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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040501/tissue-damage-induced-midgut-stem-cell-proliferation-and-microbial-dysbiosis-in-spodoptera-litura
#1
Neeti Pandey, Raman Rajagopal
In the past decade, gut microbiota has come to the fore in search for the cause of disregulation in intestinal homeostasis. Here, we report a possible link between gut microbial dynamics and stress inducing factors using the leaf worm moth Spodoptera litura as a model organism. Investigation reveals that S. litura exhibits dysbiosis i.e. alteration in the gut microbiota composition that might induce or suppress inflammation upon exposure to dextran sulfate, sodium salt, a tissue damaging agent (DSS, 40kD). It primarily corresponds to an expansion of the bacterial phylotypes Enterobacter sp...
October 11, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040285/de-novo-pyrimidine-synthesis-is-necessary-for-intestinal-colonization-of-salmonella-typhimurium-in-chicks
#2
Hee-Jeong Yang, Lydia Bogomolnaya, Michael McClelland, Helene Andrews-Polymenis
pyrE (STM3733) encodes orotate phosphoribosyltransferase (OPRTase; EC 2.4.2.10), the fifth enzyme of the de novo pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway. We identified a ΔpyrE mutant as under selection in screening of a Salmonella mutant library in 4-day old chicks. Here, we confirm that a ΔpyrE mutant colonizes 4-day old chicks poorly in competitive infection with isogenic wild type, and that the ability of this mutant to colonize chicks could be restored by providing a copy of pyrE in trans. We further show that our ΔpyrE mutant grows poorly in nutrient poor conditions in vitro, and that the ability of this mutant to grow is restored, both in vitro and in chicks, when precursors to the pyrimidine salvage pathway were provided...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039926/zebrafish-a-visual-model-to-evaluate-the-biofate-of-transferrin-receptor-targeted-7peptide-decorated-coumarin-6-micelles
#3
Ye Li, Xiaoning Song, Xiang Yi, Ruibing Wang, Simon Ming-Yuen Lee, Xueqing Wang, Ying Zheng
In the present study, the zebrafish was explored as an in vivo model to assess the biofate of transferrin receptor (TfR)-targeted coumarin 6 (C6) micelles across various biological barriers. Three 7peptide (7pep)-decorated poly-(ethylene glycol)-block-poly (ε-caprolactone) (PEG-b-PCL) micelles loaded with fluorescence coumarin 6 (7pep-M-C6) with different ligand densities were constructed with particle sizes between 30-40 nm. Whole-mount immunostaining revealed that the expression level of TfR in the retina, brain and intestine increased along with development stage...
October 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036968/-the-458th-case-fever-cytopenia-abdominal-pain-and-multiple-intestinal-ulcerations-with-perforation
#4
Y Lin, H H Xie, W Zhao, M Wu, W Y Gu
Trisomy 8 in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) plays an important role in concurrent intestinal Behçet's disease (BD) pathogenesis. Here, we reported a case of intestinal BD combined with MDS involving trisomy 8. A 48-year-old woman who has had a 20-year history of recurrent oral ulcer, perineal ulcer and iris, was diagnosed as MDS with trisomy 8 four years ago. She developed high fever and acute abdominal pain. Multiple ulcerative perforations in ileum and colon were found by endoscopy, meeting the criteria for intestinal BD...
October 1, 2017: Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036812/altered-gut-microbiota-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Ling Zhang, Ying Wang, Xia Xiayu, Changhua Shi, Wei Chen, Nan Song, Xinjing Fu, Rui Zhou, Yan-Feng Xu, Lan Huang, Hua Zhu, Yunlin Han, Chuan Qin
The topic of gut microbiota is currently attracting considerable interest as a potential factor in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the extent and time course of alterations in the gut microbiota, and their effects on AD pathology remain uncertain. Herein, we compared the fecal microbiomes and fecal short chain fatty acid composition (SCFAs) between wild-type and AD model mice at different ages under strictly controlled specific pathogen free conditions, and also conducted microscopic investigations of intestinal structures...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036796/intestinal-ischemia-reperfusion-leads-to-early-systemic-micro-rheological-and-multiorgan-microcirculatory-alterations-in-the-rat
#6
Anita Mester, Zsuzsanna Magyar, Viktoria Sogor, Bence Tanczos, Yoav Stark, Konstantin Cherniavsky, Laszlo Bidiga, Katalin Peto, Norbert Nemeth
BACKGROUND: Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) is a potentially life-threatening situation and its pathomechanism is not fully understood yet. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the early micro-rheological, microcirculatory and morphological consequences of intestinal I/R in a rat model. METHODS: CD rats were anesthetized and subjected to Control (n = 7) or I/R (n = 7) groups. Left femoral artery cannulation and median laparotomy were performed...
October 7, 2017: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036538/stlr4-md-2-complex-inhibits-colorectal-cancer-migration-and-invasiveness-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-by-lncrna-h19-down-regulation
#7
Weijun Liang, Yan Zou, Fengxian Qin, Jifei Chen, Junyi Xu, Shifeng Huang, Jingfan Chen, Shengming Dai
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have multiple functions in gene regulation and during cellular processes. However, the functional roles of lncRNAs in colorectal cancer (CRC) have not yet been well understood. In our previous study, we demonstrated that sTLR4/MD-2 complex can inhibit CRC in vitro and in vivo by targeting LPS. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to investigate the expression of lncRNA H19 in CRC and to evaluate its effect on the inhibition of sTLR4/MD-2 complex. The expression of H19 is measured in 63 CRC tumor tissues and adjacent normal tissues by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR)...
September 28, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036211/orally-administered-taenia-solium-calreticulin-prevents-experimental-intestinal-inflammation-and-is-associated-with-a-type-2-immune-response
#8
Fela Mendlovic, Mayra Cruz-Rivera, Jose Alfredo Diaz-Gandarilla, Marco Antonio Flores-Torres, Guillermina Avila, Maria Perfiliev, Ana Maria Salazar, Lourdes Arriaga-Pizano, Patricia Ostrosky-Wegman, Ana Flisser
Intestinal helminth antigens are inducers of type 2 responses and can elicit regulatory immune responses, resulting in dampened inflammation. Several platyhelminth proteins with anti-inflammatory activity have been reported. We have identified, cloned and expressed the Taenia solium calreticulin (rTsCRT) and shown that it predominantly induces a type 2 response characterized by IgG1, IL-4 and IL-5 production in mice. Here, we report the rTsCRT anti-inflammatory activity in a well-known experimental colitis murine model...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036010/the-reasoning-beyond-the-potential-use-of-exclusive-enteral-nutrition-and-other-specified-diets-in-children-with-ulcerative-colitis
#9
Ron Shaoul, Stephanie Brown, Andrew S Day
The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is steadily on the rise in Western as well as in developing countries paralleling the increase of westernized diets, characterized by high protein and fat as well as excessive sugar intake, with less vegetables and fiber. Furthermore, nutrition is involved in several aspects of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), ranging from disease etiology to induction and maintenance of remission of disease. Exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) has been shown to induce remission, including in patients with isolated colonic disease, and leads to mucosal healing in Crohn disease (CD)...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035975/breath-hydrogen-testing-in-east-and-southeast-asia
#10
Chu Kion Yao, Natural Hoi Sing Chu, Victoria Ping Yi Tan
Breath hydrogen tests are popular, noninvasive tests for the assessment of carbohydrate fermentation in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and functional dyspepsia (FD). There is limited information regarding the utility of breath hydrogen and methane tests in IBS and FD patients in East and Southeast Asia. This review aims to summarize current literature about common indications of breath testing in this region, the genesis of functional gastrointestinal symptoms by provocative breath testing and provide suggestions for correct use...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035948/hiv-and-aging-role-of-the-microbiome
#11
Seema N Desai, Alan L Landay
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this article is to review age-associated alterations in microbiota composition, diversity and functional features in context of immune senescence, chronic inflammation and comorbidities associated with HIV infection. The overall goal is to assess whether modulating the microbiome will likely improve resilience of the immune system and augment return to health. RECENT FINDINGS: Alteration in the gut microbiota composition diversity and function occur in HIV and aging...
October 14, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035947/cross-reactivity-of-hiv-vaccine-responses-and-the-microbiome
#12
Wilton B Williams, Qifeng Han, Barton F Haynes
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A successful HIV-type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine will require immunogens that induce protective immune responses. However, recent studies suggest that the response to HIV-1 and perhaps other viruses may be altered by immune system exposure to intestinal microbiota-antigens. This review will discuss select aspects of these studies. RECENT FINDINGS: Naïve CD4 T and B cell repertoires can be imprinted by intestinal microbiota-antigens to respond to virus epitopes prior to virus infection...
October 14, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035858/detection-of-small-number-of-giardia-in-biological-materials-prepared-from-stray-dogs
#13
Leila Esmailikia, Elahe Ebrahimzade, Parviz Shayan, Narges Amininia
Giardia lamblia is an intestinal protozoa with intermittent and low shedding especially in dogs, and the detection of Giardia is accompanied with problems such as sampling and diagnostic method. The objective of this study was to detection of Giardia in biological materials with low number of parasite using parasitological and molecular methods, and also to determine whether the examined stray dogs harbor known zoonotic genotype of Giardia. For this aim 85 fecal and duodenal samples were studied from which 1 was positive by Trichrome staining of stool, 4 were positive by staining of duodenal samples...
December 20, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035849/a-new-species-of-spauligodon-nematoda-oxyuroidea-pharyngodonidae-and-other-nematodes-in-cyrtodactylus-epiroticus-squamata-gekkonidae-from-papua-new-guinea
#14
Charles R Bursey, Stephen R Goldberg, Fred Kraus
Spauligodon papuensis sp. nov. from the large intestines of Cyrtodactylus epiroticus (Gekkonidae) from Papua New Guinea is described and illustrated. Spauligodon papuensis sp. nov. represents the 54th species assigned to the genus and the second species from the Oceanic Region. The new species is separated from congeners by the unique combination of aspinose filamentous tail and no spicule in the male; and spinose filamentous tail, fusiform, flanged eggs, and postbulbar vulva in the female. Four additional species of nematodes were also found in C...
December 20, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035734/comparison-of-constitutive-and-thiabendazole-induced-expression-of-five-cytochrome-p450-genes-in-fourth-stage-larvae-of-haemonchus-contortus-isolates-with-different-drug-susceptibility-identifies-one-gene-with-high-constitutive-expression-in-a-multi-resistant
#15
Esra Yilmaz, Sabrina Ramünke, Janina Demeler, Jürgen Krücken
Benzimidazoles (BZs) remain amongst the most widely used anthelmintic drug classes against gastro-intestinal nematode infections, although their efficacy is increasingly compromised by resistance. The primary underlying mechanisms for BZ resistance are single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the isotype 1 β-tubulin gene causing the substitutions F167Y, E198A or F200Y. However, resistance is believed to be multi-genic and previous studies have shown that isolates carrying 90-100% F200Y can vary considerably in their resistance level in the egg hatch assay (EHA)...
October 7, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035663/contrast-fluoroscopic-evaluation-of-gastrointestinal-transit-times-with-and-without-the-use-of-falconry-hoods-in-red-tailed-hawks-buteo-jamaicensis
#16
Grayson A Doss, Jackie M Williams, Christoph Mans
OBJECTIVE To evaluate gastrointestinal transit times in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) by use of contrast fluoroscopic imaging and investigate the effect of falconry hooding in these hawks on gastrointestinal transit time. DESIGN Prospective, randomized, blinded, complete crossover study. ANIMALS 9 healthy red-tailed hawks. PROCEDURES Hawks were gavage-fed a 30% weight-by-volume barium suspension (25 mL/kg [11.3 mL/lb]) into the crop. Fluoroscopic images were obtained at multiple time points after barium administration...
November 1, 2017: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035368/activation-of-intestinal-hypoxia-inducible-factor-2%C3%AE-during-obesity-contributes-to-hepatic-steatosis
#17
Cen Xie, Tomoki Yagai, Yuhong Luo, Xianyi Liang, Tao Chen, Qiong Wang, Dongxue Sun, Jie Zhao, Sadeesh K Ramakrishnan, Lulu Sun, Chunmei Jiang, Xiang Xue, Yuan Tian, Kristopher W Krausz, Andrew D Patterson, Yatrik M Shah, Yue Wu, Changtao Jiang, Frank J Gonzalez
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is becoming the most common chronic liver disease in Western countries, and limited therapeutic options are available. Here we uncovered a role for intestinal hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) in hepatic steatosis. Human-intestine biopsies from individuals with or without obesity revealed that intestinal HIF-2α signaling was positively correlated with body-mass index and hepatic toxicity. The causality of this correlation was verified in mice with an intestine-specific disruption of Hif2a, in which high-fat-diet-induced hepatic steatosis and obesity were substantially lower as compared to control mice...
October 9, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035182/induction-with-infliximab-and-a-plant-based-diet-as-first-line-ipf-therapy-for-crohn-disease-a-single-group-trial
#18
Mitsuro Chiba, Tsuyotoshi Tsuji, Kunio Nakane, Satoko Tsuda, Hajime Ishii, Hideo Ohno, Kenta Watanabe, Mai Ito, Masafumi Komatsu, Takeshi Sugawara
BACKGROUND: Approximately 30% of patients with Crohn disease (CD) are unresponsive to biologics. No previous study has focused on a plant-based diet in an induction phase of CD treatment. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the remission rate of infliximab combined with a plant-based diet as first-line (IPF) therapy for CD. METHODS: This was a prospective single-group trial conducted at tertiary hospitals. Subjects included consecutive adults with a new diagnosis (n = 26), children with a new diagnosis (n = 11), and relapsing adults (n = 9) with CD who were naïve to treatment with biologics...
2017: Permanente Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035040/orally-administrated-baker-s-yeast-beta-glucan-promotes-glucose-and-lipid-homeostasis-in-the-livers-of-ob-ob-mice
#19
Yan Cao, Ying Sun, Siwei Zou, Mengxia Li, Xiaojuan Xu
Baker's yeast glucan (BYG) has been reported to be anti-diabetic. Herein, further study on the effect of orally administrated BYG on glucose and lipid homeostasis in the livers of ob/ob mice was performed. It was found that BYG decreased the blood glucose and the hepatic glucose and lipid disorders. Western blotting analysis revealed that BYG up-regulated p-AKT and p-AMPK, and down-regulated p-Acc in the liver. Furthermore, RNA-Seq analysis indicated that BYG down-regulated genes responsible for gluconeogenesis (G6pase and Got1), fatty acid biosynthesis (Acly, Acc, Fas, etc...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034981/review-article-the-gut-microbiome-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-avenues-for-microbial-management
#20
REVIEW
J McIlroy, G Ianiro, I Mukhopadhya, R Hansen, G L Hold
BACKGROUND: The concept of an altered collective gut microbiota rather than identification of a single culprit is possibly the most significant development in inflammatory bowel disease research. We have entered the "omics" era, which now allows us to undertake large-scale/high-throughput microbiota analysis which may well define how we approach diagnosis and treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in the future, with a strong steer towards personalised therapeutics. AIM: To assess current epidemiological, experimental and clinical evidence of the current status of knowledge relating to the gut microbiome, and its role in IBD, with emphasis on reviewing the evidence relating to microbial therapeutics and future microbiome modulating therapeutics...
October 16, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
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