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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631341/evaluation-of-flubendiamide-induced-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-metabolic-changes-in-helicoverpa-armigera-hubner
#1
Bharat Nareshkumar, Shaik Mohammad Akbar, Hari Chand Sharma, Senigala K Jayalakshmi, Kuruba Sreeramulu
Phthalic acid diamide insecticides are the most effective insecticides used against most of the lepidopteran pests including Helicoverpa armigera, a polyphagous pest posing threat to several crops worldwide. The present studies were undertaken to understand different target sites and their interaction with insect ryanodine receptors (RyR). Bioassays indicated that flubendiamide inhibited the larval growth in dose-dependent manner with LD50 value of 0.72 μM, and at 0.8 μM larval growth decreased by about 88%...
June 20, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595923/microstructural-and-ultrastructural-changes-in-the-muscle-cells-of-the-oriental-armyworm-mythimna-separata-walker-lepidoptera-noctuidae-on-treatment-with-wilforine
#2
Shujie Ma, Lin Liu, Zhiqing Ma, Xing Zhang
This study investigated the mode of action of wilforine, an alkaloid with insecticidal properties, extracted from Tripterygium wilfordii Hook f., on the microstructure and ultrastructure of the muscle cells of larvae and adults of the oriental armyworm Mythimna separata Walker. The bioassay results showed that wilforine had oral toxicity against both M. separata larvae (LC50=63μg/mL) and adults (LC50=36μg/mL). The typical toxicity sign was paralysis leading to death. Both light and electron microscope observations revealed that damage to the muscle cells increased with poisoning time in larvae and adults treated with the LC80 dose of wilforine...
June 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550086/the-iron-dependent-mitochondrial-superoxide-dismutase-soda-promotes-leishmania-virulence
#3
Bidyottam Mittra, Maria Fernanda Laranjeira-Silva, Danilo Ciccone Miguel, Juliana Perrone Bezerra de Menezes, Norma W Andrews
Leishmaniasis is one of the leading global neglected diseases, affecting millions of people worldwide. Leishmania infection depends on the ability of insect-transmitted metacyclic promastigotes to invade mammalian hosts, differentiate into amastigotes and replicate inside macrophages. To counter the hostile oxidative environment inside macrophages, these protozoans contain anti-oxidant systems that include iron-dependent superoxide dismutases (SODs) in mitochondria and glycosomes. Increasing evidence suggests that in addition to this protective role, Leishmania mitochondrial SOD may also initiate H2O2-mediated redox signaling that regulates gene expression and metabolic changes associated with differentiation into virulent forms...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477258/x-ray-metal-assessment-and-ovarian-ultrastructure-alterations-of-the-beetle-blaps-polycresta-coleoptera-tenebrionidae-inhabiting-polluted-soil
#4
Wafaa Osman, Mourad Shonouda
X-ray analysis was applied to estimate the percentages of heavy metals in ovarian tissues of the tenebrionid beetle, Blaps polycresta. Calcium, phosphorus, sulfur, cadmium, copper, and zinc were the most common detected metals in ovaries of insects collected from reference and polluted sites. Only cadmium showed significantly higher percentages in the polluted ovaries compared with the reference ones. Ultrastructure investigation revealed severe alterations in polluted ovaries both in the tropharium and in the vitellarium...
June 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414727/trypanosoma-brucei-tbif1-inhibits-the-essential-f1-atpase-in-the-infectious-form-of-the-parasite
#5
Brian Panicucci, Ondřej Gahura, Alena Zíková
The mitochondrial (mt) FoF1-ATP synthase of the digenetic parasite, Trypanosoma brucei, generates ATP during the insect procyclic form (PF), but becomes a perpetual consumer of ATP in the mammalian bloodstream form (BF), which lacks a canonical respiratory chain. This unconventional dependence on FoF1-ATPase is required to maintain the essential mt membrane potential (Δψm). Normally, ATP hydrolysis by this rotary molecular motor is restricted to when eukaryotic cells experience sporadic hypoxic conditions, during which this compulsory function quickly depletes the cellular ATP pool...
April 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414126/characterization-of-the-novel-protein-kiaa0564-von-willebrand-domain-containing-protein-8
#6
Moulun Luo, April E Mengos, Wuqiong Ma, Jean Finlayson, Rocio Zapata Bustos, Yuan Xiao Zhu, Chang-Xin Shi, Tianna M Stubblefield, Wayne T Willis, Lawrence J Mandarino
The VWA8 gene was first identified by the Kazusa cDNA project and named KIAA0564. Based on the observation, by similarity, that the protein encoded by KIAA0564 contains a Von Willebrand Factor 8 domain, KIAA0564 was named Von Willebrand Domain-containing Protein 8 (VWA8). The function of VWA8 protein is almost unknown. The purpose of this study was to characterize the tissue distribution, cellular location, and function of VWA8. In mice VWA8 protein was mostly distributed in liver, kidney, heart, pancreas and skeletal muscle, and is present as a long isoform and a shorter splice variant (VWA8a and VWA8b)...
April 13, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365214/in-vivo-localization-of-the-neuronal-ceroid-lipofuscinosis-proteins-cln3-and-cln7-at-endogenous-expression-levels
#7
Alamin Mohammed, Megan B O'Hare, Alice Warley, Guy Tear, Richard I Tuxworth
The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses are a group of recessively inherited, childhood-onset neurodegenerative conditions. Several forms are caused by mutations in genes encoding putative lysosomal membrane proteins. Studies of the cell biology underpinning these disorders are hampered by the poor antigenicity of the membrane proteins, which makes visualization of the endogenous proteins difficult. We have used Drosophila to generate knock-in YFP-fusions for two of the NCL membrane proteins: CLN7 and CLN3. The YFP-fusions are expressed at endogenous levels and the proteins can be visualized live without the need for overexpression...
July 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364805/transcriptomic-alterations-in-sitophilus-zeamais-in-response-to-allyl-isothiocyanate-fumigation
#8
Chao Zhang, Zhiqing Ma, Xing Zhang, Hua Wu
To study the fumigation mechanisms of Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) a promising biorational alternative to present fumigants (phosphine and methyl bromide), and provide theoretical basis for its further development in the control of stored grain pests, this research presents a transcriptome analysis of Sitophilus zeamais fumigated with AITC at the concentration of LC50 (5.69μg/mL) and control over 8h. 21,869,022 and 23,873,110 clean reads in insects fumigated with AITC and control were gained, respectively. The results of RNA-seq were confirmed by qRT-PCR determination of the expression levels of NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 and Vacuolar ATP synthase subunit B in the insects fumigated with AITC at different concentrations...
April 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363600/heme-modulates-trypanosoma-cruzi-bioenergetics-inducing-mitochondrial-ros-production
#9
Natália P Nogueira, Francis M S Saraiva, Matheus P Oliveira, Ana Paula M Mendonça, Job D F Inacio, Elmo E Almeida-Amaral, Rubem F Menna-Barreto, Gustavo A T Laranja, Eduardo J Lopes Torres, Marcus F Oliveira, Marcia C Paes
Trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of Chagas disease and has a single mitochondrion, an organelle responsible for ATP production and the main site for the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). T. cruzi is an obligate intracellular parasite with a complex life cycle that alternates between vertebrate and invertebrate hosts, therefore the development of survival strategies and morphogenetic adaptations to deal with the various environments is mandatory. Over the years our group has been studying the vector-parasite interactions using heme as a physiological oxidant molecule that triggered epimastigote proliferation however, the source of ROS induced by heme remained unknown...
March 29, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334253/effect-of-the-insecticide-dinotefuran-on-the-ultrastructure-of-the-flight-muscle-of-female-sogatella-furcifera-hemiptera-delphacidae
#10
M G Liu, C X Jiang, M Mao, C Liu, Q Li, X G Wang, Q F Yang, H J Wang
Sogatella furcifera Horváth (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), is a major migratory pest of rice crops in Asia. The ultrastructure of the flight muscle directly affects the flight ability of insects. The ultrastructure of the flight muscle of some insects can be affected by insecticides. However, the ultrastructure of the flight muscle of S. furcifera and the effect of insecticides on the flight muscle of S. furcifera are not well understood. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of the insecticide dinotefuran on the ultrastructure of the flight muscle of S...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253309/the-physiological-role-of-fat-body-and-muscle-tissues-in-response-to-cold-stress-in-the-tropical-cockroach-gromphadorhina-coquereliana
#11
Szymon Chowański, Jan Lubawy, Ewelina Paluch-Lubawa, Marta Spochacz, Grzegorz Rosiński, Małgorzata Słocińska
Protective mechanisms against cold stress are well studied in terrestrial and polar insects; however, little is known about these mechanisms in tropical insects. In our study, we tested if a tropical cockroach Gromphadorhina coquereliana, possesses any protective mechanisms against cold stress. Based on the results of earlier studies, we examined how short-term (3 h) cold (4°C) influences biochemical parameters, mitochondrial respiration activity, and the level of HSPs and aquaporins expression in the fat body and leg muscles of G...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116945/mitochondria-coi-based-genetic-diversity-of-the-cotton-leafhopper-amrasca-biguttula-biguttula-ishida-populations-from-india
#12
Sandhya Kranthi, Amol Bharat Ghodke, Raghavendra K Puttuswamy, Madhumita Mandle, Ritu Nandanwar, Usha Satija, Rishi Kumar Pareek, Himanshu Desai, Shashikant S Udikeri, Dhara Jothi Balakrishna, Bheemanna M Hugar, Dilip Monga, Keshav R Kranthi
Amrasca biguttula biguttula (Ishida), the cotton leafhopper, is a polyphagous insect pest of Asia and Southeast Asian countries. We sequenced a mitochondrial COI gene fragment from 67 individuals of cotton leafhopper collected from 7 major cotton growing states of North, Central, and South India. Genetic divergence analysis of leaf hopper population across India confirmed the presence of single species. Thirty haplotypes, in total, were determined across different regions of India. While population from North India was dominated by single haplotype, the south and central Indian populations show dispersion of different haplotypes across the region...
January 24, 2017: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043329/evaluation-of-the-toxicity-of-fungicides-to-flight-muscle-mitochondria-of-bumblebee-bombus-terrestris-l
#13
Mikhail Y Syromyatnikov, Anastasia V Kokina, Alexey V Lopatin, Anatoly A Starkov, Vasily N Popov
Insects pollinate 75% of crops used for human consumption. Over the last decade, a substantial reduction in the abundance of pollinating insects has been recorded and recognized as a severe matter for food supply security. Many of the important food crops destined for human consumption are grown in greenhouses. A unique feature of greenhouse agriculture is the extensive use of fungicides to curb multiple fungal infections. The most widely used pollinating insects in greenhouses are commercially reared bumblebees...
January 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034779/a-mitochondrial-membrane-protein-is-a-target-for-rice-ragged-stunt-virus-in-its-insect-vector
#14
Hai-Jian Huang, Cheng-Wen Liu, Xiang Zhou, Chuan-Xi Zhang, Yan-Yuan Bao
Rice ragged stunt virus (RRSV; Reoviridae) is exclusively transmitted by the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens in a persistent-propagative manner. It is understood that RNA viral proliferation is associated with the intracellular membranes of the insect host cells. However, the molecular mechanisms of the interaction between the RRSV proliferation and the intracellular membranes remain essentially unknown. It will be of great interest to determine whether RRSV protein(s) directly interact with intracellular membrane components of its host cells...
February 2, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999533/ultrastructure-of-gaba-and-tachykinin-immunoreactive-neurons-in-the-lower-division-of-the-central-body-of-the-desert-locust
#15
Uwe Homberg, Monika Müller
The central complex, a group of neuropils spanning the midline of the insect brain, plays a key role in spatial orientation and navigation. In the desert locust and other species, many neurons of the central complex are sensitive to the oscillation plane of polarized light above the animal and are likely involved in the coding of compass directions derived from the polarization pattern of the sky. Polarized light signals enter the locust central complex primarily through two types of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-immunoreactive tangential neurons, termed TL2 and TL3 that innervate specific layers of the lower division of the central body (CBL)...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956137/deficiency-of-glycerol-3-phosphate-acyltransferase-1-decreases-triacylglycerol-storage-and-induces-fatty-acid-oxidation-in-insect-fat-body
#16
Michele Alves-Bezerra, Isabela B Ramos, Iron F De Paula, Clarissa M Maya-Monteiro, Eric L Klett, Rosalind A Coleman, Katia C Gondim
Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferases (GPAT) catalyze the initial and rate-limiting step for the de novo synthesis of triacylglycerol (TAG). Four mammalian GPAT isoforms have been identified: the mitochondria-associated GPAT1 and 2, and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated GPAT3 and 4. In the insect Rhodnius prolixus, a vector of Chagas' disease, we previously predicted a mitochondrial-like isoform (RhoprGPAT1) from genomic data. In the current study, we clone the RhoprGPAT1 coding sequence and identify an ER-associated GPAT (RhoprGPAT4) as the second isoform in the insect...
December 9, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939524/neem-oil-azadirachta-indica-a-juss-affects-the-ultrastructure-of-the-midgut-muscle-of-ceraeochrysa-claveri-nav%C3%A3-s-1911-neuroptera-chrysopidae
#17
Elton Luiz Scudeler, Ana Silvia Gimenes Garcia, Patricia Fernanda Felipe Pinheiro, Daniela Carvalho Dos Santos
Cytomorphological changes, by means of ultrastructural analyses, have been used to determine the effects of the biopesticide neem oil on the muscle fibers of the midgut of the predator Ceraeochrysa claveri. Insects, throughout the larval period, were fed eggs of Diatraea saccharalis treated with neem oil at a concentration of 0.5%, 1% or 2%. In the adult stage, the midgut was collected from female insects at two stages of adulthood (newly emerged and at the start of oviposition) and processed for ultrastructural analyses...
January 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903433/cold-acclimation-allows-drosophila-flies-to-maintain-mitochondrial-functioning-under-cold-stress
#18
Hervé Colinet, David Renault, Damien Roussel
Environmental stress generally disturbs cellular homeostasis. Researchers have hypothesized that chilling injury is linked to a shortage of ATP. However, previous studies conducted on insects exposed to nonfreezing low temperatures presented conflicting results. In this study, we investigated the mitochondrial bioenergetics of Drosophila melanogaster flies exposed to chronic cold stress (4 °C). We assessed mitochondrial oxygen consumption while monitoring the rate of ATP synthesis at various times (0, 1, 2, and 3 days) during prolonged cold stress and at two assay temperatures (25 and 4 °C)...
January 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859898/structural-and-ultrastructural-features-of-the-malpighian-tubules-of-dolycoris-baccarum-linnaeus-1758-heteroptera-pentatomidae
#19
Nurcan Özyurt, Damla Amutkan, Irmak Polat, Tenay Kocamaz, Selami Candan, Zekiye Suludere
The morphology and ultrastructure of the Malpighian tubules of Dolycoris baccarum were analyzed by scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy in order to determine their functional organization. The Malpighian tubules are compared with similar structures of other insects based on cell structure and functional organization. The Malpighian tubules of D. baccarum extend from the midgut-hindgut region of the digestive tract. The Malpighian tubules are divided into two regions: the proximal segment is short and flattened and the distal segment is long, stringy in shape and free in hemolymph...
April 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846310/improving-mitochondrial-function-protects-bumblebees-from-neonicotinoid-pesticides
#20
Michael B Powner, Thomas E Salt, Chris Hogg, Glen Jeffery
Global pollination is threatened by declining insect pollinator populations that may be linked to neonicotinoid pesticide use. Neonicotinoids over stimulate neurons and depolarize their mitochondria, producing immobility and death. However, mitochondrial function can be improved by near infrared light absorbed by cytochrome c oxidase in mitochondrial respiration. In flies, daily exposure to 670nm light throughout life increases average lifespan and aged mobility, and reduces systemic inflammation. Here we treat bumble bees with Imidacloprid a common neonicotinoid...
2016: PloS One
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