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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452425/clinical-evidence-on-dietary-supplementation-with-chia-seed-salvia-hispanica-l-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
Siew Li Teoh, Nai Ming Lai, Possatorn Vanichkulpitak, Vladimir Vuksan, Hoang Ho, Nathorn Chaiyakunapruk
Context: Chia seed is a popular dietary supplement, taken mainly for its high content of alpha-linolenic acid, vegetable protein, and dietary fiber, yet information about its clinical effects is lacking. Objective: This review aims to summarize the clinical evidence regarding the use of chia seed for a wide variety of health conditions. Data Sources: A number of databases, including PubMed and Embase, were searched systematically. Study Selection: Randomized controlled trials that assessed the clinical effects of chia seed consumption in human participants were included...
February 14, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452312/effects-of-higher-versus-lower-threat-contexts-on-pain-related-visual-attention-biases-an-eye-tracking-study-of-chronic-pain
#2
Todd Jackson, Lin Su, Yang Wang
In this research, we examined effects of higher versus lower threat contexts on attention biases in more and less pain-fearful chronic pain subgroups via eye-tracking methodology. Within a mixed chronic pain sample (69 women, 29 men), biases in orienting and maintenance of visual attention were assessed during the standardized image pair presentation phase (2000ms) of a modified visual dot probe task featuring painful-neutral (P-N) image pairs (lower threat context) and a parallel task in which these P-N pairs cued potential pain (higher threat context)...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452210/computer-simulations-for-bioequivalence-trials-selection-of-analyte-in-bcs-class-ii-and-iv-drugs-with-first-pass-metabolism-two-metabolic-pathways-and-intestinal-efflux-transporter
#3
V Mangas-Sanjuan, C Navarro-Fontestad, A García-Arieta, I F Trocóniz, M Bermejo
A semi-physiological two compartment pharmacokinetic model with two active metabolites (primary (PM) and secondary metabolites (SM)) with saturable and non-saturable pre-systemic efflux transporter, intestinal and hepatic metabolism has been developed. The aim of this work is to explore in several scenarios which analyte (parent drug or any of the metabolites) is the most sensitive to changes in drug product performance (i.e. differences in in vivo dissolution) and to make recommendations based on the simulations outcome...
February 13, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451947/a-wild-bootstrap-approach-for-the-aalen-johansen-estimator
#4
Tobias Bluhmki, Claudia Schmoor, Dennis Dobler, Markus Pauly, Juergen Finke, Martin Schumacher, Jan Beyersmann
We suggest a wild bootstrap resampling technique for nonparametric inference on transition probabilities in a general time-inhomogeneous Markov multistate model. We first approximate the limiting distribution of the Nelson-Aalen estimator by repeatedly generating standard normal wild bootstrap variates, while the data is kept fixed. Next, a transformation using a functional delta method argument is applied. The approach is conceptually easier than direct resampling for the transition probabilities. It is used to investigate a non-standard time-to-event outcome, currently being alive without immunosuppressive treatment, with data from a recent study of prophylactic treatment in allogeneic transplanted leukemia patients...
February 16, 2018: Biometrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451089/randomization-based-inference-for-bernoulli-trial-experiments-and-implications-for-observational-studies
#5
Zach Branson, Marie-Abèle Bind
We present a randomization-based inferential framework for experiments characterized by a strongly ignorable assignment mechanism where units have independent probabilities of receiving treatment. Previous works on randomization tests often assume these probabilities are equal within blocks of units. We consider the general case where they differ across units and show how to perform randomization tests and obtain point estimates and confidence intervals. Furthermore, we develop rejection-sampling and importance-sampling approaches for conducting randomization-based inference conditional on any statistic of interest, such as the number of treated units or forms of covariate balance...
January 1, 2018: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450831/comparison-of-different-strategies-for-providing-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-to-treat-patients-with-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-two-english-hospitals-a-review
#6
REVIEW
Simon D Goldenberg, Rahul Batra, Ian Beales, Jonathan Leith Digby-Bell, Peter Miles Irving, Lee Kellingray, Arjan Narbad, Ngozi Franslem-Elumogo
Fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) has emerged as a highly efficacious treatment for difficult cases of refractory and/or recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). There have been many well-conducted randomized controlled trials and thousands of patients reported in case series that describe success rates of approximately 90% following one or more FMT. Although the exact mechanisms of FMT have yet to be fully elucidated, replacement or restoration of a 'normal' microbiota (or at least a microbiota resembling those who have never had CDI) appears to have a positive effect on the gut dysbiosis that is thought to exist in these patients...
February 15, 2018: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450813/memory-rehabilitation-in-patients-with-epilepsy-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Samantha Joplin, Elizabeth Stewart, Michael Gascoigne, Suncica Lah
Memory failure is a common clinical concern of patients with epilepsy and is associated with significant functional impairments. Thus, memory rehabilitation is of critical clinical importance. In this article, we aimed to systematically evaluate the efficacy of memory rehabilitation in patients with epilepsy. The Preferred Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) was used to guide searches, extraction and reporting of data in this review. PsycINFO, Medline and PsychBITE searches yielded 95 studies...
February 15, 2018: Neuropsychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450780/systematic-reviews-and-meta-analysis-in-rhinosinusitis-a-critical-review-of-the-reviews
#8
REVIEW
Abigail Walker, Claire Hopkins
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There has been an explosion in the number of published systematic reviews on chronic rhinosinusitis in the last decade. RECENT FINDINGS: While the aim of these reviews in facilitating evidence-based practice is laudable, poor quality reviews may contain significant bias that can mislead a non-discerning reader. Attention therefore must be given to review methodology before implanting findings. Organisations such as the Cochrane Collaboration promote high-quality reviews, but are limited in chronic sinus disease by heterogeneous outcomes and a paucity of randomised trials...
February 16, 2018: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445521/a-method-for-co-creation-of-an-evidence-based-patient-workbook-to-address-alcohol-use-when-quitting-smoking-in-primary-care-a-case-study
#9
Nadia Minian, Aliya Noormohamed, Laurie Zawertailo, Dolly Baliunas, Norman Giesbrecht, Bernard Le Foll, Jürgen Rehm, Andriy Samokhvalov, Peter L Selby
Plain English summary: The purpose of this paper is to describe a patient engagement event designed to create an educational workbook with smokers who drink alcohol at harmful levels. The goal was to create a workbook that combined scientific evidence with patients' values, preferences, and needs. Fourteen adult smokers who drink alcohol were invited to the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) to take part in a four-hour event to help design the workbook with the CAMH research team...
2018: Research Involvement and Engagement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445320/a-combined-test-for-a-generalized-treatment-effect-in-clinical-trials-with-a-time-to-event-outcome
#10
Patrick Royston
Most randomized controlled trials with a time-to-event outcome are designed and analyzed assuming proportional hazards of the treatment effect. The sample-size calculation is based on a log-rank test or the equivalent Cox test. Nonproportional hazards are seen increasingly in trials and are recognized as a potential threat to the power of the log-rank test. To address the issue, Royston and Parmar (2016, BMC Medical Research Methodology 16: 16) devised a new "combined test" of the global null hypothesis of identical survival curves in each trial arm...
April 2017: Stata Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444375/the-efficacy-and-safety-of-non-pharmacological-therapies-for-the-treatment-of-acne-vulgaris-a-systematic-review-and-best-evidence-synthesis
#11
F M C de Vries, A M Meulendijks, R J Driessen, A A van Dooren, E P M Tjin, P C M van de Kerkhof
BACKGROUND: Acne vulgaris is a multifaceted skin disorder, affecting more than 85% of young individuals worldwide. Pharmacological therapy is not always desirable because of the development of antibiotic resistance or the potential risk of adverse effects. Non-pharmacological therapies can be viable alternatives for conventional therapies. However, sufficient evidence based support in the efficacy and safety of non-pharmacological therapies is lacking. OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and safety of several non-pharmacological therapies in the treatment of acne vulgaris...
February 14, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443454/voice-quality-outcomes-of-idiopathic-parkinson-disease-medical-treatment-a-systematic-review
#12
Jerome R Lechien, Serge Blecic, Kathy Huet, Véronique Delvaux, Myriam Piccaluga, Virginie Roland, Bernard Harmegnies, Sven Saussez
INTRODUCTION: To investigate voice quality (VQ) impairments in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) and to explore the impact of medical treatments and L-Dopa challenge testing on voice. METHODS: Relevant studies published between January 1980 and June 2017 describing VQ evaluations in IPD were retrieved using PubMed, Scopus, Biological Abstracts, BioMed Central, and Cochrane databases. Issues of clinical relevance, including IPD treatment efficiency and voice quality outcomes, were evaluated for each study...
February 14, 2018: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442440/time-to-peak-weight-loss-during-extended-behavioral-treatment
#13
Meghan L Butryn, Christine C Call, Leah M Schumacher, Stephanie G Kerrigan, Evan M Forman
OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to examine the variability in timing of peak weight loss in behavioral treatment (BT), that is, when treatment participants reach their greatest amount of cumulative weight loss. METHODS: Secondary data analyses were conducted, drawing upon data from two clinical trials that provided 12 months of group-based BT, with sessions meeting less frequently in the second half of the treatment year. Weight was measured at the beginning of each treatment session...
February 14, 2018: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441818/comparative-effectiveness-and-harms-of-intraoperative-transesophageal-echocardiography-in-noncardiac-surgery-a-systematic-review
#14
Ashraf Fayad, Sasha Shillcutt, Massimiliano Meineri, Terrence D Ruddy, Mohammed Toseef Ansari
Intraoperative use of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) has become commonplace in high-risk noncardiac surgeries but the balance of benefits and harms remains unclear. This systematic review investigated the comparative effectiveness and harms of intraoperative TEE in noncardiac surgery. We searched Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library from 1946 to March 2017. Two reviewers independently screened the literature for eligibility. Studies were assessed for the risk of selection bias, confounding, measurement bias, and reporting bias...
February 1, 2018: Seminars in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441525/core-outcome-sets-in-dermatology-report-from-the-second-meeting-of-the-international-cochrane-skin-group-core-outcome-set-initiative
#15
J Kottner, L Jacobi, E Hahnel, M Alam, K Balzer, D Beeckman, C Busard, J Chalmers, S Deckert, V Eleftheriadou, K Furlan, S E R Horbach, J Kirkham, A Nast, P Spuls, D Thiboutot, L Thorlacius, K Weller, H C Williams, J Schmitt
Results of clinical trials are the most important information source for generating external clinical evidence. The use of different outcomes across trials, which investigate similar interventions for similar patient groups, significantly limits the interpretation, comparability and clinical application of trial results. Core outcome sets (COSs) aim to overcome this limitation. A COS is an agreed standardized collection of outcomes that should be measured and reported in all clinical trials for a specific clinical condition...
February 14, 2018: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441518/haloperidol-for-delirium-in-critically-ill-patients-protocol-for-a-systematic-review
#16
M Barbateskovic, S R Kraus, M O Collet, O Mathiesen, J C Jakobsen, A Perner, J Wetterslev
BACKGROUND: In the intensive care unit, the prevalence of delirium is high. Delirium has been associated with morbidity and mortality including more ventilator days, longer intensive care unit stay, increased long-term mortality, and cognitive impairment. Thus, the burden of delirium for patients, relatives, and societies is considerable. The objective of this systematic review was to critically access the evidence of randomised clinical trials on the effects of haloperidol vs. placebo or any other agents for delirium in critically ill patients...
February 14, 2018: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439911/-effects-of-physical-exercise-in-a-population-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-a-systematic-review
#17
C Ayán, A de Pedro-Múñez, I Martínez-Lemos
This systematic review was aimed at analysing the existing scientific evidence regarding the effects of physical exercise on the symptomatology, disease activity, and fitness level in a population with systemic lupus erythematosus. Following the PRISMA checklist, a search was carried out on PubMed, PEDro, and Sportdiscus databases. The PEDro and MINORS checklists were used in order to identify the methodological quality of the studies selected. A total of 14 studies were found, of which 10 were randomised controlled trials, and 4 were comparative studies...
February 10, 2018: Semergen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439556/mindfulness-based-baduanjin-exercise-for-depression-and-anxiety-in-people-with-physical-or-mental-illnesses-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
Liye Zou, Albert Yeung, Xinfeng Quan, Stanley Sai-Chuen Hui, Xiaoyue Hu, Jessie S M Chan, Chaoyi Wang, Sean David Boyden, Li Sun, Huiru Wang
OBJECTIVES: we used a quantitative method to systematically synthesize the emerging literature and critically evaluate the effects of Baduanjin on depression and anxiety in people with physical or mental illnesses. Additionally, we determined if the number of total Baduanjin training sessions is associated with decreased anxiety and depression levels. METHODS: both English and Chinese databases were searched for potential studies published between January 1982 and October 2017...
February 12, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438597/personally-tailored-activities-for-improving-psychosocial-outcomes-for-people-with-dementia-in-long-term-care
#19
REVIEW
Ralph Möhler, Anna Renom, Helena Renom, Gabriele Meyer
BACKGROUND: People with dementia who are being cared for in long-term care settings are often not engaged in meaningful activities. Offering them activities which are tailored to their individual interests and preferences might improve their quality of life and reduce challenging behaviour. OBJECTIVES: ∙ To assess the effects of personally tailored activities on psychosocial outcomes for people with dementia living in long-term care facilities.∙ To describe the components of the interventions...
February 13, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438575/primary-care-professionals-providing-non-urgent-care-in-hospital-emergency-departments
#20
REVIEW
Daniela Gonçalves-Bradley, Jaspreet K Khangura, Gerd Flodgren, Rafael Perera, Brian H Rowe, Sasha Shepperd
BACKGROUND: In many countries emergency departments (EDs) are facing an increase in demand for services, long waits, and severe crowding. One response to mitigate overcrowding has been to provide primary care services alongside or within hospital EDs for patients with non-urgent problems. However, it is unknown how this impacts the quality of patient care and the utilisation of hospital resources, or if it is cost-effective. This is the first update of the original Cochrane Review published in 2012...
February 13, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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