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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432996/toxicological-effects-of-phenol-on-four-marine-microalgae
#1
Weiyan Duan, Fanping Meng, Yufei Lin, Guoshan Wang
The toxic effects of phenol on four marine microalgae (Dunaliella salina, Platymonas subcordiformis, Phaeodactylum tricornutum Bohlin, and Skeletonema costatum) were evaluated. The 96h EC50 values were 72.29, 92.97, 27.32, and 27.32mgL(-1), respectively, which were lower than those values of freshwater microalgae reported in the literature. During a 96-h exposure to a sub-lethal concentration of phenol (1/2 96h EC50) with green alga (D. salina) and diatom (S. costatum), reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, and chlorophyll a (Chl a) content decrease were simultaneously observed in diatom cells after 48h treatment...
April 13, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429314/evolutionary-origin-of-euglena
#2
Bożena Zakryś, Rafał Milanowski, Anna Karnkowska
Euglenids (Excavata, Discoba, Euglenozoa, Euglenida) is a group of free-living, single-celled flagellates living in the aquatic environments. The uniting and unique morphological feature of euglenids is the presence of a cell covering called the pellicle. The morphology and organization of the pellicle correlate well with the mode of nutrition and cell movement. Euglenids exhibit diverse modes of nutrition, including phagotrophy and photosynthesis. Photosynthetic species (Euglenophyceae) constitute a single subclade within euglenids...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427570/high-resolution-mass-spectrometry-based-screening-reveals-lipophilic-toxins-in-multiple-trophic-levels-from-the-north-sea
#3
Gabriel Orellana, Lieven Van Meulebroek, Maarten De Rijcke, Colin R Janssen, Lynn Vanhaecke
Lipophilic marine biotoxins, which are mainly produced by small dinoflagellates, are increasingly detected in coastal waters across the globe. As these producers are consumed by zooplankton and shellfish, the toxins are introduced, bioaccumulated and possibly biomagnified throughout marine food chains. Recent research has demonstrated that ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) is an excellent tool to detect marine toxins in algae and seafood. In this study, UHPLC-HRMS was used to screen lipophilic marine biotoxins in organisms from different trophic levels of the Belgian coastal zone ecosystem...
April 2017: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426712/the-culturable-mycobiota-of-flabellia-petiolata-first-survey-of-marine-fungi-associated-to-a-mediterranean-green-alga
#4
Giorgio Gnavi, Laura Garzoli, Anna Poli, Valeria Prigione, Gaëtan Burgaud, Giovanna Cristina Varese
Algae-inhabiting marine fungi represent a taxonomically and ecologically interesting group of microorganisms still largely neglected, especially in temperate regions. The aim of this study was to isolate and to identify the culturable mycobiota associated with Flabellia petiolata, a green alga frequently retrieved in the Mediterranean basin. Twenty algal thalli were collected from two different sampling sites in the Mediterranean Sea (Elba Island, Italy). A polyphasic approach showed the presence of a relevant alga-associated mycobiota with 64 taxa identified...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425963/a-multi-platform-optical-sensor-for-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-algae-classification
#5
Chee-Loon Ng, Qing-Qing Chen, Jia-Jing Chua, Harold F Hemond
Differentiation among major algal groups is important for the ecological and biogeochemical characterization of water bodies, and for practical management of water resources. It helps to discern the taxonomic groups that are beneficial to aquatic life from the organisms causing harmful algal blooms. An LED-induced fluorescence (LEDIF) instrument capable of fluorescence, absorbance, and scattering measurements; is used for in vivo and in vitro identification and quantification of four algal groups found in freshwater and marine environments...
April 20, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424662/untangling-genomes-of-novel-planctomycetal-and-verrucomicrobial-species-from-monterey-bay-kelp-forest-metagenomes-by-refined-binning
#6
John Vollmers, Martinique Frentrup, Patrick Rast, Christian Jogler, Anne-Kristin Kaster
The kelp forest of the Pacific temperate rocky marine coastline of Monterey Bay in California is a dominant habitat for large brown macro-algae in the order of Laminariales. It is probably one of the most species-rich, structurally complex and productive ecosystems in temperate waters and well-studied in terms of trophic ecology. However, still little is known about the microorganisms thriving in this habitat. A growing body of evidence suggests that bacteria associated with macro-algae represent a huge and largely untapped resource of natural products with chemical structures that have been optimized by evolution for biological and ecological purposes...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421378/transcriptome-based-identification-of-the-desiccation-response-genes-in-marine-red-algae-pyropia-tenera-rhodophyta-and-enhancement-of-abiotic-stress-tolerance-by-ptdrg2-in-chlamydomonas
#7
Sungoh Im, Ha-Nul Lee, Hyun Shin Jung, Sunghwan Yang, Eun-Jeong Park, Mi Sook Hwang, Won-Joong Jeong, Dong-Woog Choi
Pyropia tenera (Kjellman) are marine red algae that grow in the intertidal zone and lose more than 90% of water during hibernal low tides every day. In order to identify the desiccation response gene (DRG) in P. tenera, we generated 1,444,210 transcriptome sequences using the 454-FLX platform from the gametophyte under control and desiccation conditions. De novo assembly of the transcriptome reads generated 13,170 contigs, covering about 12 Mbp. We selected 1160 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in response to desiccation stress based on reads per kilobase per million reads (RPKM) expression values...
April 18, 2017: Marine Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419782/natural-resource-landscapes-of-a-marine-bacterium-reveal-distinct-fitness-determining-genes-across-the-genome
#8
Alison F Takemura, Christopher H Corzett, Fatima Hussain, Philip Arevalo, Manoshi Datta, Xiaoqian Yu, Frederique Le Roux, Martin F Polz
Heterotrophic bacteria exploit diverse microhabitats in the ocean, from particles to transient gradients. Yet the degree to which genes and pathways can contribute to an organism's fitness on such complex and variable natural resource landscapes remains poorly understood. Here, we determine the gene-by-gene fitness of a generalist saprophytic marine bacterium (Vibrio sp. F13 9CS106) on complex resources derived from its natural habitats - copepods (Apocyclops royi) and brown algae (Fucus vesiculosus) - and as reference substrates, glucose and the polysaccharide alginate, derived from brown algal cell walls...
April 17, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419766/microbial-community-function-in-the-bleaching-disease-of-the-marine-macroalgae-delisea-pulchra
#9
Enrique Zozaya-Valdés, Alexandra J Roth-Schulze, Suhelen Egan, Torsten Thomas
Disease is increasingly viewed as a major factor impacting the health of both natural and cultured populations of marine organisms, including macroalgae. The red macroalga Delisea pulchra suffers from a bleaching disease resulting from host stress and infection by opportunistic bacterial pathogens. However how pathogens cause the disease and how the entire algal-associated community is involved in the process is unclear. Here we perform a metagenomic analysis of microbial communities associated with diseased and healthy D...
April 17, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418094/the-skin-microbiome-of-the-common-thresher-shark-alopias-vulpinus-has-low-taxonomic-and-potential-metabolic-%C3%AE-diversity
#10
Michael P Doane, John Matthew Haggerty, Dovi Kacev, Bhavya Papudeshi, Elizabeth A Dinsdale
The health of sharks is linked with emergent properties of its microbiome. Most marine organisms have mucus overlying the skin, but shark have dermal denticles that protrude above the mucus. We characterized the microbiome from the skin of the common thresher shark (Alopias vulpinus) to investigate the structure and composition of the skin microbiome. An average of 618,812 reads per metagenomic library contained open reading frames (80.9% ± S.D. 0.44%), and 7.6 to 12.8% matched known protein sequences...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417511/algal-supplementation-of-vegetarian-eating-patterns-improves-plasma-and-serum-docosahexaenoic-acid-concentrations-and-omega-3-indices-a-systematic-literature-review
#11
REVIEW
J C Craddock, E P Neale, Y C Probst, G E Peoples
BACKGROUND: Vegetarians are likely to have lower intakes of preformed docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) than omnivorous populations who consume fish and animal products. As such, vegetarian populations have omega-3 indices up to 60% lower than those who consume marine products. Algae, the primary producer of DHA in the marine food chain, offer an alternative source of DHA for those who do not consume marine or animal products. This systematic review aims to examine the evidence for the relationship between supplementation with algal forms of DHA and increased DHA concentrations in vegetarian populations...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414161/metabolism-of-okadaic-acid-by-nadph-dependent-enzymes-present-in-human-or-rat-liver-s9-fractions-results-in-different-toxic-effects
#12
Franziska Kolrep, Kathleen Rein, Alfonso Lampen, Stefanie Hessel
The lipophilic marine biotoxin okadaic acid (OA) represents a natural contaminant produced by algae accumulating in seafood. Acute intoxications result in diarrhetic shellfish poisoning causing symptoms like nausea, vomiting and abdominal cramps. OA was preincubated with liver enzymes present in S9 fractions from humans, rats and rats pretreated with enzyme inducers in the presence or absence of the cofactor NADPH to investigate hepatic metabolism. Cytotoxicity was examined in HepG2 cells and metabolites of OA were determined by LC-MS/MS...
April 14, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392464/anticancer-and-cancer-preventive-compounds-from-edible-marine-organisms
#13
REVIEW
Marta Correia-da-Silva, Emília Sousa, Madalena M M Pinto, Anake Kijjoa
A direct impact of food on health, which demonstrates that dietary habit is one of the most important determinants of chronic diseases such as cancers, has led to an increased interest of the consumers toward natural bioactive compounds as functional ingredients or nutraceuticals. Epidemiological studies revealed that the populations of many Asian countries with high consumption of fish and seafood have low prevalence of particular type of cancers such as lung, breast, colorectal and prostate cancers. This observation has led to extensive investigations of the benefits of compounds present in edible marine organisms such as fish, marine invertebrates (mollusks, echinoderms) and marine algae as cancer chemopreventive agents...
April 6, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391692/customized-consensus-spectral-library-building-for-untargeted-quantitative-metabolomics-analysis-with-data-independent-acquisition-mass-spectrometry-and-metabodia-workflow
#14
Gengbo Chen, Scott Walmsley, Gemmy C M Cheung, Liyan Chen, Ching-Yu Cheng, Roger W Beuerman, Tien Yin Wong, Lei Zhou, Hyungwon Choi
Data independent acquisition-mass spectrometry (DIA-MS) coupled with liquid chromatography is a promising approach for rapid, automatic sampling of MS/MS data in untargeted metabolomics. However, wide isolation windows in DIA-MS generate MS/MS spectra containing a mixed population of fragment ions together with their precursor ions. This precursor-fragment ion map in a comprehensive MS/MS spectral library is crucial for relative quantification of fragment ions uniquely representative of each precursor ion. However, existing reference libraries are not sufficient for this purpose since the fragmentation patterns of small molecules can vary in different instrument setups...
April 18, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388672/toxicity-of-benthic-dinoflagellates-on-grazing-behavior-and-survival-of-the-brine-shrimp-artemia-salina
#15
Raquel A F Neves, Tainá Fernandes, Luciano Neves Dos Santos, Silvia M Nascimento
Harmful algae may differently affect their primary grazers, causing sub-lethal effects and/or leading to their death. The present study aim to compare the effects of three toxic benthic dinoflagellates on clearance and grazing rates, behavioral changes, and survival of Artemia salina. Feeding assays consisted in 1-h incubations of brine shrimps with the toxic Prorocentrum lima, Gambierdiscus excentricus and Ostreopsis cf. ovata and the non-toxic Tetraselmis sp. Brine shrimps fed unselectively on all toxic and non-toxic algal preys, without significant differences in clearance and ingestion rates...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381278/reciprocal-transplants-support-a-plasticity-first-scenario-during-colonisation-of-a-large-hyposaline-basin-by-a-marine-macro-alga
#16
Daniel Johansson, Ricardo T Pereyra, Marina Rafajlović, Kerstin Johannesson
BACKGROUND: Establishing populations in ecologically marginal habitats may require substantial phenotypic changes that come about through phenotypic plasticity, local adaptation, or both. West-Eberhard's "plasticity-first" model suggests that plasticity allows for rapid colonisation of a new environment, followed by directional selection that develops local adaptation. Two predictions from this model are that (i) individuals of the original population have high enough plasticity to survive and reproduce in the marginal environment, and (ii) individuals of the marginal population show evidence of local adaptation...
April 5, 2017: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379705/karmitoxin-an-amine-containing-polyhydroxy-polyene-toxin-from-the-marine-dinoflagellate-karlodinium-armiger
#17
Silas Anselm Rasmussen, Sofie Bjørnholt Binzer, Casper Hoeck, Sebastian Meier, Livia Soman de Medeiros, Nikolaj Gedsted Andersen, Allen Place, Kristian Fog Nielsen, Per Juel Hansen, Thomas Ostenfeld Larsen
Marine algae from the genus Karlodinium are known to be involved in fish-killing events worldwide. Here we report for the first time the chemistry and bioactivity of a natural product from the newly described mixotrophic dinoflagellate Karlodinium armiger. Our work describes the isolation and structural characterization of a new polyhydroxy-polyene named karmitoxin. The structure elucidation work was facilitated by use of (13)C enrichment and high-field 2D NMR spectroscopy, where (1)H-(13)C long-range correlations turned out to be very informative...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379581/spontaneous-mutation-rate-in-the-smallest-photosynthetic-eukaryotes
#18
Krasovec Marc, Eyre-Walker Adam, Sanchez-Ferandin Sophie, Gwenael Piganeau
Mutation is the ultimate source of genetic variation, and knowledge of mutation rates is fundamental for our understanding of all evolutionary processes. High throughput sequencing of mutation accumulation lines has provided genome wide spontaneous mutation rates in a dozen model species, but estimates from non-model organisms from much of the diversity of life are very limited. Here, we report mutation rates in four haploid marine bacterial-sized photosynthetic eukaryotic algae; Bathycoccus prasinos, Ostreococcus tauri, Ostreococcus mediterraneus and Micromonas pusilla...
April 3, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376612/marine-algicolous-endophytic-fungi-a-promising-drug-resource-of-the-era
#19
REVIEW
Manomi Sarasan, Jayesh Puthumana, Neema Job, Jeonghoon Han, Jae-Seong Lee, Rosamma Philip
Endophytic fungi have currently been acknowledged, as the most promising source of bioactive compounds for drug discovery and considerable progress has been made in exploring their diversity, species richness, and bioprospecting. Fungal endophytes from unique environmental settings offer a pool of potentially useful medicinal entities. Due to the constant stresses imposed on macroalgae by marine environment, it is believed that algae and their associated endophytic symbionts represent a good source of structurally diverse bioactive secondary metabolites...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374798/dynamic-metabolic-profiling-together-with-transcription-analysis-reveals-salinity-induced-starch-to-lipid-biosynthesis-in-alga-chlamydomonas-sp-jsc4
#20
Shih-Hsin Ho, Akihito Nakanishi, Yuichi Kato, Hiroaki Yamasaki, Jo-Shu Chang, Naomi Misawa, Yuu Hirose, Jun Minagawa, Tomohisa Hasunuma, Akihiko Kondo
Biodiesel production using microalgae would play a pivotal role in satisfying future global energy demands. Understanding of lipid metabolism in microalgae is important to isolate oleaginous strain capable of overproducing lipids. It has been reported that reducing starch biosynthesis can enhance lipid accumulation. However, the metabolic mechanism controlling carbon partitioning from starch to lipids in microalgae remains unclear, thus complicating the genetic engineering of algal strains. We here used "dynamic" metabolic profiling and essential transcription analysis of the oleaginous green alga Chlamydomonas sp...
April 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
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