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Organic agriculture, food

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089401/recycling-organic-wastes-to-agricultural-land-as-a-way-to-improve-its-quality-a-field-study-to-evaluate-benefits-and-risks
#1
P Alvarenga, P Palma, C Mourinha, M Farto, J Dôres, M Patanita, C Cunha-Queda, T Natal-da-Luz, M Renaud, J P Sousa
A field study was established to assess the effects of a sewage sludge (SS), a mixed municipal solid waste compost (MMSWC) and a compost produced from agricultural wastes (AWC), in a Vertisol, using Lolium multiflorum L. The amendments were applied for two consecutive years: 6, 12 and 24t dry matter ha(-1) for SS, and the amendment doses for MMSWC and AWC were calculated to deliver the same amount of organic matter (OM) per unit area. The amendments had significant beneficial effects on some soil properties (e...
January 12, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088859/determination-of-the-geographical-origin-of-all-commercial-hake-species-by-stable-isotope-ratio-sir-analysis
#2
Mónica Carrera, José M Gallardo
The determination of the geographical origin of food products is relevant to comply with the legal regulations of traceability, avoid food fraud and guarantee the food quality and safety to the consumers. For these reasons, Stable Isotope Ratio (SIR) analysis using an isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) instrument is one of the most useful technique for evaluating food traceability and authenticity. The present study was aimed to determine for the first time, the geographical origin for all commercial fish species belonging to the Merlucciidae family using SIR analysis of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N)...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080985/emerging-oomycete-threats-to-plants-and-animals
#3
REVIEW
Lida Derevnina, Benjamin Petre, Ronny Kellner, Yasin F Dagdas, Mohammad Nasif Sarowar, Artemis Giannakopoulou, Juan Carlos De la Concepcion, Angela Chaparro-Garcia, Helen G Pennington, Pieter van West, Sophien Kamoun
Oomycetes, or water moulds, are fungal-like organisms phylogenetically related to algae. They cause devastating diseases in both plants and animals. Here, we describe seven oomycete species that are emerging or re-emerging threats to agriculture, horticulture, aquaculture and natural ecosystems. They include the plant pathogens Phytophthora infestans, Phytophthora palmivora, Phytophthora ramorum, Plasmopara obducens, and the animal pathogens Aphanomyces invadans, Saprolegnia parasitica and Halioticida noduliformans For each species, we describe its pathology, importance and impact, discuss why it is an emerging threat and briefly review current research activities...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079271/uptake-and-elimination-kinetics-of-the-biocide-triclosan-and-the-synthetic-musks-galaxolide-and-tonalide-in-the-earthworm-dendrobaena-veneta-when-exposed-to-sewage-sludge
#4
Ivo Havranek, Claire Coutris, Hans Ragnar Norli, Pierre-Adrien Rivier, Erik J Joner
Sewage sludge is an important amendment that enriches soils with organic matter and provides plants with nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus. However, knowledge on fate and effects of organic pollutants present in the sludge on soil organisms is limited. In the present study, the uptake of triclosan, galaxolide, and tonalide in the earthworm Dendrobaena veneta was measured one week after amendment of agricultural soil with sewage sludge, while elimination kinetics were assessed over a 21-day period after transferring worms to a clean soil...
January 12, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077402/elemental-metabolomics
#5
Ping Zhang, Constantinos A Georgiou, Vladimir Brusic
Elemental metabolomics is quantification and characterization of total concentration of chemical elements in biological samples and monitoring of their changes. Recent advances in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry have enabled simultaneous measurement of concentrations of > 70 elements in biological samples. In living organisms, elements interact and compete with each other for absorption and molecular interactions. They also interact with proteins and nucleotide sequences. These interactions modulate enzymatic activities and are critical for many molecular and cellular functions...
January 10, 2017: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073476/health-impacts-from-cyanobacteria-harmful-algae-blooms-implications-for-the-north-american-great-lakes
#6
REVIEW
Wayne W Carmichael, Gregory L Boyer
Harmful cyanobacterial blooms (cHABs) have significant socioeconomic and ecological costs, which impact drinking water, fisheries, agriculture, tourism, real estate, water quality, food web resilience and habitats, and contribute to anoxia and fish kills. Many of these costs are well described, but in fact are largely unmeasured. Worldwide cHABs can produce toxins (cyanotoxins), which cause acute or chronic health effects in mammals (including humans) and other organisms. There are few attempts to characterize the full health-related effects other than acute incidences, which may go unrecorded...
April 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068981/factors-affecting-evidence-use-in-food-policy-making-processes-in-health-and-agriculture-in-fiji
#7
Gade Waqa, Colin Bell, Wendy Snowdon, Marj Moodie
BACKGROUND: There is limited research on the use of evidence to inform policy-making in the Pacific. This study aims to identify and describe factors that facilitate or limit the use of evidence in food-related policy-making in the Health and Agriculture Ministries in Fiji. METHODS: Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with selected policy-makers in two government ministries that were instrumental in the development of food-related policies in Fiji designed to prevent Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs)...
January 9, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063709/radical-change-of-zn-speciation-in-pig-slurry-amended-soil-key-role-of-nano-sized-sulfide-particles
#8
Thiago Augusto Formentini, Samuel Legros, Cristovão Vicente Scapulatempo Fernandes, Adilson Pinheiro, Maureen Le Bars, Clément Levard, Fábio Joel Kochem Mallmann, Milton da Veiga, Emmanuel Doelsch
Spreading livestock manure as fertilizer on farmlands is a widespread practice. It represents the major source of heavy metal(loid)s (HM) input in agricultural soils. Since zinc (Zn) is present at high concentrations in manure, it poses special environmental concerns related to phytotoxicity, groundwater contamination, and introduction in the food chain. Therefore, investigations on the fate and behavior of manure-borne Zn, when it enters the soil environment, are necessary to predict the environmental effects...
January 4, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041693/nitrogen-containing-organic-compounds-origins-toxicity-and-conditions-of-their-photocatalytic-mineralization-over-tio2
#9
REVIEW
Drissa Bamba, Mariame Coulibaly, Didier Robert
Sustainable water management remains a global concern to meet the food needs of industrial and agricultural activities. Therefore, pollution abatement techniques, cheap and environmentally, are highly desired and recommended. The present review is devoted to the origin and the toxicity of nitrogen-containing organic compounds in water. The progress made in removing these pollutants, in recent years, is addressed. However, a prominent place is given to the photocatalytic degradation process using the TiO2 as a semiconductor, the conditions for good mineralization and especially the factors influencing it...
December 29, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040828/whose-knowledge-whose-development-use-and-role-of-local-and-external-knowledge-in-agroforestry-projects-in-bolivia
#10
Johanna Jacobi, Sarah-Lan Mathez-Stiefel, Helen Gambon, Stephan Rist, Miguel Altieri
Agroforestry often relies on local knowledge, which is gaining recognition in development projects. However, how local knowledge can articulate with external and scientific knowledge is little known. Our study explored the use and integration of local and external knowledge in agroforestry projects in Bolivia. In 42 field visits and 62 interviews with agroforestry farmers, civil society representatives, and policymakers, we found a diverse knowledge base. We examined how local and external knowledge contribute to livelihood assets and tree and crop diversity...
December 31, 2016: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040311/foot-and-mouth-disease-vaccines
#11
Fayna Diaz-San Segundo, Gisselle N Medina, Carolina Stenfeldt, Jonathan Arzt, Teresa de Los Santos
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. The disease affects many areas of the world, often causing extensive epizootics in livestock, mostly farmed cattle and swine, although sheep, goats and many wild species are also susceptible. In countries where food and farm animals are essential for subsistence agriculture, outbreaks of FMD seriously impact food security and development. In highly industrialized developed nations, FMD endemics cause economic and social devastation mainly due to observance of health measures adopted from the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE)...
December 19, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028701/catchment-land-use-dependent-effects-of-barrage-fishponds-on-the-functioning-of-headwater-streams
#12
Brian Four, Evelyne Arce, Michaël Danger, Juliette Gaillard, Marielle Thomas, Damien Banas
Extensive fish production systems in continental areas are often created by damming headwater streams. However, these lentic systems favour autochthonous organic matter production. As headwater stream functioning is essentially based on allochthonous organic matter (OM) supply, the presence of barrage fishponds on headwater streams might change the main food source for benthic communities. The goal of this study was thus to identify the effects of barrage fishponds on the functioning of headwater streams. To this end, we compared leaf litter breakdown (a key ecosystem function in headwater streams), their associated invertebrate communities and fungal biomass at sites upstream and downstream of five barrage fishponds in two dominant land use systems (three in forested catchments and two in agricultural catchments)...
December 27, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017594/delivering-summer-electronic-benefit-transfers-for-children-through-the-supplemental-nutrition-assistance-program-or-the-special-supplemental-nutrition-program-for-women-infants-and-children-benefit-use-and-impacts-on-food-security-and-foods-consumed
#13
Anne R Gordon, Ronette R Briefel, Ann M Collins, Gretchen M Rowe, Jacob A Klerman
BACKGROUND: The Summer Electronic Benefit Transfers for Children (SEBTC) demonstration piloted summer food assistance through electronic benefit transfers (EBTs), providing benefits either through the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) or the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) EBT. OBJECTIVE: To inform food assistance policy and describe how demonstrations using WIC and SNAP models differed in benefit take-up and impacts on food security and children's food consumption...
December 22, 2016: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002765/developmental-toxicity-of-2-4-dichlorophenoxyacetic-acid-in-zebrafish-embryos
#14
Kang Li, Jia-Qi Wu, Ling-Ling Jiang, Li-Zhen Shen, Jian-Ying Li, Zhi-Heng He, Ping Wei, Zhuo Lv, Ming-Fang He
2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is widely used in agriculture as herbicide/pesticide, plant growth regulator and fruit preservative agent. It progressively accumulates in the environment including surface water, air and soil. It could be detected in human food and urine, which poses great risk to the living organisms. In the present study, we investigated the developmental toxicity of 2,4-D on zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo. 2,4-D exposure significantly decreased both the survival rate (LC50 = 46...
December 10, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993181/impact-of-cow-strain-and-concentrate-supplementation-on-grazing-behaviour-milk-yield-and-metabolic-state-of-dairy-cows-in-an-organic-pasture-based-feeding-system
#15
C Heublein, F Dohme-Meier, K-H Südekum, R M Bruckmaier, S Thanner, F Schori
As ruminants are able to digest fibre efficiently and assuming that competition for feed v. food use would intensify in the future, cereals and other field crops should primarily be destined to cover the dietary needs of humans and monogastric animals such as poultry and pigs. Farming systems with a reduced or absent concentrate supplementation, as postulated by organic agriculture associations, require adapted dairy cows. The aim of this experiment was to examine the impact of concentrate supplementation on milk production, grazing and rumination behaviour, feed intake, physical activity and blood traits with two Holstein-Friesian cow strains and to conclude the consequences for sustainable and organic farming...
December 20, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992898/the-scientific-basis-of-guideline-recommendations-on-sugar-intake-a-systematic-review
#16
Jennifer Erickson, Behnam Sadeghirad, Lyubov Lytvyn, Joanne Slavin, Bradley C Johnston
Background: The relationship between sugar and health is affected by energy balance, macronutrient substitutions, and diet and lifestyle patterns. Several authoritative organizations have issued public health guidelines addressing dietary sugars. Purpose: To systematically review guidelines on sugar intake and assess consistency of recommendations, methodological quality of guidelines, and the quality of evidence supporting each recommendation. Data Sources: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science (1995 to September 2016); guideline registries; and gray literature (bibliographies, Google, and experts)...
December 20, 2016: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992824/nanotechnology-for-sustainable-wastewater-treatment-and-use-for-agricultural-production-a-comparative-long-term-study
#17
Patricia De La Cueva Bueno, Leonid Gillerman, Ronald Gehr, Gideon Oron
Nanotechnology applications can be used for filtering low quality waters, allowing under given conditions, the removal of salts and other micropollutants from these waters. A long-term field experiment, implementing nanotechnology in the form of UltraFiltration (UF) and Reverse Osmosis (RO) for salt removal from treated wastewater, was conducted with secondary effluents, aiming to prove the sustainability of agricultural production using irrigation with treated wastewater. Six outdoor field treatments, each under four replications, were conducted for examining the salt accumulation effects on the soil and the crops...
November 27, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992727/organic-food-in-the-diet-exposure-and-health-implications
#18
Anne Lise Brantsæter, Trond A Ydersbond, Jane A Hoppin, Margaretha Haugen, Helle Margrete Meltzer
The market for organic food products is growing rapidly worldwide. Such foods meet certified organic standards for production, handling, processing, and marketing. Most notably, the use of synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, and genetic modification is not allowed. One major reason for the increased demand is the perception that organic foods are more environmentally friendly and healthier than conventionally produced food. This review provides an update on market data and consumer preferences for organic food and summarizes the scientific evidence for compositional differences and health benefits of organic compared with conventionally produced food...
December 15, 2016: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982369/mapping-of-nutrition-and-sectoral-policies-addressing-malnutrition-in-latin-america
#19
María Cristina Tirado, Luis Galicia, Hannah M Husby, Jaime Lopez, Stephania Olamendi, Maria Pia Chaparro, María A González, Rubén Grajeda
Objective: To map existing policies addressing malnutrition in all its forms in Latin America and identify gaps in enabling environments supporting the five priority lines of action outlined in the World Health Organization Comprehensive Implementation Plan on Maternal, Infant and Young Child Nutrition (CIP) approved in 2014. Methods: This descriptive study consisted of a systematic Internet search for and mapping of publicly available nutrition-related and sectoral policies already in place to address malnutrition in all its forms in 18 Latin American countries (Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, and Uruguay)...
August 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978407/community-perspectives-on-access-to-and-availability-of-healthy-food-in-rural-low-resource-latino-communities
#20
Zulema Valdez, A Susana Ramírez, Erendira Estrada, Kathleen Grassi, Stephanie Nathan
INTRODUCTION: Attention has focused on the food environment as a result of the growing concern with obesity rates among Latinos in rural areas. Researchers have observed associations between a lack of physical access to affordable produce in areas where supermarkets and grocery stores are limited and poor dietary intake and obesity; these associations are high in rural, low-resource neighborhoods with a high population of Latino residents. We aimed to engage residents of low-resource, Latino-majority neighborhoods in discussions of food access in a rural yet agricultural community setting, which is typically described as a "food desert...
December 15, 2016: Preventing Chronic Disease
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