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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922623/molecular-mechanisms-underlying-the-positive-role-of-treadmill-training-in-locomotor-recovery-after-spinal-cord-injury
#1
Q Liu, B Zhang, C Liu, D Zhao
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the positive role of treadmill training (TMT) in locomotor recovery. METHODS: GSE52763 microarray data were downloaded from GEO database, which was collected from the lumbar spinal cord samples of three groups of mice: mice subjected to contusive injury and killed 1 week after injury (I1), mice subjected to injury and killed 3 weeks after injury (I3), and mice subjected to injury and TMT beginning at week 1 and lasting until week 3 (T3)...
December 6, 2016: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903350/-effect-of-lumbar-dorsal-muscle-injuries-on-lumbar-vertebral-bone-quality-of-rat
#2
X P Wang, S J Wang, P Yan, L L Zhu, M Q Li, Z Y Bian, J W Tian
Objective: To explored the effects of lumbar dorsal muscle damage on local lumbar vertebral bone quality. Methods: Thirty SD female rats, at age of 20 weeks, were randomly divided into three groups: control group, or say pseudo surgery group, an incision in the back were performed as CNT; bilateral erector spinal muscle group in which group bilateral lumbar erector spinal muscle were removed as RESM; castration group in which bilateral ovaries were resected as OVX.After three months, bone mineral density, microscopic CT and vertebral compression test were taken in lumbar vertebral (L4-6) in turn...
November 22, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900462/effects-of-a-trpv1-agonist-capsaicin-on-respiratory-rhythm-generation-in-brainstem-spinal-cord-preparation-from-newborn-rats
#3
Mariho Tani, Sayumi Kotani, Chikara Hayakawa, Shih-Tien Lin, Saki Irie, Keiko Ikeda, Kiyoshi Kawakami, Hiroshi Onimaru
The heat-sensitive transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels are expressed in the peripheral and central nervous systems. However, there is no report on how the activation of TRPV1 causes the modulation of neuronal activity in the medullary respiratory center. We examined effects of capsaicin, a specific agonist of TRPV1 channels, on respiratory rhythm generation in brainstem-spinal cord preparation from newborn rats. Capsaicin induced a biphasic response in the respiratory rhythm (a transient decrease followed by an increase in the C4 rate)...
November 29, 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898057/functional-brain-mapping-using-specific-sensory-circuit-stimulation-and-a-theoretical-graph-network-analysis-in-mice-with-neuropathic-allodynia
#4
Yuji Komaki, Keigo Hikishima, Shinsuke Shibata, Tsunehiko Konomi, Fumiko Seki, Masayuki Yamada, Naoyuki Miyasaka, Kanehiro Fujiyoshi, Hirotaka J Okano, Masaya Nakamura, Hideyuki Okano
Allodynia, a form of neuropathic pain, is defined as pain in response to a non-nociceptive stimulus. The brain regions responsible for pain, which are not normally activated, can be activated in allodynic mice by providing a suitable stimulus to Aβ-fibers, which transmit signals from tactile sensory fibers. Functional MRI (fMRI) can be used to objectively observe abnormal brain activation. In the present study, fMRI was conducted to investigate allodynia in mice; allodynia was generated by surgical injury at the L4 spinal nerve root, thus selectively stimulating sensory nerve fibers...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771730/spatiotemporal-development-of-the-orexinergic-hypocretinergic-system-in-the-central-nervous-system-of-xenopus-laevis
#5
Jesús M López, Lorena Morales, Agustín González
The present immunohistochemical study represents a detailed spatiotemporal analysis of the localization of orexin-immunoreactive (OX-ir) cells and fibers throughout development in the brain of the anuran amphibian Xenopus laevis, a model frequently used in developmental studies. Anurans undergo remarkable physiological changes during the early life stages, and very little is known about the ontogeny and the localization of the centers that control functions such as appetite and feed ingestion in the developing brain...
2016: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753790/self-assembling-peptide-reduces-glial-scarring-attenuates-posttraumatic-inflammation-and-promotes-neurite-outgrowth-of-spinal-motor-neurons
#6
Kei Ando, Shiro Imagama, Zenya Ito, Kazuyoshi Kobayashi, Tetsuro Hida, Hiroaki Nakashima, Kenyu Ito, Mikito Tsushima, Yoshimoto Ishikawa, Akiyuki Matsumoto, Koji Nishida, Yoshihiro Nishida, Naoki Ishiguro
STUDY DESIGN: Self-assembling peptide gel (SPG-178) provides new evidence for the role of a scaffold for treatment of the spinal cord through induction of neuroprotective factors. OBJECTIVE: To verify the reproducibility of SPG-178 as scaffold after spinal cord injury, we examine the characteristics of SPG-178 and protective effect on neural cells in vitro and in vivo. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The central nervous system extracellular matrix may play a role in maintenance of the neuronal network by inhibiting axonal growth and suppressing formation of additional inadequate synapses...
October 15, 2016: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749628/cervical-spine-injuries-in-children-associated-with-sports-and-recreational-activities
#7
Lynn Babcock, Cody S Olsen, David M Jaffe, Julie C Leonard
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to ascertain potential factors associated with cervical spine injuries in children injured during sports and recreational activities. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of a multicenter retrospective case-control study involving children younger than 16 years who presented to emergency departments after blunt trauma and underwent cervical spine radiography. Cases had cervical spine injury from sports or recreational activities (n = 179)...
September 30, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748551/venlafaxine-and-oxycodone-effects-on-human-spinal-and-supraspinal-pain-processing-a-randomized-cross-over-trial
#8
D Lelic, I W D Fischer, A E Olesen, C D Mørch, F G Arguissain, J A B Manresa, A Dahan, A M Drewes
Severe pain is often treated with opioids. Antidepressants that inhibit serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake (SNRI) have also shown a pain relieving effect, but for both SNRI and opioids, the specific mode of action in humans remains vague. This study investigated how oxycodone and venlafaxine affect spinal and supraspinal pain processing. Twenty volunteers were included in this randomized cross-over study comparing 5-day treatment with venlafaxine, oxycodone and placebo. As a proxy of the spinal pain transmission, the nociceptive withdrawal reflex (NWR) to electrical stimulation on the sole of the foot was recorded at the tibialis anterior muscle before and after 5 days of treatment...
October 17, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717738/influence-of-relative-strength-on-functional-independence-of-patients-with-spinal-cord-injury
#9
Frederico Ribeiro Neto, Patrícia Guanais, Guilherme H Lopes, Elisa Dornelas, Daniela de Campos Barbetta, Alessandra C B Coutinho, Carlos Wellington Gonçalves, Rodrigo Rodrigues Gomes Costa
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to investigate the influence of strength values and fat mass on functional independence of men with different spinal cord injury levels (SCI). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study; Setting: SARAH Rehabilitation Hospital Network - Brasilia, Brazil. PARTICIPANTS: Forty-five men with SCI were enrolled in the study. INTERVENTIONS: Subjects were assessed in functional independence scales, one maximum repetition test (1RM) and body composition to detect absolute and relative strength: 1RM divided by body mass (BM) and lean body mass (LBM)...
October 4, 2016: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714554/intrinsic-functional-connectivity-alterations-in-cognitively-intact-elderly-apoe-%C3%AE%C2%B54-carriers-measured-by-eigenvector-centrality-mapping-are-related-to-cognition-and-csf-biomarkers-a-preliminary-study
#10
Xiao Luo, Tiantian Qiu, Yunlu Jia, Peiyu Huang, Xiaojun Xu, Xinfeng Yu, Zhujing Shen, Yerfan Jiaerken, Xiaojun Guan, Jiong Zhou, Minming Zhang
Apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele is the best established genetic risk factor for sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, there is a need to understand the effects of this genotype on the brain by simultaneously assessing intrinsic brain network and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers changes in healthy older ε4 carriers. Thirteen cognitively intact, elderly APOE ε4 carriers and 22 ε3 homozygotes were included in the present study. Eigenvector centrality mapping (ECM) was used to identify brain network hub organization based on resting-state functional MRI (rsfMRI)...
October 6, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697845/presentation-of-neurogenic-shock-within-the-emergency-department
#11
Matthew Pritam Taylor, Paul Wrenn, Andrew David O'Donnell
BACKGROUND: Injury to the spinal cord can result in loss of sympathetic innervation causing a drop in BP and HR, this condition is known as neurogenic shock. There is debate among the literature on how and when neurogenic shock presents and what values of HR and BP should be used to define it. Previous studies do not take into account multiple prehospital and emergency department recordings. OBJECTIVE: To improve understanding of how neurogenic shock presents in humans, allowing better identification and treatment...
October 3, 2016: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689092/aberrant-lncrna-expression-profile-in-a-contusion-spinal-cord-injury-mouse-model
#12
Ya Ding, Zhiwen Song, Jinbo Liu
Long noncoding RNAs (LncRNAs) play a crucial role in cell growth, development, and various diseases related to the central nervous system. However, LncRNA differential expression profiles in spinal cord injury are yet to be reported. In this study, we profiled the expression pattern of LncRNAs using a microarray method in a contusion spinal cord injury (SCI) mouse model. Compared with a spinal cord without injury, few changes in LncRNA expression levels were noted 1 day after injury. The differential changes in LncRNA expression peaked 1 week after SCI and subsequently declined until 3 weeks after injury...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590264/organization-of-the-intrinsic-functional-network-in-the-cervical-spinal-cord-a-resting-state-functional-mri-study
#13
Xiaojia Liu, Fuqing Zhou, Xiang Li, Wenshu Qian, Jiaolong Cui, Iris Y Zhou, Keith D K Luk, Ed X Wu, Yong Hu
Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) has been extensively applied to investigate the organization of functional networks in the brain. As an essential part of the central nervous system (CNS), the spinal cord has not been well explored about its intrinsic functional network. In this study, we aim to thoroughly investigate the characteristics of the intrinsic functional network in the spinal cord using rsfMRI. Functional connectivity and graph theory analysis were employed to evaluate the organization of the functional network, including its topology and network communication properties...
November 12, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27588715/confocal-raman-microspectral-imaging-of-ex-vivo-human-spinal-cord-tissue
#14
Shuang Wang, Zhuowen Liang, Yuzhe Gong, Yaning Yin, Kaige Wang, Qingli He, Zhe Wang, Jintao Bai
Confocal Raman microspectral imaging (CRMI) provides a versatile tool to illustrate the biochemical nature and structure of biological tissue without introducing any external labels. In this work, a precise correlation was established between the biochemical profile and histological architecture of ex vivo human spinal cord tissue by using CRMI with 633nm excitation. After precisely linking the spectral features to the chemical constituents, much information about the molecular composition of both gray and white matter were revealed...
October 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27574966/modulating-arm-swing-symmetry-with-cognitive-load-a-window-on-rhythmic-spinal-locomotor-networks-in-humans
#15
Tim Killeen, Christopher S Easthope, Linard Filli, Michael Linnebank, Armin Curt, Marc Bolliger, Björn Zörner
In healthy subjects, changes in arm swing symmetry while walking are observed when a cognitive dual task is added, with a tendency toward left-dominant arm swing as cognitive load increases. We applied a modified Stroop word/color naming paradigm to investigate this effect in spinal cord injured (SCI) patients. Six patients with cervical SCI (cSCI), 6 with thoracic injuries (tSCI; all 12 patients American Spinal Injury Association [ASIA] Injury Score [AIS]D), and 12 healthy, matched controls underwent three-dimensional 3D gait analysis while walking normally at a comfortable speed (NW) and when performing an additional congruent (CS) and incongruent (IS) Stroop task...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27573214/spinal-sensory-circuits-in-motion
#16
Urs Lucas Böhm, Claire Wyart
The role of sensory feedback in shaping locomotion has been long debated. Recent advances in genetics and behavior analysis revealed the importance of proprioceptive pathways in spinal circuits. The mechanisms underlying peripheral mechanosensation enabled to unravel the networks that feedback to spinal circuits in order to modulate locomotion. Sensory inputs to the vertebrate spinal cord were long thought to originate from the periphery. Recent studies challenge this view: GABAergic sensory neurons located within the spinal cord have been shown to relay mechanical and chemical information from the cerebrospinal fluid to motor circuits...
August 26, 2016: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27573067/risk-factors-for-surgical-site-infections-following-adult-spine-operations
#17
Ambar Haleem, Hsiu-Yin Chiang, Ravindhar Vodela, Andrew Behan, Jean M Pottinger, Joseph Smucker, Jeremy D Greenlee, Charles Clark, Loreen A Herwaldt
OBJECTIVE To identify risk factors for surgical site infections (SSIs) after spine operations. DESIGN Case-control study of SSIs among patients undergoing spine operations. SETTING An academic health center. PATIENTS We studied patients undergoing spinal fusions or laminectomies at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics from January 1, 2007, through June 30, 2009. We included patients who acquired SSIs meeting the National Healthcare Safety Network definition. We randomly selected controls among patients who had spine operations during the study period and did not meet the SSI definition...
December 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27557099/the-space-clamped-hodgkin-huxley-system-with-random-synaptic-input-inhibition-of-spiking-by-weak-noise-and-analysis-with-moment-equations
#18
Henry C Tuckwell, Susanne Ditlevsen
We consider a classical space-clamped Hodgkin-Huxley model neuron stimulated by synaptic excitation and inhibition with conductances represented by Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes. Using numerical solutions of the stochastic model system obtained by an Euler method, it is found that with excitation only, there is a critical value of the steady-state excitatory conductance for repetitive spiking without noise, and for values of the conductance near the critical value, small noise has a powerfully inhibitory effect...
October 2016: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27534535/integrated-analysis-of-omics-data-using-microrna-target-mrna-network-and-ppi-network-reveals-regulation-of-gnai1-function-in-the-spinal-cord-of-ews-ewsr1-ko-mice
#19
Chai-Jin Lee, Hongryul Ahn, Sean Bong Lee, Jong-Yeon Shin, Woong-Yang Park, Jong-Il Kim, Junghee Lee, Hoon Ryu, Sun Kim
BACKGROUND: Multifunctional transcription factor (TF) gene EWS/EWSR1 is involved in various cellular processes such as transcription regulation, noncoding RNA regulation, splicing regulation, genotoxic stress response, and cancer generation. Role of a TF gene can be effectively studied by measuring genome-wide gene expression, i.e., transcriptome, in an animal model of Ews/Ewsr1 knockout (KO). However, when a TF gene has complex multi-functions, conventional approaches such as differentially expressed genes (DEGs) analysis are not successful to characterize the role of the EWS gene...
2016: BMC Medical Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27528274/increased-brain-sensorimotor-network-activation-after-incomplete-spinal-cord-injury
#20
Kelli G Sharp, Robert Gramer, Stephen Page, Steven C Cramer
After complete SCI, activation during attempted movement of paralyzed limbs is sharply reduced, but after incomplete SCI--the more common form of human injury--it is unknown how attempts to move voluntarily are accompanied by activation of brain motor and sensory networks. Here, we assessed brain activation during ankle movement in subjects with incomplete SCI, among whom voluntary motor function is partially preserved. Adults with incomplete SCI (n=20) and healthy controls (n=15) underwent fMRI that alternated rest with 0...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
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