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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936453/biological-mechanisms-of-depression-following-treatment-with-interferon-for-chronic-hepatitis-c-a-critical-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
Myrela O Machado, Giovanni Oriolo, Beatrice Bortolato, Cristiano A Köhler, Michael Maes, Marco Solmi, Iria Grande, Rocío Martín-Santos, Eduard Vieta, André F Carvalho
BACKGROUND: A significant subset of patients infected by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) develops a major depressive episode (MDE) during Interferon-alpha (IFN-α) based immunotherapy. We performed a systematic review of studies which examined biological mechanisms contributing to the onset of a MDE during IFN-α-based immunotherapy for HCV. METHODS: Major electronic databases were searched from inception up until 15th February 2016 for peer-reviewed prospective studies that had enrolled HCV infected patients who received IFN-α treatment...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936281/interindividual-and-interethnic-variability-in-drug-disposition-mt%C3%A2-%C3%A2-polymorphisms-in-organic-anion-transporting-polypeptide-1b1-oatp1b1-slco1b1
#2
REVIEW
Hannah H Lee, Richard H Ho
OATP1B1 (SLCO1B1) is predominantly expressed at the basolateral membrane of hepatocytes and is critically important for the hepatic uptake and clearance of numerous drug substrates and endogenous compounds. In general, the organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATP; SLCO) represent a superfamily of uptake transporters that mediate the sodium-independent transport of a diverse range of amphipathic organic compounds including bile salts, steroid conjugates, thyroid hormones, anionic peptides, numerous drugs and other xenobiotic substances...
December 9, 2016: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936180/genetic-diversity-and-symbiotic-efficiency-of-nodulating-rhizobia-isolated-from-root-nodules-of-faba-bean-in-one-field
#3
Lan Zou, Yuan Xue Chen, Petri Penttinen, Qin Lan, Ke Wang, Ming Liu, Dan Peng, Xiaoping Zhang, Qiang Chen, Ke Zhao, Xiangzhong Zeng, Kai Wei Xu
Thirty-one nodulating rhizobium strains were collected from root nodules of spring and winter type faba bean cultivars grown in micro ecoarea, i.e. the same field in Chengdu plain, China. The symbiotic efficiency and phylogeny of these strains were studied. Effectively nitrogen fixing strains were isolated from both winter type and spring type cultivars. Based on phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene and concatenated sequence of atpD, glnII and recA genes, the isolates were assigned as Rhizobium anhuiense and a potential new Rhizobium species...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936163/origin-and-evolution-of-allopolyploid-wheatgrass-elymus-fibrosus-schrenk-tzvelev-poaceae-triticeae-reveals-the-effect-of-its-origination-on-genetic-diversity
#4
De-Chuan Wu, Deng-Min He, Hai-Lan Gu, Pan-Pan Wu, Xu Yi, Wei-Jie Wang, Han-Feng Shi, De-Xiang Wu, Genlou Sun
Origin and evolution of tetraploid Elymus fibrosus (Schrenk) Tzvelev were characterized using low-copy nuclear gene Rpb2 (the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II), and chloroplast region trnL-trnF (spacer between the tRNA Leu (UAA) gene and the tRNA-Phe (GAA) gene). Ten accessions of E. fibrosus along with 19 Elymus species with StH genomic constitution and diploid species in the tribe Triticeae were analyzed. Chloroplast trnL-trnF sequence data suggested that Pseudoroegneria (St genome) was the maternal donor of E...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936082/three-molecular-markers-show-no-evidence-of-population-genetic-structure-in-the-gouldian-finch-erythrura-gouldiae
#5
Peri E Bolton, Andrea J West, Adam P A Cardilini, Jennalee A Clark, Kimberley L Maute, Sarah Legge, James Brazill-Boast, Simon C Griffith, Lee A Rollins
Assessment of genetic diversity and connectivity between regions can inform conservation managers about risk of inbreeding, potential for adaptation and where population boundaries lie. The Gouldian finch (Erythrura gouldiae) is a threatened species in northern Australia, occupying the savannah woodlands of the biogeographically complex monsoon tropics. We present the most comprehensive population genetic analysis of diversity and structure the Gouldian finch using 16 microsatellite markers, mitochondrial control region and 3,389 SNPs from genotyping-by-sequencing...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936055/microbial-diversity-of-source-and-point-of-use-water-in-rural-haiti-a-pyrosequencing-based-metagenomic-survey
#6
Nabanita Mukherjee, Debra Bartelli, Cyril Patra, Bhavin V Chauhan, Scot E Dowd, Pratik Banerjee
Haiti endures the poorest water and sanitation infrastructure in the Western Hemisphere, where waterborne diseases cause significant morbidity and mortality. Most of these diseases are reported to be caused by waterborne pathogens. In this study, we examined the overall bacterial diversity of selected source and point-of-use water from rural areas in Central Plateau, Haiti using pyrosequencing of 16s rRNA genes. Taxonomic composition of water samples revealed an abundance of Firmicutes phyla, followed by Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936008/cultivar-based-introgression-mapping-reveals-wild-species-derived-pm-0-the-major-powdery-mildew-resistance-locus-in-squash
#7
William L Holdsworth, Kyle E LaPlant, Duane C Bell, Molly M Jahn, Michael Mazourek
Powdery mildew is a major fungal disease on squash and pumpkin (Cucurbita spp.) in the US and throughout the world. Genetic resistance to the disease is not known to occur naturally within Cucurbita pepo and only infrequently in Cucurbita moschata, but has been achieved in both species through the introgression of a major resistance gene from the wild species Cucurbita okeechobeensis subsp. martinezii. At present, this gene, Pm-0, is used extensively in breeding, and is found in nearly all powdery mildew-resistant C...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935835/robust-extracellular-ph-modulation-by-candida-albicans-during-growth-in-carboxylic-acids
#8
Heather A Danhof, Slavena Vylkova, Elisa M Vesely, Amy E Ford, Manuel Gonzalez-Garay, Michael C Lorenz
: The opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans thrives within diverse niches in the mammalian host. Among the adaptations that underlie this fitness is an ability to utilize a wide array of nutrients, especially sources of carbon that are disfavored by many other fungi; this contributes to its ability to survive interactions with the phagocytes that serve as key barriers against disseminated infections. We have reported that C. albicans generates ammonia as a byproduct of amino acid catabolism to neutralize the acidic phagolysosome and promote hyphal morphogenesis in a manner dependent on the Stp2 transcription factor...
November 15, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935588/single-cell-mass-spectrometry-reveals-the-importance-of-genetic-diversity-and-plasticity-for-phenotypic-variation-in-nitrogen-limited-chlamydomonas
#9
Jasmin Krismer, Manu Tamminen, Simone Fontana, Renato Zenobi, Anita Narwani
Phenotypic variation is vital for microbial populations to survive environmental perturbations. Both genetic and non-genetic factors contribute to an organism's phenotypic variation and therefore its fitness. To investigate the correlation between genetic diversity and phenotypic variation, we applied our recently developed mass spectrometry method that allows for the simultaneous measurement of more than 25 different lipids and pigments with high throughput in the unicellular microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii...
December 9, 2016: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935041/avrpm2-encodes-an-rnase-like-avirulence-effector-which-is-conserved-in-the-two-different-specialized-forms-of-wheat-and-rye-powdery-mildew-fungus
#10
Coraline R Praz, Salim Bourras, Fansong Zeng, Javier Sánchez-Martín, Fabrizio Menardo, Minfeng Xue, Lijun Yang, Stefan Roffler, Rainer Böni, Gerard Herren, Kaitlin E McNally, Roi Ben-David, Francis Parlange, Simone Oberhaensli, Simon Flückiger, Luisa K Schäfer, Thomas Wicker, Dazhao Yu, Beat Keller
There is a large diversity of genetically defined resistance genes in bread wheat against the powdery mildew pathogen Blumeria graminis (B. g.) f. sp. tritici. Many confer race-specific resistance to this pathogen, but until now only the mildew avirulence gene AvrPm3(a2/f2) that is recognized by Pm3a/f was known molecularly. We performed map-based cloning and genome-wide association studies to isolate a candidate for the mildew avirulence gene AvrPm2. We then used transient expression assays in Nicotiana benthamiana to demonstrate specific and strong recognition of AvrPm2 by Pm2...
December 9, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935026/genetically-based-latitudinal-clines-in-artemisia-californica-drive-parallel-clines-in-arthropod-communities
#11
Jessica D Pratt, Andrew Datu, Thi Tran, Daniel C Sheng, Kailen A Mooney
Intraspecific variation in plant traits has been clearly shown to drive the structure of associated arthropod communities at the spatial scale of individual plant populations. Nevertheless, it is largely unknown whether plant trait variation among populations drives landscape-scale variation in arthropod communities, and how the strength of such plant genetic effects compares to, and interacts with, those of environmental variation. We documented the structure of arthropod communities on Artemisia californica for two consecutive years in a common garden of plants sourced from five populations along a 5° latitudinal gradient and grown under precipitation treatments approximating the four-fold difference between the north and south range margins for this species...
October 11, 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934959/hopx-functions-as-a-tumour-suppressor-in-head-and-neck-cancer
#12
Lee Fah Yap, Sook Ling Lai, Sathya Narayanan Patmanathan, Ravindran Gokulan, C Max Robinson, Joe B White, San Jiun Chai, Pathmanathan Rajadurai, Narayanan Prepageran, Yew Toong Liew, Victor Lopes, Wenbin Wei, Robert J Hollows, Paul G Murray, Daniel W Lambert, Keith D Hunter, Ian C Paterson
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is generalized term that encompasses a diverse group of cancers that includes tumours of the oral cavity (OSCC), oropharynx (OPSCC) and nasopharynx (NPC). Genetic alterations that are common to all HNSCC types are likely to be important for squamous carcinogenesis. In this study, we have investigated the role of the homeodomain-only homeobox gene, HOPX, in the pathogenesis of HNSCC. We show that HOPX mRNA levels are reduced in OSCC and NPC cell lines and tissues and there is a general reduction of HOPX protein expression in these tumours and OPSCCs...
December 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934910/extensive-genetic-diversity-of-rickettsiales-bacteria-in-multiple-mosquito-species
#13
Wen-Ping Guo, Jun-Hua Tian, Xian-Dan Lin, Xue-Bing Ni, Xiao-Ping Chen, Yong Liao, Si-Yuan Yang, J Stephen Dumler, Edward C Holmes, Yong-Zhen Zhang
Rickettsiales are important zoonotic pathogens, causing severe disease in humans globally. Although mosquitoes are an important vector for diverse pathogens, with the exception of members of the genus Wolbachia little is known about their role in the transmission of Rickettsiales. Herein, Rickettsiales were identified by PCR in five species of mosquitoes (Anopheles sinensis, Armigeres subalbatus, Aedes albopictus, Culex quinquefasciatus and Cu. tritaeniorhynchus) collected from three Chinese provinces during 2014-2015...
December 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934697/the-population-genomics-of-rhesus-macaques-macaca-mulatta-based-on-whole-genome-sequences
#14
Cheng Xue, Muthuswamy Raveendran, R Alan Harris, Gloria L Fawcett, Xiaoming Liu, Simon White, Mahmoud Dahdouli, David Rio Deiros, Jennifer E Below, William Salerno, Laura Cox, Guoping Fan, Betsy Ferguson, Julie Horvath, Zach Johnson, Sree Kanthaswamy, H Michael Kubisch, Dahai Liu, Michael Platt, David G Smith, Binghua Sun, Eric J Vallender, Feng Wang, Roger W Wiseman, Rui Chen, Donna M Muzny, Richard A Gibbs, Fuli Yu, Jeffrey Rogers
Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) are the most widely used nonhuman primate in biomedical research, have the largest natural geographic distribution of any nonhuman primate, and have been the focus of much evolutionary and behavioral investigation. Consequently, rhesus macaques are one of the most thoroughly studied nonhuman primate species. However, little is known about genome-wide genetic variation in this species. A detailed understanding of extant genomic variation among rhesus macaques has implications for the use of this species as a model for studies of human health and disease, as well as for evolutionary population genomics...
December 2016: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934695/overview-of-crispr-cas9-biology
#15
Hannah K Ratner, Timothy R Sampson, David S Weiss
Prokaryotes use diverse strategies to improve fitness in the face of different environmental threats and stresses, including those posed by mobile genetic elements (e.g., bacteriophages and plasmids). To defend against these elements, many bacteria and archaea use elegant, RNA-directed, nucleic acid-targeting adaptive restriction machineries called CRISPR -: Cas (CRISPR-associated) systems. While providing an effective defense against foreign genetic elements, these systems have also been observed to play critical roles in regulating bacterial physiology during environmental stress...
December 1, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934583/bacillus-cereus-induced-food-borne-outbreaks-in-france-2007-to-2014-epidemiology-and-genetic-characterisation
#16
Benjamin Glasset, Sabine Herbin, Laurent Guillier, Sabrina Cadel-Six, Marie-Léone Vignaud, Joel Grout, Sylvie Pairaud, Valérie Michel, Jacques-Antoine Hennekinne, Nalini Ramarao, Anne Brisabois
The aim of this study was to identify and characterise Bacillus cereus from a unique national collection of 564 strains associated with 140 strong-evidence food-borne outbreaks (FBOs) occurring in France during 2007 to 2014. Starchy food and vegetables were the most frequent food vehicles identified; 747 of 911 human cases occurred in institutional catering contexts. Incubation period was significantly shorter for emetic strains compared with diarrhoeal strains A sub-panel of 149 strains strictly associated to 74 FBOs and selected on Coliphage M13-PCR pattern, was studied for detection of the genes encoding cereulide, diarrhoeic toxins (Nhe, Hbl, CytK1 and CytK2) and haemolysin (HlyII), as well as panC phylogenetic classification...
December 1, 2016: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934260/long-term-impact-of-field-applications-of-sewage-sludge-on-soil-antibiotic-resistome
#17
Wan-Ying Xie, Steve P McGrath, Jian-Qiang Su, Penny R Hirsch, Ian M Clark, Qirong Shen, Yong-Guan Zhu, Fang-Jie Zhao
Land applications of municipal sewage sludge may pose a risk of introducing antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) from urban environments into agricultural systems. However, how the sewage sludge recycling and application method influence soil resistome and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) remains unclear. In the present study, high through-put quantitative PCR was conducted on the resistome of soils from a field experiment with past (between 1994 and 1997) and annual (since 1994) applications of five different sewage sludges...
December 6, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933545/the-collaborative-cross-resource-for-systems-genetics-research-of-infectious-diseases
#18
Paul L Maurizio, Martin T Ferris
An increasing body of evidence highlights the role of host genetic variation in driving susceptibility to severe disease following pathogen infection. In order to fully appreciate the importance of host genetics on infection susceptibility and resulting disease, genetically variable experimental model systems should be employed. These systems allow for the identification, characterization, and mechanistic dissection of genetic variants that cause differential disease responses. Herein we discuss application of the Collaborative Cross (CC) panel of recombinant inbred strains to study viral pathogenesis, focusing on practical considerations for experimental design, assessment and analysis of disease responses within the CC, as well as some of the resources developed for the CC...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933544/dissection-of-host-susceptibility-to-bacterial-infections-and-its-toxins
#19
Aysar Nashef, Mahmoud Agbaria, Ariel Shusterman, Nicola Ivan Lorè, Alessandra Bragonzi, Ervin Wiess, Yael Houri-Haddad, Fuad A Iraqi
Infection is one of the leading causes of human mortality and morbidity. Exposure to microbial agents is obviously required. However, also non-microbial environmental and host factors play a key role in the onset, development and outcome of infectious disease, resulting in large of clinical variability between individuals in a population infected with the same microbe. Controlled and standardized investigations of the genetics of susceptibility to infectious disease are almost impossible to perform in humans whereas mouse models allow application of powerful genomic techniques to identify and validate causative genes underlying human diseases with complex etiologies...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933542/complex-genetics-of-behavior-bxds-in-the-automated-home-cage
#20
Maarten Loos, Matthijs Verhage, Sabine Spijker, August B Smit
This chapter describes a use case for the genetic dissection and automated analysis of complex behavioral traits using the genetically diverse panel of BXD mouse recombinant inbred strains. Strains of the BXD resource differ widely in terms of gene and protein expression in the brain, as well as in their behavioral repertoire. A large mouse resource opens the possibility for gene finding studies underlying distinct behavioral phenotypes, however, such a resource poses a challenge in behavioral phenotyping. To address the specifics of large-scale screening we describe how to investigate: (1) how to assess mouse behavior systematically in addressing a large genetic cohort, (2) how to dissect automation-derived longitudinal mouse behavior into quantitative parameters, and (3) how to map these quantitative traits to the genome, deriving loci underlying aspects of behavior...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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