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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414727/trypanosoma-brucei-tbif1-inhibits-the-essential-f1-atpase-in-the-infectious-form-of-the-parasite
#1
Brian Panicucci, Ondřej Gahura, Alena Zíková
The mitochondrial (mt) FoF1-ATP synthase of the digenetic parasite, Trypanosoma brucei, generates ATP during the insect procyclic form (PF), but becomes a perpetual consumer of ATP in the mammalian bloodstream form (BF), which lacks a canonical respiratory chain. This unconventional dependence on FoF1-ATPase is required to maintain the essential mt membrane potential (Δψm). Normally, ATP hydrolysis by this rotary molecular motor is restricted to when eukaryotic cells experience sporadic hypoxic conditions, during which this compulsory function quickly depletes the cellular ATP pool...
April 17, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414126/characterization-of-the-novel-protein-kiaa0564-von-willebrand-domain-containing-protein-8
#2
Moulun Luo, April E Mengos, Wuqiong Ma, Jean Finlayson, Rocio Zapata Bustos, Yuan Xiao Zhu, Chang-Xin Shi, Tianna M Stubblefield, Wayne T Willis, Lawrence J Mandarino
The VWA8 gene was first identified by the Kazusa cDNA project and named KIAA0564. Based on the observation, by similarity, that the protein encoded by KIAA0564 contains a Von Willebrand Factor 8 domain, KIAA0564 was named Von Willebrand Domain-containing Protein 8 (VWA8). The function of VWA8 protein is almost unknown. The purpose of this study was to characterize the tissue distribution, cellular location, and function of VWA8. In mice VWA8 protein was mostly distributed in liver, kidney, heart, pancreas and skeletal muscle, and is present as a long isoform and a shorter splice variant (VWA8a and VWA8b)...
April 13, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365214/in-vivo-localization-of-the-neuronal-ceroid-lipofuscinosis-proteins-cln3-and-cln7-at-endogenous-expression-levels
#3
Alamin Mohammed, Megan B O'Hare, Alice Warley, Guy Tear, Richard I Tuxworth
The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses are a group of recessively inherited, childhood-onset neurodegenerative conditions. Several forms are caused by mutations in genes encoding putative lysosomal membrane proteins. Studies of the cell biology underpinning these disorders are hampered by the poor antigenicity of the membrane proteins, which makes visualization of the endogenous proteins difficult. We have used Drosophila to generate knock-in YFP-fusions for two of the NCL membrane proteins: CLN7 and CLN3. The YFP-fusions are expressed at endogenous levels and the proteins can be visualized live without the need for overexpression...
March 29, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364805/transcriptomic-alterations-in-sitophilus-zeamais-in-response-to-allyl-isothiocyanate-fumigation
#4
Chao Zhang, Zhiqing Ma, Xing Zhang, Hua Wu
To study the fumigation mechanisms of Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) a promising biorational alternative to present fumigants (phosphine and methyl bromide), and provide theoretical basis for its further development in the control of stored grain pests, this research presents a transcriptome analysis of Sitophilus zeamais fumigated with AITC at the concentration of LC50 (5.69μg/mL) and control over 8h. 21,869,022 and 23,873,110 clean reads in insects fumigated with AITC and control were gained, respectively. The results of RNA-seq were confirmed by qRT-PCR determination of the expression levels of NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 and Vacuolar ATP synthase subunit B in the insects fumigated with AITC at different concentrations...
April 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363600/heme-modulates-trypanosoma-cruzi-bioenergetics-inducing-mitochondrial-ros-production
#5
Natália P Nogueira, Francis M S Saraiva, Matheus P Oliveira, Ana Paula M Mendonça, Job D F Inacio, Elmo E Almeida-Amaral, Rubem F Menna-Barreto, Gustavo A T Laranja, Eduardo J Lopes Torres, Marcus F Oliveira, Marcia C Paes
Trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of Chagas disease and has a single mitochondrion, an organelle responsible for ATP production and the main site for the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). T. cruzi is an obligate intracellular parasite with a complex life cycle that alternates between vertebrate and invertebrate hosts, therefore the development of survival strategies and morphogenetic adaptations to deal with the various environments is mandatory. Over the years our group has been studying the vector-parasite interactions using heme as a physiological oxidant molecule that triggered epimastigote proliferation however, the source of ROS induced by heme remained unknown...
March 29, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334253/effect-of-the-insecticide-dinotefuran-on-the-ultrastructure-of-the-flight-muscle-of-female-sogatella-furcifera-hemiptera-delphacidae
#6
M G Liu, C X Jiang, M Mao, C Liu, Q Li, X G Wang, Q F Yang, H J Wang
Sogatella furcifera Horváth (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), is a major migratory pest of rice crops in Asia. The ultrastructure of the flight muscle directly affects the flight ability of insects. The ultrastructure of the flight muscle of some insects can be affected by insecticides. However, the ultrastructure of the flight muscle of S. furcifera and the effect of insecticides on the flight muscle of S. furcifera are not well understood. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of the insecticide dinotefuran on the ultrastructure of the flight muscle of S...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253309/the-physiological-role-of-fat-body-and-muscle-tissues-in-response-to-cold-stress-in-the-tropical-cockroach-gromphadorhina-coquereliana
#7
Szymon Chowański, Jan Lubawy, Ewelina Paluch-Lubawa, Marta Spochacz, Grzegorz Rosiński, Małgorzata Słocińska
Protective mechanisms against cold stress are well studied in terrestrial and polar insects; however, little is known about these mechanisms in tropical insects. In our study, we tested if a tropical cockroach Gromphadorhina coquereliana, possesses any protective mechanisms against cold stress. Based on the results of earlier studies, we examined how short-term (3 h) cold (4°C) influences biochemical parameters, mitochondrial respiration activity, and the level of HSPs and aquaporins expression in the fat body and leg muscles of G...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116945/mitochondria-coi-based-genetic-diversity-of-the-cotton-leafhopper-amrasca-biguttula-biguttula-ishida-populations-from-india
#8
Sandhya Kranthi, Amol Bharat Ghodke, Raghavendra K Puttuswamy, Madhumita Mandle, Ritu Nandanwar, Usha Satija, Rishi Kumar Pareek, Himanshu Desai, Shashikant S Udikeri, Dhara Jothi Balakrishna, Bheemanna M Hugar, Dilip Monga, Keshav R Kranthi
Amrasca biguttula biguttula (Ishida), the cotton leafhopper, is a polyphagous insect pest of Asia and Southeast Asian countries. We sequenced a mitochondrial COI gene fragment from 67 individuals of cotton leafhopper collected from 7 major cotton growing states of North, Central, and South India. Genetic divergence analysis of leaf hopper population across India confirmed the presence of single species. Thirty haplotypes, in total, were determined across different regions of India. While population from North India was dominated by single haplotype, the south and central Indian populations show dispersion of different haplotypes across the region...
January 24, 2017: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043329/evaluation-of-the-toxicity-of-fungicides-to-flight-muscle-mitochondria-of-bumblebee-bombus-terrestris-l
#9
Mikhail Y Syromyatnikov, Anastasia V Kokina, Alexey V Lopatin, Anatoly A Starkov, Vasily N Popov
Insects pollinate 75% of crops used for human consumption. Over the last decade, a substantial reduction in the abundance of pollinating insects has been recorded and recognized as a severe matter for food supply security. Many of the important food crops destined for human consumption are grown in greenhouses. A unique feature of greenhouse agriculture is the extensive use of fungicides to curb multiple fungal infections. The most widely used pollinating insects in greenhouses are commercially reared bumblebees...
January 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034779/a-mitochondrial-membrane-protein-is-a-target-for-rice-ragged-stunt-virus-in-its-insect-vector
#10
Hai-Jian Huang, Cheng-Wen Liu, Xiang Zhou, Chuan-Xi Zhang, Yan-Yuan Bao
Rice ragged stunt virus (RRSV; Reoviridae) is exclusively transmitted by the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens in a persistent-propagative manner. It is understood that RNA viral proliferation is associated with the intracellular membranes of the insect host cells. However, the molecular mechanisms of the interaction between the RRSV proliferation and the intracellular membranes remain essentially unknown. It will be of great interest to determine whether RRSV protein(s) directly interact with intracellular membrane components of its host cells...
February 2, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999533/ultrastructure-of-gaba-and-tachykinin-immunoreactive-neurons-in-the-lower-division-of-the-central-body-of-the-desert-locust
#11
Uwe Homberg, Monika Müller
The central complex, a group of neuropils spanning the midline of the insect brain, plays a key role in spatial orientation and navigation. In the desert locust and other species, many neurons of the central complex are sensitive to the oscillation plane of polarized light above the animal and are likely involved in the coding of compass directions derived from the polarization pattern of the sky. Polarized light signals enter the locust central complex primarily through two types of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-immunoreactive tangential neurons, termed TL2 and TL3 that innervate specific layers of the lower division of the central body (CBL)...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956137/deficiency-of-glycerol-3-phosphate-acyltransferase-1-decreases-triacylglycerol-storage-and-induces-fatty-acid-oxidation-in-insect-fat-body
#12
Michele Alves-Bezerra, Isabela B Ramos, Iron F De Paula, Clarissa M Maya-Monteiro, Eric L Klett, Rosalind A Coleman, Katia C Gondim
Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferases (GPAT) catalyze the initial and rate-limiting step for the de novo synthesis of triacylglycerol (TAG). Four mammalian GPAT isoforms have been identified: the mitochondria-associated GPAT1 and 2, and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated GPAT3 and 4. In the insect Rhodnius prolixus, a vector of Chagas' disease, we previously predicted a mitochondrial-like isoform (RhoprGPAT1) from genomic data. In the current study, we clone the RhoprGPAT1 coding sequence and identify an ER-associated GPAT (RhoprGPAT4) as the second isoform in the insect...
December 9, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939524/neem-oil-azadirachta-indica-a-juss-affects-the-ultrastructure-of-the-midgut-muscle-of-ceraeochrysa-claveri-nav%C3%A3-s-1911-neuroptera-chrysopidae
#13
Elton Luiz Scudeler, Ana Silvia Gimenes Garcia, Patricia Fernanda Felipe Pinheiro, Daniela Carvalho Dos Santos
Cytomorphological changes, by means of ultrastructural analyses, have been used to determine the effects of the biopesticide neem oil on the muscle fibers of the midgut of the predator Ceraeochrysa claveri. Insects, throughout the larval period, were fed eggs of Diatraea saccharalis treated with neem oil at a concentration of 0.5%, 1% or 2%. In the adult stage, the midgut was collected from female insects at two stages of adulthood (newly emerged and at the start of oviposition) and processed for ultrastructural analyses...
January 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903433/cold-acclimation-allows-drosophila-flies-to-maintain-mitochondrial-functioning-under-cold-stress
#14
Hervé Colinet, David Renault, Damien Roussel
Environmental stress generally disturbs cellular homeostasis. Researchers have hypothesized that chilling injury is linked to a shortage of ATP. However, previous studies conducted on insects exposed to nonfreezing low temperatures presented conflicting results. In this study, we investigated the mitochondrial bioenergetics of Drosophila melanogaster flies exposed to chronic cold stress (4 °C). We assessed mitochondrial oxygen consumption while monitoring the rate of ATP synthesis at various times (0, 1, 2, and 3 days) during prolonged cold stress and at two assay temperatures (25 and 4 °C)...
January 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859898/structural-and-ultrastructural-features-of-the-malpighian-tubules-of-dolycoris-baccarum-linnaeus-1758-heteroptera-pentatomidae
#15
Nurcan Özyurt, Damla Amutkan, Irmak Polat, Tenay Kocamaz, Selami Candan, Zekiye Suludere
The morphology and ultrastructure of the Malpighian tubules of Dolycoris baccarum were analyzed by scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy in order to determine their functional organization. The Malpighian tubules are compared with similar structures of other insects based on cell structure and functional organization. The Malpighian tubules of D. baccarum extend from the midgut-hindgut region of the digestive tract. The Malpighian tubules are divided into two regions: the proximal segment is short and flattened and the distal segment is long, stringy in shape and free in hemolymph...
April 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846310/improving-mitochondrial-function-protects-bumblebees-from-neonicotinoid-pesticides
#16
Michael B Powner, Thomas E Salt, Chris Hogg, Glen Jeffery
Global pollination is threatened by declining insect pollinator populations that may be linked to neonicotinoid pesticide use. Neonicotinoids over stimulate neurons and depolarize their mitochondria, producing immobility and death. However, mitochondrial function can be improved by near infrared light absorbed by cytochrome c oxidase in mitochondrial respiration. In flies, daily exposure to 670nm light throughout life increases average lifespan and aged mobility, and reduces systemic inflammation. Here we treat bumble bees with Imidacloprid a common neonicotinoid...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744351/rna-editing-tutase-1-structural-foundation-of-substrate-recognition-complex-interactions-and-drug-targeting
#17
Lional Rajappa-Titu, Takuma Suematsu, Paola Munoz-Tello, Marius Long, Özlem Demir, Kevin J Cheng, Jason R Stagno, Hartmut Luecke, Rommie E Amaro, Inna Aphasizheva, Ruslan Aphasizhev, Stéphane Thore
Terminal uridyltransferases (TUTases) execute 3' RNA uridylation across protists, fungi, metazoan and plant species. Uridylation plays a particularly prominent role in RNA processing pathways of kinetoplastid protists typified by the causative agent of African sleeping sickness, Trypanosoma brucei In mitochondria of this pathogen, most mRNAs are internally modified by U-insertion/deletion editing while guide RNAs and rRNAs are U-tailed. The founding member of TUTase family, RNA editing TUTase 1 (RET1), functions as a subunit of the 3' processome in uridylation of gRNA precursors and mature guide RNAs...
December 15, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709730/histological-and-ultrastructural-features-of-the-rectum-in-poecilimon-cervus-karaba%C3%A4-1950-orthoptera-tettigoniidae
#18
Irmak Polat, Zekiye Suludere, Selami Candan
The morphology and ultrastructure of the rectum in Poecilimon cervus Karabağ, 1950 (Orthoptera, Tettigoniidae) were analyzed by light microscope, scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscopes (TEM). The rectum is the final part of the digestive tract that plays an important role in water reabsorption in insects and so provides osmoregulation. In the transverse sections, six rectal pads and columnar epithelium can be distinguished. The cuticular intima lines the lumen at the apical side of the epithelium...
February 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27567714/cytochrome-p450-complement-cypome-of-candida-oregonensis-a-gut-associated-yeast-of-bark-beetle-dendroctonus-rhizophagus
#19
Fabiola Hernández-Martínez, Carlos Iván Briones-Roblero, David R Nelson, Flor Nohemí Rivera-Orduña, Gerardo Zúñiga
Bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) and associated microorganisms must overcome a complex tree's defence system, which includes toxic monoterpenes, to successfully complete their life cycle. A number of studies have suggested these microorganisms could have ecological roles related with the nutrition, detoxification, and semiochemical production. In particular, in filamentous fungi symbionts, cytochrome P450 (CYP) have been involved with terpenoid detoxification and biotransformation processes. Candida oregonensis has been isolated from the gut, ovaries, and frass of different bark beetle species, and it is a dominant species in the Dendroctonus rhizophagus gut...
September 2016: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27501306/nonsulfated-sulfakinin-changes-metabolic-parameters-of-insect-fat-body-mitochondria
#20
Malgorzata Slocinska, Nina Antos-Krzeminska, Grzegorz Rosinski, Wieslawa Jarmuszkiewicz
We investigated the effect of neuropeptide, the nonsulfated sulfakinin (SK) Zopat-SK-1 (pETSDDYGHLRFa) on the mitochondrial oxidative metabolism in the Zophobas atratus larval fat body. Mitochondria were isolated from beetle fat bodies 2 and 24 h after hormone injection. The administration of 20 pmol of Zopat-SK-1 to feeding larvae led to decreased mitochondrial oxidative activities in larval fat body. Diminished activities of citrate synthase and the cytochrome pathway, that is, nonphosphorylating and phosphorylating respiration during succinate oxidation, were observed...
December 2016: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
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