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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722756/effects-of-alternative-cropping-systems-on-globe-artichoke-qualitative-traits
#1
Emanuela Spanu, Paola A Deligios, Emanuela Azara, Giovanna Delogu, Luigi Ledda
BACKGROUND: Traditionally, globe artichoke cultivation in the Mediterranean basin is based on monoculture and on use of high amounts of nitrogen fertilizer. This raises issues regarding its compatibility with sustainable agriculture. We studied the effect of one typical conventional (CONV) and two alternative cropping systems [globe artichoke in sequence with French bean (NCV1), or in biannual rotation (NCV2) with cauliflower and with a leguminous cover crop in inter-row spaces] on yield, polyphenol and mineral content of globe artichoke heads over two consecutive growing seasons...
July 19, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719016/insecticide-resistance-of-adults-and-nymphs-of-asian-citrus-psyllid-populations-from-apatzing%C3%A3-n-valley-mexico
#2
Saúl Pardo, Ana M Martínez, José I Figueroa, Juan M Chavarrieta, Elisa Viñuela, Ángel Rebollar-Alviter, Mario A Miranda, Javier Valle, Samuel Pineda
BACKGROUND: Control of the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, the most important pest of citrus worldwide, is based on the use of insecticides, though unsatisfactory results have recently been reported. In this study, insecticide resistance of D. citri to three insecticides (bifenthrin, malathion, and chlorpyrifos) was examined. RESULTS: Three populations (designed Dci-CParácuaro, Dci-El Junco, and Dci-Antúnez) of both adults and fourth-instar D. citri individuals were collected in 2014 at two and one different times, respectively, from three locations (Crucero de Parácuaro, El Junco, and Antúnez)...
July 18, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704700/environmental-exposure-to-pesticides-and-the-risk-of-parkinson-s-disease-in-the-netherlands
#3
Maartje Brouwer, Anke Huss, Marianne van der Mark, Peter C G Nijssen, Wim M Mulleners, Antonetta M G Sas, Teus van Laar, Geert R de Snoo, Hans Kromhout, Roel C H Vermeulen
BACKGROUND: Exposure to pesticides has been linked to Parkinson's disease (PD), although associations between specific pesticides and PD have not been well studied. Residents of rural areas can be exposed through environmental drift and volatilization of agricultural pesticides. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to investigate the association between lifetime environmental exposure to individual pesticides and the risk of PD, in a national case-control study. METHODS: Environmental exposure to pesticides was estimated using a spatio-temporal model, based on agricultural crops around the residential address...
July 10, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703042/genome-wide-association-mapping-of-fusarium-head-blight-resistance-in-spring-wheat-lines-developed-in-the-pacific-northwest-and-cimmyt
#4
Rui Wang, Jianli Chen, James A Anderson, Junli Zhang, Weidong Zhao, Justin Wheeler, Natalie Klassen, Deven R See, Yanhong Dong
Fusarium head blight is a destructive disease of wheat in humid and semi-humid areas of the world. It has emerged in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) in recent years because of changing climate and crop rotation practices. Our objectives in the present study were to identify and characterize QTL associated with FHB resistance in spring wheat lines developed in the PNW and the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT). A total of 170 spring wheat lines were evaluated in field and greenhouse trials in 2015 and 2016...
July 13, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700609/organic-farming-enhances-soil-microbial-abundance-and-activity-a-meta-analysis-and-meta-regression
#5
Martina Lori, Sarah Symnaczik, Paul Mäder, Gerlinde De Deyn, Andreas Gattinger
Population growth and climate change challenge our food and farming systems and provide arguments for an increased intensification of agriculture. A promising option is eco-functional intensification through organic farming, an approach based on using and enhancing internal natural resources and processes to secure and improve agricultural productivity, while minimizing negative environmental impacts. In this concept an active soil microbiota plays an important role for various soil based ecosystem services such as nutrient cycling, erosion control and pest and disease regulation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686086/a-risk-assessment-model-for-bacterial-leaf-spot-bls-of-pepper-capsicum-annuum-l-caused-by-xanthomonas-euvesicatoria-based-on-concentrations-of-macronutrients-and-micronutrients-and-micronutrient-ratios
#6
Bhabesh Dutta, David B Langston, Xuelin Luo, Jeremy Kichler, Scott Carlson, Ron Gitaitis
The phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas euvesicatoria causes bacterial leaf spot (BLS) of pepper and has a worldwide distribution. BLS is difficult to control and an integrated management strategy that incorporates crop rotation, use of clean seeds and clean plants, weed control, resistant varieties, and applications of bactericides, biocontrol agents, and systemic acquired resistance (SAR) inducers is generally recommended. However, even with that arsenal of weapons, BLS can still be responsible for severe losses under favorable environmental conditions...
July 7, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680684/an-indirect-watermark-hiding-in-discrete-cosine-transform-singular-value-decomposition-domain-for-copyright-protection
#7
Soumitra Roy, Arup Kumar Pal
Digital image watermarking has emerged as a promising solution for copyright protection. In this paper, a discrete cosine transform (DCT) and singular value decomposition (SVD) based hybrid robust image watermarking method using Arnold scrambling is proposed and simulated to protect the copyright of natural images. In this proposed scheme, before embedding, watermark is scrambled with Arnold scrambling. Then, the greyscale cover image and encrypted watermark logo are decomposed into non-overlapping blocks and subsequently some selected image blocks are transformed into the DCT domain for inserting the watermark blocks permanently...
June 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680427/conservation-agriculture-improves-soil-quality-crop-yield-and-incomes-of-smallholder-farmers-in-north-western-ghana
#8
Jesse B Naab, George Y Mahama, Iddrisu Yahaya, P V V Prasad
Conservation agriculture (CA) practices are being widely promoted in many areas in sub-Saharan Africa to recuperate degraded soils and improve ecosystem services. This study examined the effects of three tillage practices [conventional moldboard plowing (CT), hand hoeing (MT) and no-tillage (NT)], and three cropping systems (continuous maize, soybean-maize annual rotation, and soybean/maize intercropping) on soil quality, crop productivity, and profitability in researcher and farmer managed on-farm trials from 2010 to 2013 in northwestern Ghana...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676803/spatial-spread-of-the-root-parasitic-weed-phelipanche-aegyptiaca-in-processing-tomatoes-by-using-ecoinformatics-and-spatial-analysis
#9
Yafit Cohen, Itai Roei, Lior Blank, Eitan Goldshtein, Hanan Eizenberg
Egyptian broomrape (Phelipanche aegyptiaca) is one of the main threats to tomato production in Israel. The seed bank of P. aegyptiaca rapidly develops and spreads in the field. Knowledge about the spatio-temporal distribution of such weeds is required in advance of emergence, as they emerge late in their life cycle when they have already caused major crop damage. The aim of this study is to reveal the effects of two major internal infestation sources: crop rotation and infestation history; and one external source: proximity to infested tomato fields; on infestation of P...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669090/field-crops-ipomoea-aquatica-forsk-and-brassica-chinensis-l-for-phytoremediation-of-cadmium-and-nitrate-co-contaminated-soils-via-rotation-with-sedum-alfredii-hance
#10
Lin Tang, Weijun Luo, Weikang Chen, Zhenli He, Hanumanth Kumar Gurajala, Yasir Hamid, Meihua Deng, Xiaoe Yang
Phytoremediation coupled with crop rotation (PCC) is a feasible strategy for remediation of contaminated soil without interrupting crop production. The objective of this study was to develop a PCC technology system for greenhouse fields co-contaminated with Cd and nitrate using hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii. In this system, endophytic bacterium M002 inoculation, CO2 fertilization, and fermentation residue were continuously applied to improve the growth of S. alfredii, and low-accumulator Ipomoea aquatica and low-accumulator Brassica chinensis were rotated under reasonable water management...
July 1, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643581/a-white-paper-on-global-wheat-health-based-on-scenario-development-and-analysis
#11
Serge Savary, Annika Djurle, Jonathan Yuen, Andrea Ficke, Vittorio Rossi, Paul Esker, Jose M Fernandes, Emerson Del Ponte, Jatindra Kumar, Laurence V Madden, Pierce A Paul, Neil McRoberts, Pawan Kumar Singh, Laurent Huber, Claude Pope de Vallavieille, Sébastien Saint-Jean, Laetitia Willocquet
Scenario analysis constitutes a useful approach to synthesize knowledge and derive hypotheses in the case of complex systems which are documented with mainly qualitative or very diverse information. In this article, a framework for scenario analysis is designed and then, applied to global wheat health within a timeframe from today to 2050. Scenario analysis entails the choice of settings, the definition of scenarios of change, and the analysis of outcomes of these scenarios in the chosen settings. Three idealized agrosystems, representing a large fraction of the global diversity of wheat-based agrosystems, are considered, which represent the settings of the analysis...
June 23, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642779/mitigating-groundwater-depletion-in-north-china-plain-with-cropping-system-that-alternate-deep-and-shallow-rooted-crops
#12
Xiao-Lin Yang, Yuan-Quan Chen, Tammo S Steenhuis, Steven Pacenka, Wang-Sheng Gao, Li Ma, Min Zhang, Peng Sui
In the North China Plain, groundwater tables have been dropping at unsustainable rates of 1 m per year due to irrigation of a double cropping system of winter wheat and summer maize. To reverse the trend, we examined whether alternative crop rotations could save water. Moisture contents were measured weekly at 20 cm intervals in the top 180 cm of soil as part of a 12-year field experiment with four crop rotations: sweet potato→ cotton→ sweet potato→ winter wheat-summer maize (SpCSpWS, 4-year cycle); peanuts → winter wheat-summer maize (PWS, 2-year cycle); ryegrass-cotton→ peanuts→ winter wheat-summer maize (RCPWS, 3-year cycle); and winter wheat-summer maize (WS, each year)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620216/chinese-milk-vetch-improves-plant-growth-development-and-15-n-recovery-in-the-rice-based-rotation-system-of-south-china
#13
Zhijian Xie, Yaqin He, Shuxin Tu, Changxu Xu, Guangrong Liu, Huimin Wang, Weidong Cao, Hui Liu
Chinese milk vetch (CMV) is vital for agriculture and environment in China. A pot experiment combined with (15)N labeling (including three treatments: control, no fertilizer N and CMV; (15)N-labeled urea alone, (15)NU; substituting partial (15)NU with CMV, (15)NU-M) was conducted to evaluate the impact of CMV on plant growth, development and (15)NU recovery in rice-based rotation system. The (15)NU-M mitigated oxidative damage by increasing antioxidant enzymes activities and chlorophyll content while decreased malondialdehyde content in rice root and shoot, increased the biomass, total N and (15)N uptake of plant shoots by 8%, 12% and 39% respectively, thus inducing a noticeable increase of annual (15)N recovery by 77% versus (15)NU alone...
June 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603557/can-the-agricultural-aquacrop-model-simulate-water-use-and-yield-of-a-poplar-short-rotation-coppice
#14
Joanna A Horemans, Hanne Van Gaelen, Dirk Raes, Terenzio Zenone, Reinhart Ceulemans
We calibrated and evaluated the agricultural model AquaCrop for the simulation of water use and yield of a short-rotation coppice (SRC) plantation with poplar (Populus) in East Flanders (Belgium) during the second and the third rotation (first 2 years only). Differences in crop development and growth during the course of the rotations were taken into account during the model calibration. Overall, the AquaCrop model showed good performance for the daily simulation of soil water content (R(2) of 0.57-0.85), of green canopy cover (R(2) > 0...
June 2017: Global Change Biology. Bioenergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603450/changes-in-soil-organic-matter-over-70%C3%A2-years-in-continuous-arable-and-ley-arable-rotations-on-a-sandy-loam-soil-in-england
#15
A E Johnston, P R Poulton, K Coleman, A J Macdonald, R P White
The sequestration in soil of organic carbon (SOC) derived from atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) by replacing arable crops with leys, has been measured over 70 years on a sandy loam soil. The experiment was designed initially to test the effect of leys on the yields of arable crops. A 3-year grazed grass with clover (grass + clover) ley in a 5-year rotation with arable crops increased percentage organic carbon (%OC) in the top 25 cm of the soil from 0.98 to 1.23 in 28 years, but with little further increase during the next 40 years with all-grass leys given fertilizer nitrogen (N)...
May 2017: European Journal of Soil Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584528/pigeon-pea-and-cowpea-based-cropping-systems-improve-vesicular-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungal-colonisation-of-subsequent-maize-on-the-alfisols-in-central-malawi
#16
Keston O W Njira, Ernest Semu, Jerome P Mrema, Patson C Nalivata
Mycorrhizal associations contribute to the sustainability of crop production systems through their roles in nutrient cycling and other benefits in the soil-plant ecosystems. A two-year study was conducted on the Alfisols of Lilongwe and Dowa districts, Central Malawi, to assess the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungal colonisation levels in pigeon pea, cowpea, and maize grown in sole cropping, legume-cereal, and legume-legume intercropping systems and in the maize grown in short rotation (year 2) as influenced by the previous cropping systems and N fertilizer application...
2017: International Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580003/rna-interference-a-novel-source-of-resistance-to-combat-plant-parasitic-nematodes
#17
REVIEW
Sagar Banerjee, Anamika Banerjee, Sarvajeet S Gill, Om P Gupta, Anil Dahuja, Pradeep K Jain, Anil Sirohi
Plant parasitic nematodes cause severe damage and yield loss in major crops all over the world. Available control strategies include use of insecticides/nematicides but these have proved detrimental to the environment, while other strategies like crop rotation and resistant cultivars have serious limitations. This scenario provides an opportunity for the utilization of technological advances like RNA interference (RNAi) to engineer resistance against these devastating parasites. First demonstrated in the model free living nematode, Caenorhabtidis elegans; the phenomenon of RNAi has been successfully used to suppress essential genes of plant parasitic nematodes involved in parasitism, nematode development and mRNA metabolism...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579031/the-antiparasitic-activity-of-avenacosides-against-intestinal-nematodes
#18
Maria Doligalska, Kinga Jóźwicka, Katarzyna Donskow-Łysoniewska, Małgorzata Kalinowska
Avena sativa L., 1753 (Poaceae) is used as feed for livestock and as a crop rotation agent. The purpose of the study was to examine the molecular mechanisms behind the antihelminth activity of the oat saponins avenacoside B (AveB) and 26-desglucoavenacoside B (26DGAveB) by evaluating their effect on Heligmosomoides bakeri, a parasitic nematode of mice. The avenacosides AveB and 26DGAveB were separated and purified from A. sativa green leaves, and their mycotoxic activity was confirmed against the fungus Trichoderma harzianum...
July 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544252/soil-organic-carbon-dynamics-jointly-controlled-by-climate-carbon-inputs-soil-properties-and-soil-carbon-fractions
#19
Zhongkui Luo, Wenting Feng, Yiqi Luo, Jeff Baldock, Enli Wang
Soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics are regulated by the complex interplay of climatic, edaphic and biotic conditions. However, the interrelation of SOC and these drivers and their potential connection networks are rarely assessed quantitatively. Using observations of SOC dynamics with detailed soil properties from 90 field trials at 28 sites under different agroecosystems across the Australian cropping regions, we investigated the direct and indirect effects of climate, soil properties, carbon (C) inputs and soil C pools (a total of 17 variables) on SOC change rate (rC , Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1) )...
May 19, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541218/fast-post-processing-pipeline-for-optical-projection-tomography
#20
Xiaoqin Tang, Dennis V D Zwaan, Alan Zammit, Kristian F D Rietveld, Fons J Verbeek
To improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the optical projection tomography (OPT) 3D reconstruction, we presented a fast post-processing pipeline including cropping, background subtraction, center of rotation (COR) correction and 3D reconstruction. Regarding to the COR correction, a novel algorithm based on interest point detection of sinogram is proposed by considering the principle of OPT imaging. Instead of locating the COR on single sinogram, we intermittently and evenly select sinograms in the detected full range of specimen to make the located COR more convincing...
May 23, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
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