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marine algae

Liping Hu, Jie Ying, Miaomiao Zhang, Xiaoyan Qiu, Yu Lu
Compounds obtained from natural resources have been the important candidates for the discovery and development of drugs. Over the past few decades, marine resources gradually attracted the attention of the majority of researchers, and a number of compounds with various structures or activities have been obtained from sponge, alga, fungus, mollusks and some others. Because of the living conditions in the ocean are higher pressures, more variable temperatures, lower oxygen and lower light than that in the terrestrial environment, marine resources have a lot of organisms that are not available or rare on land...
September 18, 2017: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Akitoshi Goto, Nguyen Minh Tue, Masayuki Someya, Tomohiko Isobe, Shin Takahashi, Shinsuke Tanabe, Tatsuya Kunisue
In addition to unintentional formation of polychlorinated (PCDD/Fs), polybrominated (PBDD/Fs) and mixed halogenated (PXDD/Fs) dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans during industrial activities, recent studies have shown that several PBDD and PXDD congeners can be produced by marine algal species from the coastal environment. However, multiple exposure status of anthropogenic and naturally-derived dioxins in marine organisms remains unclear. The present study examined the occurrence, geographical distribution and potential sources of PCDD/Fs, PBDD/Fs and PXDD/Fs using mussels and brown algae collected in 2012 from Seto Inland Sea, Japan...
September 19, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Daniella Schatz, Shilo Rosenwasser, Sergey Malitsky, Sharon G Wolf, Ester Feldmesser, Assaf Vardi
Communication between microorganisms in the marine environment has immense ecological impact by mediating trophic-level interactions and thus determining community structure (1) . Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are produced by bacteria (2,3) , archaea (4) , protists (5) and metazoans, and can mediate pathogenicity (6) or act as vectors for intercellular communication. However, little is known about the involvement of EVs in microbial interactions in the marine environment (7) . Here we investigated the signalling role of EVs produced during interactions between the cosmopolitan alga Emiliania huxleyi and its specific virus (EhV, Phycodnaviridae) (8) , which leads to the demise of these large-scale oceanic blooms (9,10) ...
September 18, 2017: Nature Microbiology
Sebastian Hess
Vampyrellid amoebae (Vampyrellida, Rhizaria) are widespread in freshwater, marine and terrestrial ecosystems and consume a wide range of eukaryotes, e.g. algae, fungi and micrometazoa. Environmental sequences indicate that only a small fraction of their genetic diversity is phenotypically characterised, emphasising the need to further explore unknown vampyrellids and their interactions with prey organisms. This study tests the prey range specificity of three vampyrellid amoebae with 49 strains of three common groups of freshwater algae (Zygnematophyceae, Euglenophyceae and Volvocales), and documents specific interactions by time-lapse microscopy...
September 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Young-Eun Lee, Hyeongmin Kim, Changwon Seo, Taejun Park, Kyung Bin Lee, Seung-Yup Yoo, Seong-Chul Hong, Jeong Tae Kim, Jaehwi Lee
The ocean contains numerous marine organisms, including algae, animals, and plants, from which diverse marine polysaccharides with useful physicochemical and biological properties can be extracted. In particular, fucoidan, carrageenan, alginate, and chitosan have been extensively investigated in pharmaceutical and biomedical fields owing to their desirable characteristics, such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, and bioactivity. Various therapeutic efficacies of marine polysaccharides have been elucidated, including the inhibition of cancer, inflammation, and viral infection...
September 16, 2017: Archives of Pharmacal Research
Artem S Silchenko, Anton B Rasin, Mikhail I Kusaykin, Anatoly I Kalinovsky, Zhang Miansong, Liu Changheng, Olesya Malyarenko, Anastasiya O Zueva, Tatyana N Zvyagintseva, Svetlana P Ermakova
Structure and anticancer activity of fucoidan from Sargassum horneri and from products of its enzymatic transformation were investigated. A gene that encodes fucoidanase ffa1 in the marine bacteria F. algae was identified, cloned and the protein (FFA1) was produced in Escherichia coli. The mass of the gene product FFA1 is 111kDa. Sequence analysis has revealed that fucoidanase FFA1 belongs to the GH107 (CAZy) family. Recombinant fucoidanase FFA1 was used to produce fucooligosaccharides. Structure of 5 sulphated oligosaccharides with polymerization degree 4-10 was established by NMR-spectroscopy...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Nicolas Briant, Nicolas Savoye, Tiphaine Chouvelon, Valérie David, Samuel Rodriguez, Karine Charlier, Jeroen E Sonke, Jean François Chiffoleau, Christophe Brach-Papa, Joël Knoery
Primary consumers play a key role in coastal ecosystems by transferring organic matter from primary producers to predators. Among them, suspension-feeders, like bivalve molluscs are widely used in trophic web studies. The main goal of this study was to investigate variations of C and N elemental and isotopic ratios in common bivalves (M. edulis, M. galloprovincialis, and C. gigas) at large spatial (i.e. among three coastal regions) and different temporal (i.e. from seasonal to multi-decadal) scales in France, in order to identify potential general or specific patterns and speculate on their drivers...
September 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Hariram Venkatesan, John J Godwin, Seralathan Sivamani
The article presents the experimental data on the extraction and transesterification of bio-oil derived from Stoechospermum marginatum, a brown macro marine algae. The samples were collected from Mandapam region, Gulf of Mannar, Tamil Nadu, India. The bio-oil was extracted using Soxhlet technique with a lipid extraction efficiency of 24.4%. Single stage transesterification was adopted due to lower free fatty acid content. The yield of biodiesel was optimized by varying the process parameters. The obtained data showed the optimum process parameters as reaction time 90 min, reaction temperature 65 °C, catalyst concentration 0...
October 2017: Data in Brief
Xiaonian Ma, Lina Yao, Bo Yang, Yuan Kun Lee, Feng Chen, Jin Liu
Oleaginous microalgae have been emerging as the third-generation feedstocks for biofuel production. Genetic manipulation for improving triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation represents a promising approach towards the economics of microalgal biofuels. Acetyl-CoA, the essential carbon precursor for de novo fatty acid biosynthesis, can be derived from pyruvate catalyzed by pyruvate dehydrogenase, which is negatively regulated by pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK). In the present study, we characterized a PDK gene (NsPDK) from Nannochloropsis salina...
September 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
Andrew W Griffith, Christopher J Gobler
While early life-stage marine bivalves are vulnerable to ocean acidification, effects over successive generations are poorly characterized. The objective of this work was to assess the transgenerational effects of ocean acidification on two species of North Atlantic bivalve shellfish, Mercenaria mercenaria and Argopecten irradians. Adults of both species were subjected to high and low pCO2 conditions during gametogenesis. Resultant larvae were exposed to low and ambient pH conditions in addition to multiple, additional stressors including thermal stress, food-limitation, and exposure to a harmful alga...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
Elena Tarakhovskaya, Valeriya Lemesheva, Tatiana Bilova, Claudia Birkemeyer
Brown algae have an important role in marine environments. With respect to their broad distribution and importance for the environment and human use, brown algae of the order Fucales in particular became a model system for physiological and ecological studies. Thus, several fucoids have been extensively studied for their composition on the molecular level. However, research of fucoid physiology and biochemistry so far mostly focused on the adult algae, so a holistic view on the development of these organisms, including the crucial first life stages, is still missing...
September 9, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Terry F Bidleman, Eva Brorström-Lundén, Katarina Hansson, Hjalmar Laudon, Olle Nygren, Mats Tysklind
Bromoanisoles (BAs) arise from O-methylation of bromophenols, produced by marine algae and invertebrates. BAs undergo sea-air exchange and are transported over the oceans. Here we report 2,4-DiBA and 2,4,6-TriBA in air and deposition on the Swedish west coast (Råö) and the interior of arctic Finland (Pallas). Results are discussed in perspective with previous measurements in the northern Baltic region in 2011-2013. BAs in air decreased from south to north in the order Råö ˃ northern Baltic ˃ Pallas. Geometric mean concentrations at Pallas increased significantly (p <0...
September 8, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Sang Eun Jeong, Kyung Hyun Kim, Kyunghwa Baek, Che Ok Jeon
An aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, yellow-pigmented bacterium, designated strain ATAX6-5T, was isolated from a marine red alga, Asparagopsistaxiformis, in South Korea. Cells were non-motile rods showing catalase- and oxidase-positive reactions. Growth of strain ATAX6-5T was observed at 5-35 °C (optimum, 30 °C), at pH 6.0-9.5 (optimum, pH 7.0) and in the presence of 0-6.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 2 %). Ubiquinone-10 was detected as the sole isoprenoid quinone and C18 : 1ω7c, C16 : 0 and C17 : 1ω6c were identified as the major cellular fatty acids...
September 8, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Filipa Godoy-Vitorino, Claudia P Ruiz-Diaz, Abigail Rivera-Seda, Juan S Ramírez-Lugo, Carlos Toledo-Hernández
BACKGROUND: Coral reefs are the most biodiverse ecosystems in the marine realm, and they not only contribute a plethora of ecosystem services to other marine organisms, but they also are beneficial to humankind via, for instance, their role as nurseries for commercially important fish species. Corals are considered holobionts (host + symbionts) since they are composed not only of coral polyps, but also algae, other microbial eukaryotes and prokaryotes. In recent years, Caribbean reef corals, including the once-common scleractinian coral Acropora cervicornis, have suffered unprecedented mortality due to climate change-related stressors...
2017: PeerJ
John B Sculley, Rex L Lowe, Charles A Nittrouer, Tina M Drexler, Mary E Power
Little is known about the importance of food-web processes as controls of river primary production due to the paucity of both long-term studies and of depositional environments which would allow retrospective fossil analysis. To investigate how freshwater algal production in the Eel River, northern California, varied over eight decades, we quantified siliceous shells (frustules) of freshwater diatoms from a well-dated undisturbed sediment core in a nearshore marine environment. Abundances of freshwater diatom frustules exported to Eel Canyon sediment from 1988 to 2001 were positively correlated with annual biomass of Cladophora surveyed over these years in upper portions of the Eel basin...
September 5, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Veijo Jormalainen, Maria Danelli, Karine Gagnon, Helmut Hillebrand, Eva Rothäusler, Juha-Pekka Salminen, Joakim Sjöroos
Genetic variation in a foundation species may affect the composition of associated communities as well as modify ecosystem function. While the ecological consequences of genetic diversity of foundation species have been widely reported, the ability of individual genotypes to support dissimilar communities has been documented only in forest ecosystems. Here, for the first time in a marine ecosystem, we test whether the different genotypes of the rockweed Fucus vesiculosus harbor distinct community phenotypes and whether the genetic similarity of individual genotypes or their defensive compound content can explain the variation of the associated communities...
September 4, 2017: Ecology
Nina Sanina, Ludmila Davydova, Natalia Chopenko, Eduard Kostetsky, Valery Shnyrov
The HA1 subunit of the influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) is a valuable antigen for the development of vaccines against flu due to the availability of most antigenic sites which are conformational. Therefore, a novel adjuvanted antigen delivery system, tubular immunostimulating complexes (TI-complexes) comprising monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) from different marine macrophytes as a lipid matrix for an antigen, was applied to enhance the immunogenicity of recombinant HA1 of influenza A H1N1 and to study the relation between its immunogenicity and conformation...
September 3, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Paul E Gribben, Shaun Nielsen, Justin R Seymour, Daniel J Bradley, Matthew N West, Torsten Thomas
Invasive plants have extensive impacts on ecosystem function and biodiversity globally. Our inability to manage invasive species stems in part from a lack of understanding of the processes that control their successful establishment and spread. To date, studies have largely considered how above-ground processes control native/invasive plant interactions. Emerging research from terrestrial and wetland ecosystems demonstrates that below-ground processes under microbial control can determine the outcome of interactions between native and invasive plants...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
Ariana A Vasconcelos, Vitor H Pomin
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are sulfated glycans capable of regulating various biological and medical functions. Heparin, heparan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, dermatan sulfate, keratan sulfate and hyaluronan are the principal classes of GAGs found in animals. Although GAGs are all composed of disaccharide repeating building blocks, the sulfation patterns and the composing alternating monosaccharides vary among classes. Interestingly, GAGs from marine organisms can present structures clearly distinct from terrestrial animals even considering the same class of GAG...
August 28, 2017: Microorganisms
Yuko Oguri, Mami Watanabe, Takafumi Ishikawa, Takashi Kamada, Charles S Vairappan, Hiroshi Matsuura, Kensuke Kaneko, Takahiro Ishii, Minoru Suzuki, Erina Yoshimura, Yasuyuki Nogata, Tatsufumi Okino
Six new compounds, omaezol, intricatriol, hachijojimallenes A and B, debromoaplysinal, and 11,12-dihydro-3-hydroxyretinol have been isolated from four collections of Laurencia sp. These structures were determined by MS and NMR analyses. Their antifouling activities were evaluated together with eight previously known compounds isolated from the same samples. In particular, omaezol and hachijojimallene A showed potent activities (EC50 = 0.15-0.23 µg/mL) against larvae of the barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite.
August 28, 2017: Marine Drugs
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