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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140270/the-oxepane-motif-in-marine-drugs
#1
REVIEW
Héctor Barbero, Carlos Díez-Poza, Asunción Barbero
Oceans have shown to be a remarkable source of natural products. The biological properties of many of these compounds have helped to produce great advances in medicinal chemistry. Within them, marine natural products containing an oxepanyl ring are present in a great variety of algae, sponges, fungus and corals and show very important biological activities, many of them possessing remarkable cytotoxic properties against a wide range of cancer cell lines. Their rich chemical structures have attracted the attention of many researchers who have reported interesting synthetic approaches to these targets...
November 15, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136657/contrasts-in-the-marine-ecosystem-of-two-macaronesian-islands-a-comparison-between-the-remote-selvagens-reserve-and-madeira-island
#2
Alan M Friedlander, Enric Ballesteros, Sabrina Clemente, Emanuel J Gonçalves, Andrew Estep, Paul Rose, Enric Sala
The islands of Madeira and Selvagens are less than 300 km apart but offer a clear contrast between a densely populated and highly developed island (Madeira), and a largely uninhabited and remote archipelago (Selvagens) within Macaronesia in the eastern Atlantic. The Madeira Archipelago has ~260,000 inhabitants and receives over six million visitor days annually. The Selvagens Islands Reserve is one of the oldest nature reserves in Portugal and comprises two islands and several islets, including the surrounding shelf to a depth of 200 m...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115306/polymer-brushes-on-structural-surfaces-a-novel-synergistic-strategy-for-perfectly-resisting-algae-settlement
#3
Yu Zhang, Haiyuan Hu, Xiaowei Pei, Yupeng Liu, Qian Ye, Feng Zhou
The current paper reports a novel model of a marine antibiofouling surface based on polymer brushes on a wrinkled silicone elastomer. Polymer brushes (POEGMA and PSPMA) were grafted via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). Successful grafting was verified with various characterization techniques including infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. A series of laboratory static and dynamic bioassays as well as field immersion tests were carried out to systematically investigate the relationship between surface chemistry, surface topography and antifouling properties...
November 8, 2017: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113895/isolation-structural-characterization-and-antiproliferative-activity-of-phycocolloids-from-the-red-seaweed-laurencia-papillosa-on-mcf-7-human-breast-cancer-cells
#4
Ahmed Ghannam, Hossam Murad, Marie Jazzara, Adnan Odeh, Abdul Wahab Allaf
Hydrocolloids from seaweeds (phycocolloids) have interesting functional properties like antiproliferative activity. Marine algae consumptions are linked to law cancer incidences in countries that traditionally consume marine products. In this study, we have investigated water-soluble sulfated polysaccharides isolated from the red seaweed Laurencia papillosa and determined their chemical characteristics and biological activities on the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Total polysaccharides were extracted and fractionated from L...
November 4, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113798/fucoxanthin-attenuates-fatty-acid-induced-lipid-accumulation-in-fl83b-hepatocytes-through-regulated-sirt1-ampk-signaling-pathway
#5
Yi-Hsien Chang, Ya-Ling Chen, Wen-Chung Huang, Chian-Jiun Liou
The fucoxanthin, isolated from brown algae, was reported to have multiple biological functions to anti-inflammation, anti-tumor, and ameliorated obesity in mice. In this study we investigated whether fucoxanthin could inhibit lipids accumulation in FL83B hepatocytes. FL83B cells were induced as fatty liver cell model by 0.5 mM oleic acid for 48 h, and treated with various concentration of fucoxanthin for 24 h. The results demonstrated that fucoxanthin significantly suppressed lipid accumulation and decreased lipid peroxidation in hepatocytes...
November 4, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113061/effects-of-marine-oils-digested-with-human-fluids-on-cellular-viability-and-stress-protein-expression-in-human-intestinal-caco-2-cells
#6
Cecilia Tullberg, Gerd Vegarud, Ingrid Undeland, Nathalie Scheers
In vitro digestion of marine oils has been reported to promote lipid oxidation, including the formation of reactive aldehydes (e.g., malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal (HHE)). We aimed to investigate if human in vitro digestion of supplemental levels of oils from algae, cod liver, and krill, in addition to pure MDA and HHE, affect intestinal Caco-2 cell survival and oxidative stress. Cell viability was not significantly affected by the digests of marine oils or by pure MDA and HHE (0-90 μM). Cellular levels of HSP-70, a chaperone involved in the prevention of stress-induced protein unfolding was significantly decreased (14%, 28%, and 14% of control for algae, cod and krill oil, respectively; p ≤ 0...
November 4, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110623/a-review-of-the-components-of-seaweeds-as-potential-candidates-in-cancer-therapy
#7
Ban-Feng Ruan, Wei-Wei Ge, Meng-Xue Lin, Qing-Shan Li
The marine natural products (MNPs) isolated from seaweeds-associated microbial communities have been caused a substantial part of attention owing to their exceptional nutritional and pharmacology application, such as antiviral, anticancer, antiprotozoal, antifungal, and antibacterial properties and so on. Particularly, there are several MNPs have been displayed attractive value for developing novel anticancer agents for clinical application. This review covers the literature published in the recent 5 years for the isolation and identification of novel anticancer MNPs from seaweeds...
November 6, 2017: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109372/marine-algae-as-source-of-novel-antileishmanial-drugs-a-review
#8
REVIEW
Lauve Rachel Tchokouaha Yamthe, Regina Appiah-Opong, Patrick Valere Tsouh Fokou, Nole Tsabang, Fabrice Fekam Boyom, Alexander Kwadwo Nyarko, Michael David Wilson
Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne neglected tropical disease caused by protozoan parasites of the Leishmania genus and transmitted by the female Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia sand flies. The currently prescribed therapies still rely on pentavalent antimonials, pentamidine, paromomycin, liposomal amphotericin B, and miltefosine. However, their low efficacy, long-course treatment regimen, high toxicity, adverse side effects, induction of parasite resistance and high cost require the need for better drugs given that antileishmanial vaccines may not be available in the near future...
October 29, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109367/asperflavin-an-anti-inflammatory-compound-produced-by-a-marine-derived-fungus-eurotium-amstelodami
#9
Xiudong Yang, Min-Cheol Kang, Yong Li, Eun-A Kim, Sung-Myung Kang, You-Jin Jeon
In the present study, 16 marine-derived fungi were isolated from four types of marine materials including float, algae, animals and drift woods along with the coast of Jeju Island, Korea and evaluated for anti-inflammatory effects in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 24.7 cells. The broth and mycelium extracts from the 16 fungi were prepared and the broth extract (BE) of Eurotium amstelodami (015-2) inhibited nitric oxide (NO) production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells without cytotoxicity. By further bioassay-guided isolation, three compounds including asperflavin, neoechinulin A and preechinulin were successfully isolated from the BE of E...
October 29, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107898/negative-effects-of-microplastic-exposure-on-growth-and-development-of-crepidula-onyx
#10
Hau Kwan Abby Lo, Kit Yu Karen Chan
Microplastics exposure could be detrimental to marine organisms especially under high concentrations. However, few studies have considered the multiphasic nature of marine invertebrates' life history and investigated the impact of experiencing microplastics during early development on post-metamorphic stages (legacy effect). Many planktonic larvae can feed selectively and it is unclear whether such selectivity could modulate the impact of algal food-sized microplastic. In this two-stage experiment, veligers of Crepidula onyx were first exposed to additions of algae-sized micro-polystyrene (micro-PS) beads at different concentrations, including ones that were comparable their algal diet...
November 3, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107095/anticancer-activity-of-seaweeds
#11
REVIEW
Anllely G Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, Claudia Juárez-Portilla, Tatiana Olivares-Bañuelos, Rossana C Zepeda
Cancer is a major health problem worldwide and still lacks fully effective treatments. Therefore, alternative therapies, using natural products, have been proposed. Marine algae are an important component of the marine environment, with high biodiversity, and contain a huge number of functional compounds, including terpenes, polyphenols, phlorotannins, and polysaccharides, among others. These compounds have complex structures that have shown several biological activities, including anticancer activity, in several in vitro and in vivo models...
October 26, 2017: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101878/biochars-derived-from-wasted-marine-macro-algae-saccharina-japonica-and-sargassum-fusiforme-and-their-potential-for-heavy-metal%C3%A2-removal-in-aqueous-solution
#12
Kyung-Min Poo, Eun-Bi Son, Jae-Soo Chang, Xianghao Ren, Yun-Jung Choi, Kyu-Jung Chae
For the purpose of reusing wasted marine macro-algae generated during cultivation, harvesting, processing and selling processes, biochars derived from Saccharina japonica (known as kelp) and Sargassum fusiforme (known as hijikia) were characterized and their removal capacities for Cu, Cd, and Zn in aqueous solution were assessed. Feedstocks, S. japonica, S. fusiforme, and also pinewood sawdust as a control, were pyrolyzed at 250, 400, 500, 600 and 700 °C. In evaluating heavy metal removal capacities, SJB (S...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101467/scale-specific-drivers-of-kelp-forest-communities
#13
Thomas Lamy, Daniel C Reed, Andrew Rassweiler, David A Siegel, Li Kui, Tom W Bell, Rachel D Simons, Robert J Miller
Identifying spatial scales of variation in natural communities and the processes driving them is critical for obtaining a predictive understanding of biodiversity. In this study, we focused on diverse communities inhabiting productive kelp forests on shallow subtidal rocky reefs in southern California, USA. We combined long-term community surveys from 86 sites with detailed environmental data to determine what structures assemblages of fishes, invertebrates and algae at multiple spatial scales. We identified the spatial scales of variation in species composition using a hierarchical analysis based on eigenfunctions, and assessed how sea surface temperature (SST), water column chlorophyll, giant kelp biomass, wave exposure and potential propagule delivery strength contributed to community variation at each scale...
November 3, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098761/phylogeny-and-genomics-of-saul-an-enigmatic-bacterial-lineage-frequently-associated-with-marine-sponges
#14
Carmen Astudillo-García, Beate M Slaby, David W Waite, Kristina Bayer, Ute Hentschel, Michael W Taylor
Many marine sponges contain dense and diverse communities of associated microorganisms. Members of the "sponge-associated unclassified lineage" (SAUL) are frequently recorded from sponges, yet little is known about these bacteria. Here we investigated the distribution and phylogenetic status of SAUL. A meta-analysis of the available literature revealed the widespread distribution of this clade and its association with taxonomically varied sponge hosts. Phylogenetic analyses, conducted using both 16S rRNA gene-based phylogeny and concatenated marker protein sequences, revealed that SAUL is a sister clade of the candidate phylum "Latescibacteria"...
November 2, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096972/transoceanic-dispersal-of-the-mussel-mytilus-galloprovincialis-on-japanese-tsunami-marine-debris-an-approach-for-evaluating-rafting-of-a-coastal-species-at-sea
#15
Jessica A Miller, James T Carlton, John W Chapman, Jonathan B Geller, Gregory M Ruiz
Biofouled debris from the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami has landed in the Northeast Pacific and along the Hawaiian Islands since 2012. As of 2017, >630 biofouled debris items with >320 living species of algae, invertebrates, and fish have been examined. The invasive mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis was present on >50% of those items. Size, reproduction, and growth of this filter-feeding species were examined to better understand long-distance rafting of a coastal species. The majority of mussels (79%) had developing or mature gametes, and growth rates averaged 0...
October 30, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095808/harmful-algal-bloom-associated-illnesses-in-humans-and-dogs-identified-through-a-pilot-surveillance-system-new-york-2015
#16
Mary Figgatt, James Hyde, David Dziewulski, Eric Wiegert, Scott Kishbaugh, Grant Zelin, Lloyd Wilson
Cyanobacteria, also known as blue-green algae, are photosynthetic, aquatic organisms found in fresh, brackish, and marine water around the world (1). Rapid proliferation and accumulation of potentially toxin-producing cyanobacteria characterize one type of harmful algal bloom (HAB). HABs have the potential to cause illness in humans and animals (2,3); however, the epidemiology of these illnesses has not been well characterized. Statewide in 2015, a total of 139 HABs were identified in New York, 97 (70%) of which were confirmed through laboratory analysis; 77 independent beach closures were ordered at 37 beaches on 20 different bodies of water...
November 3, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094744/oral-administration-of-lyophilized-dunaliella-salina-a-carotenoid-rich-marine-alga-reduces-tumor-progression-in-mammary-cancer-induced-rats
#17
Ramachandran Srinivasan, Amballa Chaitanyakumar, Anbazhagan Mageswari, Ajitha Gomathi, J G S Pavan Kumar, Mathiyazhagan Jayasindu, Gunasekaran Bharath, Jagannathan Sampathkumar Shravan, K M Gothandam
Dunaliella salina is a photosynthetic cell factory used for the commercial production of food additives, cattle stock feed and cosmetics as well as active ingredients for pharmaceutical industries. The investigation of the in vivo antitumor activity of D. salina lyophilized powder (DSLP) against 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) induced mammary carcinogenesis in female Wistar rats indicated a dose-dependent effect of DSLP. We studied the effect of DSLP at two different dosages of 500 and 1000 mg per kg bw on DMBA induced mammary cancer in rats by measuring the status of antioxidant enzymes, phase I and phase II detoxification enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and glycoconjugated proteins and by investigating the expression pattern of cell proliferation (Ki-67), hormonal receptor (ER, PR and HER2) status by immunohistochemical analysis, and apoptotic (caspase-3 and -9) and pro-inflammatory (COX-2) markers by colorimetric analysis...
November 2, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092105/formation-and-mosaicity-of-coccolith-segment-calcite-of-the-marine-algae-emiliania-huxleyi
#18
Xiaofei Yin, Andreas Ziegler, Klemens Kelm, Ramona Hofmann, Philipp Watermeyer, Patrick Alexa, Clarissa Villinger, Ulrich Rupp, Lothar Schlüter, Thorsten Reusch, Erika Griesshaber, Paul Walther, Wolfgang Schmahl
Coccolithophores are one of the most abundant calcium carbonate (CaCO3 ) mineralizing organisms. Coccolithophore biomineralization is a complex and highly regulated process. Biomineralization results in a product that strongly differs in its intricate morphology from the abiogenically produced mineral equivalent. Moreover, unlike extracellularly formed biological carbonate hard tissues, coccolithophore calcite is neither a hybrid composite, nor is it distinguished by a hierarchical microstructure. This is remarkable as the key to optimize crystalline biomaterials for mechanical strength and toughness lies in the composite nature of the biological hard tissue and the utilization of specific microstructures...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083300/fish-larval-recruitment-to-reefs-is-a-thyroid-hormone-mediated-metamorphosis-sensitive-to-the-pesticide-chlorpyrifos
#19
Guillaume Holzer, Marc Besson, Anne Lambert, Loïc François, Paul Barth, Benjamin Gillet, Sandrine Hughes, Gwenaël Piganeau, Francois Leulier, Laurent Viriot, David Lecchini, Vincent Laudet
Larval recruitment, the transition of pelagic larvae into reef-associated juveniles, is a critical step for the resilience of marine fish populations but its molecular control is unknown. Here, we investigate whether thyroid-hormones (TH) and their receptors (TR) coordinate the larval recruitment of the coral-reef-fish Acanthurus triostegus. We demonstrate an increase of TH-levels and TR-expressions in pelagic-larvae, followed by a decrease in recruiting juveniles. We generalize these observations in four other coral reef-fish species...
October 30, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082477/production-and-biotechnological-application-of-extracellular-alkalophilic-lipase-from-marine-macroalga-associated-shewanella-algae-to-produce-enriched-c20-22-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-concentrate
#20
Dexy Joseph, Kajal Chakraborty
An extracellular alkalophilic lipase was partially purified from heterotrophic Shewanella algae (KX 272637) associated with marine macroalgae Padina gymnospora. The enzyme possessed a molecular mass of 20 kD, and was purified 60-fold with a specific activity of 36.33 U/mg. The enzyme exhibited Vmax and Km of 1000 mM/mg/min and 157 mM, respectively, with an optimum activity at 55 °C and pH 10.0. The catalytic activity of the enzyme was improved by Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) ions, and the enzyme showed a good tolerance towards organic solvents, such as methanol, isopropanol, and ethanol...
October 30, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
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