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Network spinal analysis

Kei Ando, Shiro Imagama, Zenya Ito, Kazuyoshi Kobayashi, Tetsuro Hida, Hiroaki Nakashima, Kenyu Ito, Mikito Tsushima, Yoshimoto Ishikawa, Akiyuki Matsumoto, Koji Nishida, Yoshihiro Nishida, Naoki Ishiguro
STUDY DESIGN: Self-assembling peptide gel (SPG-178) provides new evidence for the role of a scaffold for treatment of the spinal cord through induction of neuroprotective factors. OBJECTIVE: To verify the reproducibility of SPG-178 as scaffold after spinal cord injury, we examine the characteristics of SPG-178 and protective effect on neural cells in vitro and in vivo. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The central nervous system extracellular matrix may play a role in maintenance of the neuronal network by inhibiting axonal growth and suppressing formation of additional inadequate synapses...
October 15, 2016: Spine
Lynn Babcock, Cody S Olsen, David M Jaffe, Julie C Leonard
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to ascertain potential factors associated with cervical spine injuries in children injured during sports and recreational activities. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of a multicenter retrospective case-control study involving children younger than 16 years who presented to emergency departments after blunt trauma and underwent cervical spine radiography. Cases had cervical spine injury from sports or recreational activities (n = 179)...
September 30, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
D Lelic, I W D Fischer, A E Olesen, C D Mørch, F G Arguissain, J A B Manresa, A Dahan, A M Drewes
Severe pain is often treated with opioids. Antidepressants that inhibit serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake (SNRI) have also shown a pain relieving effect, but for both SNRI and opioids the specific mode of action in humans remains vague. This study investigated how oxycodone and venlafaxine affect spinal and supraspinal pain processing. Twenty volunteers were included in this randomized cross-over study comparing five-day treatment with venlafaxine, oxycodone and placebo. As a proxy of the spinal pain transmission, the nociceptive withdrawal reflex (NWR) to electrical stimulation on the sole of the foot was recorded at the tibialis anterior muscle before and after five days of treatment...
October 17, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Frederico Ribeiro Neto, Patrícia Guanais, Guilherme H Lopes, Elisa Dornelas, Daniela de Campos Barbetta, Alessandra C B Coutinho, Carlos Wellington Gonçalves, Rodrigo Rodrigues Gomes Costa
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to investigate the influence of strength values and fat mass on functional independence of men with different spinal cord injury levels (SCI). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study; Setting: SARAH Rehabilitation Hospital Network - Brasilia, Brazil. PARTICIPANTS: Forty-five men with SCI were enrolled in the study. INTERVENTIONS: Subjects were assessed in functional independence scales, one maximum repetition test (1RM) and body composition to detect absolute and relative strength: 1RM divided by body mass (BM) and lean body mass (LBM)...
October 4, 2016: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Xiao Luo, Tiantian Qiu, Yunlu Jia, Peiyu Huang, Xiaojun Xu, Xinfeng Yu, Zhujing Shen, Yerfan Jiaerken, Xiaojun Guan, Jiong Zhou, Minming Zhang
Apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele is the best established genetic risk factor for sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, there is a need to understand the effects of this genotype on the brain by simultaneously assessing intrinsic brain network and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers changes in healthy older ε4 carriers. Thirteen cognitively intact, elderly APOE ε4 carriers and 22 ε3 homozygotes were included in the present study. Eigenvector centrality mapping (ECM) was used to identify brain network hub organization based on resting-state functional MRI (rsfMRI)...
October 6, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Matthew Pritam Taylor, Paul Wrenn, Andrew David O'Donnell
BACKGROUND: Injury to the spinal cord can result in loss of sympathetic innervation causing a drop in BP and HR, this condition is known as neurogenic shock. There is debate among the literature on how and when neurogenic shock presents and what values of HR and BP should be used to define it. Previous studies do not take into account multiple prehospital and emergency department recordings. OBJECTIVE: To improve understanding of how neurogenic shock presents in humans, allowing better identification and treatment...
October 3, 2016: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
Ya Ding, Zhiwen Song, Jinbo Liu
Long noncoding RNAs (LncRNAs) play a crucial role in cell growth, development, and various diseases related to the central nervous system. However, LncRNA differential expression profiles in spinal cord injury are yet to be reported. In this study, we profiled the expression pattern of LncRNAs using a microarray method in a contusion spinal cord injury (SCI) mouse model. Compared with a spinal cord without injury, few changes in LncRNA expression levels were noted 1 day after injury. The differential changes in LncRNA expression peaked 1 week after SCI and subsequently declined until 3 weeks after injury...
2016: BioMed Research International
Xiaojia Liu, Fuqing Zhou, Xiang Li, Wenshu Qian, Jiaolong Cui, Iris Y Zhou, Keith D K Luk, Ed X Wu, Yong Hu
Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) has been extensively applied to investigate the organization of functional networks in the brain. As an essential part of the central nervous system (CNS), the spinal cord has not been well explored about its intrinsic functional network. In this study, we aim to thoroughly investigate the characteristics of the intrinsic functional network in the spinal cord using rsfMRI. Functional connectivity and graph theory analysis were employed to evaluate the organization of the functional network, including its topology and network communication properties...
November 12, 2016: Neuroscience
Shuang Wang, Zhuowen Liang, Yuzhe Gong, Yaning Yin, Kaige Wang, Qingli He, Zhe Wang, Jintao Bai
Confocal Raman microspectral imaging (CRMI) provides a versatile tool to illustrate the biochemical nature and structure of biological tissue without introducing any external labels. In this work, a precise correlation was established between the biochemical profile and histological architecture of ex vivo human spinal cord tissue by using CRMI with 633nm excitation. After precisely linking the spectral features to the chemical constituents, much information about the molecular composition of both gray and white matter were revealed...
October 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Tim Killeen, Christopher S Easthope, Linard Filli, Michael Linnebank, Armin Curt, Marc Bolliger, Björn Zörner
In healthy subjects, changes in arm swing symmetry while walking are observed when a cognitive dual task is added, with a tendency toward left-dominant arm swing as cognitive load increases. We applied a modified Stroop word/color naming paradigm to investigate this effect in spinal cord injured (SCI) patients. Six patients with cervical SCI (cSCI), 6 with thoracic injuries (tSCI; all 12 patients American Spinal Injury Association [ASIA] Injury Score [AIS]D), and 12 healthy, matched controls underwent three-dimensional 3D gait analysis while walking normally at a comfortable speed (NW) and when performing an additional congruent (CS) and incongruent (IS) Stroop task...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Urs Lucas Böhm, Claire Wyart
The role of sensory feedback in shaping locomotion has been long debated. Recent advances in genetics and behavior analysis revealed the importance of proprioceptive pathways in spinal circuits. The mechanisms underlying peripheral mechanosensation enabled to unravel the networks that feedback to spinal circuits in order to modulate locomotion. Sensory inputs to the vertebrate spinal cord were long thought to originate from the periphery. Recent studies challenge this view: GABAergic sensory neurons located within the spinal cord have been shown to relay mechanical and chemical information from the cerebrospinal fluid to motor circuits...
August 26, 2016: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Ambar Haleem, Hsiu-Yin Chiang, Ravindhar Vodela, Andrew Behan, Jean M Pottinger, Joseph Smucker, Jeremy D Greenlee, Charles Clark, Loreen A Herwaldt
OBJECTIVE To identify risk factors for surgical site infections (SSIs) after spine operations. DESIGN Case-control study of SSIs among patients undergoing spine operations. SETTING An academic health center. PATIENTS We studied patients undergoing spinal fusions or laminectomies at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics from January 1, 2007, through June 30, 2009. We included patients who acquired SSIs meeting the National Healthcare Safety Network definition. We randomly selected controls among patients who had spine operations during the study period and did not meet the SSI definition...
August 30, 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Henry C Tuckwell, Susanne Ditlevsen
We consider a classical space-clamped Hodgkin-Huxley model neuron stimulated by synaptic excitation and inhibition with conductances represented by Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes. Using numerical solutions of the stochastic model system obtained by an Euler method, it is found that with excitation only, there is a critical value of the steady-state excitatory conductance for repetitive spiking without noise, and for values of the conductance near the critical value, small noise has a powerfully inhibitory effect...
October 2016: Neural Computation
Chai-Jin Lee, Hongryul Ahn, Sean Bong Lee, Jong-Yeon Shin, Woong-Yang Park, Jong-Il Kim, Junghee Lee, Hoon Ryu, Sun Kim
BACKGROUND: Multifunctional transcription factor (TF) gene EWS/EWSR1 is involved in various cellular processes such as transcription regulation, noncoding RNA regulation, splicing regulation, genotoxic stress response, and cancer generation. Role of a TF gene can be effectively studied by measuring genome-wide gene expression, i.e., transcriptome, in an animal model of Ews/Ewsr1 knockout (KO). However, when a TF gene has complex multi-functions, conventional approaches such as differentially expressed genes (DEGs) analysis are not successful to characterize the role of the EWS gene...
2016: BMC Medical Genomics
Kelli G Sharp, Robert Gramer, Stephen Page, Steven C Cramer
After complete SCI, activation during attempted movement of paralyzed limbs is sharply reduced, but after incomplete SCI--the more common form of human injury--it is unknown how attempts to move voluntarily are accompanied by activation of brain motor and sensory networks. Here, we assessed brain activation during ankle movement in subjects with incomplete SCI, among whom voluntary motor function is partially preserved. Adults with incomplete SCI (n=20) and healthy controls (n=15) underwent fMRI that alternated rest with 0...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Hong Gi Yeom, June Sic Kim, Chun Kee Chung
The neural mechanism of skilled movements, such as reaching, has been considered to differ from that of rhythmic movement such as locomotion. It is generally thought that skilled movements are consciously controlled by the brain, while rhythmic movements are usually controlled autonomously by the spinal cord and brain stem. However, several studies in recent decades have suggested that neural networks in the spinal cord may also be involved in the generation of skilled movements. Moreover, a recent study revealed that neural activities in the motor cortex exhibit rhythmic oscillations corresponding to movement frequency during reaching movements as rhythmic movements...
2016: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
Nimrod Miller, Han Shi, Aaron S Zelikovich, Yong-Chao Ma
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), the leading genetic cause of infant mortality, predominantly affects high metabolic tissues including motor neurons, skeletal muscles and the heart. Although the genetic cause of SMA has been identified, mechanisms underlying tissue-specific vulnerability are not well understood. To study these mechanisms, we carried out a deep sequencing analysis of the transcriptome of spinal motor neurons in a SMA mouse model, in which we unexpectedly found changes in many genes associated with mitochondrial bioenergetics...
August 3, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
David G Brohawn, Laura C O'Brien, James P Bennett
ALS is a rapidly progressive, devastating neurodegenerative illness of adults that produces disabling weakness and spasticity arising from death of lower and upper motor neurons. No meaningful therapies exist to slow ALS progression, and molecular insights into pathogenesis and progression are sorely needed. In that context, we used high-depth, next generation RNA sequencing (RNAseq, Illumina) to define gene network abnormalities in RNA samples depleted of rRNA and isolated from cervical spinal cord sections of 7 ALS and 8 CTL samples...
2016: PloS One
Spyridon K Karadimas, Kajana Satkunendrarajah, Michael G Fehlings
INTRODUCTION: Cervical spinal cord injury (cSCI), the most common type of SCI, results in substantial motor impairment. No effective treatment options currently exist to restore motor function. The neural network responsible for locomotion resides within the lumbar region of the spinal cord. Interestingly, we discovered for the first time significant neural degeneration of the lumbar locomotor network during the chronic phase of cSCI. Here, we hypothesized that early chemogenetic stimulation of the lumbar glutamatergic cells may prevent degeneration of the locomotor central pattern generator and the associated motor decline after cSCI...
August 2016: Neurosurgery
Ricardo Vallejo, Dana M Tilley, David L Cedeño, Courtney A Kelley, Margaret DeMaegd, Ramsin Benyamin
BACKGROUND: Few studies have evaluated single-gene changes modulated by spinal cord stimulation (SCS), providing a narrow understanding of molecular changes. Genomics allows for a robust analysis of holistic gene changes in response to stimulation. METHODS: Rats were randomized into six groups to determine the effect of continuous SCS in uninjured and spared-nerve injury (SNI) animals. After behavioral assessment, tissues from the dorsal quadrant of the spinal cord (SC) and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) underwent full-genome microarray analyses...
August 2016: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
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