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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096409/field-scale-experiments-reveal-persistent-yield-gaps-in-low-input-and-organic-cropping-systems
#1
Alexandra N Kravchenko, Sieglinde S Snapp, G Philip Robertson
Knowledge of production-system performance is largely based on observations at the experimental plot scale. Although yield gaps between plot-scale and field-scale research are widely acknowledged, their extent and persistence have not been experimentally examined in a systematic manner. At a site in southwest Michigan, we conducted a 6-y experiment to test the accuracy with which plot-scale crop-yield results can inform field-scale conclusions. We compared conventional versus alternative, that is, reduced-input and biologically based-organic, management practices for a corn-soybean-wheat rotation in a randomized complete block-design experiment, using 27 commercial-size agricultural fields...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047451/su-f-i-05-dose-symmetry-for-ctdi-equivalent-measurements-with-limited-angle-cbct
#2
V Singh, S McKenney, P Sunde, W Feng, D Bakalyar
PURPOSE: CTDI measurements, useful for characterizing the x-ray output for multi-detector CT (MDCT), require a 360° rotation of the gantry; this presents a problem for cone beam CT (CBCT) due to its limited angular rotation. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate a methodology for overcoming this limited angular rotation so that CTDI measurements can also be made on CBCT systems making it possible to compare the radiation output from both types of system with a common metric. METHODS: The symmetry of the CTDI phantom allows a 360° CTDI measurement to be replaced with two 180° measurements...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028167/potato-psyllid-hemiptera-triozidae-response-to-insecticides-under-controlled-greenhouse-conditions
#3
E R Echegaray, A C Vinchesi, S I Rondon, J M Alvarez, N McKinley
Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) is a common pest of solanaceous crops largely known for vectoring "psyllid yellows" in potatoes. In recent years, however, this pest has attracted considerable attention for vectoring Zebra Chip, a devastating bacterial disease that was first reported in the United States in 2004 and has spread across the southern and northwestern states, causing significant economic losses to potato growers and the industry. Management of the disease is mainly achieved by reducing the psyllid population using insecticides, including pyrethroids and neonicotinoids; however, new insecticides with different modes of action are needed to avoid the acquisition of resistance...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025787/lodging-stress-in-cereal-effects-and-management-an-overview
#4
Adnan Noor Shah, Mohsin Tanveer, Atique Ur Rehman, Shakeel Ahmad Anjum, Javaid Iqbal, Riaz Ahmad
Uncertainty in climatic and weather conditions may result in lodging. Lodging is a most chronic constraint, which is causing tremendous yield reduction in crop plants; therefore, better understanding to control lodging-induced adversities or to enhance lodging resistance in cereals is imperative. In this review, we presented a contemporary synthesis of the existing data regarding the effects of lodging on growth and yield of cereals. Moreover, we highlighted key factors which trigger the detrimental effects of lodging in cereals...
December 26, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017419/integrating-remote-sensing-with-nutrient-management-plans-to-calculate-nitrogen-parameters-for-swine-cafos-at-the-sprayfield-and-sub-watershed-scales
#5
Elizabeth C Christenson, Marc L Serre
North Carolina (NC) regulates swine concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) using five-year nutrient management plans (NMPs) requiring the plant available nitrogen sprayed (PANspray) to be less than that utilized by crops (PANcrops), i.e. the PAN balance (defined as PANbal=PANspray-PANcrops) remains negative, which avoids over-spraying liquid effluent onto crops. Objectives of this research are first to characterize Duplin County sprayfields and PANbal by creating the first, open-source sprayfield spatial database created for swine CAFOs in NC (for Duplin County)...
December 22, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991715/impact-of-glyphosate-resistant-sugar-beet
#6
REVIEW
Don W Morishita
Glyphosate-resistant (GR) sugar beet became commercially available to US sugar beet growers in 2008 and was rapidly adopted. Prior to the availability of GR sugar beet, growers would commonly make three to five herbicide applications. This often resulted in some crop injury, but was accepted to reduce the impact of weeds. In addition, non-GR sugar beet was cultivated one to three times and often followed by hand weeding. The introduction of GR sugar beet drastically reduced the complexity of weed management...
December 19, 2016: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981594/enhanced-yields-and-soil-quality-in-a-wheat-maize-rotation-using-buried-straw-mulch
#7
Zhibin Guo, Hui Liu, Shuixia Wan, Keke Hua, Chaoqiang Jiang, Daozhong Wang, Chuanlong He, Xisheng Guo
BACKGROUND: Straw return may improve soil quality and crop yields. In a two-year field study, a straw return method (ditch-buried straw return, DB-SR) was used to investigate the soil quality and crop productivity effects on a wheat-corn rotation system. This study consisted of three treatments, each with three replicates: (1) mineral fertilization alone (CK0); (2) mineral fertilization + 7500 kg ha(-1) wheat straw incorporated at depth of 0-15 cm (NPKWS); and (3) mineral fertilization + 7500 kg ha(-1) wheat straw ditch buried at 15-30 cm (NPKDW)...
December 16, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973585/impacts-of-steel-slag-based-silicate-fertilizer-on-soil-acidity-and-silicon-availability-and-metals-immobilization-in-a-paddy-soil
#8
Dongfeng Ning, Yongchao Liang, Zhandong Liu, Junfu Xiao, Aiwang Duan
Slag-based silicate fertilizer has been widely used to improve soil silicon- availability and crop productivity. A consecutive early rice-late rice rotation experiment was conducted to test the impacts of steel slag on soil pH, silicon availability, rice growth and metals-immobilization in paddy soil. Our results show that application of slag at a rate above higher or equal to 1 600 mg plant-available SiO2 per kg soil increased soil pH, dry weight of rice straw and grain, plant-available Si concentration and Si concentration in rice shoots compared with the control treatment...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942079/heavy-metals-in-water-percolating-through-soil-fertilized-with-biodegradable-waste-materials
#9
Jadwiga Wierzbowska, Stanisław Sienkiewicz, Sławomir Krzebietke, Teresa Bowszys
The influence of manure and composts on the leaching of heavy metals from soil was evaluated in a model lysimeter experiment under controlled conditions. Soil samples were collected from experimental fields, from 0- to 90-cm layers retaining the layout of the soil profile layers, after the second crop rotation cycle with the following plant species: potatoes, spring barley, winter rapeseed, and winter wheat. During the field experiment, 20 t DM/ha of manure, municipal sewage sludge composted with straw (SSCS), composted sewage sludge (SSC), dried granular sewage sludge (DGSS), "Dano" compost made from non-segregated municipal waste (CMMW), and compost made from municipal green waste (CUGW) was applied, i...
2016: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938858/rhizospheric-soil-and-root-endogenous-fungal-diversity-and-composition-in-response-to-continuous-panax-notoginseng-cropping-practices
#10
Yong Tan, Yinshan Cui, Haoyu Li, Anxiu Kuang, Xiaoran Li, Yunlin Wei, Xiuling Ji
Rhizosphere and endophytic fungal communities are considered critically important for plant health and soil fertility. In response to continuous cropping, Panax notoginseng becomes vulnerable to attack by fungal pathogens. In the present study, culture-independent Illumina MiSeq was used to investigate the rhizospheric and root endophytic fungi in response to continuous Panax notoginseng cropping practices. The results demonstrated that fungal diversity is increased inside the roots and in rhizospheric. Ascomycota, Zygomycota, Basidiomycota and Chytridiomycota were the dominant phyla detected during the continuous cropping of Panax notoginseng...
January 2017: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927992/nitrogen-sensing-in-legumes
#11
REVIEW
Jeremy D Murray, Cheng-Wu Liu, Yi Chen, Anthony J Miller
Legumes fix atmospheric nitrogen (N) in a symbiotic relationship with bacteria. For this reason, although legume crops can be low yielding and less profitable when compared with cereals, they are frequently included in crop rotations. Grain legumes form only a minor part of most human diets, and legume crops are greatly underutilized. Food security and soil fertility could be significantly improved by greater grain legume usage and increased improvement of a range of grain legumes. One limitation for the use of legumes as a source of N input into agricultural systems is the fact that the formation of N-fixing nodules is suppressed when soils are replete with n...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913871/n2o-emission-characteristics-and-its-affecting-factors-in-rain-fed-potato-fields-in-wuchuan-county-china
#12
Liwei Wang, Cheng Wang, Zhihua Pan, Hui Xu, Lin Gao, Peiyi Zhao, Zhiqiang Dong, Jingting Zhang, Guohui Cui, Sen Wang, Guolin Han, Hui Zhao
Representing an important greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from cultivated land is a hot topic in current climate change research. This study examined the influences of nitrogen fertilisation, temperature and soil moisture on the ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) gene copy numbers and N2O emission characteristics. The experimental observation of N2O fluxes was based on the static chamber-gas chromatographic method. The ammonia-oxidising bacteria (AOB) and ammonia-oxidising archaea (AOA) gene copy numbers in different periods were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
December 3, 2016: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898792/soybean-area-and-baseflow-driving-nitrate-in-iowa-s-raccoon-river
#13
Gabriele Villarini, Christopher S Jones, Keith E Schilling
Improved understanding of the drivers of stream nitrate is necessary to improve water quality. This is particularly true for Iowa, a large contributor to Mississippi River Basin nitrate loads. Here, we focus on the Raccoon River at Des Moines, Iowa, and develop statistical models to describe the monthly (from March to August) nitrate concentrations in terms of eight drivers representing monthly climate, monthly hydrology, and yearly cropping practices. We consider six two-parameter distributions, linear and nonlinear dependencies between the predictors, and the distributions' parameters...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891133/modeling-long-term-corn-yield-response-to-nitrogen-rate-and-crop-rotation
#14
Laila A Puntel, John E Sawyer, Daniel W Barker, Ranae Dietzel, Hanna Poffenbarger, Michael J Castellano, Kenneth J Moore, Peter Thorburn, Sotirios V Archontoulis
Improved prediction of optimal N fertilizer rates for corn (Zea mays L.) can reduce N losses and increase profits. We tested the ability of the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM) to simulate corn and soybean (Glycine max L.) yields, the economic optimum N rate (EONR) using a 16-year field-experiment dataset from central Iowa, USA that included two crop sequences (continuous corn and soybean-corn) and five N fertilizer rates (0, 67, 134, 201, and 268 kg N ha(-1)) applied to corn. Our objectives were to: (a) quantify model prediction accuracy before and after calibration, and report calibration steps; (b) compare crop model-based techniques in estimating optimal N rate for corn; and (c) utilize the calibrated model to explain factors causing year to year variability in yield and optimal N...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878079/microbial-community-responses-to-soil-tillage-and-crop-rotation-in-a-corn-soybean-agroecosystem
#15
Chris R Smith, Peter L Blair, Charlie Boyd, Brianne Cody, Alexander Hazel, Ashley Hedrick, Hitesh Kathuria, Parul Khurana, Brent Kramer, Kristin Muterspaw, Charles Peck, Emily Sells, Jessica Skinner, Cara Tegeler, Zoe Wolfe
The acreage planted in corn and soybean crops is vast, and these crops contribute substantially to the world economy. The agricultural practices employed for farming these crops have major effects on ecosystem health at a worldwide scale. The microbial communities living in agricultural soils significantly contribute to nutrient uptake and cycling and can have both positive and negative impacts on the crops growing with them. In this study, we examined the impact of the crop planted and soil tillage on nutrient levels, microbial communities, and the biochemical pathways present in the soil...
November 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870865/land-use-yield-and-quality-changes-of-minor-field-crops-is-there-superseded-potential-to-be-reinvented-in-northern-europe
#16
Pirjo Peltonen-Sainio, Lauri Jauhiainen, Heikki Lehtonen
Diversification of agriculture was one of the strengthened aims of the greening payment of European Agricultural Policy (CAP) as diversification provides numerous ecosystems services compared to cereal-intensive crop rotations. This study focuses on current minor crops in Finland that have potential for expanded production and considers changes in their cropping areas, yield trends, breeding gains, roles in crop rotations and potential for improving resilience. Long-term datasets of Natural Resources Institute Finland and farmers' land use data from the Agency of Rural Affairs were used to analyze the above-mentioned trends and changes...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867504/short-rotation-plantations-policy-history-in-europe-lessons-from-the-past-and-recommendations-for-the-future
#17
REVIEW
Kevin N Lindegaard, Paul W R Adams, Martin Holley, Annette Lamley, Annika Henriksson, Stig Larsson, Hans-Georg von Engelbrechten, Gonzalo Esteban Lopez, Marcin Pisarek
Short rotation plantations (SRPs) are fast-growing trees (such as willow (Salix spp.), poplar (Populus spp.) and Eucalyptus) grown closely together and harvested in periods of 2-20 years. There are around 50,000 hectares of SRPs in Europe, a relatively small area considering that there have been supportive policy measures in many countries for 30 years. This paper looks at the effect that the policy measures used in different EU countries have had, and how other external factors have impacted on the development of the industry...
August 2016: Food and energy security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867421/dedicated-biomass-crops-can-enhance-biodiversity-in-the-arable-landscape
#18
Alison J Haughton, David A Bohan, Suzanne J Clark, Mark D Mallott, Victoria Mallott, Rufus Sage, Angela Karp
Suggestions that novel, non-food, dedicated biomass crops used to produce bioenergy may provide opportunities to diversify and reinstate biodiversity in intensively managed farmland have not yet been fully tested at the landscape scale. Using two of the largest, currently available landscape-scale biodiversity data sets from arable and biomass bioenergy crops, we take a taxonomic and functional trait approach to quantify and contrast the consequences for biodiversity indicators of adopting dedicated biomass crops on land previously cultivated under annual, rotational arable cropping...
November 2016: Global Change Biology. Bioenergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863773/simulating-the-environmental-performance-of-post-harvest-management-measures-to-comply-with-the-eu-nitrates-directive
#19
J De Waele, K D'Haene, J Salomez, G Hofman, S De Neve
Nitrate (NO3(-)) leaching from farmland remains the predominant source of nitrogen (N) loads to European ground- and surface water. As soil mineral N content at harvest is often high and may increase by mineralisation from crop residues and soil organic matter, it is critical to understand which post-harvest management measures can be taken to restrict the average NO3(-) concentration in ground- and surface waters below the norm of 50 mg l(-1). Nitrate leaching was simulated with the EU-rotate_N model on a silty and a sandy soil following the five main arable crops cultivated in Flanders: cut grassland, silage maize, potatoes, sugar beets and winter wheat, in scenarios of optimum fertilisation with and without post-harvest measures...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853184/temporal-dynamics-population-characterization-and-mycotoxins-accumulation-of-fusarium-graminearum-in-eastern-china
#20
Jian-Bo Qiu, Jing-Tao Sun, Ming-Zheng Yu, Jian-Hong Xu, Jian-Rong Shi
Trichothecene genotype composition, mycotoxin production, genetic diversity, and population structure were analyzed, using 185 Fusarium strains collected from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) throughout the Jiangsu province during 1976, 1983, 1998, 2006, and 2014. The results showed that 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3ADON) was consistently the predominant type in this region over 40 years, and the nivalenol (NIV) type has emerged since 1998. Long-term rotation of wheat and rice (Oryza sativa L.), rather than fungicide application, crop fitness, or weather conditions, might be the main cause of this phenomenon...
November 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
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