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Organic agriculture, food

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163562/combined-field-inoculations-of-pseudomonas-bacteria-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-and-entomopathogenic-nematodes-and-their-effects-on-wheat-performance
#1
Nicola Imperiali, Xavier Chiriboga, Klaus Schlaeppi, Marie Fesselet, Daniela Villacrés, Geoffrey Jaffuel, S Franz Bender, Francesca Dennert, Ruben Blanco-Pérez, Marcel G A van der Heijden, Monika Maurhofer, Fabio Mascher, Ted C J Turlings, Christoph J Keel, Raquel Campos-Herrera
In agricultural ecosystems, pest insects, pathogens, and reduced soil fertility pose major challenges to crop productivity and are responsible for significant yield losses worldwide. Management of belowground pests and diseases remains particularly challenging due to the complex nature of the soil and the limited reach of conventional agrochemicals. Boosting the presence of beneficial rhizosphere organisms is a potentially sustainable alternative and may help to optimize crop health and productivity. Field application of single beneficial soil organisms has shown satisfactory results under optimal conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163377/wild-grape-associated-yeasts-as-promising-biocontrol-agents-against-vitis-vinifera-fungal-pathogens
#2
Gustavo Cordero-Bueso, Nicola Mangieri, David Maghradze, Roberto Foschino, Federica Valdetara, Jesús M Cantoral, Ileana Vigentini
The increasing level of hazardous residues in the environment and food chains has led the European Union to restrict the use of chemical fungicides. Thus, exploiting new natural antagonistic microorganisms against fungal diseases could serve the agricultural production to reduce pre- and post-harvest losses, to boost safer practices for workers and to protect the consumers' health. The main aim of this work was to evaluate the antagonistic potential of epiphytic yeasts against Botrytis cinerea, Aspergillus carbonarius, and Penicillium expansum pathogen species...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156568/assessing-crop-coefficients-for-natural-vegetated-areas-using-satellite-data-and-eddy-covariance-stations
#3
Chiara Corbari, Giovanni Ravazzani, Marta Galvagno, Edoardo Cremonese, Marco Mancini
The Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) method for potential evapotranspiration assessment is based on the crop coefficient, which allows one to relate the reference evapotranspiration of well irrigated grass to the potential evapotranspiration of specific crops. The method was originally developed for cultivated species based on lysimeter measurements of potential evapotranspiration. Not many applications to natural vegetated areas exist due to the lack of available data for these species. In this paper we investigate the potential of using evapotranspiration measurements acquired by micrometeorological stations for the definition of crop coefficient functions of natural vegetated areas and extrapolation to ungauged sites through remotely sensed data...
November 18, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151237/health-risk-contamination-of-heavy-metals-in-yolk-and-albumen-of-duck-eggs-collected-in-central-and-western-thailand
#4
P Aendo, R Netvichian, S Tippayalak, A Sanguankiat, T Khuntamoon, T Songserm, P Tulayakul
Two hundred duck egg samples were collected from 20 farms in Central and Western Thailand. The levels of Zn, Co, Mn, Fe, and Cr in yolks were found significantly higher than in albumen, whereas the levels of Cd and Cu contaminations in egg albumen were significantly higher than in yolks. The mean level of Pb contamination in whole eggs was 4.06 ± 2.70 mg kg(-1) dry weight. This level was higher than the Thai agricultural standard no. 6703-2005 for duck eggs set at 0.1 ppm for the magnitude of 40.6 times...
November 18, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151063/predation-among-microorganisms-a-huge-potential-of-interspecies-dependencies
#5
Justyna Kowalska, Marcin Włodarczyk
There are many interactions between species (including bacteria) in the environment. One of them is predation, which always leads to the death of a prey. Described in this review Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus (Deltaproteobacteria) and Micavibrio aeruginosavorus (Alfaproteobacteria) are uniflagellate, rod shaped and curved obligate predators of Gram-negative bacteria. Both species belong to the group of BALOs (Bdellovibrio and like organisms). B. bacteriovorus use periplasmic predatory strategy and M. aeruginosavorus are epibiotic hunters...
November 3, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150150/biocompatible-hollow-polymeric-particles-produced-by-a-mild-solvent-and-template-free-strategy
#6
Eustolia Rodríguez-Velázquez, Pablo Taboada, Manuel Alatorre-Meda
Macroscopic hollow polymeric particles are attractive materials for various applications such as surgery, food industry, agriculture, etc. However, protocols reporting their synthesis have hitherto made use of organic solvents and/or sacrificial templates, compromising the encapsulation of different bioactive compounds and the process yield. Here, millimeter-size, hollow polymeric particles were synthesized, for the first time, in a solvent- and template free manner onto superhydrophobic surfaces (SHS). The particles were produced upon assembly and double superficial crosslinking of liquid droplets of DNA and methacrylamide chitosan aqueous solutions (CH:MA), leading to liquid-core particles with a hardened hydrogel shell...
November 14, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149467/geophysical-assessment-of-groundwater-potential-a-case-study-from-mian-channu-area-pakistan
#7
Muhammad Hasan, Yanjun Shang, Gulraiz Akhter, Weijun Jin
An integrated study using geophysical method in combination with pumping tests and geochemical method was carried out to delineate groundwater potential zones in Mian Channu area of Pakistan. Vertical electrical soundings (VES) using Schlumberger configuration with maximum current electrode spacing (AB/2 = 200 m) were conducted at 50 stations and 10 pumping tests at borehole sites were performed in close proximity to 10 of the VES stations. The aim of this study is to establish a correlation between the hydraulic parameters obtained from geophysical method and pumping tests so that the aquifer potential can be estimated from the geoelectrical surface measurements where no pumping tests exist...
November 17, 2017: Ground Water
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145144/pyrethroid-pesticide-residues-in-the-global-environment-an-overview
#8
REVIEW
Wangxin Tang, Di Wang, Jiaqi Wang, Zhengwen Wu, Lingyu Li, Mingli Huang, Shaohui Xu, Dongyun Yan
Pyrethroids are synthetic organic insecticides with low mammalian toxicity that are widely used in both rural and urban areas worldwide. After entering the natural environment, pyrethroids circulate among the three phases of solid, liquid, and gas and enter organisms through food chains, resulting in substantial health risks. This review summarized the available studies on pyrethroid residues since 1986 in different media at the global scale and indicated that pyrethroids have been widely detected in a range of environments (including soils, water, sediments, and indoors) and in organisms...
October 23, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140660/assessing-the-relative-influence-and-efficacy-of-public-and-private-food-safety-regulation-regimes-comparing-codex-and-global-g-a-p-standards
#9
Sam F Halabi, Ching-Fu Lin
An extensive global system of private food regulation is under construction, one that exceeds conventional regulation thought of as being driven by public authorities like FDA and USDA in the U.S. or the Food Standards Agency in the UK. Agrifood and grocer organizations, in concert with some farming groups, have been the primary designers of this new food regulatory regime. These groups have established alliances that compete with national regulators in complex ways. This article analyzes the relationship between public and private sources of food safety regulation by examining standards adopted by the Codex Alimentarius Commission, a food safety organization jointly run by the Food and Agricultural Organization and the World Health Organization and GlobalG...
2017: Food and Drug Law Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138387/strategies-for-feeding-the-world-more-sustainably-with-organic-agriculture
#10
Adrian Muller, Christian Schader, Nadia El-Hage Scialabba, Judith Brüggemann, Anne Isensee, Karl-Heinz Erb, Pete Smith, Peter Klocke, Florian Leiber, Matthias Stolze, Urs Niggli
Organic agriculture is proposed as a promising approach to achieving sustainable food systems, but its feasibility is also contested. We use a food systems model that addresses agronomic characteristics of organic agriculture to analyze the role that organic agriculture could play in sustainable food systems. Here we show that a 100% conversion to organic agriculture needs more land than conventional agriculture but reduces N-surplus and pesticide use. However, in combination with reductions of food wastage and food-competing feed from arable land, with correspondingly reduced production and consumption of animal products, land use under organic agriculture remains below the reference scenario...
November 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136841/miniaturized-quechers-based-methodology-for-multiresidue-determination-of-pesticides-in-odonate-nymphs-as-ecosystem-biomonitors
#11
Florencia Jesús, Ricardo Hladki, Natalia Gérez, Natalia Besil, Silvina Niell, Grisel Fernández, Horacio Heinzen, María Verónica Cesio
The impacts of the modern, agrochemicals based agriculture that threatens the overall systems sustainability, need to be monitored and evaluated. Seeking for agroecosystems monitors, the present article focus in the occurrence and abundance of aquatic macroinvertebrates, that have been frequently used as bioindicators of water quality due to their relationship with land use. Some of these organisms are on the top of the food chain, where bioaccumulation and biomagnification processes can be observed, and they can turn into secondary pollution sources of systems and terrestrial organisms as well...
February 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136375/a-modified-sample-preparation-approach-for-the-determination-of-the-phenolic-and-humic-like-substances-in-natural-organic-materials-by-the-folin-ciocalteu-method
#12
Ludovico Pontoni, Antonio Panico, Alessia Matanò, Eric D van Hullebusch, Massimiliano Fabbricino, Giovanni Esposito, Francesco Pirozzi
A novel modification of the Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric assay sample preparation for the determination of total phenolic compounds in natural solid and semi-solid organic materials (e.g., foods, organic solid waste, soils, plant tissues, agricultural residues, manure, etc.) is proposed. In this method the sample is prepared by adding sodium sulfate as solid diluting agent before homogenization. The method allows the determination of total phenols (TP) in samples with high solids content, and it provides good accuracy and reproducibility...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134075/antifungal-activity-of-water-stable-copper-containing-metal-organic-frameworks
#13
Supaporn Bouson, Atiweena Krittayavathananon, Nutthaphon Phattharasupakun, Patcharaporn Siwayaprahm, Montree Sawangphruk
Although metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) or porous coordination polymers have been widely studied, their antimicrobial activities have not yet been fully investigated. In this work, antifungal activity of copper-based benzene-tricarboxylate MOF (Cu-BTC MOF), which is water stable and industrially interesting, is investigated against Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus oryzae and Fusarium oxysporum. The Cu-BTC MOF can effectively inhibit the growth rate of C. albicans and remarkably inhibit the spore growth of A...
October 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134071/the-scaling-structure-of-the-global-road-network
#14
Emanuele Strano, Andrea Giometto, Saray Shai, Enrico Bertuzzo, Peter J Mucha, Andrea Rinaldo
Because of increasing global urbanization and its immediate consequences, including changes in patterns of food demand, circulation and land use, the next century will witness a major increase in the extent of paved roads built worldwide. To model the effects of this increase, it is crucial to understand whether possible self-organized patterns are inherent in the global road network structure. Here, we use the largest updated database comprising all major roads on the Earth, together with global urban and cropland inventories, to suggest that road length distributions within croplands are indistinguishable from urban ones, once rescaled to account for the difference in mean road length...
October 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120759/untargeted-metabolomics-reveals-specific-withanolides-and-fatty-acyl-glycoside-as-tentative-metabolites-to-differentiate-organic-and-conventional-physalis-peruviana-fruits
#15
Sandra M Llano, Ana M Muñoz-Jiménez, Claudio Jiménez-Cartagena, Julián Londoño-Londoño, Sonia Medina
The agronomic production systems may affect the levels of food metabolites. Metabolomics approaches have been applied as useful tool for the characterization of fruit metabolome. In this study, metabolomics techniques were used to assess the differences in phytochemical composition between goldenberry samples produced by organic and conventional systems. To verify that the organic samples were free of pesticides, individual pesticides were analyzed. Principal component analysis showed a clear separation of goldenberry samples from two different farming systems...
April 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107375/tracing-of-particulate-organic-c-sources-across-the-terrestrial-aquatic-continuum-a-case-study-at-the-catchment-scale-carminowe-creek-southwest-england
#16
M Glendell, R Jones, J A J Dungait, K Meusburger, A C Schwendel, R Barclay, S Barker, S Haley, T A Quine, J Meersmans
Soils deliver crucial ecosystem services, such as climate regulation through carbon (C) storage and food security, both of which are threatened by climate and land use change. While soils are important stores of terrestrial C, anthropogenic impact on the lateral fluxes of C from land to water remains poorly quantified and not well represented in Earth system models. In this study, we tested a novel framework for tracing and quantifying lateral C fluxes from the terrestrial to the aquatic environment at a catchment scale...
October 26, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102326/the-uptake-of-anaerobic-digestion-for-the-organic-fraction-of-municipal-solid-waste-push-versus-pull-factors
#17
REVIEW
W P Clarke
There are thousands of anaerobic digestion facilities worldwide applied to agricultural waste, energy crops and industrial food processing wastes. Yet, centralised anaerobic digestion for the organic fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW) is almost exclusively applied in Europe and California where diversion of organics from landfill is enforced by legislation. Even in the EU however, only 5% of OFMSW is currently digested, with most organic waste incinerated. Municipalities elsewhere are reluctant to switch to biological treatment, even when made financially preferable through mechanisms such as landfill taxes...
October 26, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102307/trends-in-frequency-of-type-2-diabetes-in-mexico-and-its-relationship-to-dietary-patterns-and-contextual-factors
#18
Guadalupe Soto-Estrada, Laura Moreno Altamirano, Juan José García-García, Iván Ochoa Moreno, Martín Silberman
OBJECTIVE: To analyse the evolution of the frequency of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and its relationship to eating patterns in Mexico from 1961 to 2013, and the Gini coefficient, Human Development Index (HDI) and Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Mexico ranked sixth in world prevalence of diabetes in 2015 with an estimated 11.4 million Mexicans affected. METHOD: Using data from the Balance Sheets Food published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the means of apparent food consumption (kcal/person/day) were grouped by decades...
October 26, 2017: Gaceta Sanitaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091832/effects-of-combined-amendments-on-crop-yield-and-cadmium-uptake-in-two-cadmium-contaminated-soils-under-rice-wheat-rotation
#19
Fuyu Guo, Changfeng Ding, Zhigao Zhou, Gaoxiang Huang, Xingxiang Wang
Soil cadmium (Cd) contamination in China has become a serious concern due to its high toxicity to human health through food chains. A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of hydrated lime (L), hydroxyapatite (H) and organic fertilizer (F) alone or in combination to remedy a mild (DY) and a moderate (YX) Cd contaminated agricultural soil under rice-wheat rotation. Results showed that crops grain yield and Cd concentration, soil pH, CaCl2 extractable Cd and Cd speciation were markedly affected by the amendments...
October 25, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081787/plant-hormesis-management-with-biostimulants-of-biotic-origin-in-agriculture
#20
REVIEW
Marcela Vargas-Hernandez, Israel Macias-Bobadilla, Ramon G Guevara-Gonzalez, Sergio de J Romero-Gomez, Enrique Rico-Garcia, Rosalia V Ocampo-Velazquez, Luz de L Alvarez-Arquieta, Irineo Torres-Pacheco
Over time plants developed complex mechanisms in order to adapt themselves to the environment. Plant innate immunity is one of the most important mechanisms for the environmental adaptation. A myriad of secondary metabolites with nutraceutical features are produced by the plant immune system in order to get adaptation to new environments that provoke stress (stressors). Hormesis is a phenomenon by which a stressor (i.e., toxins, herbicides, etc.) stimulates the cellular stress response, including secondary metabolites production, in order to help organisms to establish adaptive responses...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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