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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208114/efficient-degradation-of-chlorimuron-ethyl-by-a-bacterial-consortium-and-shifts-in-the-aboriginal-microorganism-community-during-the-bioremediation-of-contaminated-soil
#1
Chunyan Li, Tongyang Lv, Wanjun Liu, Hailian Zang, Yi Cheng, Dapeng Li
Excessive application of chlorimuron-ethyl has led to soil contamination and limited crop rotation; therefore, tactics to decrease and eliminate residual chlorimuron-ethyl in the environment have attracted increasing attention. In this study, two chlorimuron-ethyl-degrading bacterial strains (Rhodococcus sp. D310-1; Enterobacter sp. D310-5) were used to ferment and prepare a chlorimuron-ethyl-degrading bacterial consortium. To improve the degradation efficiency of the bacterial consortium, the cultivation conditions were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM)...
February 13, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203419/diagnosis-of-mitral-valve-cleft-using-real-time-3-dimensional-echocardiography
#2
Xinchun Yuan, Aiyun Zhou, Li Chen, Cheng Zhang, Yan Zhang, Pan Xu
BACKGROUND: Mitral valve cleft (MVC) is the most common cause of congenital mitral insufficiency, and MVC may occur alone or in association with other congenital heart lesions. Direct suture and valvuloplasty are the major and effective treatments for mitral regurgitation (MR) caused by MVC. Therefore, it is important to determine the location and magnitude of the pathological damage due to MVC when selecting a surgical procedure for treatment. This study explored the application value of transthoracic real-time 3-dimensional (3D) echocardiography (RT-3DE) in the diagnosis of MVC...
January 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177405/biochar-impacts-on-crop-productivity-and-greenhouse-gas-emissions-from-an-andosol
#3
Nobuhisa Koga, Seiji Shimoda, Yukiyoshi Iwata
To assess the impacts of biochar application on crop productivity and global warming mitigation, a 4-yr field experiment was conducted in a well-drained Andosol in northern Japan. Wood residue-derived biochar (pyrolyzed at >800°C) was applied at rates of 0, 10, 20, and 40 Mg ha for potatoes, winter wheat, sugar beet, and soybeans cultivated in rotation, and CO, NO, and CH emissions from the soil and yield and quality of the harvested materials were measured. Biochar application, regardless of rate, had no significant impact on yield and quality of the harvested materials, except for soybean grain yield...
January 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176865/nitrate-leaching-in-a-winter-wheat-summer-maize-rotation-on-a-calcareous-soil-as-affected-by-nitrogen-and-straw-management
#4
Tao Huang, Xiaotang Ju, Hao Yang
Nitrate leaching is one of the most important pathways of nitrogen (N) loss which leads to groundwater contamination or surface water eutrophication. Clarifying the rates, controlling factors and characteristics of nitrate leaching is the pre-requisite for proposing effective mitigation strategies. We investigated the effects of interactions among chemical N fertilizer, straw and manure applications on nitrogen leaching in an intensively managed calcareous Fluvo-aquic soil with winter wheat-summer maize cropping rotations on the North China Plain from October 2010 to September 2013 using ceramic suction cups and seepage water calculations based on a long-term field experiment...
February 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163993/herbicide-resistance-and-biodiversity-agronomic-and-environmental-aspects-of-genetically-modified-herbicide-resistant-plants
#5
REVIEW
Gesine Schütte, Michael Eckerstorfer, Valentina Rastelli, Wolfram Reichenbecher, Sara Restrepo-Vassalli, Marja Ruohonen-Lehto, Anne-Gabrielle Wuest Saucy, Martha Mertens
Farmland biodiversity is an important characteristic when assessing sustainability of agricultural practices and is of major international concern. Scientific data indicate that agricultural intensification and pesticide use are among the main drivers of biodiversity loss. The analysed data and experiences do not support statements that herbicide-resistant crops provide consistently better yields than conventional crops or reduce herbicide amounts. They rather show that the adoption of herbicide-resistant crops impacts agronomy, agricultural practice, and weed management and contributes to biodiversity loss in several ways: (i) many studies show that glyphosate-based herbicides, which were commonly regarded as less harmful, are toxic to a range of aquatic organisms and adversely affect the soil and intestinal microflora and plant disease resistance; the increased use of 2,4-D or dicamba, linked to new herbicide-resistant crops, causes special concerns...
2017: Environmental Sciences Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146562/hip-hop-dance-experience-linked-to-sociocognitive-ability
#6
Justin W Bonny, Jenna C Lindberg, Marc C Pacampara
Expertise within gaming (e.g., chess, video games) and kinesthetic (e.g., sports, classical dance) activities has been found to be linked with specific cognitive skills. Some of these skills, working memory, mental rotation, problem solving, are linked to higher performance in science, technology, math, and engineering (STEM) disciplines. In the present study, we examined whether experience in a different activity, hip hop dance, is also linked to cognitive abilities connected with STEM skills as well as social cognition ability...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112904/reducing-freshwater-toxicity-while-maintaining-weed-control-profits-and-productivity-effects-of-increased-crop-rotation-diversity-and-reduced-herbicide-usage
#7
Natalie D Hunt, Jason D Hill, Matt Liebman
Increasing crop rotation diversity while reducing herbicide applications may maintain effective weed control while reducing freshwater toxicity. To test this hypothesis, we applied the model USEtox 2.0 to data from a long-term Iowa field experiment that included three crop rotation systems: a 2-year corn-soybean sequence, a 3-year corn-soybean-oat/red clover sequence, and 4-year corn-soybean-oat/alfalfa-alfalfa sequence. Corn and soybean in each rotation were managed with conventional or low-herbicide regimes...
January 23, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103037/effects-of-different-forms-of-selenium-fertilizers-on-se-accumulation-distribution-and-residual-effect-in-winter-wheat-summer-maize-rotation-system
#8
Qi Wang, Yao Yu, Jixiang Li, Yanan Wan, Qingqing Huang, Yanbin Guo, Huafen Li
Foliar Se fertilizers were applied to investigate the effects of Se forms on Se accumulation and distribution in the wheat-maize rotation system and residual concentration of Se in subsequent crops. Sodium selenite, sodium selenate, selenomethionine, chemical nano-Se, humic acid + sodium selenite, and compound fertilizer + sodium selenite were applied once at the flowering stage of wheat (30 g ha(-1)) and at the bell stage of maize (60 g ha(-1)). Compared with the control treatment, foliar Se applications significant increased the grain Se concentration of wheat and maize by 0...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096409/field-scale-experiments-reveal-persistent-yield-gaps-in-low-input-and-organic-cropping-systems
#9
Alexandra N Kravchenko, Sieglinde S Snapp, G Philip Robertson
Knowledge of production-system performance is largely based on observations at the experimental plot scale. Although yield gaps between plot-scale and field-scale research are widely acknowledged, their extent and persistence have not been experimentally examined in a systematic manner. At a site in southwest Michigan, we conducted a 6-y experiment to test the accuracy with which plot-scale crop-yield results can inform field-scale conclusions. We compared conventional versus alternative, that is, reduced-input and biologically based-organic, management practices for a corn-soybean-wheat rotation in a randomized complete block-design experiment, using 27 commercial-size agricultural fields...
January 31, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047451/su-f-i-05-dose-symmetry-for-ctdi-equivalent-measurements-with-limited-angle-cbct
#10
V Singh, S McKenney, P Sunde, W Feng, D Bakalyar
PURPOSE: CTDI measurements, useful for characterizing the x-ray output for multi-detector CT (MDCT), require a 360° rotation of the gantry; this presents a problem for cone beam CT (CBCT) due to its limited angular rotation. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate a methodology for overcoming this limited angular rotation so that CTDI measurements can also be made on CBCT systems making it possible to compare the radiation output from both types of system with a common metric. METHODS: The symmetry of the CTDI phantom allows a 360° CTDI measurement to be replaced with two 180° measurements...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028167/potato-psyllid-hemiptera-triozidae-response-to-insecticides-under-controlled-greenhouse-conditions
#11
E R Echegaray, A C Vinchesi, S I Rondon, J M Alvarez, N McKinley
Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) is a common pest of solanaceous crops largely known for vectoring "psyllid yellows" in potatoes. In recent years, however, this pest has attracted considerable attention for vectoring Zebra Chip, a devastating bacterial disease that was first reported in the United States in 2004 and has spread across the southern and northwestern states, causing significant economic losses to potato growers and the industry. Management of the disease is mainly achieved by reducing the psyllid population using insecticides, including pyrethroids and neonicotinoids; however, new insecticides with different modes of action are needed to avoid the acquisition of resistance...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025787/lodging-stress-in-cereal-effects-and-management-an-overview
#12
Adnan Noor Shah, Mohsin Tanveer, Atique Ur Rehman, Shakeel Ahmad Anjum, Javaid Iqbal, Riaz Ahmad
Uncertainty in climatic and weather conditions may result in lodging. Lodging is a most chronic constraint, which is causing tremendous yield reduction in crop plants; therefore, better understanding to control lodging-induced adversities or to enhance lodging resistance in cereals is imperative. In this review, we presented a contemporary synthesis of the existing data regarding the effects of lodging on growth and yield of cereals. Moreover, we highlighted key factors which trigger the detrimental effects of lodging in cereals...
December 26, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017419/integrating-remote-sensing-with-nutrient-management-plans-to-calculate-nitrogen-parameters-for-swine-cafos-at-the-sprayfield-and-sub-watershed-scales
#13
Elizabeth C Christenson, Marc L Serre
North Carolina (NC) regulates swine concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) using five-year nutrient management plans (NMPs) requiring the plant available nitrogen sprayed (PANspray) to be less than that utilized by crops (PANcrops), i.e. the PAN balance (defined as PANbal=PANspray-PANcrops) remains negative, which avoids over-spraying liquid effluent onto crops. Objectives of this research are first to characterize Duplin County sprayfields and PANbal by creating the first, open-source sprayfield spatial database created for swine CAFOs in NC (for Duplin County)...
December 22, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991715/impact-of-glyphosate-resistant-sugar-beet
#14
REVIEW
Don W Morishita
Glyphosate-resistant (GR) sugar beet became commercially available to US sugar beet growers in 2008 and was rapidly adopted. Prior to the availability of GR sugar beet, growers would commonly make three to five herbicide applications. This often resulted in some crop injury, but was accepted to reduce the impact of weeds. In addition, non-GR sugar beet was cultivated one to three times and often followed by hand weeding. The introduction of GR sugar beet drastically reduced the complexity of weed management...
December 19, 2016: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981594/enhanced-yields-and-soil-quality-in-a-wheat-maize-rotation-using-buried-straw-mulch
#15
Zhibin Guo, Hui Liu, Shuixia Wan, Keke Hua, Chaoqiang Jiang, Daozhong Wang, Chuanlong He, Xisheng Guo
BACKGROUND: Straw return may improve soil quality and crop yields. In a two-year field study, a straw return method (ditch-buried straw return, DB-SR) was used to investigate the soil quality and crop productivity effects on a wheat-corn rotation system. This study consisted of three treatments, each with three replicates: (1) mineral fertilization alone (CK0); (2) mineral fertilization + 7500 kg ha(-1) wheat straw incorporated at depth of 0-15 cm (NPKWS); and (3) mineral fertilization + 7500 kg ha(-1) wheat straw ditch buried at 15-30 cm (NPKDW)...
December 16, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973585/impacts-of-steel-slag-based-silicate-fertilizer-on-soil-acidity-and-silicon-availability-and-metals-immobilization-in-a-paddy-soil
#16
Dongfeng Ning, Yongchao Liang, Zhandong Liu, Junfu Xiao, Aiwang Duan
Slag-based silicate fertilizer has been widely used to improve soil silicon- availability and crop productivity. A consecutive early rice-late rice rotation experiment was conducted to test the impacts of steel slag on soil pH, silicon availability, rice growth and metals-immobilization in paddy soil. Our results show that application of slag at a rate above higher or equal to 1 600 mg plant-available SiO2 per kg soil increased soil pH, dry weight of rice straw and grain, plant-available Si concentration and Si concentration in rice shoots compared with the control treatment...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942079/heavy-metals-in-water-percolating-through-soil-fertilized-with-biodegradable-waste-materials
#17
Jadwiga Wierzbowska, Stanisław Sienkiewicz, Sławomir Krzebietke, Teresa Bowszys
The influence of manure and composts on the leaching of heavy metals from soil was evaluated in a model lysimeter experiment under controlled conditions. Soil samples were collected from experimental fields, from 0- to 90-cm layers retaining the layout of the soil profile layers, after the second crop rotation cycle with the following plant species: potatoes, spring barley, winter rapeseed, and winter wheat. During the field experiment, 20 t DM/ha of manure, municipal sewage sludge composted with straw (SSCS), composted sewage sludge (SSC), dried granular sewage sludge (DGSS), "Dano" compost made from non-segregated municipal waste (CMMW), and compost made from municipal green waste (CUGW) was applied, i...
2016: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938858/rhizospheric-soil-and-root-endogenous-fungal-diversity-and-composition-in-response-to-continuous-panax-notoginseng-cropping-practices
#18
Yong Tan, Yinshan Cui, Haoyu Li, Anxiu Kuang, Xiaoran Li, Yunlin Wei, Xiuling Ji
Rhizosphere and endophytic fungal communities are considered critically important for plant health and soil fertility. In response to continuous cropping, Panax notoginseng becomes vulnerable to attack by fungal pathogens. In the present study, culture-independent Illumina MiSeq was used to investigate the rhizospheric and root endophytic fungi in response to continuous Panax notoginseng cropping practices. The results demonstrated that fungal diversity is increased inside the roots and in rhizospheric. Ascomycota, Zygomycota, Basidiomycota and Chytridiomycota were the dominant phyla detected during the continuous cropping of Panax notoginseng...
January 2017: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927992/nitrogen-sensing-in-legumes
#19
REVIEW
Jeremy D Murray, Cheng-Wu Liu, Yi Chen, Anthony J Miller
Legumes fix atmospheric nitrogen (N) in a symbiotic relationship with bacteria. For this reason, although legume crops can be low yielding and less profitable when compared with cereals, they are frequently included in crop rotations. Grain legumes form only a minor part of most human diets, and legume crops are greatly underutilized. Food security and soil fertility could be significantly improved by greater grain legume usage and increased improvement of a range of grain legumes. One limitation for the use of legumes as a source of N input into agricultural systems is the fact that the formation of N-fixing nodules is suppressed when soils are replete with n...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913871/n2o-emission-characteristics-and-its-affecting-factors-in-rain-fed-potato-fields-in-wuchuan-county-china
#20
Liwei Wang, Cheng Wang, Zhihua Pan, Hui Xu, Lin Gao, Peiyi Zhao, Zhiqiang Dong, Jingting Zhang, Guohui Cui, Sen Wang, Guolin Han, Hui Zhao
Representing an important greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from cultivated land is a hot topic in current climate change research. This study examined the influences of nitrogen fertilisation, temperature and soil moisture on the ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) gene copy numbers and N2O emission characteristics. The experimental observation of N2O fluxes was based on the static chamber-gas chromatographic method. The ammonia-oxidising bacteria (AOB) and ammonia-oxidising archaea (AOA) gene copy numbers in different periods were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
December 3, 2016: International Journal of Biometeorology
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