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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651426/4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-alkylated-and-peroxynitrite-nitrated-proteins-localize-to-the-fused-mitochondria-in-malpighian-epithelial-cells-of-type-iv-collagen-drosophila-mutants
#1
András A Kiss, Nikoletta Popovics, Zsolt Boldogkői, Katalin Csiszár, Mátyás Mink
Background . Human type IV collagenopathy is associated with mutations within the COL4A1 and to a less extent the COL4A2 genes. The proteins encoded by these genes form heterotrimers and are the highest molar ratio components of the ubiquitous basement membrane. The clinical manifestations of the COL4A1/A2 mutations are systemic affecting many tissues and organs among these kidneys. In order to uncover the cellular and biochemical alterations associated with aberrant type IV collagen, we have explored the phenotype of the Malpighian tubules, the secretory organ and insect kidney model, in col4a1 collagen gene mutants of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster ...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599747/circadian-and-metabolic-perspectives-in-the-role-played-by-nadph-in-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Isabel Méndez, Mauricio Díaz-Muñoz
Physiological activity in healthy conditions requires a coordinated interaction between the molecular circadian clock and the network of biochemical pathways. An important metabolic parameter in the interface between these two entities is the redox state. Among the redox coenzymes that regulate the fluxes of enzymatic reactions is the NADP+ /NADPH pair. Indeed, the main biosynthetic pathways need NADPH to serve as an electron donor for cellular anabolic transformations. The existence of a metabolic circadian clock is well established, and it was first identified in mammalian red blood cells...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534965/intrinsic-attenuation-of-post-irradiation-calcium-and-er-stress-imparts-significant-radioprotection-to-lepidopteran-insect-cells
#3
Ayushi Guleria, Neha Thukral, Sudhir Chandna
Sf9 lepidopteran insect cells are 100-200 times more radioresistant than mammalian cells. This distinctive feature thus makes them suitable for studies exploring radioprotective molecular mechanisms. It has been established from previous studies of our group that downstream mitochondrial apoptotic signaling pathways in Sf9 cells are quite similar to mammalian cells, implicating the upstream signaling pathways in their extensive radioresistance. In the present study, intracellular and mitochondrial calcium levels remained unaltered in Sf9 cells in response to radiation, in sharp contrast to human (HEK293T) cells...
March 10, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524778/squamocin-induce-histological-and-ultrastructural-changes-in-the-midgut-cells-of-anticarsia-gemmatalis-lepidoptera-noctuidae
#4
Muhammad Fiaz, Luis Carlos Martínez, Marilza da Silva Costa, Jamile Fernanda Silva Cossolin, Angelica Plata-Rueda, Wagner Gonzaga Gonçalves, Antônio Euzébio Goulart Sant'Ana, José Cola Zanuncio, José Eduardo Serrão
Annonaceous acetogenins (Annona squamosa Linnaeus) comprises of a series of natural products which are extracted from Annonaceae species, squamocin proved to be highly efficient among those agents. Squamocin is mostly referred as a lethal agent for midgut cells of different insects, with toxic effects when tested against larva of some insects. In present study, LC50 and LC90 of squamocin for A. gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) were calculated using probit analysis. Morphological changes in midgut cells were analyzed under light, fluorescence and transmission electron microscopes when larvae were treated with LC50 and LC90 of squamocin for 24, 48 and 72 h...
March 7, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472284/symbiosis-in-the-microbial-world-from-ecology-to-genome-evolution
#5
REVIEW
Jean-Baptiste Raina, Laura Eme, F Joseph Pollock, Anja Spang, John M Archibald, Tom A Williams
The concept of symbiosis - defined in 1879 by de Bary as 'the living together of unlike organisms' - has a rich and convoluted history in biology. In part, because it questioned the concept of the individual, symbiosis fell largely outside mainstream science and has traditionally received less attention than other research disciplines. This is gradually changing. In nature organisms do not live in isolation but rather interact with, and are impacted by, diverse beings throughout their life histories. Symbiosis is now recognized as a central driver of evolution across the entire tree of life, including, for example, bacterial endosymbionts that provide insects with vital nutrients and the mitochondria that power our own cells...
February 22, 2018: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384231/xenotopic-expression-of-alternative-electron-transport-enzymes-in-animal-mitochondria-and-their-impact-in-health-and-disease
#6
REVIEW
André F Camargo, Marina M Chioda, Ana P C Rodrigues, Geovana S Garcia, Emily A McKinney, Howard T Jacobs, Marcos T Oliveira
The mitochondrial respiratory chain in vertebrates and arthropods is different from that of most other eukaryotes because they lack alternative enzymes that provide electron transfer pathways additional to the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system. However, the use of diverse experimental models, such as human cells in culture, Drosophila melanogaster and the mouse, has demonstrated that the transgenic expression of these alternative enzymes can impact positively many phenotypes associated with human mitochondrial and other cellular dysfunction, including those typically presented in complex IV deficiencies, Parkinson's, and Alzheimer's...
January 31, 2018: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359358/cytoplasmic-glutamine-synthetase-gene-expression-regulates-larval-development-in-bactrocera-dorsalis-hendel
#7
Meng-Yi Zhang, Dong Wei, Ran Li, Hong-Ting Jia, Yu-Wei Liu, Clauvis Nji Tizi Taning, Jin-Jun Wang, Guy Smagghe
In insects, glutamine synthetase (GS), a key enzyme in the synthesis of glutamine, has been reported to be associated with embryonic development, heat shock response, and fecundity regulation. However, little is known about the influence of GS on postembryonic development. In this study, we demonstrate that blocking the activity of GS in the oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis) with use of a GS-specific inhibitor (L-methionine S-sulfoximine), led to a significant delay in larval development, pupal weight loss, and inhibition of pupation...
April 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359194/rnase-iii-domain-of-krepb9-and-krepb10-association-with-editosomes-in-trypanosoma-brucei
#8
Jason Carnes, Suzanne M McDermott, Kenneth Stuart
Editosomes are the multiprotein complexes that catalyze the insertion and deletion of uridines to create translatable mRNAs in the mitochondria of kinetoplastids. Recognition and cleavage of a broad diversity of RNA substrates in vivo require three functionally distinct RNase III-type endonucleases, as well as five additional editosome proteins that contain noncatalytic RNase III domains. RNase III domains have recently been identified in the editosome accessory proteins KREPB9 and KREPB10, suggesting a role related to editing endonuclease function...
January 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337270/the-cationic-tetradecapeptide-mastoparan-as-a-privileged-structure-for-drug-discovery-enhanced-antimicrobial-properties-of-mitoparan-analogues-modified-at-position-14
#9
John Howl, Lewis Howl, Sarah Jones
Mastoparan (MP) peptides, distributed in insect venoms, induce a local inflammatory response post envenomation. Most endogenous MPs share common structural elements within a tetradecapeptide sequence that adopts an amphipathic helix whilst traversing biological membranes and when bound to an intracellular protein target. Rational modifications to increase cationic charge density and amphipathic helicity engineered mitoparan (MitP), a mitochondriotoxic bioportide and potent secretagogue. Following intracellular translocation, MitP is accreted by mitochondria thus indicating additional utility as an antimicrobial agent...
March 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311662/evidence-for-a-radiation-responsive-p53-gateway-contributing-significantly-to-the-radioresistance-of-lepidopteran-insect-cells
#10
Ashish Kumar, Sudhir Chandna
Recently, we have demonstrated that microRNA-31 (miR-31) overexpression is inherent to radiation-induced cell death in the highly radioresistant Sf9 insect cells, and regulates pro-apoptotic Bax translocation to mitochondria. In the present study, we report that at sub-lethal radiation doses for Sf9 cells, miR-31 is significantly downregulated and is tightly regulated by an unusual mechanism involving p53. While ectopic overexpression of a well-conserved Sfp53 caused typical apoptosis, radiation-induced p53 accumulation observed selectively at sub-lethal doses failed to induce cell death...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288090/systematic-identification-of-mitochondrial-lysine-succinylome-in-silkworm-bombyx-mori-midgut-during-the-larval-gluttonous-stage
#11
Jine Chen, Fengbo Li, Yan Liu, Weifeng Shen, Xin Du, Lihua He, Zhiqi Meng, Xianliang Ma, Yongqiang Wang
Lysine succinylation is a newly identified protein post-translational modification (PTM) of lysine residues. Increasing evidences demonstrate that this modification is prevalent in mitochondria and regulates many vital cellular processes, especially metabolism. Here, we determined the succinylome of the silkworm (Bombyx mori) midgut mitochondria during the larval gluttonous stage (the fifth instar) using succinylated peptides enrichment coupled with nano HPLC/MS/MS. A total of 1884 lysine succinylation sites on 373 mitochondrial proteins were identified...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247468/the-f-1-atpase-from-trypanosoma-brucei-is-elaborated-by-three-copies-of-an-additional-p18-subunit
#12
Ondřej Gahura, Karolína Šubrtová, Hana Váchová, Brian Panicucci, Ian M Fearnley, Michael E Harbour, John E Walker, Alena Zíková
The F-ATPases (also called the F1 Fo -ATPases or ATP synthases) are multi-subunit membrane-bound molecular machines that produce ATP in bacteria and in eukaryotic mitochondria and chloroplasts. The structures and enzymic mechanisms of their F1 -catalytic domains are highly conserved in all species investigated hitherto. However, there is evidence that the F-ATPases from the group of protozoa known as Euglenozoa have novel features. Therefore, we have isolated pure and active F1 -ATPase from the euglenozoan parasite, Trypanosoma brucei, and characterized it...
February 2018: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159850/from-two-to-three-dimensions-the-importance-of-the-third-dimension-for-evaluating-the-limits-to-neuronal-miniaturization-in-insects
#13
Stefan Fischer, Zhiyuan Lu, Ian A Meinertzhagen
Most studies dealing with the limits to miniaturization in insect brains have until now relied on information based on data collected in two dimensions: either histological sections imaged by light microscopy, or electron micrographs of single ultrathin sections imaged by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). To test the validity of transferring information gained from two-dimensional images to the third dimension, we examined a 3D image stack from serial-section TEM (ssTEM) of the optic neuropiles of the miniature parasitic wasp Trichogramma brassicae (Bezdenko, 1968)...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126122/mode-and-rate-of-evolution-of-haemosporidian-mitochondrial-genomes-timing-the-radiation-of-avian-parasites
#14
M Andreína Pacheco, Nubia E Matta, Gediminas Valkiunas, Patricia G Parker, Beatriz Mello, Craig E Stanley, Miguel Lentino, M Alexandra Garcia-Amado, Michael Cranfield, Sergei L Kosakovsky Pond, Ananias A Escalante
Haemosporidians are a diverse group of vector-borne parasitic protozoa that includes the agents of human malaria; however, most of the described species are found in birds and reptiles. Although our understanding of these parasites' diversity has expanded by analyses of their mitochondrial genes, there is limited information on these genes' evolutionary rates. Here, 114 mitochondrial genomes (mtDNA) were studied from species belonging to four genera: Leucocytozoon, Haemoproteus, Hepatocystis, and Plasmodium...
November 6, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090441/sublethal-dose-of-deltamethrin-damage-the-midgut-cells-of-the-mayfly-callibaetis-radiatus-ephemeroptera-baetidae
#15
Helen Pinto Santos, Yeisson Gutiérrez, Eugênio Eduardo Oliveira, José Eduardo Serrão
In insects, the midgut performs multiple physiologic functions (e.g., digestion and nutrients absorption) and serves as a physical/chemical barrier against pathogens and chemical stressors such as deltamethrin, a pyrethroid insecticide, commonly used in insect control that are agricultural pests and human disease vectors. Here, we described the midgut cell ultrastructure of Callibaetis radiatus nymphs, which are bioindicators of water quality and the ultrastructural alterations in midgut under sublethal exposure to deltamethrin at three different periods (1, 12, 24 h)...
January 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037393/aerobic-function-in-mitochondria-persists-beyond-death-by-heat-stress-in-insects
#16
Erica C Heinrich, Emilie M Gray, Ashley Ossher, Stephen Meigher, Felix Grun, Timothy J Bradley
The critical thermal maximum (CTmax) of insects can be determined using flow-through thermolimit respirometry. It has been demonstrated that respiratory patterns cease and insects do not recover once the CTmax temperature has been reached. However, if high temperatures are maintained following the CTmax, researchers have observed a curious phenomenon whereby the insect body releases a large burst of carbon dioxide at a rate and magnitude that often exceed that of the live insect. This carbon dioxide release has been termed the post-mortal peak (PMP)...
October 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034430/ultraviolet-filters-and-heat-shock-proteins-effects-in-chironomus-riparius-by-benzophenone-3-and-4-methylbenzylidene-camphor
#17
Raquel Martín-Folgar, Mónica Aquilino, Irene Ozáez, José-Luis Martínez-Guitarte
Benzophenone-3 (BP3) and 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4MBC) are common ultraviolet filters (UV filters), compounds considered as emergent contaminants, used in different products like plastics and personal care products. The levels of these compounds are rising in the wild, but the effects they have on invertebrates are poorly understood. Chironomus riparius is a benthic insect widely used in toxicology, and several studies have been previously performed in our laboratory to determine the effects these compounds have on this organism at the molecular level...
January 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026172/mitochondrial-glycerol-3-phosphate-facilitates-bumblebee-pre-flight-thermogenesis
#18
Stewart W C Masson, Christopher P Hedges, Jules B L Devaux, Crystal S James, Anthony J R Hickey
Bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) fly at low ambient temperatures where other insects cannot, and to do so they must pre-warm their flight muscles. While some have proposed mechanisms, none fully explain how pre-flight thermogenesis occurs. Here, we present a novel hypothesis based on the less studied mitochondrial glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase pathway (mGPDH). Using calorimetry, and high resolution respirometry coupled with fluorimetry, we report substrate oxidation by mGPDH in permeabilised flight muscles operates, in vitro, at a high flux, even in the absence of ADP...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018265/ascosteroside-d-a-new-mitochondrial-respiration-inhibitor-discovered-by-pesticidal-screening-using-insect-adp-atp-carrier-protein-expressing-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#19
Yoshihiro Watanabe, Yukihiro Asami, Satomi Narusawa, Shohei Hashimoto, Masato Iwatsuki, Kenichi Nonaka, Yasuo Shinohara, Takahiro Shiotsuki, Naoya Ichimaru, Hideto Miyoshi, Satoshi Ōmura, Kazuro Shiomi
A new lanostane-type triterpenoid, ascosteroside D, was isolated from a fungus, Aspergillus sp. FKI-6682. It inhibited insect ADP/ATP carrier protein (AAC)-expressing Saccharomyces cerevisiae in glycerol-containing medium, but did not inhibit Δaac S. cerevisiae in glucose-containing medium. It is hypothesized that ascosteroside D inhibits ATP production in mitochondria.The Journal of Antibiotics advance online publication, 11 October 2017; doi:10.1038/ja.2017.118.
October 11, 2017: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987327/the-implication-of-p66shc-in-oxidative-stress-induced-by-deltamethrin
#20
Ruqian Ding, Zongfu Cao, Yihan Wang, Xiaobo Gao, Haiyan Luo, Changyong Zhang, Shuangcheng Ma, Xu Ma, Hongyu Jin, Cailing Lu
Deltamethrin (DLT) is effective against a broad spectrum of insects. Exposure to DLT has been demonstrated to cause oxidative stress. However, the mechanism of oxidative stress induced by DLT is little known. Groups of rats were gavaged with DLT once daily for 7 days at six dosages: 0, 2, 5, 10, 20, 40 mg/kg. The intensity of neurotoxicity and liver dysfunction caused by DLT were significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner. We found that DLT caused the increase of cytosolic superoxide in tissues. Western blot analysis showed that both the expression of p66shc and Ser36 phosphorylated p66shc, which were involved in ROS generation, were increased in tissues treated with DLT...
December 25, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
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