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insect mitochondria

M G Liu, C X Jiang, M Mao, C Liu, Q Li, X G Wang, Q F Yang, H J Wang
Sogatella furcifera Horváth (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), is a major migratory pest of rice crops in Asia. The ultrastructure of the flight muscle directly affects the flight ability of insects. The ultrastructure of the flight muscle of some insects can be affected by insecticides. However, the ultrastructure of the flight muscle of S. furcifera and the effect of insecticides on the flight muscle of S. furcifera are not well understood. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of the insecticide dinotefuran on the ultrastructure of the flight muscle of S...
February 25, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
Szymon Chowański, Jan Lubawy, Ewelina Paluch-Lubawa, Marta Spochacz, Grzegorz Rosiński, Małgorzata Słocińska
Protective mechanisms against cold stress are well studied in terrestrial and polar insects; however, little is known about these mechanisms in tropical insects. In our study, we tested if a tropical cockroach Gromphadorhina coquereliana, possesses any protective mechanisms against cold stress. Based on the results of earlier studies, we examined how short-term (3 h) cold (4°C) influences biochemical parameters, mitochondrial respiration activity, and the level of HSPs and aquaporins expression in the fat body and leg muscles of G...
2017: PloS One
Sandhya Kranthi, Amol Bharat Ghodke, Raghavendra K Puttuswamy, Madhumita Mandle, Ritu Nandanwar, Usha Satija, Rishi Kumar Pareek, Himanshu Desai, Shashikant S Udikeri, Dhara Jothi Balakrishna, Bheemanna M Hugar, Dilip Monga, Keshav R Kranthi
Amrasca biguttula biguttula (Ishida), the cotton leafhopper, is a polyphagous insect pest of Asia and Southeast Asian countries. We sequenced a mitochondrial COI gene fragment from 67 individuals of cotton leafhopper collected from 7 major cotton growing states of North, Central, and South India. Genetic divergence analysis of leaf hopper population across India confirmed the presence of single species. Thirty haplotypes, in total, were determined across different regions of India. While population from North India was dominated by single haplotype, the south and central Indian populations show dispersion of different haplotypes across the region...
January 24, 2017: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
Mikhail Y Syromyatnikov, Anastasia V Kokina, Alexey V Lopatin, Anatoly A Starkov, Vasily N Popov
Insects pollinate 75% of crops used for human consumption. Over the last decade, a substantial reduction in the abundance of pollinating insects has been recorded and recognized as a severe matter for food supply security. Many of the important food crops destined for human consumption are grown in greenhouses. A unique feature of greenhouse agriculture is the extensive use of fungicides to curb multiple fungal infections. The most widely used pollinating insects in greenhouses are commercially reared bumblebees...
January 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Hai-Jian Huang, Cheng-Wen Liu, Xiang Zhou, Chuan-Xi Zhang, Yan-Yuan Bao
Rice ragged stunt virus (RRSV; Reoviridae) is exclusively transmitted by the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens in a persistent-propagative manner. It is understood that RNA viral proliferation is associated with the intracellular membranes of the insect host cells. However, the molecular mechanisms of the interaction between the RRSV proliferation and the intracellular membranes remain essentially unknown. It will be of great interest to determine whether RRSV protein(s) directly interact with intracellular membrane components of its host cells...
February 2, 2017: Virus Research
Uwe Homberg, Monika Müller
The central complex, a group of neuropils spanning the midline of the insect brain, plays a key role in spatial orientation and navigation. In the desert locust and other species, many neurons of the central complex are sensitive to the oscillation plane of polarized light above the animal and are likely involved in the coding of compass directions derived from the polarization pattern of the sky. Polarized light signals enter the locust central complex primarily through two types of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-immunoreactive tangential neurons, termed TL2 and TL3 that innervate specific layers of the lower division of the central body (CBL)...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Michele Alves-Bezerra, Isabela B Ramos, Iron F De Paula, Clarissa M Maya-Monteiro, Eric L Klett, Rosalind A Coleman, Katia C Gondim
Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferases (GPAT) catalyze the initial and rate-limiting step for the de novo synthesis of triacylglycerol (TAG). Four mammalian GPAT isoforms have been identified: the mitochondria-associated GPAT1 and 2, and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated GPAT3 and 4. In the insect Rhodnius prolixus, a vector of Chagas' disease, we previously predicted a mitochondrial-like isoform (RhoprGPAT1) from genomic data. In the current study, we clone the RhoprGPAT1 coding sequence and identify an ER-associated GPAT (RhoprGPAT4) as the second isoform in the insect...
December 9, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Elton Luiz Scudeler, Ana Silvia Gimenes Garcia, Patricia Fernanda Felipe Pinheiro, Daniela Carvalho Dos Santos
Cytomorphological changes, by means of ultrastructural analyses, have been used to determine the effects of the biopesticide neem oil on the muscle fibers of the midgut of the predator Ceraeochrysa claveri. Insects, throughout the larval period, were fed eggs of Diatraea saccharalis treated with neem oil at a concentration of 0.5%, 1% or 2%. In the adult stage, the midgut was collected from female insects at two stages of adulthood (newly emerged and at the start of oviposition) and processed for ultrastructural analyses...
January 2017: Acta Histochemica
Hervé Colinet, David Renault, Damien Roussel
Environmental stress generally disturbs cellular homeostasis. Researchers have hypothesized that chilling injury is linked to a shortage of ATP. However, previous studies conducted on insects exposed to nonfreezing low temperatures presented conflicting results. In this study, we investigated the mitochondrial bioenergetics of Drosophila melanogaster flies exposed to chronic cold stress (4 °C). We assessed mitochondrial oxygen consumption while monitoring the rate of ATP synthesis at various times (0, 1, 2, and 3 days) during prolonged cold stress and at two assay temperatures (25 and 4 °C)...
January 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Nurcan Özyurt, Damla Amutkan, Irmak Polat, Tenay Kocamaz, Selami Candan, Zekiye Suludere
The morphology and ultrastructure of the Malpighian tubules of Dolycoris baccarum were analyzed by scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy in order to determine their functional organization. The Malpighian tubules are compared with similar structures of other insects based on cell structure and functional organization. The Malpighian tubules of D. baccarum extend from the midgut-hindgut region of the digestive tract. The Malpighian tubules are divided into two regions: the proximal segment is short and flattened and the distal segment is long, stringy in shape and free in hemolymph...
November 11, 2016: Microscopy Research and Technique
Michael B Powner, Thomas E Salt, Chris Hogg, Glen Jeffery
Global pollination is threatened by declining insect pollinator populations that may be linked to neonicotinoid pesticide use. Neonicotinoids over stimulate neurons and depolarize their mitochondria, producing immobility and death. However, mitochondrial function can be improved by near infrared light absorbed by cytochrome c oxidase in mitochondrial respiration. In flies, daily exposure to 670nm light throughout life increases average lifespan and aged mobility, and reduces systemic inflammation. Here we treat bumble bees with Imidacloprid a common neonicotinoid...
2016: PloS One
Lional Rajappa-Titu, Takuma Suematsu, Paola Munoz-Tello, Marius Long, Özlem Demir, Kevin J Cheng, Jason R Stagno, Hartmut Luecke, Rommie E Amaro, Inna Aphasizheva, Ruslan Aphasizhev, Stéphane Thore
Terminal uridyltransferases (TUTases) execute 3' RNA uridylation across protists, fungi, metazoan and plant species. Uridylation plays a particularly prominent role in RNA processing pathways of kinetoplastid protists typified by the causative agent of African sleeping sickness, Trypanosoma brucei In mitochondria of this pathogen, most mRNAs are internally modified by U-insertion/deletion editing while guide RNAs and rRNAs are U-tailed. The founding member of TUTase family, RNA editing TUTase 1 (RET1), functions as a subunit of the 3' processome in uridylation of gRNA precursors and mature guide RNAs...
December 15, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Irmak Polat, Zekiye Suludere, Selami Candan
The morphology and ultrastructure of the rectum in Poecilimon cervus Karabağ, 1950 (Orthoptera, Tettigoniidae) were analyzed by light microscope, scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscopes (TEM). The rectum is the final part of the digestive tract that plays an important role in water reabsorption in insects and so provides osmoregulation. In the transverse sections, six rectal pads and columnar epithelium can be distinguished. The cuticular intima lines the lumen at the apical side of the epithelium...
February 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
Fabiola Hernández-Martínez, Carlos Iván Briones-Roblero, David R Nelson, Flor Nohemí Rivera-Orduña, Gerardo Zúñiga
Bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) and associated microorganisms must overcome a complex tree's defence system, which includes toxic monoterpenes, to successfully complete their life cycle. A number of studies have suggested these microorganisms could have ecological roles related with the nutrition, detoxification, and semiochemical production. In particular, in filamentous fungi symbionts, cytochrome P450 (CYP) have been involved with terpenoid detoxification and biotransformation processes. Candida oregonensis has been isolated from the gut, ovaries, and frass of different bark beetle species, and it is a dominant species in the Dendroctonus rhizophagus gut...
September 2016: Fungal Biology
Malgorzata Slocinska, Nina Antos-Krzeminska, Grzegorz Rosinski, Wieslawa Jarmuszkiewicz
We investigated the effect of neuropeptide, the nonsulfated sulfakinin (SK) Zopat-SK-1 (pETSDDYGHLRFa) on the mitochondrial oxidative metabolism in the Zophobas atratus larval fat body. Mitochondria were isolated from beetle fat bodies 2 and 24 h after hormone injection. The administration of 20 pmol of Zopat-SK-1 to feeding larvae led to decreased mitochondrial oxidative activities in larval fat body. Diminished activities of citrate synthase and the cytochrome pathway, that is, nonphosphorylating and phosphorylating respiration during succinate oxidation, were observed...
December 2016: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Xanthe Vafopoulou, Colin G H Steel
The actions of the insect steroid molting hormones, ecdysteroids, on the genome of target cells has been well studied, but little is known of their extranuclear actions. We previously showed in Rhodnius prolixus that much of the ecdysteroid receptor (EcR) resides in the cytoplasm of various cell types and undergoes shuttling between nucleus and cytoplasm with circadian periodicity, possibly using microtubules as tracks for translocation to the nucleus. Here we report that cytoplasmic EcR appears to be also involved in extranuclear actions of ecdysteroids by association with the mitochondria...
October 1, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Philipp Lehmann, Peter Pruisscher, Diana Posledovich, Mikael Carlsson, Reijo Käkelä, Patrik Tang, Sören Nylin, Christopher W Wheat, Christer Wiklund, Karl Gotthard
Diapause is a fundamental component of the life cycle in the majority of insects living in environments characterized by strong seasonality. The present study addresses poorly understood associations and trade-offs between endogenous diapause duration, thermal sensitivity of development, energetic cost of development and cold tolerance. Diapause intensity, metabolic rate trajectories and lipid profiles of directly developing and diapausing animals were studied using pupae and adults of Pieris napi butterflies from a population in which endogenous diapause has been well studied...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
Hiroko Tabunoki, Maureen J Gorman, Neal T Dittmer, Michael R Kanost
Insects can rapidly adapt to environmental changes through physiological responses. The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum is widely used as a model insect species. However, the stress-response system of this species remains unclear. Superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) is a crucial antioxidative enzyme that is found in mitochondria. T. castaneum SOD2 (TcSOD2) is composed of 215 amino acids, and has an iron/manganese superoxide dismutase domain. qRT-PCR experiments revealed that TcSOD2 was present through all developmental stages...
2016: Scientific Reports
Long-Bin Zhang, Li Tang, Sheng-Hua Ying, Ming-Guang Feng
Two thioredoxin (Trx) reductases (Trr1/2) are known to play overlapping roles in the yeast Trx-Trr redox system but are generally unexplored in filamentous fungi, which possess multiple Trx homologues. This study seeks to characterize the functions of Trr1 and Trr2 in Beauveria bassiana, a filamentous fungal insect pathogen, and to probe their Trx partners. Both Trr1 and Trr2 were evidently localized in the cytoplasm of B. bassiana, unlike the two yeast homologues that have been reported to localize in the cytoplasm and mitochondria, respectively...
December 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
John P McCutcheon
Mitochondria and chloroplasts are now called organelles, but they used to be bacteria. As they transitioned from endosymbionts to organelles, they became more and more integrated into the biochemistry and cell biology of their hosts. Work over the last 15 years has shown that other symbioses show striking similarities to mitochondria and chloroplasts. In particular, many sap-feeding insects house intracellular bacteria that have genomes that overlap mitochondria and chloroplasts in terms of size and coding capacity...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
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