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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909451/morphology-of-ovary-and-spermathecae-of-the-parasitoid-eibesfeldtphora-tonhascai-brown-diptera-phoridae
#1
Cliver Fernandes Farder-Gomes, Helen Cristina Pinto Santos, Marco Antonio Oliveira, José Cola Zanuncio, José Eduardo Serrão
Eibesfeldtphora tonhascai (Diptera: Phoridae) is a parasitoid of leaf-cutting ants and a potential biological control agent against these insect pests. This study describes the morphology of the ovary and spermatheca of E. tonhascai. The female reproductive tract of this parasitoid has a pair of meroistic polytrophic ovaries, two lateral oviducts that open into a common oviduct, an elongated accessory gland, and two spermathecae. Young oocytes are small and spherical, and their size increases as yolk is stored in the cytoplasm...
June 16, 2018: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909308/the-multilevel-antibiotic-induced-perturbations-to-biological-systems-early-life-exposure-induces-long-lasting-damages-to-muscle-structure-and-mitochondrial-metabolism-in-flies
#2
David Renault, Hesham Yousef, Amr A Mohamed
Antibiotics have been increasingly used over the past decades for human medicine, food-animal agriculture, aquaculture, and plant production. A significant part of the active molecules of antibiotics can be released into the environment, in turn affecting ecosystem functioning and biogeochemical processes. At lower organizational scales, these substances affect bacterial symbionts of insects, with negative consequences on growth and development of juveniles, and population dynamics. Yet, the multiple alterations of cellular physiology and metabolic processes have remained insufficiently explored in insects...
June 7, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902250/inhibition-of-mitochondrial-respiration-under-hypoxia-and-increased-antioxidant-activity-after-reoxygenation-of-tribolium-castaneum
#3
Lei Wang, Sufen Cui, Zhicheng Liu, Yong Ping, Jiangping Qiu, Xueqing Geng
Regulating the air in low-oxygen environments protects hermetically stored grains from storage pests damage. However, pests that can tolerate hypoxic stress pose a huge challenge in terms of grain storage. We used various biological approaches to determine the fundamental mechanisms of Tribolium castaneum to cope with hypoxia. Our results indicated that limiting the available oxygen to T. castaneum increased glycolysis and inhibited the Krebs cycle, and that accumulated pyruvic acid was preferentially converted to lactic acid via anaerobic metabolism...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782921/flight-duration-and-flight-muscle-ultrastructure-of-unfed-hawk-moths
#4
Bernard W M Wone, Jaika Pathak, Goggy Davidowitz
Flight muscle breakdown has been reported for many orders of insects, but the basis of this breakdown in insects with lifelong dependence on flight is less clear. Lepidopterans show such muscle changes across their lifespans, yet how this change affects the ability of these insects to complete their life cycles is not well documented. We investigated the changes in muscle function and ultrastructure of unfed aging adult hawk moths (Manduca sexta). Flight duration was examined in young, middle-aged, and advanced-aged unfed moths...
May 18, 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701785/mitochondrial-adaptations-to-variable-environments-and-their-role-in-animals-stress-tolerance
#5
Inna Sokolova
Mitochondria are the key organelles involved in energy and redox homeostasis, cellular signaling and survival. Animal mitochondria are exquisitely sensitive to environmental stress, and stress-induced changes in the mitochondrial integrity and function have major consequences for the organismal performance and fitness. Studies in the model organisms such as terrestrial mammals and insects showed that mitochondrial dysfunction is a major cause of injury during pathological conditions and environmental insults such as hypoxia, ischemia-reperfusion and exposure to toxins...
April 26, 2018: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651426/4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-alkylated-and-peroxynitrite-nitrated-proteins-localize-to-the-fused-mitochondria-in-malpighian-epithelial-cells-of-type-iv-collagen-drosophila-mutants
#6
András A Kiss, Nikoletta Popovics, Zsolt Boldogkői, Katalin Csiszár, Mátyás Mink
Background . Human type IV collagenopathy is associated with mutations within the COL4A1 and to a less extent the COL4A2 genes. The proteins encoded by these genes form heterotrimers and are the highest molar ratio components of the ubiquitous basement membrane. The clinical manifestations of the COL4A1/A2 mutations are systemic affecting many tissues and organs among these kidneys. In order to uncover the cellular and biochemical alterations associated with aberrant type IV collagen, we have explored the phenotype of the Malpighian tubules, the secretory organ and insect kidney model, in col4a1 collagen gene mutants of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster ...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599747/circadian-and-metabolic-perspectives-in-the-role-played-by-nadph-in-cancer
#7
REVIEW
Isabel Méndez, Mauricio Díaz-Muñoz
Physiological activity in healthy conditions requires a coordinated interaction between the molecular circadian clock and the network of biochemical pathways. An important metabolic parameter in the interface between these two entities is the redox state. Among the redox coenzymes that regulate the fluxes of enzymatic reactions is the NADP+ /NADPH pair. Indeed, the main biosynthetic pathways need NADPH to serve as an electron donor for cellular anabolic transformations. The existence of a metabolic circadian clock is well established, and it was first identified in mammalian red blood cells...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534965/intrinsic-attenuation-of-post-irradiation-calcium-and-er-stress-imparts-significant-radioprotection-to-lepidopteran-insect-cells
#8
Ayushi Guleria, Neha Thukral, Sudhir Chandna
Sf9 lepidopteran insect cells are 100-200 times more radioresistant than mammalian cells. This distinctive feature thus makes them suitable for studies exploring radioprotective molecular mechanisms. It has been established from previous studies of our group that downstream mitochondrial apoptotic signaling pathways in Sf9 cells are quite similar to mammalian cells, implicating the upstream signaling pathways in their extensive radioresistance. In the present study, intracellular and mitochondrial calcium levels remained unaltered in Sf9 cells in response to radiation, in sharp contrast to human (HEK293T) cells...
April 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524778/squamocin-induce-histological-and-ultrastructural-changes-in-the-midgut-cells-of-anticarsia-gemmatalis-lepidoptera-noctuidae
#9
Muhammad Fiaz, Luis Carlos Martínez, Marilza da Silva Costa, Jamile Fernanda Silva Cossolin, Angelica Plata-Rueda, Wagner Gonzaga Gonçalves, Antônio Euzébio Goulart Sant'Ana, José Cola Zanuncio, José Eduardo Serrão
Annonaceous acetogenins (Annona squamosa Linnaeus) comprises of a series of natural products which are extracted from Annonaceae species, squamocin proved to be highly efficient among those agents. Squamocin is mostly referred as a lethal agent for midgut cells of different insects, with toxic effects when tested against larva of some insects. In present study, LC50 and LC90 of squamocin for A. gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) were calculated using probit analysis. Morphological changes in midgut cells were analyzed under light, fluorescence and transmission electron microscopes when larvae were treated with LC50 and LC90 of squamocin for 24, 48 and 72 h...
July 30, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472284/symbiosis-in-the-microbial-world-from-ecology-to-genome-evolution
#10
REVIEW
Jean-Baptiste Raina, Laura Eme, F Joseph Pollock, Anja Spang, John M Archibald, Tom A Williams
The concept of symbiosis - defined in 1879 by de Bary as 'the living together of unlike organisms' - has a rich and convoluted history in biology. In part, because it questioned the concept of the individual, symbiosis fell largely outside mainstream science and has traditionally received less attention than other research disciplines. This is gradually changing. In nature organisms do not live in isolation but rather interact with, and are impacted by, diverse beings throughout their life histories. Symbiosis is now recognized as a central driver of evolution across the entire tree of life, including, for example, bacterial endosymbionts that provide insects with vital nutrients and the mitochondria that power our own cells...
February 22, 2018: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384231/xenotopic-expression-of-alternative-electron-transport-enzymes-in-animal-mitochondria-and-their-impact-in-health-and-disease
#11
REVIEW
André F Camargo, Marina M Chioda, Ana P C Rodrigues, Geovana S Garcia, Emily A McKinney, Howard T Jacobs, Marcos T Oliveira
The mitochondrial respiratory chain in vertebrates and arthropods is different from that of most other eukaryotes because they lack alternative enzymes that provide electron transfer pathways additional to the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system. However, the use of diverse experimental models, such as human cells in culture, Drosophila melanogaster and the mouse, has demonstrated that the transgenic expression of these alternative enzymes can impact positively many phenotypes associated with human mitochondrial and other cellular dysfunction, including those typically presented in complex IV deficiencies, Parkinson's, and Alzheimer's...
January 31, 2018: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359358/cytoplasmic-glutamine-synthetase-gene-expression-regulates-larval-development-in-bactrocera-dorsalis-hendel
#12
Meng-Yi Zhang, Dong Wei, Ran Li, Hong-Ting Jia, Yu-Wei Liu, Clauvis Nji Tizi Taning, Jin-Jun Wang, Guy Smagghe
In insects, glutamine synthetase (GS), a key enzyme in the synthesis of glutamine, has been reported to be associated with embryonic development, heat shock response, and fecundity regulation. However, little is known about the influence of GS on postembryonic development. In this study, we demonstrate that blocking the activity of GS in the oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis) with use of a GS-specific inhibitor (L-methionine S-sulfoximine), led to a significant delay in larval development, pupal weight loss, and inhibition of pupation...
April 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359194/rnase-iii-domain-of-krepb9-and-krepb10-association-with-editosomes-in-trypanosoma-brucei
#13
Jason Carnes, Suzanne M McDermott, Kenneth Stuart
Editosomes are the multiprotein complexes that catalyze the insertion and deletion of uridines to create translatable mRNAs in the mitochondria of kinetoplastids. Recognition and cleavage of a broad diversity of RNA substrates in vivo require three functionally distinct RNase III-type endonucleases, as well as five additional editosome proteins that contain noncatalytic RNase III domains. RNase III domains have recently been identified in the editosome accessory proteins KREPB9 and KREPB10, suggesting a role related to editing endonuclease function...
January 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337270/the-cationic-tetradecapeptide-mastoparan-as-a-privileged-structure-for-drug-discovery-enhanced-antimicrobial-properties-of-mitoparan-analogues-modified-at-position-14
#14
John Howl, Lewis Howl, Sarah Jones
Mastoparan (MP) peptides, distributed in insect venoms, induce a local inflammatory response post envenomation. Most endogenous MPs share common structural elements within a tetradecapeptide sequence that adopts an amphipathic helix whilst traversing biological membranes and when bound to an intracellular protein target. Rational modifications to increase cationic charge density and amphipathic helicity engineered mitoparan (MitP), a mitochondriotoxic bioportide and potent secretagogue. Following intracellular translocation, MitP is accreted by mitochondria thus indicating additional utility as an antimicrobial agent...
March 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311662/evidence-for-a-radiation-responsive-p53-gateway-contributing-significantly-to-the-radioresistance-of-lepidopteran-insect-cells
#15
Ashish Kumar, Sudhir Chandna
Recently, we have demonstrated that microRNA-31 (miR-31) overexpression is inherent to radiation-induced cell death in the highly radioresistant Sf9 insect cells, and regulates pro-apoptotic Bax translocation to mitochondria. In the present study, we report that at sub-lethal radiation doses for Sf9 cells, miR-31 is significantly downregulated and is tightly regulated by an unusual mechanism involving p53. While ectopic overexpression of a well-conserved Sfp53 caused typical apoptosis, radiation-induced p53 accumulation observed selectively at sub-lethal doses failed to induce cell death...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288090/systematic-identification-of-mitochondrial-lysine-succinylome-in-silkworm-bombyx-mori-midgut-during-the-larval-gluttonous-stage
#16
Jine Chen, Fengbo Li, Yan Liu, Weifeng Shen, Xin Du, Lihua He, Zhiqi Meng, Xianliang Ma, Yongqiang Wang
Lysine succinylation is a newly identified protein post-translational modification (PTM) of lysine residues. Increasing evidences demonstrate that this modification is prevalent in mitochondria and regulates many vital cellular processes, especially metabolism. Here, we determined the succinylome of the silkworm (Bombyx mori) midgut mitochondria during the larval gluttonous stage (the fifth instar) using succinylated peptides enrichment coupled with nano HPLC/MS/MS. A total of 1884 lysine succinylation sites on 373 mitochondrial proteins were identified...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247468/the-f-1-atpase-from-trypanosoma-brucei-is-elaborated-by-three-copies-of-an-additional-p18-subunit
#17
Ondřej Gahura, Karolína Šubrtová, Hana Váchová, Brian Panicucci, Ian M Fearnley, Michael E Harbour, John E Walker, Alena Zíková
The F-ATPases (also called the F1 Fo -ATPases or ATP synthases) are multi-subunit membrane-bound molecular machines that produce ATP in bacteria and in eukaryotic mitochondria and chloroplasts. The structures and enzymic mechanisms of their F1 -catalytic domains are highly conserved in all species investigated hitherto. However, there is evidence that the F-ATPases from the group of protozoa known as Euglenozoa have novel features. Therefore, we have isolated pure and active F1 -ATPase from the euglenozoan parasite, Trypanosoma brucei, and characterized it...
February 2018: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159850/from-two-to-three-dimensions-the-importance-of-the-third-dimension-for-evaluating-the-limits-to-neuronal-miniaturization-in-insects
#18
Stefan Fischer, Zhiyuan Lu, Ian A Meinertzhagen
Most studies dealing with the limits to miniaturization in insect brains have until now relied on information based on data collected in two dimensions: either histological sections imaged by light microscopy, or electron micrographs of single ultrathin sections imaged by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). To test the validity of transferring information gained from two-dimensional images to the third dimension, we examined a 3D image stack from serial-section TEM (ssTEM) of the optic neuropiles of the miniature parasitic wasp Trichogramma brassicae (Bezdenko, 1968)...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126122/mode-and-rate-of-evolution-of-haemosporidian-mitochondrial-genomes-timing-the-radiation-of-avian-parasites
#19
M Andreína Pacheco, Nubia E Matta, Gediminas Valkiunas, Patricia G Parker, Beatriz Mello, Craig E Stanley, Miguel Lentino, Maria Alexandra Garcia-Amado, Michael Cranfield, Sergei L Kosakovsky Pond, Ananias A Escalante
Haemosporidians are a diverse group of vector-borne parasitic protozoa that includes the agents of human malaria; however, most of the described species are found in birds and reptiles. Although our understanding of these parasites' diversity has expanded by analyses of their mitochondrial genes, there is limited information on these genes' evolutionary rates. Here, 114 mitochondrial genomes (mtDNA) were studied from species belonging to four genera: Leucocytozoon, Haemoproteus, Hepatocystis, and Plasmodium...
February 1, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090441/sublethal-dose-of-deltamethrin-damage-the-midgut-cells-of-the-mayfly-callibaetis-radiatus-ephemeroptera-baetidae
#20
Helen Pinto Santos, Yeisson Gutiérrez, Eugênio Eduardo Oliveira, José Eduardo Serrão
In insects, the midgut performs multiple physiologic functions (e.g., digestion and nutrients absorption) and serves as a physical/chemical barrier against pathogens and chemical stressors such as deltamethrin, a pyrethroid insecticide, commonly used in insect control that are agricultural pests and human disease vectors. Here, we described the midgut cell ultrastructure of Callibaetis radiatus nymphs, which are bioindicators of water quality and the ultrastructural alterations in midgut under sublethal exposure to deltamethrin at three different periods (1, 12, 24 h)...
January 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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