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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813028/detection-methodologies-for-pathogen-and-toxins-a-review
#1
REVIEW
Md Eshrat E Alahi, Subhas Chandra Mukhopadhyay
Pathogen and toxin-contaminated foods and beverages are a major source of illnesses, even death, and have a significant economic impact worldwide. Human health is always under a potential threat, including from biological warfare, due to these dangerous pathogens. The agricultural and food production chain consists of many steps such as harvesting, handling, processing, packaging, storage, distribution, preparation, and consumption. Each step is susceptible to threats of environmental contamination or failure to safeguard the processes...
August 16, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810521/cropping-systems-affect-paddy-soil-organic-carbon-and-total-nitrogen-stocks-in-rice-garlic-and-rice-fava-systems-in-temperate-region-of-southern-china
#2
Tao Zhang, Anqiang Chen, Jian Liu, Hongbin Liu, Baokun Lei, Limei Zhai, Dan Zhang, Hongyuan Wang
The accumulation of soil organic carbon (SOC) in agricultural soils is critical to food security and climate change. However, there is still limited information on the dynamic trend of SOC sequestration following changes in cropping systems. Paddy soils, typical of temperate region of southern China, have a large potential for carbon (C) sequestration and nitrogen (N) fixation. It is of great importance to study the impacts of changes in cropping systems on stocks of SOC and total nitrogen (TN) in paddy soils...
August 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806691/mercury-contamination-level-and-speciation-inventory-in-lakes-titicaca-uru-uru-bolivia-current-status-and-future-trends
#3
S Guédron, D Point, D Acha, S Bouchet, P A Baya, E Tessier, M Monperrus, C I Molina, A Groleau, L Chauvaud, J Thebault, E Amice, L Alanoca, C Duwig, G Uzu, X Lazarro, A Bertrand, S Bertrand, C Barbraud, K Delord, F M Gibon, C Ibanez, M Flores, P Fernandez Saavedra, M E Ezpinoza, C Heredia, F Rocha, C Zepita, D Amouroux
Aquatic ecosystems of the Bolivian Altiplano (∼3800 m a.s.l.) are characterized by extreme hydro-climatic constrains (e.g., high UV-radiations and low oxygen) and are under the pressure of increasing anthropogenic activities, unregulated mining, agricultural and urban development. We report here a complete inventory of mercury (Hg) levels and speciation in the water column, atmosphere, sediment and key sentinel organisms (i.e., plankton, fish and birds) of two endorheic Lakes of the same watershed differing with respect to their size, eutrophication and contamination levels...
August 11, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806524/assessment-of-effects-of-the-long-term-exposure-of-agricultural-crops-to-carbon-nanotubes
#4
Mohamed Hassen Lahiani, Zeid A Nima, Hector Villagarcia, Alexandru S Biris, Mariya Khodakovskaya
Carbon-based nanomaterials (CBNs) were described as nanomaterials possessing abilities of plant growth regulators. Here, we investigated the effects of long-term exposure of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on the growth of three important crops (barley, soybean, corn). The cultivation of all tested species was carried in hydroponics supplemented with 50µg/ml of MWCNTs. After 20 weeks of continuous exposure to the nanomaterials, no significant toxic signs on plant development were observed. Several positive phenotypical changes were recorded in addition to the enhancement of photosynthesis in MWCNTs-exposed crops...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800691/the-landscape-model-a-model-for-exploring-trade-offs-between-agricultural-production-and-the-environment
#5
Kevin Coleman, Shibu E Muhammed, Alice E Milne, Lindsay C Todman, A Gordon Dailey, Margaret J Glendining, Andrew P Whitmore
We describe a model framework that simulates spatial and temporal interactions in agricultural landscapes and that can be used to explore trade-offs between production and environment so helping to determine solutions to the problems of sustainable food production. Here we focus on models of agricultural production, water movement and nutrient flow in a landscape. We validate these models against data from two long-term experiments, (the first a continuous wheat experiment and the other a permanent grass-land experiment) and an experiment where water and nutrient flow are measured from isolated catchments...
August 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794520/iran-s-land-suitability-for-agriculture
#6
Mohsen B Mesgaran, Kaveh Madani, Hossein Hashemi, Pooya Azadi
Increasing population has posed insurmountable challenges to agriculture in the provision of future food security, particularly in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region where biophysical conditions are not well-suited for agriculture. Iran, as a major agricultural country in the MENA region, has long been in the quest for food self-sufficiency, however, the capability of its land and water resources to realize this goal is largely unknown. Using very high-resolution spatial data sets, we evaluated the capacity of Iran's land for sustainable crop production based on the soil properties, topography, and climate conditions...
August 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791776/low-validity-of-predictive-equations-for-calculating-resting-energy-expenditure-in-overweight-and-obese-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#7
A M Dos S Rodrigues, A B P Costa, D L Campos, M P S Silva, A L Cândido, L C Dos Santos, A V M Ferreira
BACKGROUND: Predictive equations are the main clinical tools for determining resting energy expenditure (REE). However, their adequate use in overweight and obese individuals is unclear. Thus, we investigated the best predictive equations for estimating REE in overweight and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). METHODS: Eleven analyses were performed with prediction equations (pREE) based on anthropometric parameters in 30 overweight or obese women with PCOS without other chronic diseases...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789724/invited-review-a-position-on-the-global-livestock-environmental-assessment-model-gleam
#8
M J MacLeod, T Vellinga, C Opio, A Falcucci, G Tempio, B Henderson, H Makkar, A Mottet, T Robinson, H Steinfeld, P J Gerber
The livestock sector is one of the fastest growing subsectors of the agricultural economy and, while it makes a major contribution to global food supply and economic development, it also consumes significant amounts of natural resources and alters the environment. In order to improve our understanding of the global environmental impact of livestock supply chains, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations has developed the Global Livestock Environmental Assessment Model (GLEAM). The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of GLEAM...
August 9, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783790/wheat-growth-in-soils-treated-by-ex-situ-thermal-desorption
#9
Peter L O'Brien, Thomas M DeSutter, Francis X M Casey, Abbey F Wick, E Khan
Successful remediation of oil-contaminated agricultural land may include the goal of returning the land to prespill levels of agricultural productivity. This productivity may be measured by crop yield, quality, and safety, all of which are influenced by soil characteristics. This research was conducted to determine if these metrics are affected in hard red spring wheat ( L. cultivar Barlow) when grown in soils treated by ex situ thermal desorption (TD) compared with wheat grown in native topsoil (TS). Additionally, TD soils were mixed with TS at various ratios to assess the effectiveness of soil mixing as a procedure for enhancing productivity...
July 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781184/contaminants-of-emerging-concern-in-the-open-sea-waters-of-the-western-mediterranean
#10
Miroslav Brumovský, Jitka Bečanová, Jiří Kohoutek, Mireno Borghini, Luca Nizzetto
Pollution by chemical substances is of concern for the maintenance of healthy and sustainable aquatic environments. While the occurrence and fate of numerous emerging contaminants, especially pharmaceuticals, is well documented in freshwater, their occurrence and behavior in coastal and marine waters is much less studied and understood. This study investigates the occurrence of 58 chemicals in the open surface water of the Western Mediterranean Sea for the first time. 70 samples in total were collected in 10 different sampling areas...
August 3, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780210/heavy-metals-lead-cadmium-methylmercury-arsenic-in-commonly-imported-rice-grains-oryza-sativa-sold-in-saudi-arabia-and-their-potential-health-risk
#11
Iman Al-Saleh, Mai Abduljabbar
The levels of heavy metals (lead, cadmium, methylmercury and arsenic) were determined in 37 brands of imported rice commonly consumed in Saudi Arabia after soaking and rinsing with water, and their potential health risks to residents were estimated by three indices: hazard quotient (HQ), hazard index (HI) and cancer risk (CR). The mean levels of lead, cadmium, methylmercury and total arsenic in soaked (rinsed) rice grains were 0.034 (0.057), 0.015 (0.027), 0.004 (0.007) and 0.202 (0.183) μg/g dry weight, respectively...
July 24, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771745/biostimulants-from-food-processing-by-products-agronomic-quality-and-metabolic-impacts-on-organic-tomato-solanum-lycopersicum-l
#12
Lara Abou Chehade, Ziad Al Chami, Sandra Angelica De Pascali, Ivana Cavoski, Francesco Paolo Fanizzi
BACKGROUND: Biostimulants have gained recently an increased attention due to their multiple benefits for sustainable agriculture. In this study, three food processing by-products - fennel processing residues (FPR), lemon processing residues (LPR) and brewers' spent grain (BSG) - were investigated as potential sources of biostimulants. Their aqueous extracts as individual and associated applications were assessed for their effects on agronomic, quality and metabolic performances of organic tomato in comparison to humic substances extract (HS) and untreated control (CTRL)...
August 3, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770334/association-between-organic-food-consumption-and-metabolic-syndrome-cross-sectional-results-from-the-nutrinet-sant%C3%A3-study
#13
Julia Baudry, Hélène Lelong, Solia Adriouch, Chantal Julia, Benjamin Allès, Serge Hercberg, Mathilde Touvier, Denis Lairon, Pilar Galan, Emmanuelle Kesse-Guyot
PURPOSE: Metabolic syndrome (MetS), a multicomponent condition, is a cardiovascular disease predictor. Although exposure to agricultural pesticides has been suggested as a potential contributor to the rising rates of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and other features of metabolic disorders, no studies have focused on the association between consumption of organic food (produced without synthetic pesticides) and MetS. We aimed to investigate the cross-sectional association between organic food consumption and MetS in French adults to determine whether it would be worth conducting further studies, particularly large prospective and randomised trials...
August 2, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769975/a-diagnosis-of-biophysical-and-socio-economic-factors-influencing-farmers-choice-to-adopt-organic-or-conventional-farming-systems-for-cotton-production
#14
Amritbir Riar, Lokendra S Mandloi, Randhir S Poswal, Monika M Messmer, Gurbir S Bhullar
Organic agriculture is one of the most widely known alternative production systems advocated for its benefits to soil, environment, health and economic well-being of farming communities. Rapid increase in the market demand for organic products presents a remarkable opportunity for expansion of organic agriculture. A thorough understanding of the context specific motivations of farmers for adoption of organic farming systems is important so that appropriate policy measures are put in place. With an aim of understanding the social and biophysical motivations of organic and conventional cotton farmers for following their respective farming practices, a detailed farm survey was conducted in Nimar valley of Madhya Pradesh state in central India...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763123/laying-waste-to-mercury-inexpensive-sorbents-made-from-sulfur-and-recycled-cooking-oils
#15
Max Worthington, Renata Kucera, Ines Albuquerque, Christopher Gibson, Alexander Sibley, Ashley Slattery, Jonathan Campbell, Salah Alboaiji, Katherine Muller, Jason Young, Nick Adamson, Jason Gascooke, Deshetti Jampaiah, Ylias Sabri, Suresh Bhargava, Samuel Ippolito, David Lewis, Jamie Quinton, Amanda Ellis, Alexander Johs, Gonçalo Bernardes, Justin M Chalker
Mercury pollution threatens the environment and human health across the globe. This neurotoxic substance is encountered in artisanal gold mining, coal combustion, oil and gas refining, waste incineration, chloralkalai plant operation, metallurgy, and areas of agriculture in which mercury-rich fungicides are used. Thousands of tonnes of mercury are emitted annually through these activities. With the Minamata Convention on Mercury entering force this year, increasing regulation of mercury pollution is imminent...
August 1, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761204/isolation-and-detection-of-erysipelothrix-rhusiopathiae-and-its-distribution-in-humans-and-animals-by-phenotypical-and-molecular-methods-in-ahvaz-iran-in-2015
#16
Pariya Ahmadi Balootaki, Mansour Amin, Farkhondeh Haghparasti, Farokh Rokhbakhsh-Zamin
BACKGROUND: Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae (E. rhusiopathiae) is generally transmitted into the gastrointestinal tract of animals by the intake of contaminated food or water and causes great economic loss in agriculture worldwide. Some of the Erysipelothrix spp. are the causative agents of erysipeloid, which is an occupational infection in humans. The aim of the present study was to isolate E. rhusiopathiae from animals as well as the hands of the butchers working in Ahvaz, Iran, and to determine their susceptibility to antibiotics...
July 2017: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746381/hedgehogs-on-the-move-testing-the-effects-of-land-use-change-on-home-range-size-and-movement-patterns-of-free-ranging-ethiopian-hedgehogs
#17
Mohammad A Abu Baker, Nigel Reeve, April A T Conkey, David W Macdonald, Nobuyuki Yamaguchi
Degradation and alteration of natural environments because of agriculture and other land uses have major consequences on vertebrate populations, particularly on spatial organization and movement patterns. We used GPS tracking to study the effect of land use and sex on the home range size and movement of a typical model species, the Ethiopian hedgehogs. We used free-ranging hedgehogs from two areas with different land use practices: 24 from an area dominated by irrigated farms (12 ♂♂, 12 ♀♀) and 22 from a natural desert environment within a biosphere reserve (12 ♂♂, 10 ♀♀)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738305/contamination-characteristics-and-source-apportionment-of-methylated-pahs-in-agricultural-soils-from-yangtze-river-delta-china
#18
Weixiao Chen, Xinyi Wu, Haiyun Zhang, Jianteng Sun, Wenxin Liu, Lizhong Zhu, Xiangdong Li, Daniel C W Tsang, Shu Tao, Xilong Wang
Alkylated PAHs (APAHs) have been shown to be more toxic and persistent than their non-alkylated parent compounds. However, little is known about the extent of soil contamination by these pollutants. To help understand agricultural soil pollution by these compounds at a regional scale, a total of 18 methylated PAHs (MPAHs, a major class of APAHs) in 243 soil samples were analyzed. These soil samples were collected from 11 sites in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region, a representative fast developing area in China...
July 21, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735316/biochar-rhizosphere-interactions-a-review
#19
Sławomir Głuszek, Lidia Sas Paszt, Beata Sumorok, Ryszard Kozera
Biochar is a solid material of biological origin obtained from the biomass carbonization, designed as a mean to reduce greenhouse gases emission and carbon sequestration in soils for a long time. Biochar has a wide spectrum of practical utilization and is applied as a promising soil improver or fertilizer in agriculture, or as a medium for soil or water remediation. Preparations of biochar increase plant growth and yielding when applied into soil and also improve plant growth conditions, mainly bio, physical and chemical properties of soil...
July 6, 2017: Polish Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728401/research-trends-in-outdoor-pig-production
#20
Hyun-Suk Park, Sang Hyon Oh
Since the industrialization of swine production in the late 1900s, swine farms in the United States, as well as in Europe, have largely become consolidated. Pig farms became larger in size but fewer in number, with 91% of market pigs being produced by large operations with 5,000 or more pigs on-site in the US, and only 3% of the total utilized agricultural land representing organic farming. Such change in the market made it difficult for small farmers to stay competitive, forcing them to find alternative ways to reduce the cost of production and increase profit using the outdoor production system...
July 17, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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