study were to investigate the influence of pore geometry on the organic carbon decomposition rate and bacterial diversity in both macro- (250-2000 μm) and micro-aggregates (53-250 μm) using field samples. Four sites of contrasting land use on Alfisols (i.e. native pasture, crop/pasture rotation, woodland) were investigated. 3D Pore geometry of the micro-aggregates and macro-aggregates were examined by X-ray computed tomography (μCT)...
2016: Scientific Reports
Pavel Tlustoš, Michal Hejcman, Martin Hůlka, Michaela Patáková, Eva Kunzová, Jiřina Száková
Crop rotation long-term field experiments were established in 1955 and 1956 at three locations in the Czech Republic (Čáslav, Ivanovice, and Lukavec) differing in their climatic and soil physicochemical properties. The effect of long-term application of farmyard manure and farmyard manure + NPK treatments on plant-available, easily mobilizable, potentially mobilizable, and pseudo-total contents of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) contents in soils (in 2013) as well as the uptake of these elements by winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L...
September 10, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Lijin Guo, Shixue Zheng, Cougui Cao, Chengfang Li
The objective of this study was to investigate how the relationships between bacterial communities and organic C (SOC) in topsoil (0-5 cm) are affected by tillage practices [conventional intensive tillage (CT) or no-tillage (NT)] and straw-returning methods [crop straw returning (S) or removal (NS)] under a rice-wheat rotation in central China. Soil bacterial communities were determined by high-throughput sequencing technology. After two cycles of annual rice-wheat rotation, compared with CT treatments, NT treatments generally had significantly more bacterial genera and monounsaturated fatty acids/saturated fatty acids (MUFA/STFA), but a decreased gram-positive bacteria/gram-negative bacteria ratio (G(+)/G(-))...
2016: Scientific Reports
Annette M Fahrenkrog, Leandro G Neves, Márcio F R Resende, Ana I Vazquez, Gustavo de Los Campos, Christopher Dervinis, Robert Sykes, Mark Davis, Ruth Davenport, William B Barbazuk, Matias Kirst
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been used extensively to dissect the genetic regulation of complex traits in plants. These studies have focused largely on the analysis of common genetic variants despite the abundance of rare polymorphisms in several species, and their potential role in trait variation. Here, we conducted the first GWAS in Populus deltoides, a genetically diverse keystone forest species in North America and an important short rotation woody crop for the bioenergy industry. We searched for associations between eight growth and wood composition traits, and common and low-frequency single-nucleotide polymorphisms detected by targeted resequencing of 18 153 genes in a population of 391 unrelated individuals...
September 6, 2016: New Phytologist
Braden G Evans, Rebecca H Hallett
Management of the swede midge, Contarinia nasturtii Kieffer, in North American crucifer production relies on crop rotation and the timely application of synthetic insecticides, based on pheromone trap monitoring of local adult populations. Organically acceptable formulations of azadirachtin, pyrethrin, and spinosad, and a commercial biopesticide containing the entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana, were evaluated for their effects on larval mortality and oviposition deterrence in the greenhouse, and on damage symptoms in the field...
October 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
Henry S Nzioki, Florence Oyosi, Cindy E Morris, Eylul Kaya, Alice L Pilgeram, Claire S Baker, David C Sands
Striga hermonthica (witchweed) is a parasitic weed that attacks and significantly reduces the yields of maize, sorghum, millet, and sugarcane throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Low cost management methods such as hand weeding, short crop rotations, trap cropping, or conventional biocontrol have not been effective. Likewise, Striga-tolerant or herbicide-resistant maize cultivars are higher yielding, but are often beyond the economic means of sustenance farmers. The fungal pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. strigae, has been the object of numerous studies to develop Striga biocontrol...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Mike W Dunbar, Aaron J Gassmann, Matthew E O'Neal
Crop rotation alters agroecosystem diversity temporally, and increasing the number of crops in rotation schemes can increase crop yields and reduce reliance on pesticides. We hypothesized that increasing the number of crops in annual rotation schemes would positively affect ground-dwelling beneficial arthropod communities. During 2012 and 2013, pitfall traps were used to measure activity-density and diversity of ground-dwelling communities within three previously established, long-term crop rotation studies located in Wisconsin and Illinois...
October 2016: Environmental Entomology
Yan Xie, Xi Chen, Zheng-hua Hu, Shu-tao Chen, Han Zhang, Hui Ling, Shuang-he Shen
Field experiments including one soybean growing season and one winter-wheat growing season were adopted. The experimental field was divided into four equal-area sub-blocks which differed from each other only in tillage managements, which were conventional tillage (T) , no-tillage with no straw cover ( NT) , conventional tillage with straw cover (TS) , and no-tillage with straw cover (NTS). CO₂ and N₂O emission fluxes from soil-crop system were measured by static chamber-gas chromatograph technique. The results showed that: compared with T, in the soybean growing season, NTS significantly increased the cumulative amount of CO₂ (CAC) from soil-soybean system by 27...
April 15, 2016: Huan Jing Ke Xue= Huanjing Kexue
Henrik R Hallingbäck, Johan Fogelqvist, Stephen J Powers, Juan Turrion-Gomez, Rachel Rossiter, Joanna Amey, Tom Martin, Martin Weih, Niclas Gyllenstrand, Angela Karp, Ulf Lagercrantz, Steven J Hanley, Sofia Berlin, Ann-Christin Rönnberg-Wästljung
Willow species (Salix) are important as short-rotation biomass crops for bioenergy, which creates a demand for faster genetic improvement and breeding through deployment of molecular marker-assisted selection (MAS). To find markers associated with important adaptive traits, such as growth and phenology, for use in MAS, we genetically dissected the trait variation of a Salix viminalis (L.) population of 323 accessions. The accessions were sampled throughout northern Europe and were established at two field sites in Pustnäs, Sweden, and at Woburn, UK, offering the opportunity to assess the impact of genotype-by-environment interactions (G × E) on trait-marker associations...
May 2016: Global Change Biology. Bioenergy
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