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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159850/from-two-to-three-dimensions-the-importance-of-the-third-dimension-for-evaluating-the-limits-to-neuronal-miniaturization-in-insects
#1
Stefan Fischer, Zhiyuan Lu, Ian A Meinertzhagen
Most studies dealing with the limits to miniaturization in insect brains have until now relied on information based on data collected in two dimensions: either histological sections imaged by light microscopy, or electron micrographs of single ultrathin sections imaged by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). To test the validity of transferring information gained from two-dimensional images to the third dimension, we examined a 3D image stack from serial-section TEM (ssTEM) of the optic neuropiles of the miniature parasitic wasp Trichogramma brassicae (Bezdenko, 1968)...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126122/mode-and-rate-of-evolution-of-haemosporidian-mitochondrial-genomes-timing-the-radiation-of-avian-parasites
#2
M Andreína Pacheco, Nubia E Matta, Gediminas Valkiunas, Patricia G Parker, Beatriz Mello, Craig E Stanley, Miguel Lentino, M Alexandra Garcia-Amado, Michael Cranfield, Sergei L Kosakovsky Pond, Ananias A Escalante
Haemosporidians are a diverse group of vector-borne parasitic protozoa that includes the agents of human malaria; however, most of the described species are found in birds and reptiles. Although our understanding of these parasites' diversity has expanded by analyses of their mitochondrial genes, there is limited information on these genes' evolutionary rates. Here, 114 mitochondrial genomes (mtDNA) were studied from species belonging to four genera: Leucocytozoon, Haemoproteus, Hepatocystis, and Plasmodium...
November 6, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090441/sublethal-dose-of-deltamethrin-damage-the-midgut-cells-of-the-mayfly-callibaetis-radiatus-ephemeroptera-baetidae
#3
Helen Pinto Santos, Yeisson Gutiérrez, Eugênio Eduardo Oliveira, José Eduardo Serrão
In insects, the midgut performs multiple physiologic functions (e.g., digestion and nutrients absorption) and serves as a physical/chemical barrier against pathogens and chemical stressors such as deltamethrin, a pyrethroid insecticide, commonly used in insect control that are agricultural pests and human disease vectors. Here, we described the midgut cell ultrastructure of Callibaetis radiatus nymphs, which are bioindicators of water quality and the ultrastructural alterations in midgut under sublethal exposure to deltamethrin at three different periods (1, 12, 24 h)...
October 31, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037393/aerobic-function-in-mitochondria-persists-beyond-death-by-heat-stress-in-insects
#4
Erica C Heinrich, Emilie M Gray, Ashley Ossher, Stephen Meigher, Felix Grun, Timothy J Bradley
The critical thermal maximum (CTmax) of insects can be determined using flow-through thermolimit respirometry. It has been demonstrated that respiratory patterns cease and insects do not recover once the CTmax temperature has been reached. However, if high temperatures are maintained following the CTmax, researchers have observed a curious phenomenon whereby the insect body releases a large burst of carbon dioxide at a rate and magnitude that often exceed that of the live insect. This carbon dioxide release has been termed the post-mortal peak (PMP)...
October 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034430/ultraviolet-filters-and-heat-shock-proteins-effects-in-chironomus-riparius-by-benzophenone-3-and-4-methylbenzylidene-camphor
#5
Raquel Martín-Folgar, Mónica Aquilino, Irene Ozáez, José-Luis Martínez-Guitarte
Benzophenone-3 (BP3) and 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4MBC) are common ultraviolet filters (UV filters), compounds considered as emergent contaminants, used in different products like plastics and personal care products. The levels of these compounds are rising in the wild, but the effects they have on invertebrates are poorly understood. Chironomus riparius is a benthic insect widely used in toxicology, and several studies have been previously performed in our laboratory to determine the effects these compounds have on this organism at the molecular level...
October 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026172/mitochondrial-glycerol-3-phosphate-facilitates-bumblebee-pre-flight-thermogenesis
#6
Stewart W C Masson, Christopher P Hedges, Jules B L Devaux, Crystal S James, Anthony J R Hickey
Bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) fly at low ambient temperatures where other insects cannot, and to do so they must pre-warm their flight muscles. While some have proposed mechanisms, none fully explain how pre-flight thermogenesis occurs. Here, we present a novel hypothesis based on the less studied mitochondrial glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase pathway (mGPDH). Using calorimetry, and high resolution respirometry coupled with fluorimetry, we report substrate oxidation by mGPDH in permeabilised flight muscles operates, in vitro, at a high flux, even in the absence of ADP...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018265/ascosteroside-d-a-new-mitochondrial-respiration-inhibitor-discovered-by-pesticidal-screening-using-insect-adp-atp-carrier-protein-expressing-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#7
Yoshihiro Watanabe, Yukihiro Asami, Satomi Narusawa, Shohei Hashimoto, Masato Iwatsuki, Kenichi Nonaka, Yasuo Shinohara, Takahiro Shiotsuki, Naoya Ichimaru, Hideto Miyoshi, Satoshi Ōmura, Kazuro Shiomi
A new lanostane-type triterpenoid, ascosteroside D, was isolated from a fungus, Aspergillus sp. FKI-6682. It inhibited insect ADP/ATP carrier protein (AAC)-expressing Saccharomyces cerevisiae in glycerol-containing medium, but did not inhibit Δaac S. cerevisiae in glucose-containing medium. It is hypothesized that ascosteroside D inhibits ATP production in mitochondria.The Journal of Antibiotics advance online publication, 11 October 2017; doi:10.1038/ja.2017.118.
October 11, 2017: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987327/the-implication-of-p66shc-in-oxidative-stress-induced-by-deltamethrin
#8
Ruqian Ding, Zongfu Cao, Yihan Wang, Xiaobo Gao, Haiyan Luo, Changyong Zhang, Shuangcheng Ma, Xu Ma, Hongyu Jin, Cailing Lu
Deltamethrin (DLT) is effective against a broad spectrum of insects. Exposure to DLT has been demonstrated to cause oxidative stress. However, the mechanism of oxidative stress induced by DLT is little known. Groups of rats were gavaged with DLT once daily for 7 days at six dosages: 0, 2, 5, 10, 20, 40 mg/kg. The intensity of neurotoxicity and liver dysfunction caused by DLT were significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner. We found that DLT caused the increase of cytosolic superoxide in tissues. Western blot analysis showed that both the expression of p66shc and Ser36 phosphorylated p66shc, which were involved in ROS generation, were increased in tissues treated with DLT...
October 5, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939335/post-embryonic-changes-in-the-hindgut-of-honeybee-apis-mellifera-workers-morphology-cuticle-deposition-apoptosis-and-cell-proliferation
#9
Wagner Gonzaga Gonçalves, Kenner Morais Fernandes, Weyder Cristiano Santana, Gustavo Ferreira Martins, José Cola Zanuncio, José Eduardo Serrão
In insects, the hindgut is a homeostatic region of the digestive tract, divided into pylorus, ileum, and rectum, that reabsorbs water, ions, and small molecules produced during hemolymph filtration. The hindgut anatomy in bee larvae is different from that of adult workers. This study reports the morphological changes and cellular events that occur in the hindgut during the metamorphosis of the honeybee Apis mellifera. We describe the occurrence of autophagosomes and the ultrastructure of the epithelial cells and cuticle, suggesting that cuticular degradation begins in prepupae, with the cuticle being reabsorbed and recycled by autophagosomes in white- and pink-eyed pupae, followed by the deposition of new cuticle in light-brown-eyed pupae...
November 15, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880872/microtubule-actin-crosslinking-factor-1-macf1-domain-function-in-balbiani-body-dissociation-and-nuclear-positioning
#10
Matias Escobar-Aguirre, Hong Zhang, Allison Jamieson-Lucy, Mary C Mullins
Animal-vegetal (AV) polarity of most vertebrate eggs is established during early oogenesis through the formation and disassembly of the Balbiani Body (Bb). The Bb is a structure conserved from insects to humans that appears as a large granule, similar to a mRNP granule composed of mRNA and proteins, that in addition contains mitochondria, ER and Golgi. The components of the Bb, which have amyloid-like properties, include germ cell and axis determinants of the embryo that are anchored to the vegetal cortex upon Bb disassembly...
September 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799110/alteration-of-membrane-integrity-and-respiratory-function-of-brain-mitochondria-in-the-rats-chronically-exposed-to-a-low-dose-of-acetamiprid
#11
Salim Gasmi, Mohammed Kebieche, Rachid Rouabhi, Chouaib Touahria, Asma Lahouel, Zohra Lakroun, Sara Henine, Rachid Soulimani
The pesticides are used in several fields of agriculture and farms to protect crops against harmful insects and herbs. The increased and uncontrolled use of these pollutants is very hazardous for the population health. Consumption of contaminated food matrices with these pesticides could impair the cell integrity and its molecular function. The main aim of this present study was to evaluate the alteration of the integrity of mitochondrial membranes and respiratory chain potential in the brain of rats exposed during 90 days to acetamiprid (AC), organochlorine of the new generation...
October 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755702/mitochondria-response-to-camptothecin-and-hydroxycamptothecine-induced-apoptosis-in-spodoptera-exigua-cells
#12
Xiaoshuang Ren, Lan Zhang, Yanning Zhang, Liangang Mao, Hongyun Jiang
Camptothecin (CPT), a natural alkaloid extracted from Camptotheca acuminata Decne, exhibits potential insecticidal activities against various insect species. Our previous studies have showed that CPTs induced apoptosis in Spodoptera exigua Hübner cell line which is mediated preliminarily by the mitochondrial pathway. In this study, changes of mitochondrial morphologic and function were investigated to characterize mitochondrial responses in CPTs induced apoptosis. After incubation IOZCAS-Spex-II cells with CPT and HCPT, mitochondria exhibited obvious changes in the size, morphology and distribution, and ultrastructural alterations characterized by disruption of cristae and membrane...
August 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755312/mouse-nudt13-is-a-mitochondrial-nudix-hydrolase-with-nad-p-h-pyrophosphohydrolase-activity
#13
Salama R Abdelraheim, David G Spiller, Alexander G McLennan
The mammalian NUDT13 protein possesses a sequence motif characteristic of the NADH pyrophosphohydrolase subfamily of Nudix hydrolases. Due to the persistent insolubility of the recombinant product expressed in Escherichia coli, active mouse Nudt13 was expressed in insect cells from a baculovirus vector as a histidine-tagged recombinant protein. In vitro, it efficiently hydrolysed NADH to NMNH and AMP and NADPH to NMNH and 2',5'-ADP and had a marked preference for the reduced pyridine nucleotides. Much lower activity was obtained with other nucleotide substrates tested...
October 2017: Protein Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733329/the-antifungal-activity-of-the-peptide-periplanetasin-2-derived-from-american-cockroach-periplaneta-americana
#14
JiEun Yun, Jae-Sam Hwang, Dong Gun Lee
The cockroach, which is a household insect, is an established model organism in research. Periplanetasin-2, derived from the American cockroach Periplaneta americana, exerted potent antifungal effect against pathogenic fungi without causing hemolysis. Periplanetasin-2 induced oxidative stress by generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation. Periplanetasin-2 also caused apoptosis by exposure of phosphatidylserine and fragmentation of DNA, exerted in a concentration-dependent manner. Hence, we investigated the mitochondrial apoptotic mechanism of periplanetasin-2 in Candida albicans After treatment with periplanetasin-2, we observed mitochondrial depolarization and calcium accumulation...
August 22, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686887/can-the-exposure-of-apis-mellifera-hymenoptera-apiadae-larvae-to-a-field-concentration-of-thiamethoxam-affect-newly-emerged-bees
#15
Priscila Sepúlveda Friol, Aline Fernanda Catae, Daiana Antonia Tavares, Osmar Malaspina, Thaisa Cristina Roat
The use of insecticides on crops can affect non-target insects, such as bees. In addition to the adult bees, larvae can be exposed to the insecticide through contaminated floral resources. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the possible effects of the exposure of A. mellifera larvae to a field concentration of thiamethoxam (0.001 ng/μL thiamethoxam) on larval and pupal survival and on the percentage of adult emergence. Additionally, its cytotoxic effects on the digestive cells of midgut, Malpighian tubules cells and Kenyon cells of the brain of newly emerged A...
October 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685329/impairment-of-mitochondrial-integrity-and-redox-status-in-brain-regions-during-a-low-dose-long-term-exposition-of-rats-to-pyrethrino%C3%A3-ds-the-preventive-effect-of-quercetin
#16
Afafe Beghoul, Mohamed Kebieche, Salim Gasmi, Zeyneb Chouit, Chouaib Amiour, Asma Lahouel, Zhora Lakroun, Rachid Rouabhi, Hamadi Fetoui, Rachid Soulimani
Pyrethrinoïds are synthetic pesticides widely used in agriculture and farms to protect crops from weeds, insects, fungi, and molds. Increased and uncontrolled use of these pollutants can have harmful effects on human health via consumption of contaminated food products. In the present study, deltamethrin (DLT = 3.72 mg/kg) and Bifenthrin (BF = 2.6 mg/kg) were used during a long-term exposition in the rats to assess their effect on mitochondrial integrity and function in different brain areas (hippocampus, striatum, cortex, and cerebellum)...
July 6, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631341/evaluation-of-flubendiamide-induced-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-metabolic-changes-in-helicoverpa-armigera-hubner
#17
Bharat Nareshkumar, Shaik Mohammad Akbar, Hari Chand Sharma, Senigala K Jayalakshmi, Kuruba Sreeramulu
Phthalic acid diamide insecticides are the most effective insecticides used against most of the lepidopteran pests including Helicoverpa armigera, a polyphagous pest posing threat to several crops worldwide. The present studies were undertaken to understand different target sites and their interaction with insect ryanodine receptors (RyR). Bioassays indicated that flubendiamide inhibited the larval growth in dose-dependent manner with LD50 value of 0.72 μM, and at 0.8 μM larval growth decreased by about 88%...
September 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595923/microstructural-and-ultrastructural-changes-in-the-muscle-cells-of-the-oriental-armyworm-mythimna-separata-walker-lepidoptera-noctuidae-on-treatment-with-wilforine
#18
Shujie Ma, Lin Liu, Zhiqing Ma, Xing Zhang
This study investigated the mode of action of wilforine, an alkaloid with insecticidal properties, extracted from Tripterygium wilfordii Hook f., on the microstructure and ultrastructure of the muscle cells of larvae and adults of the oriental armyworm Mythimna separata Walker. The bioassay results showed that wilforine had oral toxicity against both M. separata larvae (LC50=63μg/mL) and adults (LC50=36μg/mL). The typical toxicity sign was paralysis leading to death. Both light and electron microscope observations revealed that damage to the muscle cells increased with poisoning time in larvae and adults treated with the LC80 dose of wilforine...
June 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550086/the-iron-dependent-mitochondrial-superoxide-dismutase-soda-promotes-leishmania-virulence
#19
Bidyottam Mittra, Maria Fernanda Laranjeira-Silva, Danilo Ciccone Miguel, Juliana Perrone Bezerra de Menezes, Norma W Andrews
Leishmaniasis is one of the leading globally neglected diseases, affecting millions of people worldwide. Leishmania infection depends on the ability of insect-transmitted metacyclic promastigotes to invade mammalian hosts, differentiate into amastigotes, and replicate inside macrophages. To counter the hostile oxidative environment inside macrophages, these protozoans contain anti-oxidant systems that include iron-dependent superoxide dismutases (SODs) in mitochondria and glycosomes. Increasing evidence suggests that in addition to this protective role, Leishmania mitochondrial SOD may also initiate H2O2-mediated redox signaling that regulates gene expression and metabolic changes associated with differentiation into virulent forms...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477258/x-ray-metal-assessment-and-ovarian-ultrastructure-alterations-of-the-beetle-blaps-polycresta-coleoptera-tenebrionidae-inhabiting-polluted-soil
#20
Wafaa Osman, Mourad Shonouda
X-ray analysis was applied to estimate the percentages of heavy metals in ovarian tissues of the tenebrionid beetle, Blaps polycresta. Calcium, phosphorus, sulfur, cadmium, copper, and zinc were the most common detected metals in ovaries of insects collected from reference and polluted sites. Only cadmium showed significantly higher percentages in the polluted ovaries compared with the reference ones. Ultrastructure investigation revealed severe alterations in polluted ovaries both in the tropharium and in the vitellarium...
June 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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