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Genetic diversity

Juan M Galarza, Rodrigo Barquera, Ana M Tito Álvarez, Diana I Hernández Zaragoza, Gabriela Peralta Sevilla, Andrea Tamayo, Mariel Pérez, David Dávila, Lotty Birnberg, Víctor Acuña Alonzo, Johannes Krause, Marcelo Grijalva
We studied HLA class I (HLA-A, -B) and class II (HLA-DRB1, -DQB1) alleles by PCR-SSP based typing in a total of 1101 Ecuadorian individuals from three regions of the country, the Coastal region, the Andean region, and the Amazonian region, to obtain information regarding allelic and haplotypic frequencies and their linkage disequilibrium. We find that the most frequent HLA haplotypes with significant linkage disequilibrium in those populations are HLA-A∗24∼B∗35∼DRB1∗04∼DQB1∗03:02, A∗02∼B∗35∼DRB1∗04∼DQB1∗03:02, A∗24∼B∗35∼DRB1∗14∼DQB1∗03:01, A∗02∼B∗35∼DRB1∗14∼DQB1∗03:01 and A∗02∼B∗40:02∼DRB1∗04∼DQB1∗03:02...
June 13, 2018: Human Immunology
D Goindin, A Cannet, C Delannay, C Ramdini, J Gustave, C Atyame, A Vega-Rúa
Guadeloupe islands are threatened by several mosquito-borne viruses such as Dengue, Chikungunya, Zika and West Nile virus. It appears essential to look for alternative mosquito control methods such as the incompatible insect technique (ITT) aiming at sterilizing wild females by inundative releases of incompatible males. Before considering the implementation of such a strategy, the characterization of genetic diversity of the endocellular bacterium Wolbachia regarding the local mosquito populations is a critical issue...
June 13, 2018: Acta Tropica
Ferial Rahimian, Javid Sadraei, Majid Pirestani, Fatemeh Ghaffarifar
An infection of digestive system, Giardiasis, caused by tiny parasites called Giardia lamblia (also known Giardia intestinalis or Giardia duodenalis). Giardia sp. is the most common intestinal parasite of humans and other animals throughout the world. Isolates of G. lamblia are classified into eight assemblages based on isoenzyme and DNA analyses. Assemblages A and B infect humans and a broad range of other hosts. The purpose of this study was to genotype human isolates of G. lamblia by PCR-RFLP in Karaj city...
June 13, 2018: Acta Tropica
YongFeng Pei, HuiNi Huang, HengCong Li, JieRun Chen, GuoGuang Wu
The distribution of human leucocyte antigen (HLA) allele and haplotype varied among different ethnic populations. In this study, we investigated the allele and haplotype frequencies of HLA-A, HLA-B and HLA-DRB1 loci in the Nanning Han population who live in Guangxi province of China. We identified 26 HLA-A, 56 HLA-B and 31 HLA-DRB1 alleles in 562 Nanning individuals of Han ethnic group by sequence-based typing method. Of these, the three most common alleles in HLA-A, HLA-B and HLA-DRB1 loci, respectively, were A*11:01 (32...
June 15, 2018: International Journal of Immunogenetics
Erin E Higgins, Wayne E Clarke, Elaine C Howell, Susan J Armstrong, Isobel A P Parkin
The heavy selection pressure due to intensive breeding of Brassica napus has created a narrow gene pool, limiting the ability to produce improved varieties through crosses between B. napus cultivars. One mechanism that has contributed to the adaptation of important agronomic traits in the allotetraploid B. napus has been chromosomal rearrangements resulting from homoeologous recombination between the constituent A and C diploid genomes. Determining the rate and distribution of such events in natural B. napus will assist efforts to understand and potentially manipulate this phenomenon...
June 15, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Sirikachorn Tangkawattana, Prasarn Tangkawattana
Although any fish-eating mammals could be potential definitive hosts of Opisthorchis viverrini, only a few, especially cats and dogs, are actually known reservoir hosts for this parasite. Both animals usually get infected via consuming raw or undercooked contaminated fish, fish dishes or food remains from households. The infected animals sustain parasite egg spread via open environment defecation. Cats are the most important reservoir with higher prevalence rates of O. viverrini infection than dogs in endemic areas...
2018: Advances in Parasitology
Dongyang Liu, Hong Cheng, Rainer W Bussmann, Zhiyong Guo, Bo Liu, Chunlin Long
BACKGROUND: Chuxiong, known as "the City of Fungi," is rich in fungal resources and traditional knowledge related to fungal biodiversity. The local environment is an excellent habitat for a wide variety of edible fungi. In addition, the region is home to many ethnic minorities and especially the Yi ethnic group who has a long history for traditionally using fungi as food or medicine. The aims of this review are to provide up-to-date information on the knowledge about, and traditional management of, fungi in this area and give advice on future utilization and conservation...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
Meriem Louni, Nadia Amanzougaghene, Nassima Mana, Florence Fenollar, Didier Raoult, Idir Bitam, Oleg Mediannikov
BACKGROUND: Head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis, are obligate blood-sucking parasites. Phylogenetically, they occur in five divergent mitochondrial clades (A, D, B, C and E), each having a particular geographical distribution. Recent studies have revealed that head lice, as is the case of body lice, can act as a vector for louse-borne diseases. Here, we aimed to study the genetic diversity of head lice collected from Niger's refugees (migrant population) arriving in Algeria, northern Africa, and to look for louse-borne pathogens...
June 15, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Alexander Jueterbock, James A Coyer, Jeanine L Olsen, Galice Hoarau
BACKGROUND: The spatial distribution of genetic diversity and structure has important implications for conservation as it reveals a species' strong and weak points with regard to stability and evolutionary capacity. Temporal genetic stability is rarely tested in marine species other than commercially important fishes, but is crucial for the utility of temporal snapshots in conservation management. High and stable diversity can help to mitigate the predicted northward range shift of seaweeds under the impact of climate change...
June 15, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Teivi Laurimäe, Liina Kinkar, Thomas Romig, Rihab A Omer, Adriano Casulli, Gérald Umhang, Robin B Gasser, Abdul Jabbar, Mitra Sharbatkhori, Hossein Mirhendi, Francisco Ponce-Gordo, Lorena E Lazzarini, Silvia V Soriano, Antonio Varcasia, Mohammad Rostami Nejad, Vanessa Andresiuk, Pablo Maravilla, Luis Miguel González, Monika Dybicz, Jakub Gawor, Mindaugas Šarkūnas, Viliam Šnábel, Tetiana Kuzmina, Urmas Saarma
Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a zoonotic disease caused by the larval stage of the species complex Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato. Within this complex, genotypes G6 and G7 have been frequently associated with human CE worldwide. Previous studies exploring the genetic variability and phylogeography of genotypes G6 and G7 have been based on relatively short mtDNA sequences, and the resolution of these studies has often been low. Moreover, using short sequences, the distinction between G6 and G7 has in some cases remained challenging...
June 12, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Jonathan B Lin, Rajendra S Apte
Retinal degenerative diseases are a major cause of morbidity in modern society because visual impairment significantly decreases the quality of life of patients. A significant challenge in treating retinal degenerative diseases is their genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity. However, despite this diversity, many of these diseases share a common endpoint involving death of light-sensitive photoreceptors. Identifying common pathogenic mechanisms that contribute to photoreceptor death in these diverse diseases may lead to a unifying therapy for multiple retinal diseases that would be highly innovative and address a great clinical need...
June 12, 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
Ana Laura Almendra, Francisco X González-Cózatl, Mark D Engstrom, Duke S Rogers
Mesoamerica is considered a biodiversity hot spot with levels of endemism and species diversity likely underestimated. Unfortunately, the region continues to experience some of the highest deforestation rates in the world. For mammals, the evolutionary relationships of many endemic taxa are controversial, as it is the case for members of the genus Handleyomys. Estimation of a time-calibrated hypothesis for the evolution of these six genera (Euryoryzomys, Handleyomys, Hylaeamys, Nephelomys, Oecomys and Transandinomys) supported a monophyletic Handleyomys sensu lato...
June 12, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Yanan Sun, Eunice Wong, Shane T Ahyong, Jane E Williamson, Pat A Hutchings, Elena K Kupriyanova
Hydroides is a large and diverse group of calcareous tubeworms (Serpulidae, Annelida) recognised by a distinctive but variable two-tiered operculum. Despite considerable research using several species of Hydroides as models in ecological and biofouling studies, phylogenetic and biogeographic relationships within the genus are still poorly understood. Using combined mitochondrial (COI, cytochrome b) and nuclear (18S, 28S and ITS) gene markers for 284 individuals of 45 morphospecies of Hydroides, we investigated the global phylogenetic and biogeographic relationships within the genus...
June 12, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
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June 2018: Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System: JPNS
Jitka Polechová
More than 100 years after Grigg's influential analysis of species' borders, the causes of limits to species' ranges still represent a puzzle that has never been understood with clarity. The topic has become especially important recently as many scientists have become interested in the potential for species' ranges to shift in response to climate change-and yet nearly all of those studies fail to recognise or incorporate evolutionary genetics in a way that relates to theoretical developments. I show that range margins can be understood based on just two measurable parameters: (i) the fitness cost of dispersal-a measure of environmental heterogeneity-and (ii) the strength of genetic drift, which reduces genetic diversity...
June 15, 2018: PLoS Biology
Sarah Federman, Michael J Donoghue, Douglas C Daly, Deren A R Eaton
The challenges associated with sampling rare species or populations can limit our ability to make accurate and informed estimates of biodiversity for clades or ecosystems. This may be particularly true for tropical trees, which tend to be poorly sampled, and are thought to harbor extensive cryptic diversity. Here, we integrate genomics, morphology, and geography to estimate the number of species in a clade of dioecious tropical trees (Canarium L.; Burseraceae) endemic to Madagascar, for which previous taxonomic treatments have recognized between one and 33 species...
2018: PloS One
Giuseppe Merlino, Alan Barozzi, Grégoire Michoud, David Kamanda Ngugi, Daniele Daffonchio
Deep hypersaline anoxic basins (DHABs) are unique water bodies occurring within fractures at the bottom of the sea, where the dissolution of anciently buried evaporites created dense anoxic brines that are separated by a chemocline/pycnocline from the overlying oxygenated deep-seawater column. DHABs have been described in the Gulf of Mexico, the Mediterranean Sea, the Black Sea and the Red Sea. They are characterized by prolonged historical separation of the brines from the upper water column due to lack of mixing and by extreme conditions of salinity, anoxia, and relatively high hydrostatic pressure and temperatures...
July 1, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Mario Mairal, Juli Caujapé-Castells, Loïc Pellissier, Ruth Jaén-Molina, Nadir Álvarez, Myriam Heuertz, Isabel Sanmartín
Background and Aims: Various studies and conservationist reports have warned about the contraction of the last subtropical Afro-Macaronesian forests. These relict vegetation zones have been restricted to a few oceanic and continental islands around the edges of Africa, due to aridification. Previous studies on relict species have generally focused on glacial effects on narrow endemics; however, little is known about the effects of aridification on the fates of previously widespread subtropical lineages...
June 14, 2018: Annals of Botany
Chani Jo Hodonsky, Claudia Schurmann, Ursula M Schick, Jonathan Kocarnik, Ran Tao, Frank Ja van Rooij, Christina Wassel, Steve Buyske, Myriam Fornage, Lucia A Hindorff, James S Floyd, Santhi K Ganesh, Dan-Yu Lin, Kari E North, Alex P Reiner, Ruth Jf Loos, Charles Kooperberg, Christy L Avery
Red blood cell (RBC) traits provide insight into a wide range of physiological states and exhibit moderate to high heritability, making them excellent candidates for genetic studies to inform underlying biologic mechanisms. Previous RBC trait genome-wide association studies were performed primarily in European- or Asian-ancestry populations, missing opportunities to inform understanding of RBC genetic architecture in diverse populations and reduce intervals surrounding putative functional SNPs through fine-mapping...
June 15, 2018: American Journal of Hematology
Francesco Rusconi, Elena Battaglioli
Psychiatric disorders entail maladaptive processes impairing individuals' ability to appropriately interface with environment. Among them, depression is characterized by diverse debilitating symptoms including hopelessness and anhedonia, dramatically impacting the propensity to live a social and active life and seriously affecting working capability. Relevantly, besides genetic predisposition, foremost risk factors are stress-related, such as experiencing chronic psychosocial stress-including bullying, mobbing and abuse-, and undergoing economic crisis or chronic illnesses...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
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