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Farzana Kastury, E Smith, Ranju R Karna, Kirk G Scheckel, A L Juhasz
In this study, methodological factors influencing the dissolution of metal(loid)s in simulated lung fluid (SLF) was assessed in order to develop a standardised method for the assessment of inhalation bioaccessibility in PM2.5 . To achieve this aim, the effects of solid to liquid (S/L) ratio (1:100 to 1:5000), agitation (magnetic agitation, occasional shaking, orbital and end-over-end rotation), composition of SLF (artificial lysosomal fluid: ALF; phagolysosomal simulant fluid: PSF) and extraction time (1-120 h) on metal(loid) bioaccessibility were investigated using PM2...
June 7, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Cinzia Chiaramonte, Elettra Vestri, Flavia Tripi, Antonino Giulio Giannone, Marcello Cimador, Ferdinando Cataliotti
BACKGROUND: Female vaginoplasty reconstruction, by choice, is usually performed with adjacent tissue. However in some clinical conditions such as high urogenital confluence sinus, cloacal malformation with extreme vaginal hypoplasia, local tissue may not be available. When vaginal replacement is performed in pediatric patients intestinal segments is preferred to non-operative procedures that require continuative dilations. However mucus production, malignant transformation risk and diversion colitis are important side effects...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
Song Huang, Qian Zhang, Hao Li, Yaqing Sun, Gang Cheng, Meijuan Zou, Hongyu Piao
The aim of this study was to improve the oral bioavailability of a practically insoluble drug, efonidipine hydrochloride (EFH), by agglomeration in acid solution/gastric fluid. The EFH nanosuspension was prepared by the wet-milling method with F68 as a dispersing agent, SDS as an auxiliary stabilizer and L-arginine as a pH adjusting agent. The EFH nanosuspension have been prepared in industrial scale-up. The dissolution rate of the EFH nanosuspension was greater than that of bulk EFH. An in vitro intestinal permeability study showed a clear increase in the apparent permeability of different intestinal segments compared with bulk EFH...
June 18, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Ge-Ah Kim, Nicholas J Ginga, Shuichi Takayama
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract regulates physiologic responses in complex ways beyond facilitating nutrient entry into the circulatory system. Because of the anatomic location of the GI tract, studying in vivo physiology of the human gut, including host cell interaction with the microbiota, is limited. GI organoids derived from human stem cells are gaining interest as they recapitulate in vivo cellular phenotypes and functions. An underdeveloped capability that would further enhance the utility of these miniature models of the GI tract is to use sensors to quantitatively characterize the organoid systems with high spatiotemporal resolution...
2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Breanna Sheahan, Christopher M Dekaney
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Nicholas R Smith, John R Swain, Paige S Davies, Alexandra C Gallagher, Michael S Parappilly, Catherine Z Beach, Philip R Streeter, Ian A Williamson, Scott T Magness, Melissa H Wong
Background & Aims: Continual renewal of the intestinal epithelium is dependent on active- and slow-cycling stem cells that are confined to the crypt base. Tight regulation of these stem cell populations maintains homeostasis by balancing proliferation and differentiation to support critical intestinal functions. The hierarchical relation of discrete stem cell populations in homeostasis or during regenerative epithelial repair remains controversial. Although recent studies have supported a model for the active-cycling leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5)+ intestinal stem cell (ISC) functioning upstream of the slow-cycling B lymphoma Mo-MLV insertion region 1 homolog (Bmi1)-expressing cell, other studies have reported the opposite relation...
2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Soumita Das, Rashini Jayaratne, Kim E Barrett
Every year, enteric infections and associated diarrhea kill millions of people. The situation is compounded by increases in the number of enteric pathogens that are acquiring resistance to antibiotics, as well as (hitherto) a relative paucity of information on host molecular targets that may contribute to diarrhea. Many forms of diarrheal disease depend on the dysregulation of intestinal ion transporters, and an associated imbalance between secretory and absorptive functions of the intestinal epithelium. A number of major transporters have been implicated in the pathogenesis of diarrheal diseases and thus an understanding of their expression, localization, and regulation after infection with various bacteria, viruses, and protozoa likely will prove critical in designing new therapies...
2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Yuan Liu, Zhen Qi, Xintong Li, Yanan Du, Ye-Guang Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Cell Discovery
Zhoutao He, Xiaoning Sun, Zhichao Ma, Jiao Fu, Baili Huang, Fujin Liu, Yi Chen, Taozhi Deng, Xiangyang Han, Deming Sun, Cheng Lan
Background: This study investigated the role of HSP70 in modulating intestinal γδ T cells' Th17 response in Trichinella spiralis -induced PI-IBS mice model. Methods: The intestinal HSP70's expression and mRNA level were measured by Western blot and RT-PCR. The intestinal γδ T cell's morphological changes were analyzed using immunofluorescence staining and confocal laser scanning microscope. The pro-inflammatory cytokines' level was detected by ELISA. The isolated and purified γδ T cells were pre-incubated with HSP70 and their functions including proliferation, apoptosis, activation and production of IL-17 were also detected...
2018: Cell & Bioscience
Yue Hu, Noah Feit, Yanqin Huang, Wenhong Xu, Shu Zheng, Xiuzhen Li
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is not a common site of metastasis in primary lung cancer. The aim of the present study was to reveal the clinical and prognostic characteristics of gastrointestinal metastases of lung cancer (GMLC). Information on 366 cases of GMLC was collected and factors that affect severe GI complications were analyzed. Univariate and multivariate survival analyses were performed using the Cox proportional hazards model. Of the cases analyzed, the small intestine (59.6%) and colorectum (25...
June 2018: Oncology Letters
Jamil Shah, Abul Shahidullah
Intestinal parasitic infections are a major public health issue across the world and particularly in rural and urban areas of tropical and subtropical countries. Those at increased risk include inhabitants of poor and disadvantaged regions, which are more likely to have inadequate environmental sanitation, insufficient water supply, greater contact rates with reservoirs of infection, limited health literacy, and socioeconomic disparities. Of the intestinal nematodes (roundworms) that parasitize the human gastrointestinal tract, Ascaris lumbricoides is the largest in terms of size...
May 2018: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
Hannah C D Esdal, Muhammad B Ghbeis, Daniel A Saltzman, Donavon Hess, Janet R Hume, Robyn C Reed, Susan A Berry, Eric Hoggard, Betsy Hirsch, Linda B Baughn, Lisa A Schimmenti
The pathogenesis of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) remains poorly understood but is thought to be multifactorial. There are no specific recurring chromosomal abnormalities previously associated with NEC. We report 3 cases of intestinal necrosis associated with large chromosome 6 deletions. The first patient was found to have a 7.9-Mb deletion of chromosome 6 encompassing over 40 genes, arr[GRCh37] 6q25.3q26(155699183_163554531)×1. The second patient had a 19.5-Mb deletion of chromosome 6 generated by an unbalanced translocation with chromosome 18, 46,XY,der(6)t (6;18)(q25...
May 2018: Molecular Syndromology
Jennie T Grainger, Yasuko Maeda, Suzanne C Donnelly, Carolynne J Vaizey
Intestinal failure (IF) is a condition characterized by the inability to maintain a state of adequate nutrition, or fluid and electrolyte balance due to an anatomical or a physiological disorder of the gastrointestinal system. IF can be an extremely debilitating condition, significantly affecting the quality of life of those affected. The surgical management of patients with acute and chronic IF requires a specialist team who has the expertise in terms of technical challenges and decision-making. A dedicated IF unit will have the expertise in patient selection for surgery, investigative workup and planning, operative risk assessment with relevant anesthetic expertise, and a multidisciplinary team with support such as nutritional expertise and interventional radiology...
2018: Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology
Hon Yan Kelvin Yip, Chin Wee Tan, Yumiko Hirokawa, Antony Wilks Burgess
Although small intestinal epithelial stem cells form crypts when using intestinal culture conditions, colon stem cells usually form colonospheres. Colon mesenchymal cell feeder layers can stimulate colon crypts to form organoids and produce crypts. We have investigated whether conditioned medium from colon mesenchymal cells can also stimulate colonosphere and organoid cryptogenesis. We prepared conditioned medium (CM) from WEHI-YH2 cells (mouse colon myofibroblasts); the CM stimulated both colonosphere formation and organoid cryptogenesis in vitro...
2018: PloS One
Boutaina Zemrani, Elizabeth McLeod, Elizabeth Rogers, Joanna Lawrence, Debi Feldman, Victoria Evans, Helen Shalley, Julie Bines
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 20, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Eric H Rosenfeld, Bruno P Chumpitazi, Eumenia Castro, Bindi Naik-Mathuria
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 20, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Mojtaba Shohan, Milad Sabzevary-Ghahfarokhi, Nader Bagheri, Hedayatollah Shirzad, Ghorbanali Rahimian, Amin Soltani, Mahdi Ghatreh-Samani, Fatemeh Deris, Kamran Tahmasbi, Elahe Shahverdi, Fereshteh Fathollahi
BACKGROUND: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the large intestine histologically characterized by indistinct sustained inflammatory responses. Genetical susceptibility and environmental factors' effects play the roles in disease occurrence and it can be life threatening if remains untreated. It seems that intensification of inflammatory responses in this condition is not restricted to a specific cell line of T lymphocytes. Our aim was to determine the number of T helper 9 (Th9) cells in inflamed colonic biopsies of UC patients...
June 21, 2018: Immunological Investigations
Maria Julia Mora, R Onnainty, Gladys Ester Granero
Biopharmaceutics classification systems based on properties of solubility and permeability or extension of metabolism are very important tools in the early stages of development and regulatory stages of new products. However, until now there is no clear understanding between the interplay among these classification systems. Therefore, the main objective of this work was to make a comparison of concepts of BCS and BDDCS to understand what are the key factors that allowing the integration of these biopharmaceutics classification systems...
June 21, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Baoguo He, Zhiqiang Qu, Zibin Tian, Kun Zhao, Liangzhou Wei, Li Ma
Although 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (7,8-DHF), a synthetic agonist specific for TrkB, has been reported to promote intestinal dynamics, the molecular mechanisms behind its effects are not well known. In this study, we explored how 7,8-DHF affected the carbachol (CCh)-induced contraction of rat gastric muscle by way of measuring the contractile tension of muscular strips. We found that although 7,8-DHF did not directly cause contraction of gastric muscle, it enhanced the CCh-induced contractions, but not substance P- or high K+ -induced contractions...
June 21, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Jesse J DiCello, Ayame Saito, Pradeep Rajasekhar, Emily M Eriksson, Rachel M McQuade, Cameron J Nowell, Benjamin W Sebastian, Jakub Fichna, Nicholas A Veldhuis, Meritxell Canals, Nigel W Bunnett, Simona Elisa Carbone, Daniel P Poole
Endogenous opioids activate opioid receptors (ORs) in the enteric nervous system to control intestinal motility and secretion. The mu OR mediates the deleterious side effects of opioid analgesics, including constipation, respiratory depression and addiction. Although the delta OR (DOR) is a promising target for analgesia, the function and regulation of DOR in the colon are poorly understood. This study provides evidence that endogenous opioids activate DOR in myenteric neurons which may regulate colonic motility...
June 21, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
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