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marine algae

Marcelo D Catarino, Artur M S Silva, Susana M Cardoso
Fucaceae is the most dominant algae family along the intertidal areas of the Northern Hemisphere shorelines, being part of human customs for centuries with applications as a food source either for humans or animals, in agriculture and as remedies in folk medicine. These macroalgae are endowed with several phytochemicals of great industrial interest from which phlorotannins, a class of marine-exclusive polyphenols, have gathered much attention during the last few years due to their numerous possible therapeutic properties...
June 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Rochak Mittal, Hrishikesh A Tavanandi, Vaibhav A Mantri, K S M S Raghavarao
Extraction of phycobiliproteins (R-phycoerythrin, R-PE and R-phycocyanin, R-PC) from macro-algae is difficult due to the presence of large polysaccharides (agar, cellulose etc.) present in the cell wall which offer major hindrance for cell disruption. The present study is aimed at developing most suitable methodology for the primary extraction of R-PE and R-PC from marine macro-algae, Gelidium pusillum(Stackhouse) Le Jolis. Such extraction of phycobiliproteins by using ultrasonication and other conventional methods such as maceration, maceration in presence of liquid nitrogen, homogenization, and freezing and thawing (alone and in combinations) is reported for the first time...
September 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Yoshinori Tsuji, Kensuke Nakajima, Yusuke Matsuda
Diatoms operate a CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM) that drives upwards of 20% of annual global primary production. Recent progress in CCM research in the marine pennate diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum revealed that this diatom directly takes up HCO3- from seawater through low-CO2-inducible plasma membrane HCO3- transporters, which belong to the solute carrier (SLC) 4 family. Apart from this, studies of carbonic anhydrases (CAs) in diatoms have revealed considerable diversity in classes and localization among species...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Apple Pui Yi Chui, Put Ang
Coral recruitment was monitored for three years, using terracotta tiles, in two core coral areas in Tung Ping Chau Marine Park where coral coverage is one of the richest in Hong Kong. Results revealed an extremely low recruitment success of corals, with only 10 recruits recorded on 384 tile pairs, equivalent to 0.19 recruits m(-2)yr(-1) throughout the study period. Recruits of Platygyra acuta pre-seeded on tiles that were subsequently grown in situ experienced very high mortality following settlement, with average mortality of 80% within half a month and <0...
June 16, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Laura Payton, Mickael Perrigault, Claire Hoede, Jean-Charles Massabuau, Mohamedou Sow, Arnaud Huvet, Floriane Boullot, Caroline Fabioux, Hélène Hegaret, Damien Tran
As a marine organism, the oyster Crassostrea gigas inhabits a complex biotope governed by interactions between the moon and the sun cycles. We used next-generation sequencing to investigate temporal regulation of oysters under light/dark entrainment and the impact of harmful algal exposure. We found that ≈6% of the gills' transcriptome exhibits circadian expression, characterized by a nocturnal and bimodal pattern. Surprisingly, a higher number of ultradian transcripts were also detected under solely circadian entrainment...
June 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
Marcus Mann, Manuel Serif, Torsten Jakob, Peter G Kroth, Christian Wilhelm
Aureochromes are blue light receptors specifically found in photosynthetic Stramenopiles (algae). Four different Aureochromes have been identified in the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum (PtAUREO 1a, 1b, 1c, and 2). Since blue light is necessary for high light acclimation in diatoms, it has been hypothesized that Aureochromes might play an important role in the light acclimation capacity of diatoms. This hypothesis was supported by an RNAi knockdown line of PtAUREO1a, which showed a phenotype different from wild type cells when grown in either blue or red light...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Kenichi Koizumi, Makoto Hatakeyama, Mauro Boero, Katsuyuki Nobusada, Hirokazu Hori, Taku Misonou, Shinichiro Nakamura
We report an atomistic insight into the mechanism regulating the energy released by a porphyra-334 molecule, the ubiquitous photosensitive component of marine algae, in a liquid water environment upon an electron excitation. To quantify this rapidly occurring process, we resort to the Fourier analysis of the mass-weighted auto-correlation function, providing evidence for a remarkable dynamic change in the number of hydrogen bonds among water molecules and between the porphyra-334 and its surrounding hydrating water...
June 21, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Javiera Oyaneder Terrazas, Héctor R Contreras, Carlos García
The saxitoxin-group (STX-group) corresponds to toxic metabolites produced by cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates of the genera Alexandrium, Gymnodinium, and Pyrodinium. Over the last decade, it has been possible to extrapolate the areas contaminated with the STX-group worldwide, including Chile, a phenomenon that has affected ≈35% of the Southern Pacific coast territory, generating a high economic impact. The objective of this research was to study the toxicity of the STX-group in all aquatic organisms (bivalves, algae, echinoderms, crustaceans, tunicates, cephalopods, gastropods, and fish) present in areas with a variable presence of harmful algal blooms (HABs)...
June 12, 2017: Toxins
Maha T Khalil, Jessica Bouwmeester, Michael L Berumen
Local-scale ecological information is critical as a sound basis for spatial management and conservation and as support for ongoing research in relatively unstudied areas. We conducted visual surveys of fish and benthic communities on nine reefs (3-24 km from shore) in the Thuwal area of the central Saudi Arabian Red Sea. Fish biomass increased with increasing distance from shore, but was generally low compared to reefs experiencing minimal human influence around the world. All reefs had a herbivore-dominated trophic structure and few top predators, such as sharks, jacks, or large groupers...
2017: PeerJ
Christos-Moritz Loukas, Jonathan S McQuillan, Florian Laouenan, Maria-Nefeli Tsaloglou, Jesus M Ruano-Lopez, Matthew C Mowlem
Now and again, the rapid proliferation of certain species of phytoplankton can give rise to Harmful Algal Blooms, which pose a serious threat to marine life and human health. Current methods of monitoring phytoplankton are limited by poor specificity or by the requirement to return samples to a highly resourced, centralised lab. The Lab Card is a small, microfluidic cassette which, when used in tandem with a portable Lab Card Reader can be used to sensitively and specifically quantify harmful algae in the field, from nucleic acid extracts using RNA amplification; a sensitive and specific method for the enumeration of potentially any species based on their unique genetic signatures...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Hui-Xia Geng, Ren-Cheng Yu, Zhen-Fan Chen, Quan-Cai Peng, Tian Yan, Ming-Jiang Zhou
Sterols, a group of stable lipid compounds, are often used as biomarkers in marine biogeochemical studies to indicate sources of organic matter. In this study, sterols in 13 species of major bloom-forming algae in China, which belong to Dinophyceae, Bacillariophyceae, Ulvophyceae, and Pelagophyceae, were analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to test their feasibility in representing different types of harmful algal blooms (HABs). It was found that (24Z)-stigmasta-5,24-dien-3β-ol (28-isofucosterol) was a major sterol component in green-tide forming macroalga Ulva prolifera...
June 2017: Harmful Algae
Armando A Salmeán, Delphine Duffieux, Jesper Harholt, Fen Qin, Gurvan Michel, Mirjam Czjzek, William G T Willats, Cécile Hervé
Brown algae are photosynthetic multicellular marine organisms. They belong to the phylum of Stramenopiles, which are not closely related to land plants and green algae. Brown algae share common evolutionary features with other photosynthetic and multicellular organisms, including a carbohydrate-rich cell-wall. Brown algal cell walls are composed predominantly of the polyanionic polysaccharides alginates and fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides. These polymers are prevalent over neutral and crystalline components, which are believed to be mostly, if not exclusively, cellulose...
June 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
Alexander J Limardo, Sebastian Sudek, Chang Jae Choi, Camille Poirier, Yoshimi M Rii, Marguerite Blum, Robyn Roth, Ursula Goodenough, Matthew J Church, Alexandra Z Worden
Bathycoccus and Ostreococcus are broadly distributed marine picoprasinophyte algae. We enumerated small phytoplankton using flow cytometry and qPCR assays for phylogenetically distinct Bathycoccus clades BI and BII and Ostreococcus clades OI and OII. Among 259 photic-zone samples from transects and time-series, Ostreococcus maxima occurred in the North Pacific coastal upwelling for OI (36,713 ± 1,485 copies ml(-1) ) and the Kuroshio Front for OII (50,189 ± 561 copies ml(-1) ) and the two overlapped only in frontal regions...
June 5, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
Ana M C Heureux, Jodi N Young, Spencer M Whitney, Maeve R Eason-Hubbard, Renee B Y Lee, Robert E Sharwood, Rosalind E M Rickaby
The haptophyte algae are a cosmopolitan group of primary producers that contribute significantly to the marine carbon cycle and play a major role in paleo-climate studies. Despite their global importance, little is known about carbon assimilation in haptophytes, in particular the kinetics of their Form 1D CO2-fixing enzyme, Rubisco. Here we examine Rubisco properties of three haptophytes with a range of pyrenoid morphologies (Pleurochrysis carterae, Tisochrysis lutea, and Pavlova lutheri) and the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum that exhibit contrasting sensitivities to the trade-offs between substrate affinity (Km) and turnover rate (kcat) for both CO2 and O2...
June 3, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Adewale Giwa
The environmental impacts resulting from the cradle-to-grave life cycles of Enteromorpha prolifera macroalgae and cattle manure biorefineries are assessed and compared. Sensitivity analysis is carried out to evaluate the response of the impacts to changes in biogas application by using Simapro 7.3.3. Three scenarios are considered in the biorefineries. In the first and second scenarios, the biogas produced is considered to be used for electricity production and transportation, respectively. In the third scenario, the biogas is considered to be recycled back to the systems...
May 26, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Xuwen Xiang, Altan Ozkan, Omar Chiriboga, Nattaporn Chotyakul, Christine Kelly
A techno-economic analysis (TEA) was performed on glucosamine and lipid production from a marine diatom Cyclotella sp. in raceway open pond (RWP) and tubular photobioreactor (PBR) cultivation systems. Two PBR operating schemes were assessed: one to produce high lipid (HL) content, and another to produce high chitin (HC) content. In order to generate 1kg of glucosamine, 9700kg (RWP)/1050kg (PBR HL) freshwater, 40kg CO2, 0.70kg nitrogen, 0.18kg phosphorus, and 1.2kg silicon nutrients are required for algae cultivation with water and nutrient recovery...
May 17, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Zhizhen Zhang, Lu Chen, Xiufang Zhang, Ying Liang, Komal Anjum, Lei Chen, Xiao-Yuan Lian
A MeOH extract prepared from culture of an actinomycete Streptomyces sp. HZP-2216E isolated from marine green algae Ulva pertusa was found to significantly inhibit proliferation of human glioma cells. Two different media were applied to culture this marine actinomycete, which produced two new compounds of 23-O-butyrylbafilomycin D and streptoarylpyrazinone A, together with known bafilomycin D, 9-hydroxybafilomycin D, and bafilomycin A1. Structures of new compounds were determined by extensive NMR spectroscopic analyses and HRESIMS data...
June 1, 2017: Planta Medica
P Chan, J Halfar, W Adey, S Hetzinger, T Zack, G W K Moore, U G Wortmann, B Williams, A Hou
Accelerated warming and melting of Arctic sea-ice has been associated with significant increases in phytoplankton productivity in recent years. Here, utilizing a multiproxy approach, we reconstruct an annually resolved record of Labrador Sea productivity related to sea-ice variability in Labrador, Canada that extends well into the Little Ice Age (LIA; 1646 AD). Barium-to-calcium ratios (Ba/Ca) and carbon isotopes (δ(13)C) measured in long-lived coralline algae demonstrate significant correlations to both observational and proxy records of sea-ice variability, and show persistent patterns of co-variability broadly consistent with the timing and phasing of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO)...
June 1, 2017: Nature Communications
Jun Tamogami, Takashi Kikukawa, Toshifumi Nara, Makoto Demura, Tomomi Kimura-Someya, Mikako Shirouzu, Shigeyuki Yokoyama, Seiji Miyauchi, Kazumi Shimono, Naoki Kamo
A spectrally silent change is often observed in the photocycle of microbial rhodopsins. Here, we suggest the presence of two O intermediates in the photocycle of Acetabularia rhodopsin II (ARII or also called Ace2), a light-driven algal proton pump from Acetabularia acetabulum. ARII exhibits a photocycle including a quasi-equilibrium state of M, N, and O (M⇄N⇄O→) at near neutral and above pH values. However, acidification of the medium below pH ~5.5 causes no accumulation of N, resulting in that the photocycle of ARII can be described as an irreversible scheme (M→O→)...
2017: Biophysics and Physicobiology
Graham J Edgar, Rick D Stuart-Smith, Russell J Thomson, Debbie J Freeman
Through systematic Reef Life Survey censuses of rocky reef fishes, invertebrates and macroalgae at eight marine reserves across northern New Zealand and the Kermadec Islands, we investigated whether a system of no-take marine reserves generates consistent biodiversity outcomes. Ecological responses of reef assemblages to protection from fishing, including potential trophic cascades, were assessed using a control-impact design for the six marine reserves studied with associated reference sites, and also by comparing observations at reserve sites with predictions from random forest models that assume reserve locations are fished...
2017: PloS One
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