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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527664/a-new-hdv-mouse-model-identifies-mitochondrial-antiviral-signaling-protein-mavs-as-a-key-player-in-ifn-%C3%AE-induction
#1
Lester Suárez-Amarán, Carla Usai, Marianna Di Scala, Cristina Godoy, Yi Ni, Mirja Hommel, Laura Palomo, Víctor Segura, Cristina Olagüe, Africa Vales, Alicia Ruiz-Ripa, Maria Buti, Eduardo Salido, Jesús Prieto, Stephan Urban, Francisco Rodríguez-Frias, Rafael Aldabe, Gloria González-Aseguinolaza
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Studying hepatitis delta virus (HDV) and developing new treatments is hampered by the limited availability of small animal models. Here a description of a robust mouse model of HDV infection that mimics several important characteristics of the human disease is presented. METHODS: HDV- and HBV-replication competent genomes were delivered to the mouse liver using adeno-associated viruses (AAV) (AAV-HDV and AAV-HBV). Viral load, antigen expression and genomes were quantified at different time points after AAV injection...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526759/il-2-high-tissue-resident-t-cells-in-the-human-liver-sentinels-for-hepatotropic-infection
#2
Laura J Pallett, Jessica Davies, Emily J Colbeck, Francis Robertson, Navjyot Hansi, Nicholas J W Easom, Alice R Burton, Kerstin A Stegmann, Anna Schurich, Leo Swadling, Upkar S Gill, Victoria Male, TuVinh Luong, Amir Gander, Brian R Davidson, Patrick T F Kennedy, Mala K Maini
The liver provides a tolerogenic immune niche exploited by several highly prevalent pathogens as well as by primary and metastatic tumors. We have sampled healthy and hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected human livers to probe for a subset of T cells specialized to overcome local constraints and mediate immunity. We characterize a population of T-bet(lo)Eomes(lo)Blimp-1(hi)Hobit(lo) T cells found within the intrahepatic but not the circulating memory CD8 T cell pool expressing liver-homing/retention markers (CD69(+)CD103(+) CXCR6(+)CXCR3(+))...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526571/the-antiviral-signaling-mediated-by-black-carp-mda5-is-positively-regulated-by-lgp2
#3
Ji Liu, Jun Li, Jun Xiao, Hui Chen, Liang Lu, Xu Wang, Yu Tian, Hao Feng
Melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) belongs to RIG-I like receptor (RLR) family, which detects cytosolic viral RNA component in immune response. In this study, MDA5 orthologue of black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) has been cloned and characterized. The full-length cDNA of black carp MDA5 (bcMDA5) comprises 3244 nucleotides and the predicted bcMDA5 protein contains 984 amino acids. The constitutive transcription of bcMDA5 was extremely low in all the tested tissues, which included gill, skin, muscle, intestine, kidney, spleen, liver and heart...
May 16, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526339/magnesium-isoglycyrrhizinate-blocks-fructose-induced-hepatic-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-and-lipid-metabolism-disorder
#4
Xiao-Juan Zhao, Yan-Zi Yang, Yan-Jing Zheng, Shan-Chun Wang, Hong-Mei Gu, Ying Pan, Shui-Juan Wang, Hong-Jiang Xu, Ling-Dong Kong
Magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate as a hepatoprotective agent possesses immune modulation and anti-inflammation, and treats liver diseases. But its effects on immunological-inflammatory and metabolic profiles for metabolic syndrome with liver injury and underlying potential mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate alleviated liver inflammation and lipid accumulation in fructose-fed rats with metabolic syndrome. It also suppressed hepatic inflammatory signaling activation by reducing protein levels of phosphorylation of nuclear factor-kappa B p65 (p-NF-κB p65), inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase α/β (p-IKKα/β) and inhibitor of NF-κB α (p-IκBα) as well as nucleotide-binding domain (NOD)-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3), apoptosis-associated speck-like protein (ASC) and Caspase-1 in rats, being consistent with its reduction of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and IL-6 levels...
May 16, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525828/peripheral-immune-factors-are-elevated-in-women-with-current-or-recent-alcohol-dependence-and-associated-with-altered-mood-and-memory
#5
Clare J Wilhelm, Bret E Fuller, Marilyn Huckans, Jennifer M Loftis
BACKGROUND: The adverse effects of alcohol on brain function result, in part, from inflammatory processes. The sex-specific neuropsychiatric consequences and inflammatory status of active alcohol dependence and early remission from dependence have not been investigated. METHODS: Neuropsychiatric symptoms, inflammatory factors, and liver enzymes were compared in a prospective cohort study of adults with (n=51) or without (n=31) a current or recent history of alcohol dependence...
May 10, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525267/the-supernatant-from-hepatocyte-cultures-with-drugs-that-cause-idiosyncratic-liver-injury-activates-macrophage-inflammasomes
#6
Ryuji Kato, Jack Uetrecht
There is increasing evidence that most idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (IDILI) is immune mediated, and in most cases reactive metabolites appear to be responsible for induction of this immune response. Reactive metabolites can cause cell damage with the release of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), which is thought to be involved in immune activation. Presumably the reason that the liver is a common target of idiosyncratic drug reactions is because it is the major site of drug metabolism and reactive metabolite formation...
May 19, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524832/measles-outbreak-in-pediatric-hematology-and-oncology-patients-in-shanghai-2015
#7
Yan-Ling Ge, Xiao-Wen Zhai, Yan-Feng Zhu, Xiang-Shi Wang, Ai-Mei Xia, Yue-Fang Li, Mei Zeng
BACKGROUND: Despite substantial progress toward measles control are making in China, measles outbreaks in immunocompromised population still pose a challenge to interrupt endemic transmission. This study aimed to investigate the features of measles in pediatric hematology and oncology patients and explore the reasons behind the outbreak. METHODS: We collected demographic, epidemiological, and clinical data of immunocompromised measles children. All suspected measles cases were laboratory-confirmed based on the presence of measles IgM and/or identification of measles RNA...
June 5, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522327/measurement-of-bacterial-capture-and-phagosome-maturation-of-kupffer-cells-by-intravital-microscopy
#8
Bas G J Surewaard, Paul Kubes
It is central to the field of bacterial pathogenesis to define how bacteria are killed by phagocytic cells. During phagocytosis, the microbe is localized to the phagolysosome where crucial defense mechanisms such as acidification and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are initiated. This process has extensively been studied in vitro, however many resident tissue phagocytes will phenotypically change upon isolation from their natural environment. Therefore, interrogation of phagocytosis and phagosomal function of cells in the context of their natural tissue environment enhances our understanding of the biological process in vivo...
May 15, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522323/in-vivo-imaging-of-pathogen-homing-to-the-host-tissues
#9
Joana Tavares, David M Costa, Ana Rafaela Teixeira, Anabela Cordeiro-da-Silva, Rogerio Amino
Hematogenous dissemination followed by tissue tropism is a characteristic of the infectious process of many pathogens including those transmitted by blood-feeding vectors. After entering into the blood circulation, these pathogens must arrest in the target organ before they infect a specific tissue. Here, we describe a non-invasive method to visualize and quantify the homing of pathogens to the host tissues. By using in vivo bioluminescence imaging we quantify the accumulation of luciferase-expressing parasites in the host organs during the first minutes following their intravascular inoculation in mice...
May 15, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521031/expression-of-host-defense-peptides-in-the-intestine-of-eimeria-challenged-chickens
#10
S Su, D M Dwyer, K B Miska, R H Fetterer, M C Jenkins, E A Wong
Avian coccidiosis is caused by the intracellular protozoan Eimeria, which produces intestinal lesions leading to weight gain depression. Current control methods include vaccination and anticoccidial drugs. An alternative approach involves modulating the immune system. The objective of this study was to profile the expression of host defense peptides such as avian beta-defensins (AvBDs) and liver expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 (LEAP2), which are part of the innate immune system. The mRNA expression of AvBD family members 1, 6, 8, 10, 11, 12, and 13 and LEAP2 was examined in chickens challenged with either E...
May 17, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520708/hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-screening-among-pregnant-women-and-care-of-infants-of-hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-positive-mothers-guam-2014
#11
Winston E Abara, Susan Cha, Tasneem Malik, Mia S DeSimone, Bernadette Schumann, Esther Mallada, Michael Klemme, Vince Aguon, Anne Marie Santos, Melissa Collier, Mary Kamb
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is endemic among adults in the U.S. territory of Guam (1,2). Perinatal HBV transmission, which occurs at birth from an infected mother to her newborn infant, is a major mode of HBV transmission and maintains HBV endemicity (3). Approximately 90% of HBV-infected infants will develop chronic HBV infection, and approximately 25% of those will die prematurely from liver failure or hepatocellular carcinoma (4,5). Since 1988, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices has recommended that all pregnant women be screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), an indicator of HBV infection, and that infants of women who screen positive (HBsAg-positive women) receive postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) (hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B immunoglobulin [HBIG])...
May 19, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518214/immune-monitoring-as-prerequisite-for-transplantation-tolerance-trials
#12
REVIEW
Katayoun Behnam Sani, Birgit Sawitzki
Ever since its first application in clinical medicine, scientists have urged to induce tolerance towards foreign allogeneic transplants and thus avoid rejection by the recipient's immune system. This would circumvent chronic use of immunosuppressive drugs (IS) and thus avoid development of IS-induced side effects, which are contributing to the still unsatisfactory long-term graft and patient survival after solid organ transplantation. Although manifold strategies of tolerance induction have been described in preclinical models, only three therapeutic approaches have been successfully utilized in a still small number of patients...
May 18, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518089/laparoscopic-technique-for-serial-collection-of-liver-and-mesenteric-lymph-nodes-in-macaques
#13
Alexander S Zevin, Cassie Moats, Drew May, Solomon Wangari, Charlene Miller, Joel Ahrens, Naoto Iwayama, Megan Brown, Debbie Bratt, Nichole R Klatt, Jeremy Smedley
The mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and the liver are exposed to microbes and microbial products from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, making them immunologically unique. The GI tract and associated MLN are sites of early viral replication in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and the MLN are likely important reservoir sites that harbor latently-infected cells even after prolonged antiretroviral therapy (ART). The liver has been shown to play a significant role in immune responses to lentiviruses and appears to play a significant role in clearance of virus from circulation...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517369/treatment-of-primary-biliary-cholangitis-non-responders-a-systematic-review
#14
Duminda Suraweera, Harman Rahal, Melissa Jimenez, Matthew Viramontes, Gina Choi, Sammy Saab
BACKGROUND: Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), formerly known as primary biliary cirrhosis, is a chronic cholestatic liver disease characterized by an immune mediated destruction of intrahepatic bile ducts. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) has been the primary medication for the treatment of PBC, resulting in improved liver tests, resolution of symptoms and increased transplant free survival. However, not all patients respond to UDCA. The aim of this systematic review is to provide an evidence based assessment of the medications that have been studied in patients who are refractory to UDCA...
May 18, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516791/which-one-is-more-effective-for-the-treatment-of-rat-sepsis-model-thalidomide-or-etanercept
#15
N Ilhan, S Susam, H F Gul, R Bardas, N Ilhan
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the protective effect of selected treatment agents on liver injury in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced rat sepsis model. BACKGROUND: The sepsis includes complex inflammatory responses between a microbial pathogen and the host immune system, and leads to organ failure and also death. METHODS: This study was performed with 29 male Wistar Albino rats. Rats were divided randomly into five groups: Sham group, LPS-treated sepsis group, LPS+thalidomide treated group, LPS+etanercept treated group and LPS+thalidomide+etanercept treated group, respectively...
2017: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515843/emerging-concepts-in-alcoholic-hepatitis
#16
REVIEW
Phoenix Fung, Nikolaos Pyrsopoulos
Severe alcoholic hepatitis is implicated as a costly, worldwide public health issue with high morbidity and mortality. The one-month survival for severe alcoholic hepatitis is low with mortality rates high as 30%-50%. Abstinence from alcohol is the recommended first-line treatment. Although corticosteroids remain as the current evidence based option for selected patients with discriminant function > 32, improvement of short-term survival rate may be the only benefit. Identification of individuals with risk factors for the development of severe alcoholic hepatitis may provide insight to the diverse clinical spectrum and prognosis of the disease...
April 28, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514971/effects-of-organic-complexed-or-inorganic-co-cu-mn-and-zn-supplementation-during-a-45-day-preconditioning-period-on-productive-and-health-responses-of-feeder-cattle
#17
K D Lippolis, R F Cooke, L G T Silva, K M Schubach, A P Brandao, R S Marques, C K Larson, J R Russell, S A Arispe, T DelCurto, D W Bohnert
This experiment evaluated production and health parameters among cattle offered concentrates containing inorganic or organic complexed sources of supplemental Cu, Co, Mn and Zn during a 45-day preconditioning period. In total, 90 Angus×Hereford calves were weaned at 7 months (day -1), sorted by sex, weaning BW and age (261±2 kg; 224±2 days), and allocated to 18 drylot pens (one heifer and four steers per pen) on day 0; thus, all pens had equivalent initial BW and age. Pens were randomly assigned to receive a corn-based preconditioning concentrate containing: (1) Cu, Co, Mn and Zn sulfate sources (INR), (2) Cu, Mn, Co and Zn complexed organic source (AAC) or (3) no Cu, Co, Mn and Zn supplementation (CON)...
May 18, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514662/a-murine-intestinal-intraepithelial-nkp46-negative-innate-lymphoid-cell-population-characterized-by-group-1-properties
#18
Aline Van Acker, Konrad Gronke, Aindrila Biswas, Liesbet Martens, Yvan Saeys, Jessica Filtjens, Sylvie Taveirne, Els Van Ammel, Tessa Kerre, Patrick Matthys, Tom Taghon, Bart Vandekerckhove, Jean Plum, Ildiko Rita Dunay, Andreas Diefenbach, Georges Leclercq
The Ly49E receptor is preferentially expressed on murine innate-like lymphocytes, such as epidermal Vγ3 T cells, intestinal intraepithelial CD8αα(+) T lymphocytes, and CD49a(+) liver natural killer (NK) cells. As the latter have recently been shown to be distinct from conventional NK cells and have innate lymphoid cell type 1 (ILC1) properties, we investigated Ly49E expression on intestinal ILC populations. Here, we show that Ly49E expression is very low on known ILC populations, but it can be used to define a previously unrecognized intraepithelial innate lymphoid population...
May 16, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511951/proteome-profiling-reveals-immune-responses-in-japanese-flounder-paralichthys-olivaceus-infected-with-edwardsiella-tarda-by-itraq-analysis
#19
Lei Wang, Changwei Shao, Wenteng Xu, Qian Zhou, Na Wang, Songlin Chen
The liver is an important organ for bacterial pathogen attack in fish. The differential proteomic response of the Japanese flounder liver to Edwardsiella tarda infection was examined using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) labeling followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A total of 3290 proteins were identified and classified into categories related to biological process (51.4%), molecular function (63.6%), and cellular component (57.7%). KEGG enrichment analysis indicated the complement and coagulation cascade pathways and the mineral absorption pathway were significantly enriched...
May 13, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511345/ros-homeostasis-a-key-determinant-in-liver-ischemic-preconditioning
#20
Ignacio Prieto, María Monsalve
Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) are key mediators of ischemia-reperfusion injury but also required for the induction of the stress response that limits tissue injury and underlies the protection provided by ischemic-preconditioning protocols. Liver steatosis is an important risk factor for liver transplant failure. Liver steatosis is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and excessive mitochondrial ROS production. Studies aiming at decreasing the sensibility of the steatotic liver to ischemia-reperfusion injury using pre-conditioning protocols, have shown that the steatotic liver has a reduced capacity to respond to these protocols...
May 4, 2017: Redox Biology
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