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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214831/p38-mapk-pharmacological-inhibitor-sb203580-alleviates-total-parenteral-nutrition-induced-loss-of-intestinal-barrier-function-but-promotes-hepatocyte-lipoapoptosis
#1
Yong-Tao Xiao, Wei-Hui Yan, Yi Cao, Jun-Kai Yan, Wei Cai
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Our previous studies have provided evidence that p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is involved in total parenteral nutrition (TPN)-associated complications, but its exact effects and mechanisms have not been fully understood. This study aimed to evaluate the roles of p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 in the TPN-induced loss of intestinal barrier function and liver disease. METHODS: A rodent model of TPN was used to analyze the roles of SB203580 in TPN-associated complications...
February 8, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214762/paracaecal-hernia-a-case-report-on-the-evolving-role-of-laparoscopy
#2
Ammar Tayaran, Haider Abdulrasool, Hai T Bui
A paracaecal hernia, a type of pericaecal hernias, is a rare cause of small intestinal obstruction. Failure of early recognition and reduction of this type of internal hernia may lead to strangulation of the herniated intestine. There has been a number of case reports in the literature about the different types of pericaecal hernias, however the anatomy of these hernias is still poorly understood and the management is still evolving. We are presenting a 75year old woman, who presented clinically and radiologically with distal small intestinal obstruction...
January 17, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214685/role-of-laxative-and-antioxidant-properties-of-malva-sylvestris-leaves-in-constipation-treatment
#3
Mohamed-Amine Jabri, Dalanda Wannes, Najla Hajji, Mohsen Sakly, Lamjed Marzouki, Hichem Sebai
INTRODUCTION: Mallaw (Malva sylvestris L.) is a medicinal plant who is traditionally being used as an antiulcer, laxative and anti-hemorrhoid, besides of its culinary use as a food in Tunisian cuisine. The present study was carried out to evaluate the protective effect of Malva sylvestris aqueous extract (MSAE) on constipation- induced by loperamide in male Wistar rats. METHODS: Rats were divided into six groups of six animals each: Control, Loperamide (LOP), LOP+ yohimbine (2mg/kg b...
February 16, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214675/directional-delivery-of-rspo1-by-mesenchymal-stem-cells-ameliorates-radiation-induced-intestinal-injury
#4
Wei Chen, Songwen Ju, Ting Lu, Yongfang Xu, Xiaocui Zheng, Haiyan Wang, Yan Ge, Songguang Ju
Radiation-induced intestinal injury (RIII) commonly occurs in patients who received radiotherapy for pelvic or abdominal cancer, or who suffered from whole-body irradiation during a nuclear accident. RIII can lead to intestinal disorders and even death given its integrity damage that results from intestinal stem cell (ISC) loss. Recovery from RIII relies on the intensity of supportive treatment, which can attenuate lethal infection and give surviving stem cells an opportunity to regenerate. It has been reported that RSPO1 is a cytokine with potent and specific proliferative effects on intestinal crypt cells...
February 16, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214603/the-impact-of-reduced-gastric-acid-secretion-on-dissolution-of-salts-of-weak-bases-in-the-fasted-upper-gastrointestinal-lumen-data-in-biorelevant-media-and-in-human-aspirates
#5
Chara Litou, Maria Vertzoni, Wei Xu, Filippos Kesisoglou, Christos Reppas
PURPOSE: To propose media for simulating the intragastric environment under reduced gastric acid secretion in the fasted state at three levels of simulation of the gastric environment and evaluate their usefulness in evaluating the intragastric dissolution of salts of weak bases. To evaluate the importance of bicarbonate buffer in biorelevant in vitro dissolution testing when using Level II biorelevant media simulating the environment in the fasted upper small intestine, regardless of gastric acid secretions...
February 15, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214600/intestine-oxidative-stress-and-immune-response-to-sulfide-stress-in-pacific-white-shrimp-litopenaeus-vannamei
#6
Yafei Duan, Hongbiao Dong, Yun Wang, Hua Li, Qingsong Liu, Yue Zhang, Jiasong Zhang
The effects of sulfide stress on oxidative stress and immune response in intestine of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei were evaluated in the present study. Oxidative stress parameters, immune enzymes activity and immune gene mRNA expression level were detected in intestine of L. vannamei after the exposure of 5.0 mg/L sulfide stress 72 h. The duration of sulfide stress influenced the shrimp survival, and the cumulative mortality rate was 30.0% and 33.3% at 48 h and 72 h respectively. HE staining showed that sulfide stress caused the intestine tissue damage symptoms...
February 15, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214396/totally-extra-peritoneal-repair-for-acute-incarcerated-femoral-hernia-with-intestinal-obstruction
#7
Guowei Kim, Jimmy Bok Yan So, Asim Shabbir
INTRODUCTION: Femoral hernias frequently present with incarceration, resulting in obstruction and strangulation. Laparoscopic groin hernia repairs have been shown in the elective setting to be an effective alternative to open repair. Acute incarceration of groin hernia with obstruction, though previously seen as a relative contraindication, has been increasingly repaired with minimally invasive techniques, with the potential benefit of avoiding the morbidity associated with a laparotomy...
January 17, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214380/application-of-the-mechpeff-model-to-predict-passive-effective-intestinal-permeability-in-the-different-regions-of-the-rodent-small-intestine-and-colon
#8
D Pade, M Jamei, A Rostami-Hodjegan, D B Turner
A major component of Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models is prediction of the rate and extent of absorption of orally dosed drugs for which knowledge of effective passive intestinal permeability (Peff ) is essential. Single pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP) studies are used to establish effective permeability in vivo but are difficult to perform in rodents while mechanistic models to predict drug Peff in rat and mouse have not been published. This work evaluates the predictive performance of the 'MechPeff' model to predict Peff in the rodent intestine based upon knowledge of regional gut physiology and drug-specific physicochemical parameters...
February 18, 2017: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214200/concurrent-met-copy-number-gain-and-kras-mutation-is-a-poor-prognostic-factor-in-pancreatobiliary-subtype-ampullary-cancers
#9
Mi Jung Kwon, Jeong Won Kim, Jang Yong Jeon, Eun Sook Nam, Seong Jin Cho, Hye-Rim Park, Soo Kee Min, Jinwon Seo, Kyueng-Whan Min, Ji-Young Choe, Hye Kyung Lee
Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and MET are candidates of targeted therapies for cancer patients. Although MET and HGF are commonly expressed in biliary tract cancers, their expression and gene copy number status and their association with KRAS mutations have not been investigated in pancreatobiliary-type ampullary adenocarcinomas (A-ACs), one of the aggressive periampullary cancers. MET and HGF expressions and MET copy number status were examined by performing immunohistochemistry (IHC) and silver in situ hybridization (SISH) in 62 surgically resected, paraffin-embedded tumors, respectively...
January 11, 2017: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214100/nlrp6-a-multifaceted-innate-immune-sensor
#10
REVIEW
Maayan Levy, Hagit Shapiro, Christoph A Thaiss, Eran Elinav
NLRP6, a member of the nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat-containing (NLR) innate immune receptor family, regulates inflammation and host defense against microorganisms. Similar to other NLRs, NLRP6 not only participates in inflammasome formation, but is also involved in nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling regulation and facilitation of gastrointestinal antiviral effector functions. Additionally, NLRP6 contributes to the regulation of mucus secretion and antimicrobial peptide production, thereby impacting intestinal microbial colonization and associated microbiome-related infectious, autoinflammatory, metabolic, and neoplastic diseases...
February 14, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214091/multidonor-intensive-faecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-active-ulcerative-colitis-a-randomised-placebo-controlled-trial
#11
Sudarshan Paramsothy, Michael A Kamm, Nadeem O Kaakoush, Alissa J Walsh, Johan van den Bogaerde, Douglas Samuel, Rupert W L Leong, Susan Connor, Watson Ng, Ramesh Paramsothy, Wei Xuan, Enmoore Lin, Hazel M Mitchell, Thomas J Borody
BACKGROUND: The intestinal microbiota is implicated in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis. Faecal microbiota transplantation is a novel form of therapeutic microbial manipulation, but its efficacy in ulcerative colitis is uncertain. We aimed to establish the efficacy of intensive-dosing, multidonor, faecal microbiota transplantation in active ulcerative colitis. METHODS: We conducted a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial at three hospitals in Australia...
February 14, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214071/lipocalin-2-a-master-mediator-of-intestinal-and-metabolic-inflammation
#12
REVIEW
Alexander R Moschen, Timon E Adolph, Romana R Gerner, Verena Wieser, Herbert Tilg
Lipocalin-2 (LCN2), also known as neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), is released by various cell types and is an attractive biomarker of inflammation, ischemia, infection, and kidney damage. Both intestinal and metabolic inflammation, as observed in obesity and related disorders, are associated with increased LCN2 synthesis. While LCN2 in the intestinal tract regulates the composition of the gut microbiota and shows anti-inflammatory activities, it also exhibits proinflammatory activities in other experimental settings...
February 14, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214059/pharmacokinetic-alterations-of-rhubarb-anthraquinones-in-experimental-colitis-induced-by-dextran-sulfate-sodium-in-the-rat
#13
Wen-Jin Wu, Ru Yan, Ting Li, Ya-Ping Li, Rui-Na Zhou, Yi-Tao Wang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Rhubarb (Rhei Rhizoma et Radix) is used for the treatment of digestive diseases in traditional medicinal practice in China. Recent studies also support its beneficial activities in alleviating ulcerative colitis (UC). AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to characterize the oral pharmacokinetics of rhubarb anthraquinones, the main bioactive components of this herb, in the experimental chronic colitis rat model induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) and to identify the factors causing the pharmacokinetic alterations...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214040/reinforcement-of-intestinal-epithelial-barrier-by-arabinoxylans-in-overweight-and-obese-subjects-a-randomized-controlled-trial-arabinoxylans-in-gut-barrier
#14
Bouke N Salden, Freddy J Troost, Ellen Wilms, Pilar Truchado, Ramiro Vilchez-Vargas, Dietmar H Pieper, Ruy Jáuregui, Massimo Marzorati, Tom van de Wiele, Sam Possemiers, Ad A Masclee
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Obesity and metabolic diseases are associated with alterations in microbial composition and impaired gut barrier. Previous in vitro and animal studies have shown that arabinoxylans (AX) have the potential to modulate gut microbiota and gut barrier and therefore could have a protective role. Primary aim of the study was to investigate the effect of AX on intestinal permeability. Secondary aims included the effect of AX on gene transcription and protein expression of tight junctions (TJ), intestinal microbiota composition and activity, immune response and metabolic markers in overweight and obese individuals...
February 3, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213899/human-influence-and-biotic-homogenization-drive-the-distribution-of-escherichia-coli-virulence-genes-in-natural-habitats
#15
Adriana Cabal, Joaquin Vicente, Julio Alvarez, Jose Angel Barasona, Mariana Boadella, Lucas Dominguez, Christian Gortazar
Cattle are the main reservoirs for Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), the only known zoonotic intestinal E. coli pathotype. However, there are other intestinal pathotypes that can cause disease in humans, whose presence has been seldom investigated. Thus, our aim was to identify the effects of anthropic pressure and of wild and domestic ungulate abundance on the distribution and diversity of the main human E. coli pathotypes and nine of their representative virulence genes (VGs). We used a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) for the direct detection and quantification of the genus-specific gene uidA, nine E...
February 18, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213844/self-nanoemulsified-drug-delivery-system-of-hydrochlorothiazide-for-increasing-dissolution-rate-and-diuretic-activity
#16
Cassiana Mendes, Aline Buttchevitz, Jéssica Henriques Kruger, Thiago Caon, Patricia de Oliveira Benedet, Elenara Lemos-Senna, Marcos Antônio Segatto Silva
Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) is a class IV drug according to the Biopharmaceutical Classification System. This study aimed the development of self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) for HCTZ as an approach to overcome the biopharmaceutical limitations. Pre-formulation screening and ternary phase diagrams were carried out to select the oil phase, the surfactant, and the co-surfactant as the amount of each constituent. The optimized formulations, with reduced amount of surfactant, and composed of medium chain triglycerides, Cremophor EL and Transcutol P did not affect the pH or show drug incompatibilities...
February 17, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213824/an-approach-to-the-research-on-ion-and-water-properties-in-the-interphase-between-the-plasma-membrane-and-bulk-extracellular-solution
#17
REVIEW
Hiroshi Hibino, Madoka Takai, Hidenori Noguchi, Seishiro Sawamura, Yasufumi Takahashi, Hideki Sakai, Hitoshi Shiku
In vivo, cells are immersed in an extracellular solution that contains a variety of bioactive substances including ions and water. Classical electrophysiological analyses of epithelial cells in the stomach and small intestine have revealed that within a distance of several hundred micrometers above their apical plasma membrane, lies an extracellular layer that shows ion concentration gradients undetectable in the bulk phase. This "unstirred layer", which contains stagnant solutes, may also exist between the bulk extracellular solution and membranes of other cells in an organism and may show different properties...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213807/in-liver-metastases-from-small-intestinal-neuroendocrine-tumors-sstr2a-expression-is-heterogeneous
#18
Mongkon Charoenpitakchai, Eric Liu, Zhiguo Zhao, Tatsuki Koyama, Won Jae Huh, Jordan Berlin, Kenneth Hande, Ronald Walker, Chanjuan Shi
We examined somatostatin receptor type 2A (SSTR2A) expression in primary and metastatic small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors (SI-NETs). We retrieved 156 liver metastases from 26 patients (10 males, 16 females) who had two or more liver lesions resected. A representative formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded section of tumor tissue from each liver metastasis and from the primary tumor, when available, were immunohistochemically stained for SSTR2A. SSTR2A expression was evaluated by the Her2/neu-scoring system and the scoring system proposed by Volante et al...
February 17, 2017: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213760/endocrine-regulation-of-fueling-by-hyperphagia-in-migratory-birds
#19
Cas Eikenaar
To support migratory endurance flight, birds accumulate large amounts of fat by hyperphagia (fueling). Whereas the factors influencing migrants' motivation to fuel are well described, the physiological mechanism regulating fueling is largely unknown. Hormones are likely involved and arguably the best studied with respect to food intake and fueling is corticosterone. Corticosterone has a permissive effect, as blocking the hormone's actions prohibits efficient fueling. There are no indications, though that corticosterone stimulates fueling, and some studies even observed negative correlations between corticosterone level and food intake and speed of fueling...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213732/the-potential-of-lactic-acid-bacteria-to-colonize-biotic-and-abiotic-surfaces-and-the-investigation-of-their-interactions-and-mechanisms
#20
REVIEW
Mattia Pia Arena, Vittorio Capozzi, Giuseppe Spano, Daniela Fiocco
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are a heterogeneous group of Gram-positive bacteria that comprise several species which have evolved in close association with humans (food and lifestyle). While their use to ferment food dates back to very ancient times, in the last decades, LAB have attracted much attention for their documented beneficial properties and for potential biomedical applications. Some LAB are commensal that colonize, stably or transiently, host mucosal surfaces, inlcuding the gut, where they may contribute to host health...
February 17, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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