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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793081/geochemical-anomalies-of-trace-elements-in-unremediated-soils-of-mt-karcz%C3%A3-wka-a-historic-lead-mining-area-in-the-city-of-kielce-poland
#1
Agnieszka Gałuszka, Zdzisław M Migaszewski, Sabina Dołęgowska, Artur Michalik
Concentrations of selected trace elements (Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) and rare earth elements were determined in 61 samples of surface soils collected from Mt. Karczówka, a historic Pb ore mining area located in the city of Kielce, south-central Poland. Some of these samples were subjected to XRD analyses and Pb stable isotope measurements. The mineral and chemical composition of rock samples were also examined. Mining activity in the study area was conducted mostly during 15th-17th centuries using technologically primitive methods, and was finally ceased in the first half of the 19th century...
May 21, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790964/evidence-of-evolutionary-history-and-selective-sweeps-in-the-genome-of-meishan-pig-reveals-its-genetic-and-phenotypic-characterization
#2
Pengju Zhao, Ying Yu, Wen Feng, Heng Du, Jian Yu, Huimin Kang, Xianrui Zheng, Zhiquan Wang, George E Liu, Catherine W Ernst, Xueqin Ran, Jiafu Wang, Jian-Feng Liu
Background: Meishan is a pig breed indigenous to China and famous for its high fecundity. The traits of Meishan are strongly associated with its distinct evolutionary history and domestication. However, the genomic evidence linking the domestication of Meishan pigs with the unique features are still poorly understood. The goal of this study is to investigate the genomic signatures and evolutionary evidence related to phenotypic traits of Meishan by large-scale sequencing. Results: We found the unique domestication of Meishan pigs happened at the Taihu Basin area between the Majiabang and the Liangzhu culture, during which 300 protein-coding genes have undergone positive selection...
May 22, 2018: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789384/mutations-in-eid1-and-lnk2-caused-light-conditional-clock-deceleration-during-tomato-domestication
#3
Niels A Müller, Lei Zhang, Maarten Koornneef, José M Jiménez-Gómez
Circadian period and phase of cultivated tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ) were changed during domestication, likely adapting the species to its new agricultural environments. Whereas the delayed circadian phase is mainly caused by allelic variation of EID1 , the genetic basis of the long circadian period has remained elusive. Here we show that a partial deletion of the clock gene LNK2 is responsible for the period lengthening in cultivated tomatoes. We use resequencing data to phylogenetically classify hundreds of tomato accessions and investigate the evolution of the eid1 and lnk2 mutations along successive domestication steps...
May 22, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788359/sphingosine-1-phosphate-signaling-and-metabolism-gene-signature-in-pediatric-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-matched-case-control-pilot-study
#4
Jung H Suh, Émilie Degagné, Elizabeth E Gleghorn, Mala Setty, Alexis Rodriguez, K T Park, Sofia G Verstraete, Melvin B Heyman, Ashish S Patel, Melissa Irek, Ginny L Gildengorin, Neil E Hubbard, Alexander D Borowsky, Julie D Saba
Goal: The aim of this study was to investigate gene expression levels of proteins involved in sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) metabolism and signaling in a pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patient population. Background: IBD is a debilitating disease affecting 0.4% of the US population. The incidence of IBD in childhood is rising. Identifying effective targeted therapies that can be used safely in young patients and developing tools for selecting specific candidates for targeted therapies are important goals...
May 18, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788332/constitutive-interferon-pathway-activation-in-tumors-as-an-efficacy-determinant-following-oncolytic-virotherapy
#5
Cheyne Kurokawa, Ianko D Iankov, S Keith Anderson, Ileana Aderca, Alexey A Leontovich, Matthew J Maurer, Ann L Oberg, Mark A Schroeder, Caterina Giannini, Suzanne M Greiner, Marc A Becker, E Aubrey Thompson, Paul Haluska, Mark E Jentoft, Ian F Parney, S John Weroha, Jin Jen, Jann N Sarkaria, Evanthia Galanis
Background: Attenuated measles virus (MV) strains are promising agents currently being tested against solid tumors or hematologic malignancies in ongoing phase I and II clinical trials; factors determining oncolytic virotherapy success remain poorly understood, however. Methods: We performed RNA sequencing and gene set enrichment analysis to identify pathways differentially activated in MV-resistant (n = 3) and -permissive (n = 2) tumors derived from resected human glioblastoma (GBM) specimens and propagated as xenografts (PDX)...
May 16, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788089/the-relationship-between-traumatic-brain-injury-and-rates-of-chronic-symptomatic-illness-in-202-gulf-war-veterans
#6
Linda L Chao
Introduction: Although not a "signature injury" of Operation Desert Shield/Desert Storm (i.e., Gulf War, GW), some GW veterans have a history traumatic brain injury (TBI). For example, a previous study found that 12.2% of the GW veterans from the Fort Devens Cohort Study had self-reported TBIs. The present study sought to build upon this finding by examining the relationship between TBI and chronic symptomatic illness in a different sample of GW veterans. Materials and Methods: Participants were 202 GW veterans recruited from 2014 to 2018 at the San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center as part of a VA-funded study on the effects of predicted exposure to low levels of sarin and cyclosarin on brain structure and function...
May 18, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786908/opposing-patterns-of-intraspecific-and-interspecific-differentiation-in-sex-chromosomes-and-autosomes
#7
Peter A Moran, Sonia Pascoal, Timothee Cezard, Judith E Risse, Michael G Ritchie, Nathan W Bailey
Linking intraspecific and interspecific divergence is an important challenge in speciation research. X chromosomes are expected to evolve faster than autosomes and disproportionately contribute to reproductive barriers, and comparing genetic variation on X and autosomal markers within and between species can elucidate evolutionary processes that shape genome variation. We performed RADseq on a 16-population transect of two closely-related Australian cricket species, Teleogryllus commodus and T. oceanicus, covering allopatry and sympatry...
May 22, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784415/statistical-analysis-of-the-chemical-attribution-signatures-of-3-methylfentanyl-and-its-methods-of-production
#8
Brian P Mayer, Carlos A Valdez, Alan J DeHope, Paul E Spackman, Audrey M Williams
Chemical attribution of the origin of an illegal drug is a key component of forensic efforts aimed at combating illicit and clandestine manufacture of drugs and pharmaceuticals. The results of these studies yield detailed information on synthesis byproducts, reagents, and precursors that can be used to identify the method of manufacture. In the present work, chemical attribution signatures (CAS) associated with the synthesis of the analgesic 3-methylfentanyl, N-(3-methyl-1-phenethylpiperidin-4-yl)-N-phenylpropanamide, were investigated...
August 15, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784410/part-3-solid-phase-extraction-of-russian-vx-and-its-chemical-attribution-signatures-in-food-matrices-and-their-detection-by-gc-ms-and-lc-ms
#9
Audrey M Williams, Alexander K Vu, Brian P Mayer, Saphon Hok, Carlos A Valdez, Armando Alcaraz
Chemical attribution signatures indicative of O-isobutyl S-(2-diethylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothioate (Russian VX) synthetic routes were investigated in spiked food samples. Attribution signatures were identified using a multifaceted approach: Russian VX was synthesized using six synthetic routes and the chemical attribution signatures identified by GC-MS and LC-MS. Three synthetic routes were then down selected and spiked into complex matrices: bottled water, baby food, milk, liquid eggs, and hot dogs. Sampling and extraction methodologies were developed for these materials and used to isolate the attribution signatures and Russian VX from each matrix...
August 15, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781215/strap-deficiency-impairs-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells-lineage-commitment-through-cyp26a1-mediated-retinoic-acid-homeostasis
#10
Lin Jin, Chenbei Chang, Kevin M Pawlik, Arunima Datta, Larry M Johnson, Trung Vu, Joseph L Napoli, Pran K Datta
Retinoic acid (RA) signaling is essential for the differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and vertebrate development. RA biosynthesis and metabolism are controlled by a series of enzymes, but the molecular regulators of these enzymes remain largely obscure. In this study, we investigated the functional role of the WD-domain protein STRAP (serine threonine kinase receptor-associated protein) in the pluripotency and lineage commitment of murine ESCs. We generated Strap knockout (KO) mouse ESCs and subjected them to spontaneous differentiation...
May 21, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776331/genome-wide-detection-of-selection-signatures-in-chinese-indigenous-laiwu-pigs-revealed-candidate-genes-regulating-fat-deposition-in-muscle
#11
Minhui Chen, Jiying Wang, Yanping Wang, Ying Wu, Jinluan Fu, Jian-Feng Liu
BACKGROUND: Currently, genome-wide scans for positive selection signatures in commercial breed have been investigated. However, few studies have focused on selection footprints of indigenous breeds. Laiwu pig is an invaluable Chinese indigenous pig breed with extremely high proportion of intramuscular fat (IMF), and an excellent model to detect footprint as the result of natural and artificial selection for fat deposition in muscle. RESULT: In this study, based on GeneSeek Genomic profiler Porcine HD data, three complementary methods, FST , iHS (integrated haplotype homozygosity score) and CLR (composite likelihood ratio), were implemented to detect selection signatures in the whole genome of Laiwu pigs...
May 18, 2018: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775688/gyneco-oncological-genomics-and-emerging-biomarkers-for-cancer-treatment-with-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors
#12
REVIEW
Giuseppe Curigliano
In gynecological cancers tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and upregulation of immune-related gene signatures have been associated with a better prognosis. Knowledge of tumor immunogenicity and associated gene signatures suggests that the tumor immune landscape is a key determinant to define patient prognosis and potentially to predict response to immune-checkpoint inhibitors. The aim of this review is to give an overview of immune gene signatures across gynecology histological cancer types, defining their prognostic and potential predictive role...
May 15, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775598/selective-cytotoxicity-of-the-nampt-inhibitor-fk866-toward-gastric-cancer-cells-with-markers-of-the-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-due-to-loss-of-naprt
#13
Jooyoung Lee, Hyosil Kim, Jae Eun Lee, Su-Jin Shin, Sejin Oh, Sungjin Kwon, Hakhyun Kim, Yoon Young Choi, Michael A White, Soonmyung Paik, Jae-Ho Cheong, Hyun Seok Kim
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Markers of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in gastric tumor tissues are associated with poor outcomes of patients. We performed a screen to identify pharmacologic compounds that kill gastric cancer cells with EMT-associated gene expression patterns and investigate their mechanisms. METHODS: We identified 29 gastric cancer cell lines with gene expression signature previously associated with an EMT subtype, based on data from RNA sequence analyses, and confirmed their mesenchymal phenotypes of 7 lines (Hs746T, SNU1750, MKN1, SK4, SNU484, SNU668, and YCC11), based in invasive activity and protein markers...
May 15, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774030/changes-in-the-tcr%C3%AE-repertoire-and-tumor-immune-signature-from-a-cutaneous-melanoma-patient-immunized-with-the-csf-470-vaccine-a-case-report
#14
Mariana Aris, Alicia Inés Bravo, María Betina Pampena, Paula Alejandra Blanco, Ibel Carri, Daniel Koile, Patricio Yankilevich, Estrella Mariel Levy, María Marcela Barrio, José Mordoh
The allogeneic therapeutic vaccine CSF-470 has demonstrated a significant benefit over medium-dose IFNα2b in the distant metastasis-free survival for stages IIB-IIC-III cutaneous melanoma patients in a randomized phase II/III clinical trial (CASVAC-0401, NCT01729663). At the end of the 2-year CSF-470 immunization protocol, patient #006 developed several lung and one subcutaneous melanoma metastases; this later was excised. In this report, we analyzed the changes throughout vaccination of immune populations in blood and in the tumor tissue, with special focus on the T-cell repertoire...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772837/conventional-pathology-versus-gene-signatures-for-assessing-luminal-a-and-b-type-breast-cancers-results-of-a-prospective-cohort-study
#15
Julia E C van Steenhoven, Anne Kuijer, Paul J van Diest, Joost M van Gorp, Marieke Straver, Sjoerd G Elias, Jelle Wesseling, Emiel Rutgers, Johanna N H Timmer-Bonte, Peter Nieboer, Tineke J Smilde, Alex Imholz, Charlotte F J M Blanken, Sabine Siesling, Thijs van Dalen
In this study, in estrogen receptor positive (ER+) early stage breast cancer patients who were considered candidates for 70-gene signature (70-GS, "MammaPrint") use, we compared molecular subtyping (MS) based on the previously validated 80-gene signature (80-GS, "BluePrint") versus surrogate pathological subtyping (PS). Between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2015, 595 clinical intermediate risk ER+ early stage breast cancer patients were enrolled. Hormone receptor (HR) and HER2 receptor status were determined by conventional pathology using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH)...
May 17, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772096/signatures-of-diversifying-selection-and-convergence-acting-on-passerine-toll-like-receptor-4-in-an-evolutionary-context
#16
Tereza Králová, Tomáš Albrecht, Josef Bryja, David Hořák, Arild Johnsen, Jan T Lifjeld, Marian Novotný, Ondřej Sedláček, Hana Velová, Michal Vinkler
Positive selection acting on Toll-like receptors (TLRs) has been recently investigated to reveal evolutionary mechanisms of host-pathogen molecular co-adaptation. Much of this research, however, has focused mainly on the identification of sites predicted to be under positive selection, bringing little insight into the functional differences and similarities among species and a limited understanding of convergent evolution in the innate immune molecules. In this study we provide evidence of phenotypic variability in the avian TLR4 ligand-binding region (LBR), the direct interface between host and pathogen molecular structures...
May 17, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772089/microevolutionary-selection-dynamics-acting-on-immune-genes-of-the-green-veined-white-butterfly-pieris-napi
#17
Naomi L P Keehnen, Jason Hill, Sören Nylin, Christopher W Wheat
Insects rely on their innate immune system to successfully mediate complex interactions with their microbiota, as well as the microbes present in the environment. Previous work has shown that components of the canonical immune gene repertoire evolve rapidly and have evolutionary characteristics originating from interactions with fast-evolving microorganisms. Although these interactions are likely to vary among populations, there is a poor understanding of the microevolutionary dynamics of immune genes, especially in non-Dipteran insects...
May 17, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772020/so-many-genes-so-little-time-a-practical-approach-to-divergence-time-estimation-in-the-genomic-era
#18
Stephen A Smith, Joseph W Brown, Joseph F Walker
Phylogenomic datasets have been successfully used to address questions involving evolutionary relationships, patterns of genome structure, signatures of selection, and gene and genome duplications. However, despite the recent explosion in genomic and transcriptomic data, the utility of these data sources for efficient divergence-time inference remains unexamined. Phylogenomic datasets pose two distinct problems for divergence-time estimation: (i) the volume of data makes inference of the entire dataset intractable, and (ii) the extent of underlying topological and rate heterogeneity across genes makes model mis-specification a real concern...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771566/the-evil-of-banality-when-choosing-between-the-mundane-feels-like-choosing-between-the-worst
#19
Amitai Shenhav, Carolyn K Dean Wolf, Uma R Karmarkar
Our most important decisions often provoke the greatest anxiety, whether we seek the better of two prizes or the lesser of two evils. Yet many of our choices are more mundane, such as selecting from a slate of mediocre but acceptable restaurants. Previous research suggests that choices of decreasing value should provoke decreasing anxiety. Here we show that this is not the case. Across three behavioral studies and one fMRI study, we find that anxiety and its neural correlates demonstrate a U-shaped function of choice set value, greatest when choosing between both the highest value and lowest value sets...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770763/a-radiomics-nomogram-for-preoperative-prediction-of-microvascular-invasion-risk-in-hepatitis-b-virus-related-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#20
Jie Peng, Jing Zhang, Qifan Zhang, Yikai Xu, Jie Zhou, Li Liu
PURPOSE: We aimed to develop and validate a radiomics nomogram for preoperative prediction of microvascular invasion (MVI) in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: A total of 304 eligible patients with HCC were randomly divided into training (n=184) and independent validation (n=120) cohorts. Portal venous and arterial phase computed tomography data of the HCCs were collected to extract radiomic features. Using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator algorithm, the training set was processed to reduce data dimensions, feature selection, and construction of a radiomics signature...
May 2018: Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology: Official Journal of the Turkish Society of Radiology
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