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Organic agriculture, food

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772513/a-transition-to-white-led-increases-ecological-impacts-of-nocturnal-illumination-on-aquatic-primary-producers-in-a-lowland-agricultural-drainage-ditch
#1
Maja Grubisic, Roy H A van Grunsven, Alessandro Manfrin, Michael T Monaghan, Franz Hölker
The increasing use of artificial light at night (ALAN) has led to exposure of freshwater ecosystems to light pollution worldwide. Simultaneously, the spectral composition of nocturnal illumination is changing, following the current shift in outdoor lighting technologies from traditional light sources to light emitting diodes (LED). LEDs emit broad-spectrum white light, with a significant amount of photosynthetically active radiation, and typically a high content of blue light that regulates circadian rhythms in many organisms...
May 14, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770565/a-review-of-child-stunting-determinants-in-indonesia
#2
REVIEW
Ty Beal, Alison Tumilowicz, Aang Sutrisna, Doddy Izwardy, Lynnette M Neufeld
Child stunting reduction is the first of 6 goals in the Global Nutrition Targets for 2025 and a key indicator in the second Sustainable Development Goal of Zero Hunger. The prevalence of child stunting in Indonesia has remained high over the past decade, and at the national level is approximately 37%. It is unclear whether current approaches to reduce child stunting align with the scientific evidence in Indonesia. We use the World Health Organization conceptual framework on child stunting to review the available literature and identify what has been studied and can be concluded about the determinants of child stunting in Indonesia and where data gaps remain...
May 17, 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762079/does-reducing-food-losses-and-wastes-in-sub-saharan-africa-make-economic-sense
#3
Emerta Aragie, Jean Balié, Cristian MoralesOpazo
Reducing food losses and waste (FLW) is one of the sustainable ways of closing the food requirement gap in developing countries. However, there is not yet adequate knowledge on the extent of FLW by commodity type and stage of the food supply chain (FSC). Focusing on ten agrarian countries in Africa and building mainly on the Food and Agriculture Organization's Food Balance Sheets (FBSs), this study generates some new insights on the level of FLW by country, FSC and food type. Across the FSC, we find that these countries lose a cumulative amount equivalent to 28% (641 kilocalories per capita per day - kcal/cap/day) of the current calorie intake...
May 1, 2018: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762053/factors-associated-with-salmonella-prevalence-in-u-s-swine-grower-finisher-operations-2012
#4
Kathe E Bjork, Victoria Fields, Lindsey P Garber, Christine A Kopral
Nontyphoidal Salmonella is an important foodborne pathogen with diverse serotypes occurring in animal and human populations. The prevalence of the organism on swine farms has been associated with numerous risk factors, and although there are strong veterinary public health controls for preventing Salmonella from entering food, there remains interest in eradicating or controlling the organism in the preharvest environment. In this study, using data collected via the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Animal Health Monitoring System Swine 2012 study, we describe nontyphoidal Salmonella and specific serotype prevalence on U...
May 15, 2018: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758426/two-contrasted-future-scenarios-for-the-french-agro-food-system
#5
Gilles Billen, Julia Le Noë, Josette Garnier
Narratives of two prospective scenarios for the future of French agriculture were elaborated by pushing several trends already acting on the dynamics of the current system to their logical end. The first one pursues the opening and specialization characterizing the long-term evolution of the last 50 years of most French agricultural regions, while the second assumes a shift, already perceptible through weak signals, towards more autonomy at the farm and regional scales, a reconnection of crop and livestock farming and a more frugal human diet...
May 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756702/non-nutritive-sweeteners-children-and-adolescent-consumption-and-food-sources
#6
María B Garavaglia, Vanesa Rodríguez García, María E Zapata, Alicia Rovirosa, Verónica González, Florencia Flax Marcó, Esteban Carmuega
The availability of food and beverages with non-nutritive sweeteners (NNSs) has increased in recent years. OBJECTIVES: To estimate NNSs consumption among children and adolescents in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, the prevalence of a daily intake higher than acceptable, and the main food and beverages contributing to it. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Descriptive study about the information collected in the First Food and Nutritional/Nutrition Survey of Buenos Aires City, which was conducted in 2011 and included 2664 children and adolescents aged 2-18 years...
June 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751305/organic-quinoa-chenopodium-quinoa-l-production-in-peru-environmental-hotspots-and-food-security-considerations-using-life-cycle-assessment
#7
Eduardo Cancino-Espinoza, Ian Vázquez-Rowe, Isabel Quispe
Quinoa is a plant that is cultivated in the Andean highlands across Peru and Bolivia. It is increasingly popular due to its high nutritive value and protein content. In particular, the cultivation of organic quinoa has grown substantially in recent years since it is the most demanded type of quinoa in the foreign market. Nevertheless, despite the interest that quinoa has generated in terms of its nutritional properties, little is known regarding the environmental profile of its production and processing. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to analyze the environmental impacts that are linked to the production and distribution of organic quinoa to the main export destinations through the application of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology...
May 8, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747442/safety-evaluations-of-bifidobacterium-bifidum-bgn4-and-bifidobacterium-longum-bori
#8
Min Jeong Kim, Seockmo Ku, Sun Young Kim, Hyun Ha Lee, Hui Jin, Sini Kang, Rui Li, Tony V Johnston, Myeong Soo Park, Geun Eog Ji
Over the past decade, a variety of lactic acid bacteria have been commercially available to and steadily used by consumers. However, recent studies have shown that some lactic acid bacteria produce toxic substances and display properties of virulence. To establish safety guidelines for lactic acid bacteria, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)/World Health Organization (WHO) has suggested that lactic acid bacteria be characterized and proven safe for consumers’ health via multiple experiments (e...
May 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747101/evaluation-of-regulatory-variation-and-theoretical-health-risk-for-pesticide-maximum-residue-limits-in-food
#9
Zijian Li
To evaluate whether pesticide maximum residue limits (MRLs) can protect public health, a deterministic dietary risk assessment of maximum pesticide legal exposure was conducted to convert global MRLs to theoretical maximum dose intake (TMDI) values by estimating the average food intake rate and human body weight for each country. A total of 114 nations (58% of the total nations in the world) and two international organizations, including the European Union (EU) and Codex (WHO) have regulated at least one of the most currently used pesticides in at least one of the most consumed agricultural commodities...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741067/-application-of-stable-isotopes-%C3%AE-13-c-and-%C3%AE-15-n-in-studies-on-heavy-metals-bioaccumulation-in-daya-bay-food-web
#10
Sen Du, Yan Yan Zhou, Li Zhang
The Daya Bay is a typical subtropical bay in Southern China, and chronically stressed by heavy metal pollution. The bioaccumulation of heavy metals in Daya Bay ecosystem is still unclear. In this study, heavy metals (Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ag, Cd, Pb) and stable isotopes (δ13 C and δ15 N) were analyzed in seawater, sediment, and organisms (planktons, benthos and nektons) sampled from Daya Bay in June and December of 2015, in order to illuminate the influences of heavy metals to Daya Bay ecosystem and the basic information of environmental monitoring and risk assessment...
July 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736651/a-scientometric-review-of-emerging-trends-and-new-developments-in-agricultural-ecological-compensation
#11
Ke He, Junbiao Zhang, Xueting Wang, Yangmei Zeng, Lu Zhang
Agricultural ecological compensation has drawn an increasingly broad range of interest since early 1990s. In recent years, the volume of the literature grows rapidly. As a result, a systematic review of the diverse research field and its current trends becomes essential. This paper surveys the literature of agricultural ecological compensation between 1990 and 2016. Specifically, by employing CiteSpace information visualization software, we firstly identified the research hotspots and evolution path and then illustrated the frontier and developing trend of the domain in core and broader perspectives...
May 8, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728134/ethnobotany-of-the-sierra-nevada-del-cocuy-g%C3%A3-ic%C3%A3-n-climate-change-and-conservation-strategies-in-the-colombian-andes
#12
Mireia Alcántara Rodríguez, Andrea Angueyra, Antoine M Cleef, Tinde Van Andel
BACKGROUND: The Sierra Nevada del Cocuy-Güicán in the Colombian Andes is protected as a National Natural Park since 1977 because of its fragile páramo ecosystems, extraordinary biodiversity, high plant endemism, and function as water reservoir. The vegetation on this mountain is threatened by expanding agriculture, deforestation, tourism, and climate change. We present an ethnobotanical inventory among local farmer communities and discuss the effects of vegetation change on the availability of useful plants...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725156/intensification-and-intrahousehold-decisions-fertilizer-adoption-in-burkina-faso
#13
Hamza Haider, Melinda Smale, Veronique Theriault
In most West African countries, agricultural production is a complex process that involves multiple household members managing land and sharing agricultural inputs. We develop an intrahousehold decision-making model to illustrate how technology adoption can influence bargaining processes on farms in harsh agricultural environments of West Africa, where staple food production by extended families is organized collectively under the leadership of a senior head. The head, who assumes primary responsibility for household food security, also allocates fields to members who manage production individually...
May 2018: World Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724271/evaluation-of-a-multiplex-pcr-for-detection-of-the-top-seven-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-serogroups-in-ready-to-eat-meats-fruits-and-vegetables
#14
Anli Gao, Jennifer Fishcher-Jenssen, Colin Cooper, Honghong Li, Jiping Li, Shu Chen, Perry Martos
Background : Ready-to-eat (RTE) meats, fruits, and vegetables contaminated by Shiga toxinproducing Escherichia coli (STEC) raise serious concerns because they are often consumed directly without further processing. Objective: To evaluate a multiplex PCR for the detection of STEC across food categories. Methods: Samples (25 g) from seven RTE meat and nine fruit and vegetable matrices were inoculated with each of seven STEC (O157:H7, O26, O121, O145, O45, O103, O111) strains targeting 10 CFU/25 g, enriched in 225 mL of modified tryptone soya broth (mTSB), and tested by a multiplex real-time PCR for stx and eae genes, following U...
May 3, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724015/a-review-of-environmental-contamination-and-health-risk-assessment-of-wastewater-use-for-crop-irrigation-with-a-focus-on-low-and-high-income-countries
#15
REVIEW
Sana Khalid, Muhammad Shahid, Irshad Bibi, Tania Sarwar, Ali Haidar Shah, Nabeel Khan Niazi
Population densities and freshwater resources are not evenly distributed worldwide. This has forced farmers to use wastewater for the irrigation of food crops. This practice presents both positive and negative effects with respect to agricultural use, as well as in the context of environmental contamination and toxicology. Although wastewater is an important source of essential nutrients for plants, many environmental, sanitary, and health risks are also associated with the use of wastewater for crop irrigation due to the presence of toxic contaminants and microbes...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698487/enhanced-surveillance-for-rift-valley-fever-in-livestock-during-el-ni%C3%A3-o-rains-and-threat-of-rvf-outbreak-kenya-2015-2016
#16
Harry Oyas, Lindsey Holmstrom, Naomi P Kemunto, Matthew Muturi, Athman Mwatondo, Eric Osoro, Austine Bitek, Bernard Bett, Jane W Githinji, Samuel M Thumbi, Marc-Alain Widdowson, Peninah M Munyua, M Kariuki Njenga
BACKGROUND: In mid-2015, the United States' Pandemic Prediction and Forecasting Science and Technical Working Group of the National Science and Technology Council, Food and Agriculture Organization Emergency Prevention Systems, and Kenya Meteorological Department issued an alert predicting a high possibility of El-Niño rainfall and Rift Valley Fever (RVF) epidemic in Eastern Africa. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In response to the alert, the Kenya Directorate of Veterinary Services (KDVS) carried out an enhanced syndromic surveillance system between November 2015 and February 2016, targeting 22 RVF high-risk counties in the country as identified previously through risk mapping...
April 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692789/time-to-redefine-organic-agriculture-can-t-gm-crops-be-certified-as-organics
#17
Amjad M Husaini, Muhammad Sohail
The challenges of sustainable food production without damaging the environment for a growing human population have increased considerably. The current agricultural practices involving chemical fertilizers and even organic farming are not sustainable in the long run and can have deleterious effects on the environment. Thus, new, innovative solutions need to be identified and propagated for tackling this. Among such innovations, that can complement conventional as well as organic farming methods, are genetic modification (GM) and aquaculture...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685817/unintended-effects-in-genetically-modified-food-feed-safety-a-way-forward
#18
Antonio Fernandez, Claudia Paoletti
Identifying and assessing unintended effects in genetically modified food and feed are considered paramount by the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), World Health Organization (WHO), and Codex Alimentarius, despite heated debate. This paper addresses outstanding needs: building consensus on the history-of-safe-use concept, harmonizing criteria to select appropriate conventional counterparts, and improving endpoint selection to identify unintended effects.
April 20, 2018: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677680/transcriptomic-identification-of-salt-related-genes-and-de-novo-assembly-in-common-buckwheat-f-esculentum
#19
Qi-Huan Lu, Ya-Qi Wang, Jin-Nan Song, Hong-Bing Yang
Common buckwheat (F. esculentum), annually herbaceous crop, is prevalent in people's daily life with the increasing development of economics. Compared with wheat, it is highly praised with high content of rutin and flavonoid. Common buckwheat is recognized as healthy food with good taste, and the product price of which such as noodles, flour, bread and so on are higher than wheat, and the seeds of which are bigger than that of tartary buckwheat, so if common buckwheat are planted more widely, people will spend less money on this healthy and delicious food...
April 4, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674894/brazilian-obligatory-subterranean-fauna-and-threats-to-the-hypogean-environment
#20
Jonas Eduardo Gallão, Maria Elina Bichuette
The subterranean environment harbors species that are not capable of establishing populations in the epigean environment, i.e., the obligatory subterranean species. These organisms live in a unique selective regime in permanent darkness and usually low food availability, high air humidity in terrestrial habitats, and low temperature range allied to other unique conditions related to lithologies and past climatic influences. The pressure to increase Brazil's economic growth relies on agricultural/pastoral industries and exporting of raw materials such as iron, limestone, ethanol, soybean, cotton, and meat, as well as huge reservoir constructions to generate electricity...
2018: ZooKeys
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