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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735316/biochar-rhizosphere-interactions-a-review
#1
Sławomir Głuszek, Lidia Sas Paszt, Beata Sumorok, Ryszard Kozera
Biochar is a solid material of biological origin obtained from the biomass carbonization, designed as a mean to reduce greenhouse gases emission and carbon sequestration in soils for a long time. Biochar has a wide spectrum of practical utilization and is applied as a promising soil improver or fertilizer in agriculture, or as a medium for soil or water remediation. Preparations of biochar increase plant growth and yielding when applied into soil and also improve plant growth conditions, mainly bio, physical and chemical properties of soil...
July 6, 2017: Polish Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728401/research-trends-in-outdoor-pig-production
#2
Hyun-Suk Park, Sang Hyon Oh
Since the industrialization of swine production in the late 1900s, swine farms in the United States, as well as in Europe, have largely become consolidated. Pig farms became larger in size but fewer in number, with 91% of market pigs being produced by large operations with 5,000 or more pigs on-site in the US, and only 3% of the total utilized agricultural land representing organic farming. Such change in the market made it difficult for small farmers to stay competitive, forcing them to find alternative ways to reduce the cost of production and increase profit using the outdoor production system...
July 17, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728002/development-of-an-integrated-generic-model-for-multi-scale-assessment-of-the-impacts-of-agro-ecosystems-on-major-ecosystem-services-in-west-africa
#3
Mahamadou Belem, Mehdi Saqalli
This paper presents an integrated model assessing the impacts of climate change, agro-ecosystem and demographic transition patterns on major ecosystem services in West-Africa along a partial overview of economic aspects (poverty reduction, food self-sufficiency and income generation). The model is based on an agent-based model associated with a soil model and multi-scale spatial model. The resulting Model for West-Africa Agro-Ecosystem Integrated Assessment (MOWASIA) is ecologically generic, meaning it is designed for all sudano-sahelian environments but may then be used as an experimentation facility for testing different scenarios combining ecological and socioeconomic dimensions...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721745/pesticide-genotoxicity-in-cotton-picking-women-in-pakistan-evaluated-using-comet-assay
#4
Tayyaba Ali, Muhammad Ismail, Farkhanda Asad, Asma Ashraf, Usman Waheed, Qaiser M Khan
To control agricultural pests and meet the increasing food demands, pesticides use has been increased substantially over time. Although pesticides are relatively specific to their targets, they can affect non-target organisms and are hazardous for the population around the application areas particularly to the individuals engaged in different types of agricultural activities. This situation is worse in developing and under-developed countries where personal protective equipment is merely used and regulatory guidelines are hardly practiced...
July 19, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711255/short-communication-effect-of-the-addition-of-bifidobacterium-monocultures-on-the-physical-chemical-and-sensory-characteristics-of-fermented-goat-milk
#5
A Mituniewicz-Małek, M Ziarno, I Dmytrów, J Balejko
The aim of the study was to use 3 monocultures of Bifidobacterium (Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis AD600, Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB-12, and Bifidobacterium longum AD50) in fermented goat milk to assess the microbial, physicochemical, rheological, and sensory quality of beverages during a 3-wk storage period at 5°C. The results indicated that selected bifidobacteria may be used for production of fermented goat milk because they comply with the minimum standards specified by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization during the entire period of storage...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700609/organic-farming-enhances-soil-microbial-abundance-and-activity-a-meta-analysis-and-meta-regression
#6
Martina Lori, Sarah Symnaczik, Paul Mäder, Gerlinde De Deyn, Andreas Gattinger
Population growth and climate change challenge our food and farming systems and provide arguments for an increased intensification of agriculture. A promising option is eco-functional intensification through organic farming, an approach based on using and enhancing internal natural resources and processes to secure and improve agricultural productivity, while minimizing negative environmental impacts. In this concept an active soil microbiota plays an important role for various soil based ecosystem services such as nutrient cycling, erosion control and pest and disease regulation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693674/the-imperative-for-regenerative-agriculture
#7
Christopher J Rhodes
A review is made of the current state of agriculture, emphasising issues of soil erosion and dependence on fossil fuels, in regard to achieving food security for a relentlessly enlarging global population. Soil has been described as "the fragile, living skin of the Earth", and yet both its aliveness and fragility have all too often been ignored in the expansion of agriculture across the face of the globe. Since it is a pivotal component in a global nexus of soil-water-air-energy, how we treat the soil can impact massively on climate change - with either beneficial or detrimental consequences, depending on whether the soil is preserved or degraded...
March 1, 2017: Science Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691252/peptide-backbone-circularization-enhances-antifreeze-protein-thermostability
#8
Corey A Stevens, Joanna Semrau, Dragos Chiriac, Morgan Litschko, Robert L Campbell, David N Langelaan, Steven P Smith, Peter L Davies, John S Allingham
Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are a class of ice-binding proteins that promote survival of a variety of cold-adapted organisms by decreasing the freezing temperature of bodily fluids. A growing number of biomedical, agricultural and commercial products, such as organs, foods, and industrial fluids, have benefited from the ability of AFPs to control ice crystal growth and prevent ice recrystallization at subzero temperatures. One limitation of AFP use in these latter contexts is their tendency to denature and irreversibly lose activity at the elevated temperatures of certain industrial processing or large-scale AFP production...
July 10, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686700/rates-of-return-to-sorghum-and-millet-research-investments-a-meta-analysis
#9
Yacob A Zereyesus, Timothy J Dalton
Sorghum and millet grow in some of the most heterogeneous and austere agroecologies around the world. These crops are amongst the top five cereal sources of food and feed. Yet, few studies document the impact of sorghum and millet genetic enhancement. The Internal Rate of Return (ROR) is one of the most popular metrics used to measure the economic return on investment on agricultural research and development (R&D). This study conducted a meta-analysis of 59 sorghum and millet ROR estimates obtained from 25 sources published between 1958 and 2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676578/impact-of-the-north-american-free-trade-agreement-on-high-fructose-corn-syrup-supply-in-canada-a-natural-experiment-using-synthetic-control-methods
#10
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Pepita Barlow, Martin McKee, Sanjay Basu, David Stuckler
BACKGROUND: Critics of free trade agreements have argued that they threaten public health, as they eliminate barriers to trade in potentially harmful products, such as sugar. Here we analyze the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), testing the hypothesis that lowering tariffs on food and beverage syrups that contain high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) increased its use in foods consumed in Canada. METHODS: We used supply data from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations to assess changes in supply of caloric sweeteners including HFCS after NAFTA...
July 4, 2017: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664715/the-history-of-arsenical-pesticides-and-health-risks-related-to-the-use-of-agent-blue
#11
Vladimir Bencko, Florence Yan Li Foong
Arsenicals in agriculture. Beginning in the 1970s, the use of arsenic compounds for such purposes as wood preservatives, began to grow. By 1980, in the USA, 70% of arsenic had been consumed for the production of wood preservatives. This practice was later stopped, due to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ban of the arsenic-and chromium-based wood preservative chromated copper arsenate. In the past, arsenical herbicides containing cacodylic acid as an active ingredient have been used extensively in the USA, from golf courses to cotton fields, and drying-out the plants before harvesting...
June 12, 2017: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664693/readiness-of-adolescents-to-use-genetically-modified-organisms-according-to-their-knowledge-and-emotional-attitude-towards-gmos
#12
Stanisław Lachowski, Anna Jurkiewicz, Piotr Choina, Magdalena Florek-Łuszczki, Agnieszka Buczaj, Małgorzata Goździewska
INTRODUCTION: Agriculture based on genetically modified organisms plays an increasingly important role in feeding the world population, which is evidenced by a considerable growth in the size of land under genetically modified crops (GM). Uncertainty and controversy around GM products are mainly due to the lack of accurate and reliable information, and lack of knowledge concerning the essence of genetic modifications, and the effect of GM food on the human organism, and consequently, a negative emotional attitude towards what is unknown...
June 7, 2017: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664235/public-private-partnerships-working-beyond-scale-challenges-toward-water-quality-improvements-from-private-lands
#13
Stephanie K Enloe, Lisa A Schulte, John C Tyndall
In recognition that Iowa agriculture must maintain long-term production of food, fiber, clean water, healthy soil, and robust rural economies, Iowa recently devised a nutrient reduction strategy to set objectives for water quality improvements. To demonstrate how watershed programs and farmers can reduce nutrient and sediment pollution in Iowa waters, the Iowa Water Quality Initiative selected the Boone River Watershed Nutrient Management Initiative as one of eight demonstration projects. For over a decade, diverse public, private, and non-profit partner organizations have worked in the Boone River Watershed to engage farmers in water quality management efforts...
June 29, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661431/colonization-and-maize-growth-promotion-induced-by-phosphate-solubilizing-bacterial-isolates
#14
Yongbin Li, Xiaomeng Liu, Tianyi Hao, Sanfeng Chen
Phosphorus (P) limits the production of maize, one of the major food crops in China. Phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) have the capacity to solubilize phosphate complexes into plant absorbable and utilizable forms by the process of acidification, chelation, and exchange reactions. In this study, six bacteria, including one Paenibacillus sp. B1 strain, four Pseudomonas sp. strains (B10, B14, SX1, and SX2) and one Sphingobium sp. SX14 strain, were those isolated from the maize rhizosphere and identified based on their 16S rRNA sequences...
June 29, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641475/care-and-not-wealth-is-a-predictor-of-wasting-and-stunting-of-the-coffee-kids-of-jimma-zone-southwest-ethiopia
#15
Kalkidan Hassen Abate, Tefera Belachew
BACKGROUND: The generation of cash from agricultural products is the mainstay of the livelihood of many households in developing countries. However, critics of cash cropping have highlighted its influence on dietary diversity and availability of food at the household level, eroding the potential for optimal child caring practices. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional survey was carried out in three randomly selected coffee-producing districts of Jimma Zone in southwest Ethiopia...
January 1, 2017: Nutrition and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639244/veterinary-public-health-in-italy-from-healthy-animals-to-healthy-food-contribution-to-improve-economy-in-developing-countries
#16
Margherita Cacaci, Rossella Colomba Lelli
The role of the veterinarian as a public health officer is intrinsic to the history and the culture of veterinary organization in Italy. The Veterinary service being part of the Health administration since the birth of the Italian State in the XIX Century. In the second half of the last century the birth of the Italian National Health Service confirmed that the function of the Italian veterinary service was to analyze and reduce the risks for the human population connected to the relationship man-animal-environment, animal health, food safety and security...
June 22, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638874/the-use-of-plants-to-protect-plants-and-food-against-fungal-pathogens-a-review
#17
D S S Shuping, J N Eloff
BACKGROUND: Plant fungal pathogens play a crucial role in the profitability, quality and quantity of plant production. These phytopathogens are persistent in avoiding plant defences causing diseases and quality losses around the world that amount to billions of US dollars annually. To control the scourge of plant fungal diseases, farmers have used fungicides to manage the damage of plant pathogenic fungi. Drawbacks such as development of resistance and environmental toxicity associated with these chemicals have motivated researchers and cultivators to investigate other possibilities...
2017: African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631591/comparative-evaluation-of-veriflow-%C3%A2-listeria-species-to-usda-culture-based-method-for-the-detection-of-listeria-spp-in-food-and-environmental-samples
#18
Adam C Joelsson, Shawn P Terkhorn, Ashley S Brown, Amrita Puri, Benjamin J Pascal, Zara E Gaudioso, Nicholas A Siciliano
Veriflow(®)Listeria species (Veriflow LS) isa molecular-based assay for the presumptive detection of Listeria spp. from environmental surfaces (stainless steel, sealed concrete, plastic, and ceramic tile) and ready-to-eat (RTE) food matrixes (hot dogs and deli meat). The assay utilizes a PCR detection method coupled with a rapid, visual, flow-based assay that develops in 3 min post-PCR amplification and requires only a 24 h enrichment for maximum sensitivity. The Veriflow LS system eliminates the need for sample purification, gel electrophoresis, or fluorophore-based detection of target amplification and does not require complex data analysis...
June 20, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631590/comparative-evaluation-of-veriflow-%C3%A2-salmonella-species-to-usda-and-fda-culture-based-methods-for-the-detection-of-salmonella-spp-in-food-and-environmental-samples
#19
Amrita Puri, Adam C Joelsson, Shawn P Terkhorn, Ashley S Brown, Zara E Gaudioso, Nicholas A Siciliano
Veriflow(®)Salmonella species (Veriflow SS)is a molecular-based assay for the presumptive detection of Salmonella spp. from environmental surfaces (stainless steel, sealed concrete, plastic, and ceramic tile), dairy (2% milk), raw meat (20% fat ground beef), chicken carcasses, and ready-to-eat (RTE) food (hot dogs). The assay utilizes a PCR detection method coupled with a rapid, visual, flow-based assay that develops in 3 min post-PCR amplification and requires only an 18 h enrichment for maximum sensitivity...
June 20, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629683/the-relationship-between-dietary-intake-growth-and-body-composition-in-inborn-errors-of-intermediary-protein-metabolism
#20
Maureen Evans, Helen Truby, Avihu Boneh
OBJECTIVES: To examine relationships between dietary intake, growth and body composition patterns in patients with inborn errors of intermediary protein metabolism and to determine a safe protein:energy ratio (P:E ratio) associated with optimal growth outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective longitudinal data of growth and dietary intake in patients (n = 75) with isovaleric acidemia (IVA; n = 7), methylmalonic acidemia/propionic acidemia (MMA/PA; n = 14), urea cycle defects (UCD; n = 44), classical maple syrup urine disease (MSUD; n = 10) were collected...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
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