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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811651/inkt-cells-prevent-obesity-induced-hepatic-steatosis-in-mice-in-a-c-c-chemokine-receptor-7-dependent-manner
#1
H M Kim, R Lee, E S Lee, M H Kwon, J H Huh, B-E Kwon, E-K Park, S-Y Chang, M-N Kweon, P-H Kim, H-J Ko, C H Chung
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis are characterized by an increase in hepatic triglyceride content with infiltration of immune cells, which can cause steatohepatitis and hepatic insulin resistance. C-C chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) is primarily expressed in immune cells, and CCR7 deficiency leads to the development of multi-organ autoimmunity, chronic renal disease, and autoimmune diabetes. Here, we investigated the effect of CCR7 on hepatic steatosis in a mouse model and its underlying mechanism...
August 16, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811492/interferon-alpha-treatment-rapidly-clears-hepatitis-e-virus-infection-in-humanized-mice
#2
Martijn D B van de Garde, Suzan D Pas, Gertine W van Oord, Lucio Gama, Youkyung Choi, Robert A de Man, Andre Boonstra, Thomas Vanwolleghem
Antiviral treatment options for chronic Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) infections are limited and immunological determinants of viral persistence remain largely unexplored. We studied the antiviral potency of pegylated interferon-α (pegIFNα) against HEV infections in humanized mice and modelled intrahepatic interferon stimulated gene (ISG) responses. Human gene expression levels in humanized mouse livers were analyzed by qPCR and Nanostring. Human CXCL10 was measured in mouse serum. HEV genotype 3 (gt3) infections were cleared from liver and feces within 8 pegIFNα doses in all mice and relapsed after a single pegIFNα injection in only half of treated animals...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811490/mammary-tumors-induce-central-pro-inflammatory-cytokine-expression-but-not-behavioral-deficits-in-balb-c-mice
#3
William H Walker Ii, Jeremy C Borniger, Surbhi, Abigail A Zalenski, Stevie L Muscarella, Julie A Fitzgerald, Ning Zhang, Monica M Gaudier-Diaz, A Courtney DeVries
Breast cancer survivors are more likely to develop mood disorders and cognitive deficits than women in the general population. Previous studies suggest that peripheral tumors elicit central pro-inflammatory cytokine production, in turn leading to depression and cognitive deficits. In the current study, two cohorts of female Balb/C mice received bilateral orthotopic injections of syngeneic 67NR, 4T07, or 4T1cells (1 × 10(5) cells per injection) to induce mammary tumors. Approximately three weeks later, learned fear (via fear conditioning) or depressive-like behavior (via tail suspension and forced swim test) was assessed...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811294/dihydrocapsiate-improved-age-associated-impairments-in-mice-by-increasing-energy-expenditure
#4
Kana Ohyama, Katsuya Suzuki
Metabolic dysfunction is associated with aging and results in age-associated chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and stroke. Hence, there has been a focus on increasing energy expenditure in aged populations to protect them from age-associated diseases. Dihydrocapsiate (DCT) is a compound that belongs to the capsinoid family. Capsinoids are capsaicin analogs that are found in non-pungent peppers and increase whole-body energy expenditure. However, their effect on energy expenditure has been reported only in young populations, and to date the effectiveness of DCT in increasing energy expenditure in aged populations has not been investigated...
August 15, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811226/characterization-and-expression-analysis-of-six-interleukin-17-receptor-genes-in-grouper-epinephelus-coioides-after-cryptocaryon-irritans-infection
#5
Biao Jiang, Yan-Wei Li, Ya-Zhou Hu, Heng-Li Luo, An-Xing Li
Interleukin-17 receptors (IL17Rs) mediate the activation of several downstream signal pathways to induce inflammatory response and contribute to the pathology of many autoimmune diseases. In this study, six IL17Rs (IL17RA1, RA2, RB, RC, RD and RE) were cloned and characterized from Epinephelus coioides, an orange-spotted grouper. Multiple sequence alignment and structural analysis revealed that all members of IL17Rs were low in sequence identity with each other. But their structures were conservative in grouper, which contain signal peptide, extracellular FNIII domain (IL17RA1/RA2/RB) or IL-17_R_N domain (IL17RC/RD/RE), transmembrane domain and SEFIR domain in their intracellular region...
August 12, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810822/gamma-irradiated-%C3%AE-glucan-modulates-signaling-molecular-targets-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-rats
#6
Sawsan M Elsonbaty, Walid E Zahran, Fatma Sm Moawed
β-glucans are one of the most abundant forms of polysaccharides known as biological response modifiers which influence host's biological response and stimulate immune system. Accordingly, this study was initiated to evaluate irradiated β-glucan as a modulator for cellular signaling growth factors involved in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma in rats. Hepatocellular carcinoma was induced with 20 mg diethylnitrosamine/kg BW. Rats received daily by gastric gavage 65 mg irradiated β-glucan/kg BW. It was found that treatment of rats with diethylnitrosamine induced hepatic injury and caused significant increase in liver injury markers with a concomitant significant increase in both hepatic oxidative and inflammatory indices: alpha-fetoprotein, interferon gamma, and interleukin 6 in comparison with normal and irradiated β-glucan-treated groups...
August 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810614/evolution-of-correlation-between-helicobacter-pylori-infection-and-autoimmune-liver-disease
#7
Xin-Guo Peng, Yu-Yuan Li, Hui-Ting Chen, Yan Zhou, Jian-Guo Ma, Hong-Min Yin
The present study was planned to evaluate correlation between Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection and autoimmune liver disease (AILD). A total of 60 patients diagnosed with AILD in Affiliated Hospital of Binzhou Medical College were continuously enrolled in the present study. HP infection was detected by 13C-urea breath test. The levels of anti-myeloperoxidase were tested by ELISA. The positive rate of anti-nuclear antibody (ANA), anti-mitochondrial antibody (AMA), anti-smooth muscle antibody (SMA) and anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibody (ANCA) were tested by indirect immunofluorescence...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810602/hepatitis-c-virus-associated-cryoglobulinemia-with-membrano-proliferative-glomerulonephritis-treated-with-prednisolone-and-interferon-a-case-report
#8
Qiao-Yan Guo, Man Wu, Yang-Wei Wang, Guang-Dong Sun
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of liver-associated morbidity and has an increasing prevalence worldwide. Hepatitis C virus infection may lead to chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and liver failure. However, it is also associated with a wide range of extra-hepatic complications, such as cryoglobulinemia, an immune complex disease associated with cryoglobulin leading to multiple organ damage and, while the major symptom is vasculitis. The present study reported on a-58-year-old woman who was diagnosed with HCV-associated cryoglobulinemia with skin, kidney and blood system damage and biopsy-proven cryoglobulinemia membrano-proliferative glomerulonephritis...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809532/transient-and-local-expression-of-chemokine-and-immune-checkpoint-traps-to-treat-pancreatic-cancer
#9
Lei Miao, Jingjing Li, Qi Liu, Richard Feng, Manisit Das, C Michael Lin, Tyler J Goodwin, Oleksandra Dorosheva, Rihe Liu, Leaf Huang
Pancreatic tumor is known to be resistant to immunotherapy due to the extensive immune suppressive tumor microenvironment (TME). We hypothesized that CXCL12 and PD-L1 are two key molecules controlling the immunosuppressive TME. Fusion proteins, called traps, designed to bind with these two molecules with high affinity (Kd = 4.1 nM and 0.22 nM, respectively) were manufactured and tested for specific binding with the targets. Plasmid DNA encoding for each trap was formulated in nanoparticles and injected IV to mice bearing orthotopic pancreatic cancer...
August 15, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808187/g-aminobutyric-acid-promotes-methionine-choline-deficient-diet-induced-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#10
Yoon Seok Roh, Ara Cho, Zixiong Zhou, Hyuneui Jeong, Jeong-Eun Park, Youn-Soo Cha, Suk-Heung Oh, Chae-Woong Lim, Bumseok Kim
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is one of the most common liver diseases and a major cause of liver fibrosis worldwide. G-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is one of the most abundant inhibitory neurotransmitters in the central nervous system. Recently, it has been reported that GABAergic signaling pathways are found in various non-neuronal tissues including the immune system and play a functional role. In the present study, we investigated whether administration of GABA has effects on NASH through its immunomodulatory effects...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808158/the-influence-of-the-gut-microbiota-composition-on-campylobacter-jejuni-colonization-in-chickens
#11
Zifeng Han, Thomas Willer, Li Li, Colin Pielsticker, Ivan Rychlik, Philippe Velge, Bernd Kaspers, Silke Rautenschlein
Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni)-host-interaction may be affected by the host's gut microbiota through competitive exclusion, metabolites or modification of the immune response. To understand this interaction C. jejuni colonization and local immune responses were compared in chickens with different gut microbiota composition. Birds were treated with an antibiotic cocktail (AT) (Experiment 1 and 2) or raised under germ-free (GF) conditions (Experiment 3). At 18 days post hatch (dph), they were either orally inoculated with 10(4) colony forming units (CFU) of C...
August 14, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807240/role-of-exosomes-in-treatment-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#12
REVIEW
Demetrios Moris, Eliza W Beal, Jeffery Chakedis, Richard A Burkhart, Carl Schmidt, Mary Dillhoff, Xufeng Zhang, Stamatios Theocharis, Timothy M Pawlik
Exosomes are nanovesicles that may play a role in intercellular communication by acting as carriers of functional contents such as proteins, lipids, RNA molecules and circulating DNA from donor to recipient cells. In addition, exosomes may play a potential role in immunosurveillance and tumor pathogenesis and progression. Recently, research has increasingly focused on the role of exosomes in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most common primary liver malignancy. We herein review data on emerging experimental and clinical studies focused on the role of exosomes in the pathogenesis, diagnosis, progression and chemotherapy response of patients with HCC...
September 2017: Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806642/circulating-follicular-helper-t-cells-presented-distinctively-different-responses-toward-bacterial-antigens-in-primary-biliary-cholangitis
#13
Zun-Qiang Zhou, Da-Nian Tong, Jiao Guan, Mei-Fang Li, Qi-Ming Feng, Min-Jie Zhou, Zheng-Yun Zhang
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a chronic and progressive cholestatic liver disease with unknown causes. The initiation of PBC is associated with bacterial infections and abnormal immune correlates, such as the presence of self-reactive anti-mitochondrial antibodies and shifted balance of T cell subsets. In particular, the CD4(+)CXCR5(+) follicular helper T (Tfh) cells are highly activated in PBC patients and are significantly associated with PBC severity, but the underlying reasons are unknown. In this study, we found that the circulating CD4(+)CXCR5(+) T cells were enriched with the interferon (IFN)-γ-secreting Th1-subtype and the interleukin (IL)-17-secreting Th17-subtype, but not the IL-4-secreting Th2 subtype...
August 11, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805798/repeated-aav-mediated-gene-transfer-by-serotype-switching-enables-long-lasting-therapeutic-levels-of-hugt1a1-enzyme-in-a-mouse-model-of-crigler-najjar-syndrome-type-i
#14
L Bočkor, G Bortolussi, A Iaconcig, G Chiaruttini, C Tiribelli, M Giacca, F Benvenuti, L Zentilin, A F Muro
Adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene therapy is a promising strategy to treat liver-based monogenic diseases. However, two major obstacles limit its success: first, vector dilution in actively dividing cells, such as hepatocytes in neonates/children, due to the non-integrating nature of the vector; second, development of an immune response against the transgene and/or viral vector. Crigler-Najjar Syndrome Type I (CNSI) is a rare monogenic disease with neonatal onset, caused by mutations in the liver-specific UGT1 gene, with toxic accumulation of unconjugated bilirubin in plasma, tissues and brain...
August 14, 2017: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804981/lipopolysaccharide-inhibits-hepatic-gluconeogenesis-in-rats-the-role-of-immune-cells
#15
Hiroshi Tanaka, Yoshikazu Nishikawa, Toru Fukushima, Ataru Taniguchi, Yoshihito Fujita, Kinsuke Tsuda, Nobuya Inagaki, Masaya Hosokawa
AIMS/INTRODUCTION: Bacterial septicemia has diverse clinical symptoms including severe hypoglycemia. However, sepsis-induced hypoglycemia has not yet been examined in detail. The aim of the present study is to investigate the mechanisms underlying hypoglycemia in sepsis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We induced endotoxin shock in rats using lipopolysaccharide (LPS). After an intraperitoneal injection of LPS, we measured gluconeogenesis using the pyruvate tolerance test (PTT)...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804542/significant-association-of-trem-1-with-hmgb1-tlrs-and-rage-in-the-pathogenesis-of-insulin-resistance-in-obese-diabetic-populations
#16
Saravanan Subramanian, Pradeep K Pallati, Poonam Sharma, Devendra K Agrawal, Kalyana C Nandipati
Activated cell surface and intracellular receptors lead to insulin resistance in obesity. Among these receptors, triggering receptors expressed on myeloid cells (TREM)-1, toll like receptors (TLRs), and receptors for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) play a significant role in the induction of inflammatory response in innate immunity. TREM-1 potentially amplifies TLRs and RAGE synergistically with DNA-binding high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB-1). The objective of the study was to analyze the association between TREM-1/DAP12 and HMGB-1, RAGE and TLRs in obesity-induced insulin resistance...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803951/monocytes-inhibit-hepatitis-c-virus-induced-trail-expression-on-cd56-bright-nk-cells
#17
Dalila Mele, Stefania Mantovani, Barbara Oliviero, Giulia Grossi, Andrea Lombardi, Mario U Mondelli, Stefania Varchetta
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Natural killer (NK) cells play an important role in the pathogenesis of HCV infection. We have previously shown that culture-derived HCV (HCVcc) enhance tumor necrosis-factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) expression on healthy but not on HCV-infected patient-derived NK cells, which was likely dependent on accessory cells. Here we sought mechanistic insights involved in altered TRAIL upregulation in this setting. METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from controls and HCV-infected patients were exposed to HCVcc...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803798/radiosynthesis-and-preclinical-pet-evaluation-of-89-zr-nivolumab-bms-936558-in-healthy-non-human-primates
#18
Erin L Cole, Joonyoung Kim, David J Donnelly, R Adam Smith, Daniel Cohen, Virginie Lafont, Paul E Morin, Richard Y-C Huang, Patrick L Chow, Wendy Hayes, Samuel Bonacorsi
Cancer immunotherapy, unlike traditional cytotoxic chemotherapeutic treatments, engages the immune system to identify cancer cells and stimulate immune responses. The Programmed Death-1 (PD-1) protein is an immunoinhibitory receptor expressed by activated cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL) that seek out and destroy cancer cells. Multiple cancer types express and upregulate the Programmed Death-Ligand 1 (PD-L1) and 2 (PD-L2) which bind to PD-1 as an immune escape mechanism. Nivolumab is a fully human IgG4 anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) approved for treatment of multiple cancer types...
August 4, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803576/age-at-castration-surgical-or-immunological-impacts-carcass-characteristics-and-meat-quality-of-male-pigs
#19
L Huber, E J Squires, I B Mandell, C F M de Lange
In order to accurately estimate body composition at slaughter and to meet specific market targets, the influence of age at time of castration (surgical or immunological) on body composition and boar taint indicators must be determined for male pigs. In all, 48 males were randomly assigned to one of four management regimens: (1) entire male pigs (EM), (2) EM surgically castrated at ~40 kg BW and 10 weeks of age (late castrates; LC), (3) conventional, early surgical castrates (within 4 days of birth; EC) and (4) EM immunized with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analog (primary dose at 30 kg BW and 8 weeks of age; booster dose at 70 kg and 14 weeks of age; IM)...
August 14, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801369/hepatitis-b-virus-upregulates-the-expression-of-c-reactive-protein-both-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#20
Shiyong Hao, Yan Wang, Guosheng Gao, Zhishan Li
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection induces immune-mediated inflammatory responses. The C-reactive protein (CRP) is an inflammatory marker that is synthesized by the liver. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of HBV infection on the expression of CRP and its clinical significance. A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis was employed to examine the expression of CRP mRNA in the human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines HepG2 and HepG2.2.15. A fully automatic biochemical analyzer was used to examine the serum levels of CRP in patients with chronic HBV infections and in healthy controls...
August 2017: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science
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