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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311319/preferences-for-moral-vs-immoral-traits-in-others-are-conditional
#1
David E Melnikoff, April H Bailey
The preference for morality in others is regarded as a dominant factor in person perception. Moral traits are thought to foster liking, and immoral traits are thought to foster disliking, irrespective of the context in which they are embedded. We report the results of four studies that oppose this view. Using both explicit and implicit measures, we found that the preference for morality vs. immorality in others is conditional on the evaluator's current goals. Specifically, when immorality was conducive to participants' current goals, the preference for moral vs...
January 8, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294878/awareness-and-rejection-accounts-of-intimate-partner-violence-by-young-women-in-soweto-johannesburg-south-africa
#2
Matamela Makongoza, Mzikazi Nduna
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is the most prevalent form of interpersonal violence experienced by women in South Africa. A study conducted with young women from South Africa, aged 13 to 23 years, estimated that 42% experienced physical violence from their intimate partners. The subtle and nuanced social dynamics of IPV are less understood owing to little qualitative research on this subject. This study qualitatively explored how young women perceive and experience IPV. Participants were recruited through snowballing from townships in Soweto, outside Johannesburg...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294820/familicide-in-italy-an-exploratory-study-of-cases-involving-male-perpetrators-1992-2015
#3
Domenico Tosini
This article adds to the literature on familicide by providing specific insights from the Italian experience. It presents results of an exploratory investigation into male-perpetrated familicides in Italy between 1992 and 2015. Familicide is defined as the killing of the spouse or intimate partner, and at least one child, at the hand of the other spouse/partner. Incidents of familicide were collated from newspaper reports. We identified 90 cases, resulting in 207 deaths. On average, perpetrators were middle aged ( M = 46...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281592/individual-based-compulsive-sexual-behavior-scale-its-development-and-importance-in-examining-compulsive-sexual-behavior
#4
Dr Yaniv Efrati, Professor Mario Mikulincer
Compulsive sexual behavior comprises individual-based (e.g., sexual fantasies, compulsive sexual thoughts, masturbation) and partnered (e.g., interpersonal sexual conquests, repeated infidelity) facets. Most instruments for assessing compulsive sexual behavior, however, focus less on the individual-based facet and specifically on fantasies and compulsive thoughts. In the current research, we developed and validated an individual-based compulsive sexual behavior scale (I-CSB). In Study 1 (N = 492), the factorial structure of the I-CSB was examined...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244527/motivations-for-extradyadic-infidelity-revisited
#5
Dylan Selterman, Justin R Garcia, Irene Tsapelas
Relationship infidelities are motivated by many distinct factors, with previous research indicating motivations of dissatisfaction, neglect, anger, and sexual desire (Barta & Kiene, 2005). We expand on this by demonstrating additional, empirically distinct motivations for infidelity. Using an Internet-based questionnaire, participants (N = 495), most of whom were young adults, self-reported their infidelities. In addition to evidence for previously studied motivations, our data demonstrate additional factors, including lack of love ("I had 'fallen out of love with' my primary partner"), low commitment ("I was not very committed to my primary partner"), esteem ("I wanted to enhance my popularity"), gaining sexual variety ("I wanted a greater variety of sexual partners"), and situational factors ("I was drunk and not thinking clearly")...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Sex Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240538/pathways-to-infidelity-the-roles-of-self-serving-bias-and-betrayal-trauma
#6
Benjamin Warach, Lawrence Josephs, Bernard S Gorman
This study employed a structural equation modeling (SEM) approach to examine the interrelationships between the self-serving bias and various known predictors of infidelity. Specifically, we sought to generate a path model depicting how the following variables jointly predict sexual infidelity perpetration: (1) insecure attachment, (2) pathological narcissism, (3) sexual narcissism, (4) primary psychopathy, (5) self-serving attributions for retaliatory infidelity, and (6) sexual betrayal victimization. We developed a structural model describing various pathways to sexual infidelity perpetration based on these six variables...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201531/stigma-partners-providers-and-costs-potential-barriers-to-prep-uptake-among-us-women
#7
Lakshmi Goparaju, Nathan C Praschan, Lari Warren-Jeanpiere, Laure S Experton, Mary A Young, Seble Kassaye
Background: Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) use has remained low among US women while significantly increasing among men who have sex with men. Besides lack of awareness, women face several social and structural barriers in gaining access to and using PrEP. Methods: Four focus group discussions with 20 HIV-negative women who live in the Washington DC metropolitan area. Results: The women expressed concerns about social and structural barriers to PrEP use...
September 2017: Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165592/folate-deficiency-induces-mitotic-aberrations-and-chromosomal-instability-by-compromising-the-spindle-assembly-checkpoint-in-cultured-human-colon-cells
#8
Xihan Guo, Juan Ni, Yuqian Zhu, Tao Zhou, Xiaoling Ma, Jinglun Xue, Xu Wang
Folates comprise the essential B9 vitamin that act as cofactors and cosubstrates in one-carbon metabolism for both biosynthesis and methylation of DNA and RNA. Folate deficiency (FD) has been shown to induce chromosomal instability (CIN), yet the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we used human NCM460 colon mucosal cells as a model to investigate the effect of FD on spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), a cell-cycle regulatory pathway preventing CIN during mitosis. Cells were maintained in medium containing 1...
November 19, 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121662/qualitative-and-quantitative-assessment-of-illumina-s-forensic-str-and-snp-kits-on-miseq-fgx%C3%A2
#9
Vishakha Sharma, Hoi Yan Chow, Donald Siegel, Elisa Wurmbach
Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) is a powerful tool transforming DNA analysis in multiple fields ranging from medicine, to environmental science, to evolutionary biology. In forensic applications, MPS offers the ability to significantly increase the discriminatory power of human identification as well as aid in mixture deconvolution. However, before the benefits of any new technology can be employed, a thorough evaluation of its quality, consistency, sensitivity, and specificity must be rigorously evaluated in order to gain a detailed understanding of the technique including sources of error, error rates, and other restrictions/limitations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096076/regulation-of-mrna-translation-in-neurons-a-matter-of-life-and-death
#10
REVIEW
Mridu Kapur, Caitlin E Monaghan, Susan L Ackerman
Dynamic regulation of mRNA translation initiation and elongation is essential for the survival and function of neural cells. Global reductions in translation initiation resulting from mutations in the translational machinery or inappropriate activation of the integrated stress response may contribute to pathogenesis in a subset of neurodegenerative disorders. Aberrant proteins generated by non-canonical translation initiation may be a factor in the neuron death observed in the nucleotide repeat expansion diseases...
November 1, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090392/perceived-risk-of-intimate-partner-violence-among-sti-clinic-patients-implications-for-partner-notification-and-patient-delivered-partner-therapy
#11
Steven A John, Jennifer L Walsh, Young Ik Cho, Lance S Weinhardt
Patient-delivered partner therapy (PDPT) is the practice of providing patients diagnosed with a bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) medication to give directly to their partner for treatment without requiring the partner to participate in diagnostic testing and counseling. Despite a growing body of evidence in support of PDPT, literature is limited to date on the influence of perceived risk of intimate partner violence (IPV) on PDPT use. We analyzed mixed-method data from 196 quantitative surveys (61% male, M age = 31...
October 31, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077548/jealousy-gender-and-culture-of-honor-a-study-in-portugal-and-brazil
#12
Jesús M Canto, José Luis Alvaro, Cícero Pereira, Alicia Garrido, Ana R Torres, Marcos Emanoel Pereira
The purpose of this study was to examine whether gender and culture of honor were associated with the type of infidelity (sexual or emotional) that affected our subjects more. Samples of 192 Portuguese university students (119 women and 73 men) and 415 Brazilian university students (214 men and 201 women) participated in this research. Participants responded to six dilemmas reflecting a type of infidelity (sexual or emotional), a gender scale, and a culture of honor scale. The results of both samples are compatible with the cultural theses about jealousy...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072437/from-love-and-fidelity-to-infidelity-individual-experiences-of-women-with-breast-cancer-regarding-relationships-with-their-spouses
#13
Hajar Nouri Sanchuli, Mozhgan Rahnama, Hossein Shahdadi, Mahdieh Poudineh Moghaddam
Background and Objective: Breast cancer and its treatment processes not only involve the patients but also their spouses and can impact on mutual relationships. Spouses of women with breast cancer may experience devastating consequences of the disease in their marital and sexual relationships. Therefore, in the present study we aimed to investigate individual experiences of women with breast cancer in their relationships with their spouses. Materials and Methods: This was a qualitative study with a conventional approach to content analysis...
October 26, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058100/human-mating-theory-migration-and-marital-dissolution
#14
Roberto Ippoliti
Marriage dissolution has been extensively analyzed in the last few decades, looking for the determinants of this well-known phenomenon, but so far the relationship between female migration and marriage dissolution does not seem to have been thoroughly investigated. This work aimed to analyze the correlation between marriage dissolution and migration, which might bias the sex ratio within a given society, introducing new social and cultural values. Considering the Regions of Italy between 2002 and 2007 (i.e...
October 20, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025484/-it-makes-the-patient-s-spirit-weaker-tuberculosis-stigma-and-gender-interaction-in-dar-es-salaam-tanzania
#15
C Miller, J Huston, L Samu, S Mfinanga, P Hopewell, E Fair
SETTING: Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. OBJECTIVES: To describe tuberculosis (TB) related stigma and to understand how it interacts with gender to affect access to care. DESIGN: Eight focus group discussions were held among 48 TB patients and their household members, and a thematic content analysis was carried out. RESULTS: The main components of stigma were fear, self-isolation, ostracization, loss of status in the community, and discrimination by providers...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982311/-wtf-is-prep-attitudes-towards-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-and-transgender-women-in-new-york-city
#16
Matthew Thomann, Ashley Grosso, Richard Zapata, Mary Ann Chiasson
In the USA, gay and other men who have sex with men and transgender women are disproportionately affected by HIV. Uptake of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), anti-retroviral therapy to prevent HIV-negative individuals from seroconverting if exposed to HIV, by members of this population remains low, particularly among African-Americans. We conducted two focus groups to assess responses to an online social media campaign focusing on PrEP use in New York City. We designed, produced and disseminated the campaign to address knowledge of PrEP; its physical and psychological side effects; and psychosocial barriers related to PrEP adherence and sex shaming...
October 6, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949230/induced-cavities-for-photonic-quantum-gates
#17
Ohr Lahad, Ofer Firstenberg
Effective cavities can be optically induced in atomic media and employed to strengthen optical nonlinearities. Here we study the integration of induced cavities with a photonic quantum gate based on Rydberg blockade. Accounting for loss in the atomic medium, we calculate the corresponding finesse and gate infidelity. Our analysis shows that the conventional limits imposed by the blockade optical depth are mitigated by the induced cavity in long media, thus establishing the total optical depth of the medium as a complementary resource...
September 15, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929303/the-facial-width-to-height-ratio-predicts-sex-drive-sociosexuality-and-intended-infidelity
#18
Steven Arnocky, Justin M Carré, Brian M Bird, Benjamin J P Moreau, Tracy Vaillancourt, Triana Ortiz, Nicole Marley
Previous research has linked the facial width-to-height ratio (FWHR) to a host of psychological and behavioral characteristics, primarily in men. In two studies, we examined novel links between FWHR and sex drive. In Study 1, a sample of 145 undergraduate students revealed that FWHR positively predicted sex drive. There were no significant FWHR × sex interactions, suggesting that FWHR is linked to sexuality among both men and women. Study 2 replicated and extended these findings in a sample of 314 students collected from a different Canadian city, which again demonstrated links between the FWHR and sex drive (also in both men and women), as well as sociosexuality and intended infidelity (men only)...
September 19, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922011/south-asian-immigrant-women-s-suggestions-for-culturally-tailored-hiv-education-and-prevention-programs
#19
Roula N Hawa, Angela Underhill, Carmen H Logie, Shazia Islam, Mona Loutfy
Using a community-based, socialist feminist qualitative study, and an emergent research design, we explored the unique individual experiences of South Asian immigrant women living with HIV in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) of Ontario, Canada. We assessed both the HIV risk context and the strategies for HIV education and prevention as expressed by study participants. Grounded in Connell's social theory of gender, a thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews with 12 women yielded six themes related to the power and impact of stigmatization, community's denial of HIV, infidelity, manifested in resistance to discussing sex and condom use, non-disclosure, and lack of HIV knowledge...
September 18, 2017: Ethnicity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885047/dating-infidelity-in-turkish-couples-the-role-of-attitudes-and-intentions
#20
Ezgi Toplu-Demirtaş, Frank D Fincham
Studies on dating infidelity have mostly been carried out in individualistic, Western cultures and have tended to investigate either attitudes or intentions toward infidelity in isolation from each other. The current study therefore investigated dating infidelity in a more collectivist, predominantly Muslim culture. Informed by the theory of planned behavior, it tested intentions as a potential mechanism that might account for the association between attitudes toward infidelity and reported infidelity. In doing so, the role of gender and infidelity history was also investigated in regard to attitudes and intentions toward infidelity...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Sex Research
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