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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074370/comparative-toxicity-of-nano-zno-and-bulk-zno-towards-marine-algae-tetraselmis-suecica-and-phaeodactylum-tricornutum
#1
Jiji Li, Simona Schiavo, Gabriella Rametta, Maria Lucia Miglietta, Vera La Ferrara, Changwen Wu, Sonia Manzo
The wide use of ZnO nanoparticles in a number of products implies an increasing release into the marine environment, resulting in the need to evaluate the potential effects upon organisms, and particularly phytoplankton, being at the base of the throphic chain. To this aim, dose-response curves for the green alga Tetraselmis suecica and the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum derived from the exposure to nano ZnO (100 nm) were evaluated and compared with those obtained for bulk ZnO (200 nm) and ionic zinc. The toxic effects to both algae species were reported as no observable effect concentration (NOEC) of growth inhibition and as 1, 10, and 50% effect concentrations (EC1, EC10, and EC50)...
January 10, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073536/microelectrode-array-mea-platform-as-a-sensitive-tool-to-detect-and-evaluate-ostreopsis-cf-ovata-toxicity
#2
Susanna Alloisio, Valentina Giussani, Mario Nobile, Mariachiara Chiantore, Antonio Novellino
In the last decade, the occurrence of harmful dinoflagellate blooms of the genus Ostreopsis has increased both in frequency and in geographic distribution with adverse impacts on public health and the economy. Ostreopsis species are producers of palytoxin-like toxins (putative palytoxin and ovatoxins) which are among the most potent natural non-protein compounds known to date, exhibiting extreme toxicity in mammals, including humans. Most existing toxicological data are derived from in vivo mouse assay and are related to acute effects of pure palytoxin, without considering that the toxicity mechanism of dinoflagellates can be dependent on the varying composition of complex biotoxins mixture and on the presence of cellular components...
May 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073500/initial-skill-assessment-of-the-california-harmful-algae-risk-mapping-c-harm-system
#3
Clarissa R Anderson, Raphael M Kudela, Mati Kahru, Yi Chao, Leslie K Rosenfeld, Frederick L Bahr, David M Anderson, Tenaya A Norris
Toxic algal events are an annual burden on aquaculture and coastal ecosystems of California. The threat of domoic acid (DA) toxicity to human and wildlife health is the dominant harmful algal bloom (HAB) concern for the region, leading to a strong focus on prediction and mitigation of these blooms and their toxic effects. This paper describes the initial development of the California Harmful Algae Risk Mapping (C-HARM) system that predicts the spatial likelihood of blooms and dangerous levels of DA using a unique blend of numerical models, ecological forecast models of the target group, Pseudo-nitzschia, and satellite ocean color imagery...
November 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073497/development-of-a-quantitative-pcr-method-to-explore-the-historical-occurrence-of-a-nuisance-microalga-under-expansion
#4
Karin S L Johansson, Katharina Lührig, Jonatan Klaminder, Karin Rengefors
A number of marine and freshwater harmful algal bloom (HAB) species have colonized new areas and expanded their habitat range in recent years. Nevertheless it is notoriously difficult to establish when colonization first occurred, what the dispersal routes are, and to separate recent invasion from increases in existent but small populations. The freshwater raphidophyte Gonyostomum semen is a nuisance species that has expanded its habitat range and increased in abundance in northern Europe during the past decades...
June 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065552/occurrence-of-four-species-of-algae-in-the-marine-water-of-hong-kong
#5
Yemao Chai, Wen-Jing Deng, Xing Qin, Xiangrong Xu
Harmful algal blooms (HABs) have broken out frequently throughout the world in recent decades; they are caused by the rapid multiplication of algal cells in near-coastal waters polluted with nitrogen and phosphorus and greatly affect the quality of marine water and human health. Over the past several decades, climate change and increasing environmental degradation have provided favourable growth conditions for certain phytoplankton species. Therefore, it is essential to rapidly identify and enumerate harmful marine algae to control these species...
January 5, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061396/effective-harvesting-of-microalgae-comparison-of-different-polymeric-flocculants
#6
Yoram Gerchman, Barak Vasker, Mordechai Tavasi, Yael Mishael, Yael Kinel-Tahan, Yaron Yehoshua
Microalgae harvesting is a major hurdle in the use of microalgae for oil production. Here we describe the use of a standard cationic polymer used for water treatment, Polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDADMAC), for sedimentation of Chlorella vulgaris and comparison of its flocculation properties with two other polymers, chitosan and Superfloc®. We found PDADMAC to be the most effective flocculant with 90% of the algae flocculating at concentrations as low as 5mg/L within 60min, and good activity even at pH=10...
December 21, 2016: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057501/cloning-and-characterization-of-pyruvate-carboxylase-gene-responsible-for-calcium-malate-overproduction-in-penicillium-viticola-152-and-its-expression-analysis
#7
Ibrar Khan, Sadia Qayyum, Shehzad Ahmed, Farhana Maqbool, Isfahan Tauseef, Kashif Syed Haleem, Zhen-Ming Chi
In this study, a pyruvate carboxylase gene (PYC) from a marine fungus Penicillium viticola 152 isolated from marine algae was cloned and characterized by using Genome Walking method. An open reading frame (ORF) of The PYC gene (accession number: KM593097) had 3582bp encoding 1193 amino acid protein (isoelectric point: 5.01) with a calculated molecular weight of 131.2757kDa. A putative promoter (intronless) of the gene was located at -666bp and contained a TATA box, several CAAT boxes, the 5'-SYGGRG-3' and a 5'-HGATAR-3' sequences...
January 2, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053587/antimicrobial-antioxidant-properties-and-chemical-composition-of-seaweeds-collected-from-saudi-arabia-red-sea-and-arabian-gulf
#8
Nadine M S Moubayed, Hadeel Jawad Al Houri, Manal M Al Khulaifi, Dunia A Al Farraj
The present study demonstrates the antibacterial activity of selected brown and green marine algae collected from Saudi Arabia Red Sea and Arabian Gulf. The methanolic and acetone extracts were tested against gram positive, gram negative bacteria and Candida albicans in an attempt to be used as an alternative to commonly used antibiotics. Both brown seaweed species Sargassum latifolium B and Sargassum platycarpum A methanolic extracts were found to be active against gram positive than gram negative; however, S...
January 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034290/marine-algae-as-a-prospective-source-for-antidiabetic-compounds-a-brief-review
#9
S P Unnikrishnan, A M Jayasri
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycaemia, which is attributed by several life threatening complications including atherosclerosis, nephropathy, and retinopathy. The current therapies available for the management of DM mainly include oral antidiabetic drugs and insulin injections. However, continuous use of synthetic drugs provides lower healing with many side effects. Therefore, there is an urge for safe and efficient antidiabetic drugs for the management of DM...
December 29, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031251/expression-and-biochemical-characterization-and-substrate-specificity-of-the-fucoidanase-from-formosa-algae
#10
Artem S Silchenko, Nadezhda E Ustyuzhanina, Mikhail I Kusaykin, Vadim B Krylov, Alexander S Shashkov, Andrey S Dmitrenok, Roza V Usoltseva, Anastasiya O Zueva, Nikolay E Nifantiev, Tatyana N Zvyagintseva
A gene that encodes fucoidanase ffa2 in the marine bacterium Formosa algae strain KMM 3553(T) was cloned, and the protein (FFA2) was produced in Escherichia coli Recombinant fucoidanase FFA2 was purified, and the biochemical properties of this enzyme were studied. The amino acid sequence of FFA2 showed 57% identity with known fucoidanase FcnA from Mariniflexile fucanivorans. The mass of the gene product FFA2 is 101.2 kDa (918 amino acid residues). Sequence analysis has revealed that fucoidanase FFA2 belongs to the GH107 (CAZy) family...
December 28, 2016: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011869/pcom-db-update-a-protein-co-migration-database-for-photosynthetic-organisms
#11
Atsushi Takabayashi, Saeka Takabayashi, Kaori Takahashi, Mai Watanabe, Hiroko Uchida, Akio Murakami, Tomomichi Fujita, Masahiko Ikeuchi, Ayumi Tanaka
The identification of protein complexes is important to understand protein structure and function, and the regulation of cellular processes. We used blue-native PAGE and tandem mass spectrometry to identify protein complexes systematically, and built a web database, the protein co-migration database (PCoM-DB, http://pcomdb.lowtem.hokudai.ac.jp/proteins/top), to provide prediction tools for protein complexes. PCoM-DB provides migration profiles for any given protein of interest, and allows users to compare them with migration profiles of other proteins, showing the oligomeric states of proteins and thus identifying potential interaction partners...
December 22, 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008779/the-effect-of-undaria-pinnatifida-fucoidan-on-the-pharmacokinetics-of-letrozole-and-tamoxifen-in-patients-with-breast-cancer
#12
Shreya Tocaciu, Lesley J Oliver, Ray M Lowenthal, Gregory M Peterson, Rahul Patel, Madhur Shastri, Georgia McGuinness, Inger Olesen, J Helen Fitton
BACKGROUND: Although the use of complementary and alternative medicines is widespread in cancer patients, clinical evidence of their benefits is sparse. Furthermore, while they are often assumed to be safe with regard to concurrent use of anticancer therapies, few studies have been carried out to investigate possible interactions. Fucoidans are a group of sulfated carbohydrates, derived from marine brown algae, which have long been used as dietary supplements due to their reported medicinal properties, including anticancer activity...
December 1, 2016: Integrative Cancer Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007429/redescription-and-molecular-phylogeny-of-the-type-species-for-two-main-metopid-genera-metopus-es-m%C3%A3-ller-1776-lauterborn-1916-and-brachonella-contorta-levander-1894-jankowski-1964-metopida-ciliophora-based-on-broad-geographic-sampling
#13
William Bourland, Johana Rotterová, Ivan Čepička
Metopid ciliates occupy terrestrial, freshwater, and marine habitats worldwide, playing important roles as predominant consumers of bacteria, flagellates, algae, and diatoms in hypoxic environments. Metopus and Brachonella are the most species-rich metopid genera, however most of their species have not been studied by modern methods Here, we report the morphologic, morphometric and molecular characterization, and phylogeny of Metopus es and Brachonella contorta, both types of their respective genera, collected in a broad global sampling effort...
December 19, 2016: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005361/lipid-class-specific-quantitative-analysis-of-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-in-food-supplements
#14
Laura Kutzner, Annika I Ostermann, Thade Konrad, Dieter Riegel, Stefan Hellhake, Jan Philipp Schuchardt, Nils Helge Schebb
Supplementation products containing n-3 PUFA from marine sources serve a large market. Although the amount of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in the products is provided by the manufacturer, no or little information is available on their lipid pattern. Therefore, we quantitatively analyzed the fatty acid pattern in the lipid fractions triglycerides, phospholipids, ethyl esters, and free fatty acids in supplementation products by means of solid phase extraction and gas chromatography. Twelve products from the European and U...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003063/increased-potential-for-wound-activated-production-of-prostaglandin-e2-and-related-toxic-compounds-in-non-native-populations-of-gracilaria-vermiculophylla
#15
Mareike Hammann, Martin Rempt, Georg Pohnert, Gaoge Wang, Sung Min Boo, Florian Weinberger
The capacity of the East Asian seaweed Gracilaria vermiculophylla ("Ogonori") for production of prostaglandin E2 from arachidonic acid occasionally causes food poisoning after ingestion. During the last two decades the alga has been introduced to Europe and North America. Non-native populations have been shown to be generally less palatable to marine herbivores than native populations. We hypothesized that the difference in palatability among populations could be due to differences in the algal content of prostaglandins...
January 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997043/habitat-continuity-and-stepping-stone-oceanographic-distances-explain-population-genetic-connectivity-of-the-brown-alga-cystoseira-amentacea
#16
Roberto Buonomo, Jorge Assis, Francisco Fernandes, Aschwin H Engelen, Laura Airoldi, Ester A Serrão
Effective predictive and management approaches for species occurring in a metapopulation structure require good understanding of inter-population connectivity. In this study we ask whether population genetic structure of marine species with fragmented distributions can be predicted by stepping-stone oceanographic transport and habitat continuity, using as model an ecosystem-structuring brown alga, Cystoseira amentacea var. stricta. To answer this question, we analyzed the genetic structure and estimated the connectivity of populations along discontinuous rocky habitat patches in southern Italy, using microsatellite markers at multiple scales...
December 20, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996008/unusual-marine-unicellular-symbiosis-with-the-nitrogen-fixing-cyanobacterium-ucyn-a
#17
REVIEW
Jonathan P Zehr, Irina N Shilova, Hanna M Farnelid, Maria Del Carmen Muñoz-MarínCarmen, Kendra A Turk-Kubo
Nitrogen fixation - the reduction of dinitrogen (N2) gas to biologically available nitrogen (N) - is an important source of N for terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. In terrestrial environments, N2-fixing symbioses involve multicellular plants, but in the marine environment these symbioses occur with unicellular planktonic algae. An unusual symbiosis between an uncultivated unicellular cyanobacterium (UCYN-A) and a haptophyte picoplankton alga was recently discovered in oligotrophic oceans. UCYN-A has a highly reduced genome, and exchanges fixed N for fixed carbon with its host...
December 20, 2016: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995507/isolation-and-purification-of-antialgal-compounds-from-the-red-alga-gracilaria-lemaneiformis-for-activity-against-common-harmful-red-tide-microalgae
#18
Ying-Ying Sun, Kun Meng, Zhen-Xia Su, Gan-Lin Guo, Yin-Fang Pu, Chang-Hai Wang
Seven antialgal compounds (1-7) were successfully isolated from the red alga Gracilaria lemaneiformis through a combination of silica gel column chromatography and repeated preparative thin-layer chromatography. On the basis of the spectral data, the compounds were identified as gossonorol (1), 7,10-epoxy-ar-bisabol-11-ol (2), glycerol monopalmitate (3), stigmasterol (4), 15-hydroxymethyl-2, 6, 10, 18, 22, 26, 30-heptamethyl-14-methylene-17-hentriacontene (5), 4-hydroxyphenethyl alcohol (6), and margaric acid (7)...
December 19, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992651/distinct-ecological-niches-of-marine-symbiotic-n2-fixing-cyanobacterium-candidatus-atelocyanobacterium-thalassa-sublineages
#19
Kendra A Turk-Kubo, Hanna M Farnelid, Irina N Shilova, Britt Henke, Jonathan P Zehr
A recently described symbiosis between the metabolically streamlined nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium UCYN-A and a single-celled eukaryote prymnesiophyte alga is widely distributed throughout tropical and subtropical marine waters, and is thought to contribute significantly to nitrogen fixation in these regions. Several UCYN-A sublineages have been defined based on UCYN-A nitrogenase (nifH) sequences. Due to the low abundances of UCYN-A in the global oceans, currently existing molecular techniques are limited for detecting and quantifying these organisms...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992187/antioxidant-hydroanthraquinones-from-the-marine-algal-derived-endophytic-fungus-talaromyces-islandicus-en-501
#20
Hong-Lei Li, Xiao-Ming Li, Xin Li, Chen-Yin Wang, Hui Liu, Matthias U Kassack, Ling-Hong Meng, Bin-Gui Wang
Five new polyhydroxylated hydroanthraquinone derivatives, namely, 8-hydroxyconiothyrinone B (1), 8,11-dihydroxyconiothyrinone B (2), 4R,8-dihydroxyconiothyrinone B (3), 4S,8-dihydroxyconiothyrinone B (4), and 4S,8-dihydroxy-10-O-methyldendryol E (5), were isolated and identified from the culture extract of Talaromyces islandicus EN-501, an endophytic fungus obtained from the inner tissue of the marine red alga Laurencia okamurai. The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of detailed interpretation of their NMR and mass spectroscopic data, and the structures and absolute configurations of compounds 1 and 2 were confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis, while the absolute configurations of compounds 3-5 were determined by TDDFT calculations of the ECD spectra...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Natural Products
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