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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542268/consistent-multi-level-trophic-effects-of-marine-reserve-protection-across-northern-new-zealand
#1
Graham J Edgar, Rick D Stuart-Smith, Russell J Thomson, Debbie J Freeman
Through systematic Reef Life Survey censuses of rocky reef fishes, invertebrates and macroalgae at eight marine reserves across northern New Zealand and the Kermadec Islands, we investigated whether a system of no-take marine reserves generates consistent biodiversity outcomes. Ecological responses of reef assemblages to protection from fishing, including potential trophic cascades, were assessed using a control-impact design for the six marine reserves studied with associated reference sites, and also by comparing observations at reserve sites with predictions from random forest models that assume reserve locations are fished...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527138/application-of-hyper-branched-rolling-circle-amplification-hrca-and-hrca-based-strip-test-for-the-detection-of-chattonella-marina
#2
Xiaoli Nie, Chunyun Zhang, Yuanyuan Wang, Changlu Guo, Jin Zhou, Guofu Chen
Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are global threats to marine ecosystems, fisheries, and human health. Therefore, developing effective and accurate methods for identifying causative algae and monitoring seawater quality is urgent. However, traditional, microscopy-based methods are complex, inaccurate, and time-consuming. Here, we present a novel method for effective and sensitive detection of Chattonella marina using hyper-branched rolling circle amplification (HRCA) and HRCA-based strip test (HBST). The large subunit (LSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) D1-D2 region of C...
May 19, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514148/hirsutane-type-sesquiterpenes-with-inhibitory-activity-of-microglial-nitric-oxide-production-from-the-red-alga-derived-fungus-chondrostereum-sp-ntou4196
#3
George Hsiao, Wei-Chiung Chi, Ka-Lai Pang, Jih-Jung Chen, Yueh-Hsiung Kuo, Yu-Kai Wang, Hyo-Jung Cha, Shen-Chieh Chou, Tzong-Huei Lee
The marine red alga Pterocladiella capillacea is an economic alga for the food industry in Taiwan, and its associated highly diversified fungi have not been investigated meticulously thus far. The EtOAc extract of the fermented broth of Chondrostereum sp. NTOU4196, a fungal strain isolated from P. capillacea, was found to exhibit significant nitric oxide (NO) production inhibitory activity in lipopolysaccharide-activated murine RAW 264.7 cells at a concentration of 100 μg/mL in the preliminary screening. Therefore, separation of the active principles from the fermented broths was performed, and that has led to the isolation of eight new 5,5,5-tricyclic hirsutane-type sesquiterpenes, namely, chondroterpenes A-H (1-8), together with seven known analogues...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513110/separation-and-purification-of-two-minor-typical-diarrhetic-shellfish-poisoning-toxins-from-harmful-marine-microalgae-via-combined-liquid-chromatography-with-mass-spectrometric-detection
#4
Junhui Chen, Yanlong Wang, Lei Pan, Huihui Shen, Dan Fu, Boqiang Fu, Chengjun Sun, Li Zheng
A novel method was developed for the purification of two typical diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxins from toxin-producing marine microalgae using macroporous resin, high-speed counter-current chromatography-mass spectrometry, and semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). Analytical HPLC-MS was used for identification and purity analysis of okadaic acid and dinophysistoxin-1 because they exhibit no visible or ultraviolet absorption. First, four kinds of macroporous resins were investigated, and HP-20 macroporous resin was selected for the pre-enrichment and cleanup of the two target toxins...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509401/transitions-between-marine-and-freshwater-environments-provide-new-clues-about-the-origins-of-multicellular-plants-and-algae
#5
REVIEW
Simon M Dittami, Svenja Heesch, Jeanine L Olsen, Jonas Collén
Marine-freshwater and freshwater-marine transitions have been key events in the evolution of life, and most major groups of organisms have independently undergone such events at least once in their history. Here we first compile an inventory of bidirectional freshwater and marine transitions in multicellular photosynthetic eukaryotes. While green and red algae have mastered multiple transitions in both directions, brown algae have colonized fresh water on a maximum of six known occasions, and angiosperms have made the transition to marine environments only two or three times...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508709/characterisation-of-the-biofouling-community-on-a-floating-wave-energy-device
#6
Christopher R Nall, Marie-Lise Schläppy, Andrew J Guerin
Wave energy devices are novel structures in the marine environment and, as such, provide a unique habitat for biofouling organisms. In this study, destructive scrape samples and photoquadrats were used to characterise the temperate epibenthic community present on prototypes of the Pelamis wave energy converter. The biofouling observed was extensive and diverse with 115 taxa recorded including four non-native species. Vertical zonation was identified on the sides of the device, with an algae-dominated shallow subtidal area and a deeper area characterised by a high proportion of suspension-feeding invertebrates...
May 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493485/comprehensive-characterization-of-the-acute-and-chronic-toxicity-of-the-neonicotinoid-insecticide-thiamethoxam-to-a-suite-of-aquatic-primary-producers-invertebrates-and-fish
#7
Meaghean S Finnegan, Leilan R Baxter, Jon Maul, Mark L Hanson, Paul F Hoekstra
Thiamethoxam is a neonicotinoid insecticide used widely in agriculture to control a broad spectrum of chewing and sucking insect pests. Recent detection of thiamethoxam in surface waters has raised interest in characterizing the potential impacts of this insecticide to aquatic organisms. Here we report the results of toxicity testing (acute and chronic) conducted under good laboratory practices (GLP) for over 30 freshwater species (i.e., insects, molluscs, crustaceans, algae, macrophytes, fish) and four marine species (an alga, a mollusc, a crustacean, and a fish)...
May 11, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492366/digitizing-mass-spectrometry-data-to-explore-the-chemical-diversity-and-distribution-of-marine-cyanobacteria-and-algae
#8
Tal Luzzatto-Knaan, Neha Garg, Mingxun Wang, Evgenia Glukhov, Yao Peng, Gail Ackermann, Amnon Amir, Brendan M Duggan, Sergey Ryazanov, Lena Gerwick, Rob Knight, Theodore Alexandrov, Nuno Bandeira, William H Gerwick, Pieter C Dorrestein
Natural product screening programs have uncovered molecules from diverse natural sources with various biological activities and unique structures. However, much is yet underexplored and additional information is hidden in these exceptional collections. We applied untargeted mass spectrometry approaches to capture the chemical space and dispersal patterns of metabolites from an in-house library of marine cyanobacterial and algal collections. Remarkably, 86% of the metabolomics signals detected were not found in other available datasets of similar nature, supporting the hypothesis that marine cyanobacteria and algae possess distinctive metabolomes...
May 11, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491136/applications-of-microalgal-biofilms-for-wastewater-treatment-and-bioenergy-production
#9
Ana F Miranda, Narasimhan Ramkumar, Constandino Andriotis, Thorben Höltkemeier, Aneela Yasmin, Simone Rochfort, Donald Wlodkowic, Paul Morrison, Felicity Roddick, German Spangenberg, Banwari Lal, Sanjukta Subudhi, Aidyn Mouradov
BACKGROUND: Microalgae have shown clear advantages for the production of biofuels compared with energy crops. Apart from their high growth rates and substantial lipid/triacylglycerol yields, microalgae can grow in wastewaters (animal, municipal and mining wastewaters) efficiently removing their primary nutrients (C, N, and P), heavy metals and micropollutants, and they do not compete with crops for arable lands. However, fundamental barriers to the industrial application of microalgae for biofuel production still include high costs of removing the algae from the water and the water from the algae which can account for up to 30-40% of the total cost of biodiesel production...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488428/contribution-of-charges-in-polyvinyl-alcohol-networks-to-marine-antifouling
#10
Wufang Yang, Peng Lin, Daocang Cheng, Longzhou Zhang, Yang Wu, Yupeng Liu, Xiaowei Pei, Feng Zhou
Semi-interpenetrated polyvinyl alcohol polymer networks (SIPNs) were prepared by integrating various charged components into polyvinyl alcohol polymer. Contact angle measurement, attenuated total reflection fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ART-FTIR), field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and tensile tests were used to characterize the physicochemical properties of the prepared SIPNs. In order to investigate the contribution of charges to the marine antifouling, the adhesion behaviors of green alga D...
May 10, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486660/non-redfield-nutrient-synergy-and-flexible-internal-elemental-stoichiometry-in-a-marine-bacterium
#11
Kathleen Trautwein, Christoph Feenders, Reiner Hulsch, Hanna S Ruppersberg, Annemieke Strijkstra, Mirjam Kant, Jannes Vagts, Daniel Wünsch, Bernhard Michalke, Michael Maczka, Stefan Schulz, Helmut Hillebrand, Bernd Blasius, Ralf Rabus
The stoichiometric constraints of algal growth are well understood, whereas there is less knowledge for heterotrophic bacterioplankton. Growth of the marine bacterium Phaeobacter inhibens DSM 17395, belonging to the globally distributed Roseobacter group, was studied across a wide concentration range of NH4+ and PO43-. The unique dataset covers 415 different concentration pairs, corresponding to 207 different molar N: P ratios (from 10-2 to 105). Maximal growth (by growth rate and biomass yield) was observed within a restricted concentration range at N: P ratios (∼50 - 120) markedly above Redfield...
May 9, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483385/acclimation-to-nacl-and-light-stress-of-heterotrophic-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii-for-lipid-accumulation
#12
Jianhua Fan, Lvhong Zheng
Salt stress has been proven very effective in enhancing the lipid content among many photoautotrophically grown microalgae species including marine and freshwater algae. Nevertheless, its effect on heterotrophic grown cells and lipid accumulation is scarcely known. This study sought to demonstrate a new train of thought for cost-effective biofuels production by heterotrophic culture of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii coupling with subsequent salt and light stress. NaCl treatments (25-200 mM) gradually suppressed the cell growth...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476959/biofabrication-of-gold-nanoparticles-using-marine-endophytic-fungus-penicillium-citrinum
#13
Hulikere M Manjunath, Chandrashekhar G Joshi, Narayanappa Govinda Raju
Nanotechnology is one of the promising fields of research and generating new avenues and applications in medicine. Recently, marine floras such as, marine endophytes are gaining the attention of many researchers due to the myriad of bioactive molecules that they possess. In addition, they find applications in many pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. In this study, they have studied the green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) from Penicillium citrinum (P. citrinum) and its antioxidant activity. P. citrinum was isolated from brown algae...
February 2017: IET Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473745/metabolic-profiling-identifies-trehalose-as-an-abundant-and-diurnally-fluctuating-metabolite-in-the-microalga-ostreococcus-tauri
#14
Matthias Hirth, Silvia Liverani, Sebastian Mahlow, François-Yves Bouget, Georg Pohnert, Severin Sasso
INTRODUCTION: The picoeukaryotic alga Ostreococcus tauri (Chlorophyta) belongs to the widespread group of marine prasinophytes. Despite its ecological importance, little is known about the metabolism of this alga. OBJECTIVES: In this work, changes in the metabolome were quantified when O. tauri was grown under alternating cycles of 12 h light and 12 h darkness. METHODS: Algal metabolism was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry...
2017: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466897/chemical-mediation-as-a-structuring-element-in-marine-gastropod-predator-prey-interactions
#15
REVIEW
L Bornancin, I Bonnard, S C Mills, B Banaigs
Covering: up to 2017Chemical mediation regulates behavioral interactions between species and thus affects population structure, community organization and ecosystem function. Among marine taxa that have developed chemical mediation strategies, gastropods belong to a diverse group of molluscs found worldwide, including species with a coiled, reduced or absent shell. Most gastropods use natural products to mediate a wide range of behaviors such as defense, prey location or interactions with con- and hetero-geners...
May 3, 2017: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450759/sex-in-murky-waters-algal-induced-turbidity-increases-sexual-selection-in-pipefish
#16
Josefin Sundin, Tonje Aronsen, Gunilla Rosenqvist, Anders Berglund
ABSTRACT: Algal-induced turbidity has been shown to alter several important aspects of reproduction and sexual selection. However, while turbidity has been shown to negatively affect reproduction and sexually selected traits in some species, it may instead enhance reproductive success in others, implying that the impact of eutrophication is far more complex than originally believed. In this study, we aimed to provide more insight into these inconsistent findings. We used molecular tools to investigate the impact of algal turbidity on reproductive success and sexual selection on males in controlled laboratory experiments, allowing mate choice, mating competition, and mate encounter rates to affect reproduction...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442389/gene-identification-and-characterization-of-fucoidan-deacetylase-for-potential-application-to-fucoidan-degradation-and-diversification
#17
Tatsuhiko Nagao, Ayako Kumabe, Fumika Komatsu, Hisashi Yagi, Hirokazu Suzuki, Takashi Ohshiro
Fucoidan is an α-l-fucopyranosyl polymer found in seaweeds with forms that have acetyl and sulfuric modifications and derivatives that are lower and/or diversified, with modifications that have attracted interest as potential bioactive substances. We identified the gene for a fucoidan deacetylase that cleaves acetyl moieties from fucoidan and thereby contributes to fucoidan utilization in the marine bacterium Luteolibacter algae H18. Fucoidan deacetylase was purified to homogeneity from a cell-free extract of L...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432996/toxicological-effects-of-phenol-on-four-marine-microalgae
#18
Weiyan Duan, Fanping Meng, Yufei Lin, Guoshan Wang
The toxic effects of phenol on four marine microalgae (Dunaliella salina, Platymonas subcordiformis, Phaeodactylum tricornutum Bohlin, and Skeletonema costatum) were evaluated. The 96h EC50 values were 72.29, 92.97, 27.32, and 27.32mgL(-1), respectively, which were lower than those values of freshwater microalgae reported in the literature. During a 96-h exposure to a sub-lethal concentration of phenol (1/2 96h EC50) with green alga (D. salina) and diatom (S. costatum), reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, and chlorophyll a (Chl a) content decrease were simultaneously observed in diatom cells after 48h treatment...
April 13, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429314/evolutionary-origin-of-euglena
#19
Bożena Zakryś, Rafał Milanowski, Anna Karnkowska
Euglenids (Excavata, Discoba, Euglenozoa, Euglenida) is a group of free-living, single-celled flagellates living in the aquatic environments. The uniting and unique morphological feature of euglenids is the presence of a cell covering called the pellicle. The morphology and organization of the pellicle correlate well with the mode of nutrition and cell movement. Euglenids exhibit diverse modes of nutrition, including phagotrophy and photosynthesis. Photosynthetic species (Euglenophyceae) constitute a single subclade within euglenids...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427570/high-resolution-mass-spectrometry-based-screening-reveals-lipophilic-toxins-in-multiple-trophic-levels-from-the-north-sea
#20
Gabriel Orellana, Lieven Van Meulebroek, Maarten De Rijcke, Colin R Janssen, Lynn Vanhaecke
Lipophilic marine biotoxins, which are mainly produced by small dinoflagellates, are increasingly detected in coastal waters across the globe. As these producers are consumed by zooplankton and shellfish, the toxins are introduced, bioaccumulated and possibly biomagnified throughout marine food chains. Recent research has demonstrated that ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) is an excellent tool to detect marine toxins in algae and seafood. In this study, UHPLC-HRMS was used to screen lipophilic marine biotoxins in organisms from different trophic levels of the Belgian coastal zone ecosystem...
April 2017: Harmful Algae
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