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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930715/cigarette-smoking-attenuates-kidney-protection-by-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibition-in-nondiabetic-chronic-kidney-disease
#1
Bethany Roehm, Jan Simoni, Jessica Pruszynski, Donald E Wesson
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking exacerbates the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decline in nondiabetic chronic kidney disease (CKD) despite the kidney protection that is achieved by angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition (ACEI). Whether smoking cessation restores ACEI-related kidney protection is not known. METHODS: This 5-year, prospective, prevention trial recruited 108 smokers and 108 nonsmokers with stage-2 nondiabetic CKD with primary hypertension and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (Ualb) >200 mg/g...
September 21, 2017: American Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915321/regulation-and-functions-of-the-renin-angiotensin-system-in-white-and-brown-adipose-tissue
#2
Mandana Pahlavani, Nishan S Kalupahana, Latha Ramalingam, Naima Moustaid-Moussa
The renin angiotensin system (RAS) is a major regulator of blood pressure, fluid, and electrolyte homeostasis. RAS precursor angiotensinogen (Agt) is cleaved into angiotensin I (Ang I) and II (Ang II) by renin and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), respectively. Major effects of Ang II, the main bioactive peptide of this system, is mediated by G protein coupled receptors, Angiotensin Type 1 (AGTR1, AT1R) and Type 2 (AGTR2, AT2R) receptors. Further, the discovery of additional RAS peptides such as Ang 1-7 generated by the action of another enzyme ACE2 identified novel functions of this complex system...
September 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890045/the-renin-angiotensin-system-and-the-brain-new-developments
#3
REVIEW
Ehab Farag, Daniel I Sessler, Zeyd Ebrahim, Andrea Kurz, Joseph Morgan, Sanchit Ahuja, Kamal Maheshwari, D John Doyle
The traditional renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is indispensable system in adjusting sodium homeostasis, body fluid volume, and controlling arterial blood pressure. The key elements are renin splitting inactive angiotensinogen to yield angiotensin (Ang-I). Ang-1 is then changed by angiotensin-1 converting enzyme (ACE) into angiotensin II (Ang-II). Using PubMed, Google Scholar, and other means, we searched the peer-reviewed literature from 1990 to 2013 for articles on newly discovered findings related to the RAS, especially focusing on how the system influences the central nervous system (CNS)...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851918/atp6ap2-ablation-in-adult-mice-impairs-viability-through-multiple-organ-deficiencies
#4
Olivia Wendling, Marie-France Champy, Solène Jaubert, Guillaume Pavlovic, Aline Dubos, Loic Lindner, Hugues Jacobs, Manuel Mark, Roy Combe, Isabelle Goncalves Da Cruz, Hervé Luche, John S Mudgett, Thomas Rosahl, Tania Sorg, Marie Malissen, Patrick T Reilly, Yann Hérault
ATP6AP2 codes for the (pro)renin receptor and is an essential component of vacuolar H+ ATPase. Activating (pro)renin for conversion of Angiotensinogen to Angiotensin makes ATP6AP2 attractive for drug intervention. Tissue-specific ATP6AP2 inactivation in mouse suggested a strong impact on various organs. Consistent with this, we found that embryonic ablation of Atp6ap2 resulted in both male hemizygous lethality and female haploinsufficiency. Next, we examined the phenotype of an induced inactivation in the adult animal, most akin to detect potential effect of functional interference of ATP6AP2 through drug therapy...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828544/vasculogenic-hyperprolactinemia-severe-prolactin-excess-in-association-with-internal-carotid-artery-aneurysms
#5
Sunita M C De Sousa, Emily J Meyer, Wayne Rankin, Peter J Brautigan, Morton G Burt, David J Torpy
PURPOSE: Internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysms have rarely been found in association with marked hyperprolactinemia in the absence of prolactinoma; the cause of hyperprolactinemia has never been investigated. We aimed to determine if the observed hyperprolactinemia is due to a vascular-derived or known prolactin secretagogue from the injured ICA, analogous to pregnancy-associated hyperprolactinemia putatively due to placental factors. METHODS: We conducted a case series and literature review of individuals with severe hyperprolactinemia in association with ICA aneurysms...
August 21, 2017: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828324/simultaneous-genotyping-of-the-rs4762-and-rs699-polymorphisms-in-angiotensinogen-gene-and-correlation-with-iranian-cad-patients-with-novel-hexa-primer-arms-pcr
#6
Mehri Khatami, Mohammad Mehdi Heidari, Mehdi Hadadzadeh, Barbara Scheiber-Mojdehkar, Morteza Bitaraf Sani, Massoud Houshmand
BACKGROUND: A significant role of Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) genetic variants in the pathogenesis of essential hypertension and cardiovascular diseases has been proved. This study aimed to develop a new, fast and cheap method for the simultaneous detection of two missense single nucleotide polymorphisms (T207M or rs4762 and M268T orrs699) of angiotensinogen (AGT) in single-step Multiplex Hexa-Primer Amplification Refractory Mutation System - polymerase chain reaction (H-ARMS-PCR)...
June 2017: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820392/orally-administered-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitors-captopril-and-isoleucine-proline-proline-have-distinct-effects-on-local-renin-angiotensin-system-and-corticosterone-synthesis-in-dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced-colitis-in-mice
#7
H Salmenkari, M Holappa, R A Forsgard, R Korpela, H Vapaatalo
The effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition by an antihypertensive drug, captopril, and milk casein-derived ACE-inhibiting bioactive tripeptide isoleucine-proline-proline (Ile-Pro-Pro), on local renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and glucocorticoid production in the intestine were studied in the dextran sodium sulfate induced colitis in mice. Mice received water or 3% dextran sodium sulfate with or without either 15.7 mg/l captopril or 833 mg/l Ile-Pro-Pro for 7 days. Captopril and Ile-Pro-Pro were found to have distinct effects on local renin-angiotensin system and mRNA expression of glucocorticoid synthesis components in colon in vitro...
June 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791183/alterations-in-gene-expression-of-components-of-the-renin-angiotensin-system-and-its-related-enzymes-in-lung-cancer
#8
Benjamin Goldstein, Malav Trivedi, Robert C Speth
OBJECTIVES: The study assessed the existence and significance of associations between the expression of fifteen renin-angiotensin system component genes and lung adenocarcinoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: NCBI's built-in statistical tool, GEO2R, was used to calculate Student's t-tests for the associations found in a DNA expression study of adenocarcinoma and matched healthy lung tissue samples. The raw data was processed with GeneSpring™ and then used to generate figures with and without Sidak's multiple comparison correction...
2017: Lung Cancer International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770234/snps-linkage-disequilibrium-and-chronic-mountain-sickness-in-tibetan-chinese
#9
Norman E Buroker, Xue-Han Ning, Zhao-Nian Zhou, Kui Li, Wei-Jun Cen, Xiu-Feng Wu, Wei-Zhong Zhu, C Ronald Scott, Shi-Han Chen
Chronic mountain sickness (CMS) is estimated at 1.2% in Tibetans living at the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Eighteen single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from nine nuclear genes that have an association with CMS in Tibetans have been analyzed by using pairwise linkage disequilibrium (LD). The SNPs included are the angiotensin-converting enzyme (rs4340), the angiotensinogen (rs699), and the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGTR1) (rs5186) from the renin-angiotensin system. A low-density lipoprotein apolipoprotein B (rs693) SNP was also included...
2017: Hypoxia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768285/prevention-of-diabetic-nephropathy-by-modified-acidic-fibroblast-growth-factor
#10
Ana M Pena, Shali Chen, Biao Feng, Lu Cai, Xiaokun Li, Guang Liang, Subrata Chakrabarti
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Oxidative stress (OS) contributes to all chronic diabetic complications, including diabetic nephropathy (DN). Acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) has shown to confer protection from OS. However, it also has potent angiogenic activity. We hypothesized that a modified human aFGF (maFGF), with antioxidant properties but devoid of angiogenic activity, has preventative action in DN. METHODS: Streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice were treated with maFGF (intraperitoneally) daily for 1 or 6 months and were compared with untreated diabetic and non-diabetic controls...
July 29, 2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760411/polymorphisms-of-mthfr-enos-ace-agt-apoe-pon1-pde4d-and-ischemic-stroke-meta-analysis
#11
Loo Keat Wei, Anthony Au, Saras Menon, Lyn R Griffiths, Cheah Wee Kooi, Looi Irene, Jiangyang Zhao, Chaeyoung Lee, Avdonina Maria Alekseevna, Muhammad Radzi Abdul Hassan, Zariah Abdul Aziz
INTRODUCTION: The association between ischemic stroke and genetic polymorphisms of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR; 677C>T and 1298A>C), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS; -786T>C, +894G>T, and variable number tandem repeat [VNTR]), phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D; SNPs 83 and 87), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) I/D, angiotensinogen (AGT) 235M>T, paraoxonase 1 (PON1) 192Q>R, and apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ε2ε3ε4 remains inconclusive. Therefore, this updated meta-analysis aimed to clarify the presumed influence of genetic polymorphisms on ischemic stroke by meta-analyzing the comprehensive coverage of all individual association studies...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758596/effects-of-sleeve-gastrectomy-on-the-metabolic-profile-and-on-the-expression-of-renin-angiotensin-system-in-adipose-tissue-of-obese-rats
#12
Thaísa Soares Crespo, João Marcus Oliveira Andrade, Alanna Fernandes Paraíso, Deborah de Farias Lelis, Pablo Vinicyus Ferreira Chagas, Antônio Sérgio Barcala Jorge, Wagner Leite Ferreira, Alfredo Maurício Batista de Paula, André Luiz Sena Guimarães, Sérgio Henrique Sousa Santos
Sleeve gastrectomy (SG) has been used as a multipurpose surgical procedure for the treatment of obesity. The present study assessed the effects of SG on the metabolic and inflammatory profile and renin-angiotensin system (RAS) expression in the white adipose tissue of male rats with obesity induced by a high-fat diet. Male Wistar rats were treated with a standard diet or high-fat diet and submitted to SG or sham surgery. The glycemic and lipid profiles and gene expression of inflammatory markers and RAS components in adipose tissue were evaluated...
July 28, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747358/urinary-renin-angiotensin-markers-in-polycystic-kidney-disease
#13
Mahdi Salih, Dominique M Bovee, Lodi C W Roksnoer, Niek F Casteleijn, Stephan J L Bakker, Ronald T Gansevoort, Robert Zietse, A H Jan Danser, Ewout J Hoorn
In autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) activation of the renin-angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) may contribute to hypertension and disease progression. Although previous studies focused on circulating RAAS-components, preliminary evidence suggests APDKD may increase urinary RAAS-components. Therefore, our aim was to analyze circulating and urinary RAAS-components in ADPKD. We cross-sectionally compared 60 patients with ADPKD to 57 patients with non-ADPKD chronic kidney disease (CKD). The two groups were matched by gender, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), blood pressure, and RAAS-inhibitor use...
July 26, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734982/isolation-and-characterization-of-renin-like-aspartic-proteases-from-echis-ocellatus-venom
#14
M C Wilkinson, D J H Nightingale, R A Harrison, S C Wagstaff
Three aspartic proteases (SVAPs) have been isolated from venom of the saw-scaled viper, Echis ocellatus. In confirmation of prior transcriptomic predictions, all three forms match to sequences of either of the two SVAP transcripts (EOC00051 and EOC00123), have a molecular weight of 42 kDa and possess a single N-glycan. The SVAPs act in a renin-like manner, specifically cleaving human and porcine angiotensinogen into angiotensin-1 and possess no general protease activity. Their activity is completely inhibited by the aspartyl protease inhibitor Pepstatin A...
July 19, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720877/role-of-the-histone-deacetylase-inhibitor-valproic-acid-in-high-fat-diet-induced-hypertension-via-inhibition-of-hdac1-angiotensin-ii-axis
#15
J Choi, S Park, T K Kwon, S I Sohn, K M Park, J I Kim
BACKGROUND: Obesity is known as an epidemic worldwide because of consumption of westernized high-fat diets and one of the major risk factors of hypertension. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) control gene expression by regulating histone/non-histone protein deacetylation. HDAC inhibitors exert anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory effects and play a protective role in cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, we tested the effect of an FDA-approved pan-HDAC inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hypertension in mice...
July 19, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716988/blood-pressure-lowering-and-safety-improvements-with-liver-angiotensinogen-inhibition-in-models-of-hypertension-and-kidney-injury
#16
Adam E Mullick, Steve T Yeh, Mark J Graham, Jeffery A Engelhardt, Thazha P Prakash, Rosanne M Crooke
Uncontrolled hypertension is an important contributor to cardiovascular disease. Despite the armamentarium of antihypertensive treatments, there remains a need for novel agents effective in individuals who cannot reach acceptable blood pressure levels. Inhibitors targeting the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) are widely used but may not optimally inhibit RAAS and demonstrate an acceptable safety profile. Experiments were conducted to characterize a series of AGT (angiotensinogen) antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) and compare their efficacy and tolerability to traditional RAAS blockade...
September 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714028/identification-of-potential-target-genes-associated-with-the-pathogenesis-of-osteoarthritis-using-microarray-based-analysis
#17
Meng Li, Liqiang Zhi, Zhi Zhang, Weiguo Bian, Yusheng Qiu
The aim of the present study was to investigate the molecular circuitry of osteoarthritis (OA) and identify more potential target genes for OA treatment. Microarray data of GSE32317 was downloaded from the National Center for Biotechnology Information Gene Expression Omnibus database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in samples of synovial membrane from patients with early stage of knee OA (OA_Early) and late stage of knee OA (OA_End) that were compared with healthy specimens. Bioinformatics analysis was applied to analyze the significant functions and pathways that were enriched by the common DEGs identified in OA_Early and OA_End samples...
September 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698595/the-gene-variants-of-maternal-fetal-renin-angiotensin-system-in-preeclampsia-a-hybrid-case-parent-mother-control-study
#18
Heng Zhang, Ying-Xue Li, Wei-Jun Peng, Zhi-Wei Li, Chun-Hua Zhang, Hai-Hong Di, Xian-Ping Shen, Jun-Feng Zhu, Wei-Rong Yan
Preeclampsia (PE) is a common pregnancy-related complication, and polymorphisms in angiotensinogen (AGT), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), and angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) are believed to contribute to PE development. We implemented a hybrid study to investigate the influence of maternal and fetal ACE I/D, ACE G2350A, AGT M235T, AGT T174M, and AT1R A1166C polymorphisms on PE in Han Chinese women. Polymorphisms were genotyped in 1,488 subjects (256 patients experiencing PE, along with their fetuses and partners, and 360 normotensive controls with their fetuses)...
July 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698269/urinary-matrix-metalloproteinase-7-predicts-severe-aki-and-poor-outcomes-after-cardiac-surgery
#19
Xiaobing Yang, Chunbo Chen, Siyuan Teng, Xiaorui Fu, Yan Zha, Huafeng Liu, Li Wang, Jianwei Tian, Xiangyan Zhang, Youhua Liu, Jing Nie, Fan Fan Hou
Urinary matrix metalloproteinase-7 (uMMP-7) levels consistently reflect the activity of intrarenal Wnt/β-catenin, which is activated in AKI models. To test the hypothesis that uMMP-7 is a predictor for severe AKI in patients after cardiac surgery, we performed a prospective, multicenter, two-stage cohort study in 721 patients undergoing cardiac surgery. In stage 1, we enrolled 323 children from three academic medical centers. In stage 2, we enrolled 398 adults at six centers. We analyzed levels of uMMP-7 and other injury biomarkers during the perioperative period...
July 11, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695400/role-of-collecting-duct-renin-in-the-pathogenesis-of-hypertension
#20
REVIEW
Alexis A Gonzalez, Lucienne S Lara, Minolfa C Prieto
The presence of renin production by the principal cells of the collecting duct has opened new perspectives for the regulation of intrarenal angiotensin II (Ang II). Angiotensinogen (AGT) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) are present in the tubular fluid coming from the proximal tubule and collecting duct. All the components needed for Ang II formation are present along the nephron, and much is known about the mechanisms regulating renin in juxtaglomerular cells (JG); however, those in the collecting duct remain unclear...
August 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
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