keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Organic agriculture, food

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213031/antimicrobial-resistance-and-its-association-with-tolerance-to-heavy-metals-in-agriculture-production
#1
REVIEW
Zhongyi Yu, Lynda Gunn, Patrick Wall, Séamus Fanning
Antimicrobial resistance is a recognized public health challenge that since its emergence limits the therapeutic options available to veterinarians and clinicians alike, when treatment is warranted. This development is further compounded by the paucity of new antibiotics. The agri-food industry benefits from the availability of antimicrobial compounds for food-animal production and crop protection. Nonetheless, their improper use can result in the selection for bacteria that are phenotypically resistant to these compounds...
June 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208096/how-the-structure-of-agro-food-systems-shapes-nitrogen-phosphorus-and-carbon-fluxes-the-generalized-representation-of-agro-food-system-applied-at-the-regional-scale-in-france
#2
Julia Le Noë, Gilles Billen, Josette Garnier
The aim of the study was to develop a conceptual framework to analyze the agro-food system of French agricultural regions from the angle of N, P and C circulation through five major compartments (cropland, grassland, livestock biomass, local population and potential environmental losses). To reach that goal we extended the Generalized Representation of Agro-Food System approach to P and C and applied it to French regions. Using this methodology we analyzed the relation between production pattern and N surplus, P budget, and efficient organic carbon inputs (OCeff), assuming these three indicators to be good proxies for (i) N losses to waterbodies and the atmosphere, (ii) P accumulation or depletion in soils, and (iii) potential additional C sequestration in soils, respectively...
February 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188320/effects-of-glyphosate-based-herbicide-sub-lethal-concentrations-on-fish-feeding-behavior
#3
Percilia Cardoso Giaquinto, Marina Borges de Sá, Vanessa Seiko Sugihara, Bruno Bastos Gonçalves, Helton Carlos Delício, Assaf Barki
Glyphosate-based herbicides are widely used in agricultural systems. Although the target organism are particularly plant organisms, there are numerous studies showing adverse effects in aquatic animals, such as inhibition of acetyl cholinesterase, effects on kidney, liver, and gill and stressors effects. This study analyzed the effects of commercial formulation of glyphosate on feeding behavior in Pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus). Fish were exposed to three glyphosate concentrations (0.2, 0.6, and 1.8 ppm) for 15 days...
February 10, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182760/double-strand-rna-delivery-system-for-plant-sap-feeding-insects
#4
Saikat Kumar B Ghosh, Wayne B Hunter, Alexis L Park, Dawn E Gundersen-Rindal
Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-mediated gene silencing, also known as RNA interference (RNAi), has been a breakthrough technology for functional genomic studies and represents a potential tool for the management of insect pests. Since the inception of RNAi numerous studies documented successful introduction of exogenously synthesized dsRNA or siRNA into an organism triggering highly efficient gene silencing through the degradation of endogenous RNA homologous to the presented siRNA. Managing hemipteran insect pests, especially Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), the brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), is critical to food productivity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181402/allethrin-toxicity-causes-reproductive-dysfunction-in-male-rats
#5
Golla Madhubabu, Suresh Yenugu
Pyrethroids are widely used for domestic and agricultural purposes and their use is increasing, especially in developing countries. Uncontrolled use of these insecticides resulted in their entry into the food chain thereby causing toxicity to different organ systems. Allethrin is one of the widely used pyrethroids, but its toxicological effects are underreported when compared to other pyrethroids. Further, its effects on the male reproductive tract remain uncharacterized. In this study, its toxicity on the male reproductive tract was evaluated by administering 25-150 mg/kg body weight allethrin to adult rats for 60 days...
February 9, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173857/understanding-the-strategies-employed-to-cope-with-increased-numbers-of-aids-orphaned-children-in-families-in-rural-settings-a-case-of-mbeya-rural-district-tanzania
#6
Nelsensius Klau Fauk, Silivano Edson Mwakinyali, Sukma Putra, Lillian Mwanri
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to understand the strategies employed by families that adopt Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)-orphaned children (Adoptive families) for coping with and mitigating the impact of AIDS in Mbeya Rural District, Tanzania. High numbers of AIDS-orphaned children aged below 18 years in Mbeya Region have led to increasing the burden of families caring for them. Understanding the coping strategies and impact mitigation activities employed by adoptive families is important in order to develop programmes to help them...
February 7, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161212/advances-in-peste-des-petits-ruminants-vaccines
#7
Naveen Kumar, Sanjay Barua, Thachamvally Riyesh, Bhupendra N Tripathi
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious disease of small ruminants that leads to high morbidity and mortality thereby results in devastating economic consequences to the livestock industry. PPR is currently endemic across most parts of Asia and Africa, the two regions with the highest concentration of poor people in the world. Sheep and goats in particularly contribute significantly towards the upliftment of livelihood of the poor and marginal farmers in these regions. In this context, PPR directly affecting the viability of sheep and goat husbandry has emerged as a major hurdle in the development of these regions...
January 17, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155810/fungal-enzymes-and-yeasts-for-conversion-of-plant-biomass-to-bioenergy-and-high-value-products
#8
Lene Lange
Fungi and fungal enzymes play important roles in the new bioeconomy. Enzymes from filamentous fungi can unlock the potential of recalcitrant lignocellulose structures of plant cell walls as a new resource, and fungi such as yeast can produce bioethanol from the sugars released after enzyme treatment. Such processes reflect inherent characteristics of the fungal way of life, namely, that fungi as heterotrophic organisms must break down complex carbon structures of organic materials to satisfy their need for carbon and nitrogen for growth and reproduction...
January 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145745/dietary-intake-of-dha-and-epa-in-a-group-of-pregnant-women-in-the-moncton-area
#9
Nicole Arsenault Bishop, Caroline P Leblanc
PURPOSE: To compare docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and fish intake of pregnant women at 30 weeks of gestation to current recommendations and to determine the factors associated with omega-3 (ω-3) intake. METHODS: A food frequency questionnaire was completed by 54 women (54/131 = 41%) at 30 ± 0.8 weeks gestation. Supplement intake, sociodemographic characteristics, and ω-3 food habits were evaluated. RESULTS: Among this high socioeconomic status (SES) group, 66...
February 1, 2017: Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145595/the-effects-of-epoxiconazole-and-%C3%AE-cypermethrin-on-daphnia-magna-growth-reproduction-and-offspring-size
#10
Michele Gottardi, Michala Rosa Birch, Kristoffer Dalhoff, Nina Cedergreen
Two of the main classes of pesticides commonly used in agriculture are azole fungicides and pyrethroid insecticides. Because azoles have been shown to synergize the effect of pyrethroids, the effect of their mixture is of concern. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of sublethal concentrations of epoxiconazole and α-cypermethrin and their mixture on growth, reproduction and in vivo cytochrome P450 activity of the aquatic crustacean Daphnia magna over 42 d. Continuous exposure to non-lethal concentrations of α-cypermethrin at 20 ng/L negatively affected adult growth and number and size of neonates within the first 14 d of exposure...
February 1, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130724/management-of-food-and-vegetable-processing-waste-spiked-with-buffalo-waste-using-earthworms-eisenia-fetida
#11
Kavita Sharma, V K Garg
The present investigation was focused on the vermicomposting of food and vegetable processing waste (VW) mixed with buffalo dung (BW) under laboratory condition employing Eisenia fetida earthworm species. Four different proportions of VW and BW were prepared and subjected to vermicomposting after 3 weeks of pre-composting. After vermicomposting, nitrogen (7.82-20.73 g/kg), total available phosphate (4.80-11.74 g/kg) and total potassium (7.43-12.75 g/kg) content increased significantly as compared to initial feed stocks...
January 28, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124255/the-primary-root-of-sorghum-bicolor-l-moench-as-a-model-system-to-study-brassinosteroid-signaling-in-crops
#12
David Blasco-Escámez, Fidel Lozano-Elena, Norma Fàbregas, Ana I Caño-Delgado
Roots anchor plants to the soil and are essential for a successful plant growth and adaptation to the environment. Research on the primary root in the plant model system Arabidopsis thaliana has yielded important advances in the molecular and cellular understanding of root growth and development. Several studies have uncovered how the hormones brassinosteroids (BRs) control cell cycle and differentiation programs through different cell-specific signaling pathways that are key for root growth and development...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122564/genetic-detection-of-peste-des-petits-ruminants-virus-under-field-conditions-a-step-forward-towards-disease-eradication
#13
Waqas Ashraf, Hermann Unger, Sunaina Haris, Ameena Mobeen, Muhammad Farooq, Muhammad Asif, Qaiser Mahmood Khan
BACKGROUND: The devastating viral disease of small ruminants namely Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) declared as target for "Global Eradication" in 2015 by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). For a successful eradication campaign, molecular diagnostic tools are preferred for their specificity, efficacy and robustness to compliment prophylactic measures and surveillance methods. However, molecular tools have a few limitations including, costly equipment, multi-step template preparation protocols, target amplification and analysis that restrict their use to the sophisticated laboratory settings...
January 25, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119474/negative-autogenous-control-of-the-master-type-iii-secretion-system-regulator-hrpl-in-pseudomonas-syringae
#14
Christopher Waite, Jörg Schumacher, Milija Jovanovic, Mark Bennett, Martin Buck
: The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a principal virulence determinant of the model bacterial plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae T3SS effector proteins inhibit plant defense signaling pathways in susceptible hosts and elicit evolved immunity in resistant plants. The extracytoplasmic function sigma factor HrpL coordinates the expression of most T3SS genes. Transcription of hrpL is dependent on sigma-54 and the codependent enhancer binding proteins HrpR and HrpS for hrpL promoter activation...
January 24, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119128/the-toxic-effects-of-chlorophenols-and-associated-mechanisms-in-fish
#15
REVIEW
Tingting Ge, Jiangyuan Han, Yongmei Qi, Xueyan Gu, Lin Ma, Chen Zhang, Sajid Naeem, Dejun Huang
Chlorophenols (CPs) are ubiquitous contaminants in the environment primarily released from agricultural and industrial wastewater. These compounds are not readily degraded naturally, and easily accumulate in organs, tissues and cells via food chains, further leading to acute and chronic toxic effects on aquatic organisms. Herein, we review the available literature regarding CP toxicity in fish, with special emphasis on the potential toxic mechanisms. CPs cause oxidative stress via generation of reactive oxygen species, induction of lipid peroxidation and/or oxidative DNA damage along with inhibition of antioxidant systems...
March 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117908/land-use-as-a-driver-of-soil-fertility-and-biodiversity-across-an-agricultural-landscape-in-the-central-peruvian-andes
#16
Anne W de Valença, Steven J Vanek, Katherin Meza, Raul Ccanto, Edgar Olivera, Maria Scurrah, Egbert A Lantinga, Steven J Fonte
Land use change and intensification in agricultural landscapes of the Andean highlands have resulted in widespread soil degradation and a loss in soil-based ecosystem services and biodiversity. This trend threatens the sustainability of farming communities in the Andes, with important implications for food security and biodiversity conservation throughout the region. Based on these challenges we sought to understand the impact of current and future land use practices on soil fertility and biodiversity, so as to inform landscape planning and management decisions for sustainable agroecosystem management...
January 24, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111002/more-surprises-in-the-global-greenhouse-human-health-impacts-from-recent-toxic-marine-aerosol-formations-due-to-centennial-alterations-of-world-wide-coastal-food-webs
#17
REVIEW
J J Walsh, J M Lenes, R H Weisberg, L Zheng, C Hu, K A Fanning, R Snyder, J Smith
Reductions of zooplankton biomasses and grazing pressures were observed during overfishing-induced trophic cascades and concurrent oil spills at global scales. Recent phytoplankton increments followed, once Fe-, P-, and N-nutrient limitations of commensal diazotrophs and dinoflagellates were also eliminated by respective human desertification, deforestation, and eutrophication during climate changes. Si-limitation of diatoms instead ensued during these last anthropogenic perturbations of agricultural effluents and sewage loadings...
January 19, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089401/recycling-organic-wastes-to-agricultural-land-as-a-way-to-improve-its-quality-a-field-study-to-evaluate-benefits-and-risks
#18
P Alvarenga, P Palma, C Mourinha, M Farto, J Dôres, M Patanita, C Cunha-Queda, T Natal-da-Luz, M Renaud, J P Sousa
A field study was established to assess the effects of a sewage sludge (SS), a mixed municipal solid waste compost (MMSWC) and a compost produced from agricultural wastes (AWC), in a Vertisol, using Lolium multiflorum L. The amendments were applied for two consecutive years: 6, 12 and 24t dry matter ha(-1) for SS, and the amendment doses for MMSWC and AWC were calculated to deliver the same amount of organic matter (OM) per unit area. The amendments had significant beneficial effects on some soil properties (e...
January 12, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088859/determination-of-the-geographical-origin-of-all-commercial-hake-species-by-stable-isotope-ratio-sir-analysis
#19
Mónica Carrera, José M Gallardo
The determination of the geographical origin of food products is relevant to comply with the legal regulations of traceability, to avoid food fraud, and to guarantee food quality and safety to the consumers. For these reasons, stable isotope ratio (SIR) analysis using an isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) instrument is one of the most useful techniques for evaluating food traceability and authenticity. The present study was aimed to determine, for the first time, the geographical origin for all commercial fish species belonging to the Merlucciidae family using SIR analysis of carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N)...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080985/emerging-oomycete-threats-to-plants-and-animals
#20
REVIEW
Lida Derevnina, Benjamin Petre, Ronny Kellner, Yasin F Dagdas, Mohammad Nasif Sarowar, Artemis Giannakopoulou, Juan Carlos De la Concepcion, Angela Chaparro-Garcia, Helen G Pennington, Pieter van West, Sophien Kamoun
Oomycetes, or water moulds, are fungal-like organisms phylogenetically related to algae. They cause devastating diseases in both plants and animals. Here, we describe seven oomycete species that are emerging or re-emerging threats to agriculture, horticulture, aquaculture and natural ecosystems. They include the plant pathogens Phytophthora infestans, Phytophthora palmivora, Phytophthora ramorum, Plasmopara obducens, and the animal pathogens Aphanomyces invadans, Saprolegnia parasitica and Halioticida noduliformans For each species, we describe its pathology, importance and impact, discuss why it is an emerging threat and briefly review current research activities...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
keyword
keyword
46861
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"