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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222967/stimulation-of-the-endogenous-incretin-glucose-dependent-insulinotropic-peptide-by-enteral-dextrose-improves-glucose-homeostasis-and-inflammation-in-murine-endotoxemia
#1
Faraaz Ali Shah, Srikanth Singamsetty, Lanping Guo, Byron W Chuan, Sherie McDonald, Bryce A Cooper, Brett J O'Donnell, Darko Stefanovski, Burton Wice, Yingze Zhang, Christopher P O'Donnell, Bryan J McVerry
Loss of glucose homeostasis during sepsis is associated with increased organ dysfunction and higher mortality. Novel therapeutic strategies to promote euglycemia in sepsis are needed. We have previously shown that early low-level intravenous (IV) dextrose suppresses pancreatic insulin secretion and induces insulin resistance in septic mice, resulting in profound hyperglycemia and worsened systemic inflammation. In this study, we hypothesized that administration of low-level dextrose via the enteral route would stimulate intestinal incretin hormone production, potentiate insulin secretion in a glucose-dependent manner, and thereby improve glycemic control in the acute phase of sepsis...
November 21, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222826/application-of-ultra-performance-liquid-chromatography-coupled-with-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry-in-identification-of-three-isoflavone-glycosides-and-their-corresponding-metabolites
#2
Xiafen Xu, Xinhui Li, Xianrui Liang
RATIONALE: Metabolites of isoflavones raised great attention due to the potential bioactivities in recent years. However, the complex constituents of metabolic system and low level of metabolites made it difficult to analyze. Mass spectrometry (MS) method was applied in our metabolites identification and fragmentation pathways study due to the advantages of rapidity, sensitivity, and low level of sample consumption. METHODS: Three isoflavone glycosides and their metabolites were identified with using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/QTOF-MS)...
December 8, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222802/recreating-intestinal-peristalsis-in-the-petri-dish
#3
Rosa Espinosa-Luna, Alma R Barajas-Espinosa, Fernando Ochoa-Cortez, Carlos Barajas-López
Here we describe a culture technique of cells dissociated from the external muscularis of the guinea pig small intestine, which allows us to maintain all the elements involved in the intestinal peristaltic reflex. After a few days in culture, these cells reorganize to form a small group of cells that permit the generation of pacemaker activity, spontaneous contractions, and the development of inhibitory and excitatory junction potentials in the petri dish, all elements involved in the peristaltic reflex. Therefore, these co-cultures are suitable to study the cellular and molecular aspects related to the development, maintenance, and modulation of motor intestinal functions...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222777/culture-of-neurons-and-smooth-muscle-cells-from-the-myenteric-plexus-of-adult-mice
#4
Paola Brun, Hamid I Akbarali
In the enteric nervous system, neurons make contact with smooth muscle cells to regulate gastrointestinal functions. Since neuronal cell alterations and intestinal motor dysfunctions are strictly linked, in vitro models based on the culture of neurons or smooth muscle cells are of great advantage to elucidate the functions of the enteric nervous system under physiological and pathological conditions. In this chapter, we provide the protocol for isolation of neurons and smooth muscle cells from the myenteric plexus of adult mice...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222744/activation-of-intestinal-gr-fxr-and-ppar%C3%AE-ugt-signaling-exacerbates-ibuprofen-induced-enteropathy-in-mice
#5
Zhiqiang Lu, Yuanfu Lu, Xue Wang, Fangyu Wang, Youcai Zhang
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)-induced small intestinal injury (enteropathy) occurs in about two-thirds of regular NSAID users. To date, there is no proven-effective treatment for NSAID enteropathy, and its underlying mechanism remains obscure. The present study showed that glucocorticoids are an important determinant of NSAID enteropathy. High dose dexamethasone (DEX, 75 mg/kg) markedly exacerbated the acute toxicity of ibuprofen (IBU, 200 mg/kg) in the small intestine of mice, which was not due to the pregnane-X-receptor pathway...
December 8, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222714/domperidone-prolongs-oral-to-duodenal-transit-time-in-video-capsule-endoscopy
#6
Michael Mcfarlane, B Liu, C Nwokolo
PURPOSE: Domperidone is thought to accelerate gastric emptying via D2 receptor antagonism at the gastro-oesophageal and gastro-duodenal junctions. Listed in the BNF as a prokinetic anti-emetic, it has been used in video capsule endoscopy (VCE) to accelerate capsule delivery to the small intestine. We audited VCEs performed at UHCW from 2011, when as standard practice, domperidone was given pre-VCE, to 2012, after its discontinuation due to doubts about its effectiveness. METHODS: Thirty-one patients received oral domperidone 20 mg pre-VCE...
December 8, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222647/bevacizumab-for-recurrent-persistent-or-advanced-cervical-cancer-reproducibility-of-gog-240-study-results-in-real-world-patients
#7
A Godoy-Ortiz, Y Plata, J Alcaide, A Galeote, B Pajares, E Saez, E Alba, A Sánchez-Muñoz
PURPOSE: Bevacizumab is the only therapeutic target approved for patients with persistent, recurrent or advanced cervical cancer from a phase III study that combined with chemotherapy; it proves a significant increase in overall survival. To retrospectively assess the efficacy and safety of bevacizumab as the first-line treatment in patients from usual clinical practice with recurrent/persistent or advanced cervical cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Treatment consisted of cisplatin 50 mg/m2 or carboplatin AUC 5 plus paclitaxel 175 mg/m2 for 6-8 cycles and bevacizumab 15 mg/kg every 3 weeks up to progression or unacceptable toxicity...
December 8, 2017: Clinical & Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222621/lifespan-extension-of-caenorhabditis-elegans-by-butyricicoccus-pullicaecorum-and-megasphaera-elsdenii-with-probiotic-potential
#8
Gayeung Kwon, Jiyun Lee, Jong-Ho Koh, Young-Hee Lim
Butyricicoccus pullicaecorum and Megasphaera elsdenii inhabit the human intestine and have probiotic potential. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of B. pullicaecorum and M. elsdenii on the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans. They significantly (P < 0.05) extended the lifespan of C. elegans compared with Escherichia coli OP50, a standard food for the worm. Analysis of age-related biomarkers such as lipofuscin, body size, and locomotory activity showed that they retarded aging. They all failed to extend the lifespan of daf-12 or dbl-1 loss-of-function C...
December 8, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222267/new-therapeutic-targets-in-transfusion-dependent-and-independent-thalassemia
#9
REVIEW
M Domenica Cappellini, Irene Motta
β-Thalassemias are characterized by reduced production of β-globin chain, resulting in α/β-chain unbalance and precipitation of α-globin-heme complexes and determining ineffective erythropoiesis. Ineffective erythropoiesis, chronic hemolytic anemia, and compensatory hematopoietic expansion are the disease hallmarks, and they are related to the severity of the chain unbalance. Several clinical forms of β-thalassemia, including the coinheritance of β-thalassemia with hemoglobin E resulting in hemoglobin E/β-thalassemia, have been described...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222265/iron-overload-in-thalassemia-different-organs-at-different-rates
#10
REVIEW
Ali T Taher, Antoine N Saliba
Thalassemic disorders lie on a phenotypic spectrum of clinical severity that depends on the severity of the globin gene mutation and coinheritance of other genetic determinants. Iron overload is associated with increased morbidity in both patients with transfusion-dependent thalassemia (TDT) and non-transfusion-dependent thalassemia (NTDT). The predominant mechanisms driving the process of iron loading include increased iron burden secondary to transfusion therapy in TDT and enhanced intestinal absorption secondary to ineffective erythropoiesis and hepcidin suppression in NTDT...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222090/gpr55-regulates-intraepithelial-lymphocyte-migration-dynamics-and-susceptibility-to-intestinal-damage
#11
Hayakazu Sumida, Erick Lu, Hsin Chen, Qiyun Yang, Ken Mackie, Jason G Cyster
Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) of the small intestine are intimately associated with the epithelial cells. Yet, the factors controlling their migration and interaction dynamics are poorly understood. We demonstrate that GPR55, a receptor that mediates migration inhibition in response to lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI), negatively regulates T cell receptor γδ (TCRγδ) IEL accumulation in the small intestine. Intravital imaging studies show that GPR55-deficient IELs migrate faster and interact more extensively with epithelial cells...
December 8, 2017: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222052/in-vitro-co-culture-models-to-evaluate-acute-cytotoxicity-of-individual-and-combined-mycotoxin-exposures-on-caco-2-thp-1-and-heparg-human-cell-lines
#12
Marie-Caroline Smith, Alexiane Gheux, Monika Coton, Stéphanie Madec, Nolwenn Hymery, Emmanuel Coton
Deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEA) are mycotoxins primarily produced by Fusarium species and commonly co-occur in European grains. Some in vitro studies reported synergistic combined effects on cell viability reduction for these two natural food contaminants. However, most of these studies were carried out on conventional cell culture systems involving only one cell type and thus, did not accurately reflect in vivo conditions, including cell-cell communication. In this context, we developed easy bi- and tri-culture systems using the Caco-2 (intestinal epithelial cells), THP-1 (monocytes) and HepaRG (hepatocytes) human cell lines...
December 5, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222032/assessment-of-the-laxative-activity-of-an-ethanolic-extract-of-bambusa-arundinacea-retz-willd-shoot
#13
S M Neamul Kabir Zihad, Sanjib Saha, Md Sifujjaman Rony, Hasna Banu, Shaikh J Uddin, Jamil A Shilpi, I Darren Grice
ETHNOBOTANICAL RELEVANCE: Bambusa arundinacea (Retz.) Willd., commonly known as Kanta Bans, plays an important ethnobotanical role, especially in Asia. In traditional medicine it has reportedly been used for the treatment of constipation, blood-diseases, leucodema, inflammation and urinary discharges. A number of ethnomedicinal records exist regarding the use of B. arundinaceae shoots as a laxative, however, there are no scientific studies reported on its laxative activity. Therefore, the aim of this present study was to evaluate the laxative activity of an ethanolic B...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222028/sodium-butyrate-enhanced-physical-barrier-function-referring-to-nrf2-jnk-and-mlck-signaling-pathways-in-the-intestine-of-young-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella
#14
Pei Wu, Li Tian, Xiao-Qiu Zhou, Wei-Dan Jiang, Yang Liu, Jun Jiang, Fei Xie, Sheng-Yao Kuang, Ling Tang, Wu-Neng Tang, Juan Yang, Yong-An Zhang, He-Qun Shi, Lin Feng
This study evaluated the effect of dietary sodium butyrate (SB) supplementation on the intestinal physical barrier function of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). The fish were fed one powdery sodium butyrate (PSB) diet (1000.0 mg kg-1 diet) and five graded levels of microencapsulated sodium butyrate (MSB) diets: 0.0 (control), 500.0, 1000.0, 1500.0 and 2000.0 mg kg-1 diet for 60 days. Subsequently, a challenge test was conducted by injection of Aeromonas hydrophila to explore the effect of SB supplementation on intestinal physical barrier function and the potential mechanisms in fish...
December 5, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222027/tbk1-from-orange-spotted-grouper-exerts-antiviral-activity-against-fish-viruses-and-regulates-interferon-response
#15
Yin Hu, Youhua Huang, Jiaxin Liu, Jingcheng Zhang, Qiwei Qin, Xiaohong Huang
TANK-binding kinase-1 (TBK1) has been well studied in mammals because of its importance in type I interferon induction in antiviral immunity. However, the roles of fish TBK1 in virus infection still remained largely uncertain. In the current study, a TBK1 homolog from orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) (EcTBK1) was cloned and its roles in fish viral infections were investigated. Sequence analysis showed that EcTBK1 encoded a 723-amino acid peptide which shared 98% and 73% identity to large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea) and human (homo sapiens), respectively...
December 5, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222025/preparation-and-comparison-of-tacrolimus-loaded-solid-dispersion-and-self-microemulsifying-drug-delivery-system-by-in-vitro-in-vivo-evaluation
#16
Taotao Huo, Chun Tao, Minxin Zhang, Qinghong Liu, Bing Lin, Zhihong Liu, Jialiang Zhang, Meijing Zhang, Haiyue Yang, Jue Wu, Xinrong Sun, Qian Zhang, Hongtao Song
This study aimed to compare the dissolution and the intestinal absorption of tacrolimus in self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) and solid dispersion (SD). Poloxamer 188 SD was prepared by the combination of the solvent evaporation method and the freeze drying method. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) SD was prepared by the solvent evaporation method combined with the vacuum drying method. The formation of SD was confirmed by SEM images which showed new solid phases. The SMEDDS was composed of oil (Labrafil M1944 CS 28%), surfactant (Cremophor EL 48%) and co-surfactant (Transcutol P 24%)...
December 5, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221933/intestinal-intraepithelial-lymphocytes-sentinels-of-the-mucosal-barrier
#17
REVIEW
Danyvid Olivares-Villagómez, Luc Van Kaer
Intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) are a large and diverse population of lymphoid cells that reside between the intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) that form the intestinal mucosal barrier. Although IEL biology has traditionally focused on T cells, recent studies have identified several subsets of T cell receptor (TCR)-negative IELs with intriguing properties. New insight into the development, homeostasis, and functions of distinct IEL subsets has recently been provided. Additional studies have revealed intricate interactions between different IEL subsets, reciprocal interactions between IELs and IECs, and communication of IELs with immune cells that reside outside the intestinal epithelium...
December 5, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221725/protective-effects-of-polyphenol-rich-infusions-from-carob-ceratonia-siliqua-leaves-and-cladodes-of-opuntia-ficus-indica-against-inflammation-associated-with-diet-induced-obesity-and-dss-induced-colitis-in-swiss-mice
#18
Ikram Aboura, Abdelhafid Nani, Meriem Belarbi, Babar Murtaza, Aurélie Fluckiger, Adélie Dumont, Chahid Benammar, Moufida Saidani Tounsi, François Ghiringhelli, Mickaël Rialland, Naim Akhtar Khan, Aziz Hichami
In the present study, we have investigated the effects of polyphenol-rich infusions from carob leaves and OFI-cladodes on inflammation associated with obesity and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis in Swiss mice. In vitro studies revealed that aqueous extracts of carob leaves and OFI-cladodes exhibited anti-inflammatory properties marked by the inhibition of IL-6, TNF-α and nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells concomitant with NF-κβ nucleus translocation inhibition...
December 6, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221690/inflammatory-cells-implicated-in-neoplasia-development-in-idiopathic-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#19
Jana G Hashash, Douglas J Hartman
The inflammatory mechanisms that lead to the clinical symptoms that are grouped under the term inflammatory bowel disease have not been fully characterized. Although a specific mechanism has not been identified, inflammatory bowel disease is believed to be related to an inability by the immune system to shut active inflammation within the intestine. Many contributing factors have been implicated in the disease process. Based on population studies, patients with inflammatory bowel disease have an increased risk for neoplastic development...
November 10, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221664/mechanisms-of-damage-to-the-gastrointestinal-tract-from-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs
#20
REVIEW
Ingvar Bjarnason, Carmelo Scarpignato, Erik Holmgren, Michael Olszewski, Kim D Rainsford, Angel Lanas
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can damage the gastrointestinal tract, causing widespread morbidity and mortality. Although mechanisms of damage involve the activities of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 1 (PTGS1 or COX1) and PTGS1 (COX2), other factors are involved. We review mechanisms of gastrointestinal damage induction by NSAIDs, via COX-mediated and COX-independent processes. NSAIDs interact with phospholipids and uncouple mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, which initiates biochemical changes that impair function of the gastrointestinal barrier...
December 5, 2017: Gastroenterology
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