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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933044/antibiotic-resistance-in-the-food-chain-a-developing-country-perspective
#1
REVIEW
Luria Leslie Founou, Raspail Carrel Founou, Sabiha Yusuf Essack
Antibiotics are now "endangered species" facing extinction due to the worldwide emergence of antibiotic resistance (ABR). Food animals are considered as key reservoirs of antibiotic-resistant bacteria with the use of antibiotics in the food production industry having contributed to the actual global challenge of ABR. There are no geographic boundaries to impede the worldwide spread of ABR. If preventive and containment measures are not applied locally, nationally and regionally, the limited interventions in one country, continent and for instance, in the developing world, could compromise the efficacy and endanger ABR containment policies implemented in other parts of the world, the best-managed high-resource countries included...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930833/moving-beyond-the-concept-of-primary-forest-as-a-metric-of-forest-environment-quality
#2
P Y Bernier, D Paré, G Stinson, S R J Bridge, B E Kishchuk, T C Lemprière, E Thiffault, B D Titus, W Vasbinder
The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) has been reporting country-level area in primary forests in its Global Forest Resource Assessment (FRA) since 2005. The FAO definition of a primary forest (naturally regenerated forest of native species where there are no clearly visible indications of human activities and the ecological processes are not significantly disturbed) is generally accepted as authoritative and is being used in policy making. However, problems with this definition undermine our capacity to obtain globally-coherent estimates...
December 8, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928942/occurrence-of-polychlorinated-dibenzo-p-dioxins-pcdds-dibenzofurans-pcdfs-and-polychlorinated-biphenyls-pcbs-in-eggs-from-free-range-hens-in-campania-southern-italy-and-risk-evaluation
#3
Sara Lambiase, Francesco Paolo Serpe, Stefania Cavallo, Guido Rosato, Loredana Baldi, Bruno Neri, Mauro Esposito
Hens' eggs collected in home-producing farms located in different areas of the Campania region of southern Italy were analysed for six NDL-polychlorobiphenyls (PCB indicators), 17 polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorodibenzofurans (PCDFs), and 12 congeners of dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs). In the investigated area, waste from civil, industrial and hospital activities was illegally dumped and in many cases burned, so the area is called the 'Land of fire'. This illicit practice has been considered the main source of pollution in this territory and the cause of the persistent organic pollutants' (POPs) contamination in the neighbouring lands intended for agricultural use and livestock...
December 8, 2016: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924530/aspergillus-species-and-their-associated-mycotoxins
#4
Giancarlo Perrone, Antonia Gallo
The genus Aspergillus is among the most abundant and widely distributed organism on earth, and at the moment comprises 339 known species. It is one of the most important economically fungal genus and the biotechnological use of Aspergillus species is related to production of soy sauce, of different hydrolytic enzymes (amylases, lipases) and organic acid (citric acid, gluconic acid), as well as biologically active metabolites such as lovastatin. Although they are not considered to be major cause of plant diseases, Aspergillus species are responsible for several disorders in various plants and plant products, especially as opportunistic storage moulds...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924528/mycotoxins-an-underhand-food-problem
#5
Antonio Moretti, Antonio F Logrieco, Antonia Susca
Among the food safety issues, the occurrence of fungal species able to produce toxic metabolites on the agro-food products has acquired a general attention. These compounds, the mycotoxins, generally provided of low molecular weight, are the result of the secondary metabolism of the toxigenic fungi. They may have toxic activity toward the plants, but mostly represent a serious risk for human and animal health worldwide, since they can be accumulated on many final crop products and they have a broad range of toxic biological activities...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909941/degradation-and-half-life-of-dna-present-in-biomass-from-a-genetically-modified-organism-during-land-application
#6
Mathew C Halter, James A Zahn
White biotechnology has made a positive impact on the chemical industry by providing safer, more efficient chemical manufacturing processes that have reduced the use of toxic chemicals, harsh reaction conditions, and expensive metal catalysts, which has improved alignment with the principles of Green Chemistry. The genetically-modified (GM) biocatalysts that are utilized in these processes are typically separated from high-value products and then recycled, or eliminated. Elimination routes include disposal in sanitary landfills, incineration, use as a fuel, animal feed, or reuse as an agricultural soil amendment or other value-added products...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909444/smallholder-farms-and-the-potential-for-sustainable-intensification
#7
Leah M Mungai, Sieglinde Snapp, Joseph P Messina, Regis Chikowo, Alex Smith, Erin Anders, Robert B Richardson, Guiying Li
The sustainable intensification of African agriculture is gaining momentum with the compelling need to increase food and agricultural production. In Southern Africa, smallholder farming systems are predominately maize-based and subject to erratic climatic conditions. Farmer crop and soil management decisions are influenced by a plethora of complex factors such as market access resource availability, social relations, environment, and various messages on sustainable farming practices. Such factors pose barriers to increasing sustainable intensification in Africa...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902329/abundance-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-environmental-bacteriophages
#8
Taruna Anand, Bidhan Ch Bera, Rajesh K Vaid, Sanjay Barua, Thachamvally Riyesh, Nitin Virmani, Mubarik Hussain, Raj K Singh, Bhupendra N Tripathi
The ecosystem is continuously exposed to a wide variety of antimicrobials through waste effluents, agricultural runoffs, animal related and anthropogenic activities, which contribute to spread of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). The contamination of ecosystems with ARGs may create increased opportunities for their transfer to naive microbes and eventually lead to entry into the human food chain. Transduction is a significant mechanism of horizontal gene transfer in natural environments, which has traditionally been underestimated as compared to transformation...
October 21, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896582/effect-of-irrigation-on-soil-health-a-case-study-of-the-ikere-irrigation-project-in-oyo-state-southwest-nigeria
#9
M A Adejumobi, G O Awe, T P Abegunrin, O M Oyetunji, T S Kareem
Irrigated agriculture is one of the significant contributors to the food security of the millennium development goals (MDGs); however, the modification of soil matrix by irrigation could alter the overall soil health due to changes in soil properties and processes. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of irrigation on soil quality status of the Ikere center pivot irrigation project site in Oyo State, southwest Nigeria. Disturbed soil samples were collected from 0 to 30, 30 to 60, and 60 to 90-cm layers from four different sites in three replicates, within the project location for the determination of soil bio-chemical properties...
December 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891602/cannabimimetic-phytochemicals-in-the-diet-an-evolutionary-link-to-food-selection-and-metabolic-stress-adaptation
#10
REVIEW
Jürg Gertsch
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a major lipid signaling network that plays important pro-homeostatic (allostatic) roles not only in the nervous system but in peripheral organs. Increasing evidence points towards a dietary component in the modulation of the ECS. Cannabinoid receptors in hominids co-evolved with diet and the ECS constitutes a feedback loop for food selection and energy metabolism. Here it is postulated that the mismatch of ancient lipid genes of hunter-gatheres and pastoralists with the high carbohydrate diet introduced by agriculture could be compensated via dietary modulation of the ECS...
November 27, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884138/household-dietary-diversity-and-animal-source-food-consumption-in-ethiopia-evidence-from-the-2011-welfare-monitoring-survey
#11
Abdulhalik Workicho, Tefera Belachew, Garumma Tolu Feyissa, Beyene Wondafrash, Carl Lachat, Roosmarijn Verstraeten, Patrick Kolsteren
BACKGROUND: It is imperative to track dietary quality and progress in nutritional outcomes in a population to develop timely interventions. Dietary diversity is a commonly used proxy to assess dietary quality in low-income countries. This study identified predictors of household dietary diversity in Ethiopia and pattern of consumption of animal source food (ASF) among households. METHODS: Secondary data were analyzed from the 2011 Ethiopian Welfare Monitoring Survey (WMS)...
November 25, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876889/harnessing-hyperthermostable-lactonase-from-sulfolobus-solfataricus-for-biotechnological-applications
#12
Benjamin Rémy, Laure Plener, Laetitia Poirier, Mikael Elias, David Daudé, Eric Chabrière
Extremozymes have gained considerable interest as they could meet industrial requirements. Among these, SsoPox is a hyperthermostable enzyme isolated from the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus. This enzyme is a lactonase catalyzing the hydrolysis of acyl-homoserine lactones; these molecules are involved in Gram-negative bacterial communication referred to as quorum sensing. SsoPox exhibits promiscuous phosphotriesterase activity for the degradation of organophosphorous chemicals including insecticides and chemical warfare agents...
November 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872999/laccase-catalysis-for-the-synthesis-of-bioactive-compounds
#13
REVIEW
Tukayi Kudanga, Blessing Nemadziva, Marilize Le Roes-Hill
The demand for compounds of therapeutic value is increasing mainly because of new applications of bioactive compounds in medicine, pharmaceutical, agricultural, and food industries. This has necessitated the search for cost-effective methods for producing bioactive compounds and therefore the intensification of the search for enzymatic approaches in organic synthesis. Laccase is one of the enzymes that have shown encouraging potential as biocatalysts in the synthesis of bioactive compounds. Laccases are multicopper oxidases with a diverse range of catalytic activities revolving around synthesis and degradative reactions...
November 21, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871132/aspergillus-penicillioides-differentiation-and-cell-division-at-0-585-water-activity
#14
Andrew Stevenson, Philip G Hamill, Callum J O'Kane, Gerhard Kminek, John D Rummel, Mary A Voytek, Jan Dijksterhuis, John E Hallsworth
Water availability acts as the most-stringent constraint for life on Earth. Thus, understanding the water relations of microbial extremophiles is imperative to our ability to increase agricultural productivity (e.g., by enhancing the processing and turnover of dead organic matter in soils of arid regions); reduce human exposure to mycotoxins in buildings and our food-supply chain; prevent the spoilage of foods/animal feeds, books, museum specimens and artworks; and better control microbiology of industrial fermentations...
November 21, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863794/biotransfer-of-cd-along-a-soil-plant-mealybug-ladybird-food-chain-a-comparison-with-host-plants
#15
Xingmin Wang, Can Zhang, Baoli Qiu, Umair Ashraf, Rashid Azad, Jianhui Wu, Shaukat Ali
Agro-ecosystem contamination by the heavy metals present in different agricultural products is a serious challenge faced by the living organisms. This study explains the cadmium (Cd) transfer from soils contaminated with different cadmium concentrations through a plant (eggplant and tomato) - mealybug (Dysmicoccus neobrevipes) - predator (Cryptolaemus-montrouzieri) food chain. The soils were amended with Cd at the rates of 0, 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg (w/w). Our findings showed that considerably higher Cd transfer through tomato plant...
November 15, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852235/enrichment-dynamics-of-listeria-monocytogenes-and-the-associated-microbiome-from-naturally-contaminated-ice-cream-linked-to-a-listeriosis-outbreak
#16
Andrea Ottesen, Padmini Ramachandran, Elizabeth Reed, James R White, Nur Hasan, Poorani Subramanian, Gina Ryan, Karen Jarvis, Christopher Grim, Ninalynn Daquiqan, Darcy Hanes, Marc Allard, Rita Colwell, Eric Brown, Yi Chen
BACKGROUND: Microbiota that co-enrich during efforts to recover pathogens from foodborne outbreaks interfere with efficient detection and recovery. Here, dynamics of co-enriching microbiota during recovery of Listeria monocytogenes from naturally contaminated ice cream samples linked to an outbreak are described for three different initial enrichment formulations used by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the International Organization of Standardization (ISO), and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)...
November 16, 2016: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847311/community-supported-agriculture-as-a-dietary-and-health-improvement-strategy-a-narrative-review
#17
Angie Vasquez, Nancy E Sherwood, Nicole Larson, Mary Story
This narrative review summarizes the literature regarding community-supported agriculture (CSA) with a focus on its use as a dietary and health improvement strategy. CSA members are typically women, white, highly educated, and affluent. The majority of members are motivated to participate in CSA by a concern for the environment and a desire for locally grown, high-quality, and organic produce. Numerous studies have provided evidence of the economic, community, environmental, and food quality related benefits of CSAs...
November 12, 2016: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836348/assessing-the-concentration-of-phthalate-esters-paes-and-bisphenol-a-bpa-and-the-genotoxic-potential-of-treated-wastewater-final-effluent-in-saudi-arabia
#18
Iman Al-Saleh, Rola Elkhatib, Tahreer Al-Rajoudi, Ghofran Al-Qudaihi
Plasticizers such as phthalate esters (PAEs) and bisphenol A (BPA) are highly persistent organic pollutants that tend to bio-accumulate in humans through the soil-plant-animal food chain. Some studies have reported the potential carcinogenic and teratogenic effects in addition to their estrogenic activities. Water resources are scarce in Saudi Arabia, and several wastewater treatment plants (WTPs) have been constructed for agricultural and industrial use. This study was designed to: (1) measure the concentrations of BPA and six PAEs, dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and dioctyl phthalate (DOP), in secondary- and tertiary-treated wastewater collected from five WTPs in three Saudi cities for four to five weeks and (2) test their potential genotoxicity...
November 8, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836272/dietary-arsenic-exposure-in-brazil-the-contribution-of-rice-and-beans
#19
Virginia S T Ciminelli, Massimo Gasparon, Jack C Ng, Gabriela C Silva, Claudia L Caldeira
The human health risk associated with arsenic in food in Southeast Brazil was quantified. Based on the most commonly consumed food types in the Brazilian diet, the maximum inorganic As (iAs) daily intake from food (0.255 μg kg(-1) body weight per day) is approximately 9% of the Benchmark Dose Lower Limit (BMDL0.5) of 3 μg kg(-1) body weight per day set by the World Health Organization (WHO) and Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Joint Expert Committee in Food Additives (JECFA). When water is included, the contribution of food to the total intake varies from 96...
November 8, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834174/a-metagenomic-analysis-displays-the-diverse-microbial-community-of-a-vermicomposting-system-in-uganda
#20
Anne-Lie Blomström, Cecilia Lalander, Allan John Komakech, Björn Vinnerås, Sofia Boqvist
BACKGROUND: Vermicomposting is a mesophilic process using earthworms to efficiently and at low cost process large volumes of organic waste. It has been suggested to not only increase soil fertility but also increase biomass of beneficial bacteria while reducing harmful bacteria. The aim of this study was to set up a strategy to investigate and characterise the viral as well as the bacterial composition of a vermicomposting system. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The vermicomposting unit used in this study was placed at the Makerere University Agricultural Research Institute Kabanyolo on the outskirts of Kampala, Uganda, and was fed with 80% cattle manure and 20% food waste...
2016: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
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