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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034514/measurement-of-murine-single-kidney-glomerular-filtration-rate-using-dynamic-contrast-enhanced-mri
#1
Kai Jiang, Hui Tang, Prasanna K Mishra, Slobodan I Macura, Lilach O Lerman
PURPOSE: To develop and validate a method for measuring murine single-kidney glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI). METHODS: This prospective study was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. A fast longitudinal relaxation time (T1 ) measurement method was implemented to capture gadolinium dynamics (1 s/scan), and a modified two-compartment model was developed to quantify GFR as well as renal perfusion using 16...
October 16, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022389/the-composition-and-metabolism-of-faecal-microbiota-is-specifically-modulated-by-different-dietary-polysaccharides-and-mucin-an-isothermal-microcalorimetry-study
#2
K Adamberg, K Kolk, M Jaagura, R Vilu, S Adamberg
The metabolic activity of colon microbiota is specifically affected by fibres with various monomer compositions, degree of polymerisation and branching. The supply of a variety of dietary fibres assures the diversity of gut microbial communities considered important for the well-being of the host. The aim of this study was to compare the impact of different oligo- and polysaccharides (galacto- and fructooligosaccharides, resistant starch, levan, inulin, arabinogalactan, xylan, pectin and chitin), and a glycoprotein mucin on the growth and metabolism of faecal microbiota in vitro by using isothermal microcalorimetry (IMC)...
October 12, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022080/urinary-potassium-to-urinary-potassium-plus-sodium-ratio-can-accurately-identify-hypovolemia-in-nephrotic-syndrome-a-provisional-study
#3
Werner Keenswijk, Mohamad Ikram Ilias, Ann Raes, Raymond Donckerwolcke, Johan Vande Walle
There is evidence pointing to a decrease of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in a subgroup of nephrotic children, likely secondary to hypovolemia. The aim of this study is to validate the use of urinary potassium to the sum of potassium plus sodium ratio (UK/UK+UNa) as an indicator of hypovolemia in nephrotic syndrome, enabling detection of those patients who will benefit from albumin infusion. We prospectively studied 44 nephrotic children and compared different parameters to a control group (36 children)...
October 11, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018453/inulin-type-fructans-modulates-pancreatic-gut-innate-immune-responses-and-gut-barrier-integrity-during-experimental-acute-pancreatitis-in-a-chain-length-dependent-manner
#4
Yue He, Chengfei Wu, Jiahong Li, Hongli Li, Zhenghua Sun, Hao Zhang, Paul de Vos, Li-Long Pan, Jia Sun
Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common abdominal inflammatory disorder and one of the leading causes of hospital admission for gastrointestinal disorders. No specific pharmacological or nutritional therapy is available but highly needed. Inulin-type fructans (ITFs) are capable of modifying gut immune and barrier homeostasis in a chemistry-dependent manner and hence potentially applicable for managing AP, but their efficacy in AP has not been demonstrated yet. The current study aimed to examine and compare modulatory effects of ITFs with different degrees of fermentability on pancreatic-gut immunity and barrier function during experimentally induced AP in mice...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989755/facilitation-of-trace-metal-uptake-in-cells-by-inulin-coating-of-metallic-nanoparticles
#5
Esmeralda Santillán-Urquiza, Fernando Arteaga-Cardona, Cristina Torres-Duarte, Bryan Cole, Bing Wu, Miguel A Méndez-Rojas, Gary N Cherr
Trace elements such as zinc and iron are essential for the proper function of biochemical processes, and their uptake and bioavailability are dependent on their chemical form. Supplementation of trace metals through nanostructured materials is a new field, but its application raises concerns regarding their toxicity. Here, we compared the intracellular zinc uptake of different sources of zinc: zinc sulfate, and ZnO and core-shell α-Fe2O3@ZnO nanoparticles, coated or uncoated with inulin, an edible and biocompatible polysaccharide...
September 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987875/activation-of-igf-1-receptors-and-akt-signaling-by-systemic-hyperinsulinemia-contributes-to-cardiac-hypertrophy-but-does-not-regulate-cardiac-autophagy-in-obese-diabetic-mice
#6
Karla Maria Pires, Marcio Buffolo, Christin Schaaf, J David Symons, James Cox, E Dale Abel, Craig H Selzman, Sihem Boudina
Autophagy plays an important role in the maintenance of normal heart function. However, the role of autophagy in the inulin resistant and diabetic heart is not well understood. Furthermore, the upstream signaling and the downstream targets involved in cardiac autophagy regulation during obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are not fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to measure autophagic flux and to dissect the upstream and downstream signaling involved in cardiac autophagy regulation in the hearts of obese T2DM mice...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980453/cryopreservation-of-artificial-gut-microbiota-produced-with-in%C3%A2-vitro-fermentation-technology
#7
Lea Bircher, Clarissa Schwab, Annelies Geirnaert, Christophe Lacroix
Interest in faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has increased as therapy for intestinal diseases, but safety issues limit its widespread use. Intestinal fermentation technology (IFT) can produce controlled, diverse and metabolically active 'artificial' colonic microbiota as potential alternative to common FMT. However, suitable processing technology to store this artificial microbiota is lacking. In this study, we evaluated the impact of the two cryoprotectives, glycerol (15% v/v) and inulin (5% w/v) alone and in combination, in preserving short-chain fatty acid formation and recovery of major butyrate-producing bacteria in three artificial microbiota during cryopreservation for 3 months at -80°C...
October 4, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979240/effect-of-functional-oligosaccharides-and-ordinary-dietary-fiber-on-intestinal-microbiota-diversity
#8
Weiwei Cheng, Jing Lu, Boxing Li, Weishi Lin, Zheng Zhang, Xiao Wei, Chengming Sun, Mingguo Chi, Wei Bi, Bingjun Yang, Aimin Jiang, Jing Yuan
Functional oligosaccharides, known as prebiotics, and ordinary dietary fiber have important roles in modulating the structure of intestinal microbiota. To investigate their effects on the intestinal microecosystem, three kinds of diets containing different prebiotics were used to feed mice for 3 weeks, as follows: GI (galacto-oligosaccharides and inulin), PF (polydextrose and insoluble dietary fiber from bran), and a GI/PF mixture (GI and PF, 1:1), 16S rRNA gene sequencing and metabolic analysis of mice feces were then conducted...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975455/potential-prebiotic-oligosaccharide-mixtures-from-acidic-hydrolysis-of-rice-bran-and-cassava-pulp
#9
Chanida Hansawasdi, Peter Kurdi
Two agricultural wastes, rice bran and cassava pulp were subjected to acidic hydrolysis by 2 M sulfuric acid which resulted in hemicellulosic oligosaccharide mixtures. Monosaccharide component analysis of these mixtures revealed that the oligosaccharides of rice bran acid hydrolysate (RAHF) composed of glucose and arabinose while cassava pulp acid hydrolysate (CAHF) was found to be comprised of glucose, galactose and arabinose. Both RAHF and CAHF were able to fuel all of the tested three Lactobacillus, five Bifidobacterium and three Bacteroides strains indicating the prebiotic potential of these oligosaccharide mixtures...
October 3, 2017: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975432/calcium-and-vitamin-d-fortified-milk-reduces-bone-turnover-and-improves-bone-density-in-postmenopausal-women-over-1%C3%A2-year
#10
Marlena C Kruger, Yoke Mun Chan, Lee Ting Lau, Chin Chin Lau, Yit Siew Chin, Barbara Kuhn-Sherlock, Joanne M Todd, Linda M Schollum
PURPOSE: In Malaysia, hip fracture incidence is higher in Chinese women than other ethnic groups. This study compared the effects of a high-calcium vitamin D fortified milk with added FOS-inulin versus regular milk over 1 year on aspects of bone health in Chinese postmenopausal women in Malaysia. METHODS: One-hundred and twenty-one women (mean age 59 (± 4) years) were randomized into two groups: control (n = 60; regular milk, 428 mg calcium per day) or intervention (n = 61; fortified milk at 1200 mg calcium, 96 mg magnesium, 2...
October 3, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971691/is-fibre-an-effective-strategy-to-improve-laxation-in-long-term-care-residents
#11
Wendy J Dahl, Daniela Rivero Mendoza
The high prevalence of constipation in long-term care (LTC) residents has been a long-standing issue for caregivers, attending health professionals, and the residents themselves. The traditional medical response has been to utilize pharmaceutical laxatives, enemas, and suppositories for treatment. The purpose of this review was to determine if fibre supplementation (including fibre added to foods) is effective in increasing stool frequency, improving stool consistency, and decreasing laxative use in LTC residents...
October 3, 2017: Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967465/conjugation-of-the-crm197-inulin-conjugate-significantly-increases-the-immunogenicity-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-cfp10-tb10-4-fusion-protein
#12
Shun Hu, Weili Yu, Chunyang Hu, Dong Wei, Lijuan Shen, Tao Hu, Youjin Yi
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is a serious fatal pathogen that causes tuberculosis (TB). Effective vaccination is urgently needed to deal with the serious threat from TB. Mtb-secreted protein antigens are important virulence determinants of Mtb with poor immunogenicity. Adjuvants and antigen delivery systems are thus highly desired to improve the immunogenicity of protein antigens. Inulin is a biocompatible polysaccharide (PS) adjuvant that can stimulate a strong cellular and humoral immunity. Bacterial capsular PS and haptens have been conjugated with cross-reacting material 197 (CRM197) to improve their immunogenicity...
September 19, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962046/effect-of-butyrate-and-inulin-supplementation-on-glycemic-status-lipid-profile-and-glucagon-like-peptide-1-level-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#13
Neda Roshanravan, Reza Mahdavi, Effat Alizadeh, Mohammad Asghari Jafarabadi, Mehdi Hedayati, Abed Ghavami, Shahriar Alipour, Naimeh Mesri Alamdari, Meisam Barati, Alireza Ostadrahimi
Studies on humans with diabetes mellitus showed that the crosstalk between the intestinal microbiota and the host has a key role in controlling the disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of sodium butyrate and high performance inulin supplementation simultaneously or singly on glycemic status, lipid profile, and glucagon-like peptide 1 level in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Sixty patients were recruited for the study. The participants were randomly allocated, using randomized block procedure, to one of the four treatment groups (A, B, C, or D)...
September 29, 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955319/how-to-feed-the-mammalian-gut-microbiota-bacterial-and-metabolic-modulation-by-dietary-fibers
#14
Chiara Ferrario, Rosario Statello, Luca Carnevali, Leonardo Mancabelli, Christian Milani, Marta Mangifesta, Sabrina Duranti, Gabriele A Lugli, Beatriz Jimenez, Samantha Lodge, Alice Viappiani, Giulia Alessandri, Margerita Dall'Asta, Daniele Del Rio, Andrea Sgoifo, Douwe van Sinderen, Marco Ventura, Francesca Turroni
The composition of the gut microbiota of mammals is greatly influenced by diet. Therefore, evaluation of different food ingredients that may promote changes in the gut microbiota composition is an attractive approach to treat microbiota disturbances. In this study, three dietary fibers, such as inulin (I, 10%), resistant starch (RS, 10%), and citrus pectin (3%), were employed as supplements to normal chow diet of adult male rats for 2 weeks. Fecal microbiota composition and corresponding metabolite profiles were assessed before and after prebiotics supplementation...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937879/advax4-delta-inulin-combination-adjuvant-together-with-ecmx-a-fusion-construct-of-three-protective-mtb-antigens-induces-a-potent-th1-immune-response-and-protects-mice-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#15
Bruno de Paula Oliveira Santos, Monalisa Martins Trentini, Renato Beilner Machado, Mara Rúbia Nunes Celes, André Kipnis, Nikolai Petrovsky, Ana Paula Junqueira-Kipnis
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a main public health concern and 10.4 million new cases occurred in 2015 around the world. BCG is the only approved vaccine against TB, but has variable efficacy and new vaccines are needed. We developed two new mTB vaccine candidates based on the recombinant fusion proteins, rCMX and rECMXformulated with Advax4, a new combination adjuvant combining delta inulin, CpG oligonucleotide and murabutide. When BALB/c mice were immunized three times intramuscularly with these vaccine formulationsInjection of Advax4 alone increased the percentage of lymphatic endothelial cells and activated macrophages (F480/CD11b(+)) in the draining lymph nodes consistent with a chemotactic adjuvant effect...
September 22, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932931/usefulness-of-zebrafish-larvae-to-evaluate-drug-induced-functional-and-morphological-renal-tubular-alterations
#16
Rita Gorgulho, Raquel Jacinto, Susana S Lopes, Sofia A Pereira, Erin M Tranfield, Gabriel G Martins, Emilio J Gualda, Rico J E Derks, Ana C Correia, Evelyne Steenvoorden, Petra Pintado, Oleg A Mayboroda, Emilia C Monteiro, Judit Morello
Prediction and management of drug-induced renal injury (DIRI) rely on the knowledge of the mechanisms of drug insult and on the availability of appropriate animal models to explore it. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) offers unique advantages for assessing DIRI because the larval pronephric kidney has a high homology with its human counterpart and it is fully mature at 3.5 days post-fertilization. Herein, we aimed to evaluate the usefulness of zebrafish larvae as a model of renal tubular toxicity through a comprehensive analysis of the renal alterations induced by the lethal concentrations for 10% of the larvae for gentamicin, paracetamol and tenofovir...
September 20, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928520/effect-of-the-incorporation-of-bifidobacterium-bb-12-microencapsulated-with-sweet-whey-and-inulin-on-the-properties-of-greek-style-yogurt
#17
Stephanie S Pinto, Bianca Dm Cavalcante, Silvani Verruck, Lara F Alves, Elane S Prudêncio, Renata Dmc Amboni
The effect of the addition of Bifidobacterium BB-12 microencapsulated by spray drying with sweet whey and inulin on the microbiological, physicochemical and texture properties of Greek-style yogurt was evaluated during 28 days of storage. The survival of this probiotic under simulated gastrointestinal conditions was assessed after this storage time. Three formulations of Greek-style yogurt were produced: Control (with free cells); SW (with microcapsules produced only with sweet whey); and SWI (with microcapsules produced with sweet whey and inulin)...
August 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928068/pistachio-hull-water-soluble-polysaccharides-as-a-novel-prebiotic-agent
#18
Safoura Akbari-Alavijeh, Sabihe Soleimanian-Zad, Mahmoud Sheikh-Zeinoddin, Sarwar Hashmi
We isolated and characterized pistachio hull polysaccharides (PHP). The PHP was a heteropolysaccharide mainly contained 75.50% (w/w) total sugar and 9.51% (w/w) uronic acid. As determined by GPC analysis, the polysaccharide with a molecular weight of 3.71×10(6) D (83.2%) was the most dominant fraction. Moreover, HPLC analysis indicated that PHP was predominantly composed of xylose, glucose, arabinose, and fructose with a molar ratio of 1.00:2.50:19.67:28.81. FT-IR and NMR analysis also confirmed the results obtained by HPLC and characterized preliminary structure features of the PHP...
September 16, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923170/prebiotics-in-the-management-of-components-of-the-metabolic-syndrome
#19
REVIEW
Sarah O'Connor, Sarah Chouinard-Castonguay, Claudia Gagnon, Iwona Rudkowska
Components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), including abdominal obesity, low-grade chronic systemic inflammation, altered glucose metabolism, dyslipidemia and high blood pressure, are major threats to healthy aging in modern societies. The connection between MetS components and gut microflora is now acknowledged and multiple therapeutic strategies have been proposed to change the composition of the gut microbiota in order to promote optimal metabolic health. Prebiotics have the ability to favour growth of beneficial bacteria, especially short-chain fatty-acids (SCFA) producers...
October 2017: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922844/characterization-of-inulinase-promoter-from-kluyveromyces-marxianus-for-intensive-protein-expression-in-industrial-biotechnology
#20
Jiaoqi Gao, Wenjie Yuan, Yimin Li, Fengwu Bai, Yu Jiang
Inulinase from Kluyveromyces marxianus (KmINU1) has wide application in industrial biotechnology, and it is supposed that its expression is regulated at the transcriptional level via the promoter. Therefore, in this study, the KmINU1 promoter, fused to the reporter EGFP gene, was analyzed to determine its fundamental regulatory mechanisms in Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288C (ATCC 204508). Induction by inulin and repression by high glucose concentrations of KmINU1 promoters are reported, and the promoter with a length of 353 bp was shown to have the highest strength with the weakest responses to high glucose concentration...
September 1, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
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