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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702678/expression-of-the-eight-gabaa-receptor-%C3%AE-subunits-in-the-developing-zebrafish-central-nervous-system
#1
Bryan Monesson-Olson, Jon J McClain, Abigail E Case, Hanna E Dorman, Daniel R Turkewitz, Aaron B Steiner, Gerald B Downes
GABA is a robust regulator of both developing and mature neural networks. It exerts many of its effects through GABAA receptors, which are heteropentamers assembled from a large array of subunits encoded by distinct genes. In mammals, there are 19 different GABAA subunit types, which are divided into the α, β, γ, δ, ε, π, θ and ρ subfamilies. The immense diversity of GABAA receptors is not fully understood. However, it is known that specific isoforms, with their distinct biophysical properties and expression profiles, tune responses to GABA...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701915/complete-adult-neurogenesis-within-a-wallerian-degenerating-nerve-expressed-as-an-ectopic-ganglion
#2
Tomonori Nakano, Shigeru Kurimoto, Shuichi Kato, Kenichi Asano, Takuma Hirata, Hiroshi Kiyama, Hitoshi Hirata
Neurogenesis in the adult peripheral nervous system remains to be demonstrated. We transplanted embryonic neural stem cells into a Wallerian-degenerating nerve graft, and observed development of a nodular structure consisting of neurons, glia, and Schwann cells. Histological analysis revealed a structure loosely resembling the spinal cord, including a synaptic network that formed along the neuron. Furthermore, the new axons re-innervated the paralyzed muscle, forming both de novo and revived neuromuscular junctions...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700596/modeling-and-analysis-of-a-new-locomotion-control-neural-networks
#3
Q Liu, J Z Wang
Experimental data have shown that inherent bursting of the neuron plays an important role in the generation of rhythmic movements in spinal networks. Based on the mechanism that the spinal neurons of a lamprey generate this inherent bursting, this paper builds a simplified inherent bursting neuron model. A new locomotion control neural network is built that takes advantage of this neuron model and its performance is analyzed mathematically and by numerical simulation. From these analyses, it is found that the new control networks have no restriction on their topological structure for generating the oscillatory outputs...
April 26, 2018: Biological Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693160/bioinformatics-analysis-of-the-molecular-mechanisms-underlying-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury
#4
Shu-Jie Zhao, Wei Zhou, Jian Chen, Yong-Jun Luo, Guo-Yong Yin
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a cause of disability. The present study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in traumatic SCI. Transcriptome data under accession no. GSE5296, including 96 chips, were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. The raw data were normalized and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. Furthermore, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway and Gene Ontology enrichment analysis of up‑ and downregulated DEGs was performed. Additionally, a protein‑protein interaction network was constructed and the expression patterns of different genes were determined...
April 23, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648581/multiple-sclerosis-lesions-affect-intrinsic-functional-connectivity-of-the-spinal-cord
#5
Benjamin N Conrad, Robert L Barry, Baxter P Rogers, Satoshi Maki, Arabinda Mishra, Saakshi Thukral, Subramaniam Sriram, Aashim Bhatia, Siddharama Pawate, John C Gore, Seth A Smith
Patients with multiple sclerosis present with focal lesions throughout the spinal cord. There is a clinical need for non-invasive measurements of spinal cord activity and functional organization in multiple sclerosis, given the cord's critical role in the disease. Recent reports of spontaneous blood oxygenation level-dependent fluctuations in the spinal cord using functional MRI suggest that, like the brain, cord activity at rest is organized into distinct, synchronized functional networks among grey matter regions, likely related to motor and sensory systems...
April 10, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644101/spinal-cord-injury-epidemiological-profile-in-the-sarah-network-of-rehabilitation-hospitals-a-brazilian-population-sample
#6
D C Barbetta, T R Smanioto, M F Poletto, Rfa Ferreira, Acg Lopes, F M Casaro, Acs Camargo, T O Ogashawara
Study design: Retrospective cross-sectional study. Objective: To describe the epidemiological profile of individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI), who visited the Sarah Network in 2014. Setting: Brazil, Brasília-Federal District. Methods: A review of the electronic medical records of persons with SCI, aged over 15 years, was carried out. Results: The medical records of 2076 persons were evaluated: 83% were male, the mean age was 31 years, 40% did not complete elementary school, 67...
2018: Spinal Cord Series and Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625628/advanced-robotic-therapy-integrated-centers-artic-an-international-collaboration-facilitating-the-application-of-rehabilitation-technologies
#7
Hubertus J A van Hedel, Giacomo Severini, Alessandra Scarton, Anne O'Brien, Tamsin Reed, Deborah Gaebler-Spira, Tara Egan, Andreas Meyer-Heim, Judith Graser, Karen Chua, Daniel Zutter, Raoul Schweinfurther, J Carsten Möller, Liliana P Paredes, Alberto Esquenazi, Steffen Berweck, Sebastian Schroeder, Birgit Warken, Anne Chan, Amber Devers, Jakub Petioky, Nam-Jong Paik, Won-Seok Kim, Paolo Bonato, Michael Boninger
BACKGROUND: The application of rehabilitation robots has grown during the last decade. While meta-analyses have shown beneficial effects of robotic interventions for some patient groups, the evidence is less in others. We established the Advanced Robotic Therapy Integrated Centers (ARTIC) network with the goal of advancing the science and clinical practice of rehabilitation robotics. The investigators hope to exploit variations in practice to learn about current clinical application and outcomes...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623939/cell-cycle-and-complement-inhibitors-may-be-specific-for-treatment-of-spinal-cord-injury-in-aged-and-young-mice-transcriptomic-analyses
#8
Ming Hao, Xin-Ran Ji, Hua Chen, Wei Zhang, Li-Cheng Zhang, Li-Hai Zhang, Pei-Fu Tang, Ning Lu
Previous studies have reported age-specific pathological and functional outcomes in young and aged patients suffering spinal cord injury, but the mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this study, we examined mice with spinal cord injury. Gene expression profiles from the Gene Expression Omnibus database (accession number GSE93561) were used, including spinal cord samples from 3 young injured mice (2-3-months old, induced by Impactor at Th9 level) and 3 control mice (2-3-months old, no treatment), as well as 2 aged injured mice (15-18-months old, induced by Impactor at Th9 level) and 2 control mice (15-18-months old, no treatment)...
March 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547407/bioinformatic-analysis-of-potential-biomarkers-for-spinal-cord-injured-patients-with-intractable-neuropathic-pain
#9
Yimin Wang, Fang Ye, Chanyan Huang, Faling Xue, Yingyuan Li, Shaowei Gao, Zeting Qiu, Si Li, Qinchang Chen, Huaqiang Zhou, Yiyan Song, Wenqi Huang, Wulin Tan, Zhongxing Wang
BACKGROUND: Neuropathic pain is one of the common complications after spinal cord injury (SCI), affecting patients' life quality. The molecular mechanism for neuropathic pain after SCI is still unclear. We aimed to discover potential genes and MicroRNAs(miRNAs) related to neuropathic pain by bioinformatics method. METHODS: Microarray data of GSE69901 were obtained from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Peripheral blood samples from patients with or without neuropathic pain after spinal cord injury (SCI) were collected...
March 15, 2018: Clinical Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486168/pleiotropic-activity-of-systemically-delivered-angiogenin-in-the-sod1-g93a-mouse-model
#10
Martin Crivello, Saidhbhe L O'Riordan, Ina Woods, Sarah Cannon, Luise Halang, Karen S Coughlan, Marion C Hogg, Sebastian A Lewandowski, Jochen H M Prehn
Loss-of-function mutations in the angiogenin (ANG) gene have been identified in familial and sporadic ALS patients. Previous work from our group identified human ANG (huANG) to protect motoneurons in vitro, and provided proof-of-concept that daily intraperitoneal (i.p.) huANG injections post-symptom onset increased lifespan and delayed disease progression in SOD1G93A mice. huANG's mechanism of action remains less well understood. Here, we implemented a preclinical in vivo design to validate our previous results, provide pharmacokinetic and protein distribution data after systemic administration, and explore potential pleiotropic activities of huANG in vivo...
May 1, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29480684/artificial-neural-networks-can-be-effectively-used-to-model-changes-of-intracranial-pressure-icp-during-spinal-surgery-using-different-non-invasive-icp-surrogate-estimators
#11
Abdulla Watad, Nicola L Bragazzi, Susanna Bacigaluppi, Howard Amital, Samaa Watad, Kassem Sharif, Bishara Bisharat, Anna Siri, Ala Mahamid, Hakim Abu Ras, Ahmed Nasr, Federico Bilotta, Chiara Robba, Mohammad Adawi
BACKGROUND: Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques play a major role in anesthesiology, even though their importance is often overlooked. In the extant literature, AI approaches, such as Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), have been underutilized, mainly being used to model patient's consciousness state, to predict the precise amount of anesthetic gases, the level of analgesia, or the need of anesthesiological blocks, among others. In the field of neurosurgery, ANNs have been effectively applied to the diagnosis and prognosis of cerebral tumors, seizures, low back pain, and also to the monitoring of intracranial pressure (ICP)...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387210/gene-expression-profile-analysis-of-the-bone-microenvironment-in-patients-with-spinal-metastases
#12
Wangmi Liu, Yun Liang, Chong Bian, Libo Jiang, Guoli Zheng, Jian Dong
The present study aimed to identify the underlying molecular mechanisms associated with spinal metastases. Gene expression profiles in cancellous bone samples from the spines of five patients with spinal metastases, with different primary cancers, and three normal control patients were measured using microarray analysis and subsequently compared. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) identified were filtered using bioinformatics analyses followed by cluster analysis, gene ontology (GO) term and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analyses...
January 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383659/an-electrophysiological-study-of-cognitive-and-emotion-processing-in-type-i-chiari-malformation
#13
James R Houston, Michelle L Hughes, Mei-Ching Lien, Bryn A Martin, Francis Loth, Mark G Luciano, Sarel Vorster, Philip A Allen
Type I Chiari malformation (CMI) is a neurological condition in which the cerebellar tonsils descend into the cervical spinal subarachnoid space resulting in cervico-medullary compression. Early case-control investigations have indicated cognitive deficits in the areas of attention, memory, processing speed, and visuospatial function. The present study further examined cognitive and emotional processing deficits associated with CMI using a dual-task paradigm. Nineteen CMI patients were recruited during pre-surgical consultation and 19 matched control participants identified emotional expressions in separate single and asynchronous dual-task designs...
January 30, 2018: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383182/transcriptomic-analysis-in-pediatric-spinal-ependymoma-reveals-distinct-molecular-signatures
#14
Anbarasu Lourdusamy, Li Z Luo, Lisa Cd Storer, Kenneth J Cohen, Linda Resar, Richard G Grundy
Pediatric spinal ependymomas (SEPN) are important albeit uncommon malignant central nervous system tumors with limited treatment options. Our current knowledge about the underlying biology of these tumors is limited due to their rarity. To begin to elucidate molecular mechanisms that give rise to pediatric SEPN, we compared the transcriptomic landscape of SEPNs to that of intracranial ependymomas using genome-wide mRNA and microRNA (miRNA) expression profiling in primary tumour samples. We found that pediatric SEPNs are characterized by increased expression of genes involved in developmental processes, oxidative phosphorylation, cellular respiration, electron transport chain, and cofactor metabolic process...
December 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381946/efficacy-and-safety-of-9-nonoperative-regimens-for-the-treatment-of-spinal-cord-injury-a-network-meta-analysis
#15
Da-Nian Ma, Xia-Qi Zhang, Jie Ying, Zhong-Jun Chen, Li-Xin Li
OBJECTIVE: This network meta-analysis aims to compare the efficacy and safety of 9 nonoperative regimens (placebo, pregabalin, GM-1 ganglioside, venlafaxine extended-release [venlafaxine XR], fampridine, conventional over-ground training [OT], body-weight-supported treadmill training [BWSTT], robotic-assisted gait training [RAGT] + OT and body-weight-supported over-ground training [BWSOT]) in treating spinal cord injury (SCI). METHODS: Clinical controlled trials of 9 nonoperative regimens for SCI were retrieved in the electronic database...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367447/unraveling-als-due-to-sod1-mutation-through-the-combination-of-brain-and-cervical-cord-mri
#16
Federica Agosta, Edoardo Gioele Spinelli, Ivan V Marjanovic, Zorica Stevic, Elisabetta Pagani, Paola Valsasina, Biljana Salak-Djokic, Milena Jankovic, Dragana Lavrnic, Vladimir S Kostic, Massimo Filippi
OBJECTIVE: To explore structural and functional changes of the brain and cervical cord in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) due to mutation in the superoxide dismutase (SOD1) gene compared with sporadic ALS. METHODS: Twenty patients with SOD1 ALS, 11 with sporadic ALS, and 33 healthy controls underwent clinical evaluation and brain MRI. Cortical thickness analysis, diffusion tensor MRI of the corticospinal tracts (CST) and corpus callosum, and resting-state functional connectivity were performed...
January 24, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358338/quantitative-proteomics-after-spinal-cord-injury-sci-in-a-regenerative-and-a-nonregenerative-stage-in-the-frog-xenopus-laevis
#17
Dasfne Lee-Liu, Liangliang Sun, Norman J Dovichi, Juan Larraín
The capacity to regenerate the spinal cord after an injury is a coveted trait that only a limited group of nonmammalian organisms can achieve. In Xenopus laevis , this capacity is only present during larval or tadpole stages, but is absent during postmetamorphic frog stages. This provides an excellent model for comparative studies between a regenerative and a nonregenerative stage to identify the cellular and molecular mechanisms that explain this difference in regenerative potential. Here, we used iTRAQ chemistry to obtain a quantitative proteome of the spinal cord 1 day after a transection injury in regenerative and nonregenerative stage animals, and used sham operated animals as controls...
April 2018: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355954/comprehensive-analysis-of-area-specific-and-time-dependent-changes-in-gene-expression-in-the-motor-cortex-of-macaque-monkeys-during-recovery-from-spinal-cord-injury
#18
Noriyuki Higo, Akira Sato, Tatsuya Yamamoto, Takao Oishi, Yukio Nishimura, Yumi Murata, Hirotaka Onoe, Tadashi Isa, Toshio Kojima
The present study aimed to assess the molecular bases of cortical compensatory mechanisms following spinal cord injury in primates. To accomplish this, comprehensive changes in gene expression were investigated in the bilateral primary motor cortex (M1), dorsal premotor cortex (PMd), and ventral premotor cortex (PMv) after a unilateral lesion of the lateral corticospinal tract (l-CST). At 2 weeks after the lesion, a large number of genes exhibited altered expression levels in the contralesional M1, which is directly linked to the lesioned l-CST...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352963/three-dimensional-visualization-of-extracellular-matrix-networks-during-murine-development
#19
Andrea Acuna, Michael A Drakopoulos, Yue Leng, Craig J Goergen, Sarah Calve
The extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a crucial role in embryogenesis, serving both as a substrate to which cells attach and as an active regulator of cell behavior. However, little is known about the spatiotemporal expression patterns and 3D structure of ECM proteins during embryonic development. The lack of suitable methods to visualize the embryonic ECM is largely responsible for this gap, posing a major technical challenge for biologists and tissue engineers. Here, we describe a method of viewing the 3D organization of the ECM using a polyacrylamide-based hydrogel to provide a 3D framework within developing murine embryos...
March 15, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275979/prediction-of-a-multiple-sclerosis-diagnosis-in-patients-with-clinically-isolated-syndrome-using-the-2016-magnims-and-2010-mcdonald-criteria-a-retrospective-study
#20
Massimo Filippi, Paolo Preziosa, Alessandro Meani, Olga Ciccarelli, Sarlota Mesaros, Alex Rovira, Jette Frederiksen, Christian Enzinger, Frederik Barkhof, Claudio Gasperini, Wallace Brownlee, Jelena Drulovic, Xavier Montalban, Stig P Cramer, Alexander Pichler, Marloes Hagens, Serena Ruggieri, Vittorio Martinelli, Katherine Miszkiel, Mar Tintorè, Giancarlo Comi, Iris Dekker, Bernard Uitdehaag, Irena Dujmovic-Basuroski, Maria A Rocca
BACKGROUND: In 2016, the Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Multiple Sclerosis (MAGNIMS) network proposed modifications to the MRI criteria to define dissemination in space (DIS) and time (DIT) for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis in patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS). Changes to the DIS definition included removal of the distinction between symptomatic and asymptomatic lesions, increasing the number of lesions needed to define periventricular involvement to three, combining cortical and juxtacortical lesions, and inclusion of optic nerve evaluation...
February 2018: Lancet Neurology
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