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marine algae

Mousa Alghazwi, Scott Smid, Wei Zhang
South Australia is a biodiversity hotspot of marine sponges and macroalgae. This study aimed to evaluate the potential neuroprotective activity of extracts from these two marine sources by reducing the toxicity of human amyloid beta Aβ1-42 in a cell model assay using PC-12 cells. A total of 92 extracts (43, 13, 16, and 20 extracts from sponge of 8 orders and 17 families, green algae of 3 orders and 4 families, brown algae of 6 orders and 8 families, and red algae of 5 orders and 10 families, respectively) were initially screened at three different concentrations (0...
May 18, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Shaun M K McKinnie, Zachary D Miles, Bradley S Moore
Vanadium-dependent haloperoxidases (VHPOs) are fascinating enzymes that facilitate electrophilic halogen incorporation into electron-rich substrates, simply requiring vanadate, a halide source, and cosubstrate hydrogen peroxide for activity. Initially characterized in fungi and red algae, VHPOs were long believed to have limited regio-, chemo-, and enantioselectivity in the production of halogenated metabolites. However, the recent discovery of homologues in the biosynthetic gene clusters of the stereoselectively halogenated meroterpenoids from marine-derived Streptomyces bacteria has revised this paradigm...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
M Mayer-Pinto, K A Dafforn, A B Bugnot, T M Glasby, E L Johnston
Assessments of human impacts on natural habitats often focus on the abundance of component species, yet physiological and/or sub-lethal effects of stressors on functional attributes may be equally important to consider. Here we evaluated how artificial structures, an integral part of urbanisation in the marine environment, affects key functional properties of the habitat-forming kelp Ecklonia radiata. Given that stressors rarely occur in isolation, we assessed the effects of infrastructure across an urbanised estuary...
May 5, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
Yiran Zhang, Wei Gao, Faxiang Lin, Bin Han, Changfei He, Qian Li, Xiangxing Gao, Zhisong Cui, Chengjun Sun, Li Zheng
This study investigated the immobilizations with of bacteria two kinds of algal materials, Enteromorpha residue and kelp residue. The lipophilicity of them were compared by diesel absorption rates. The immobilization efficiency of Bacillus sp. E3 was measured to evaluate whether these carriers would satisfy the requirement for biodegradation of oil spills. The bacteria were immobilized through adsorption with the sterilized and non-sterilized carriers to compare the differences between the two treatments. Oil degradation rates were determined using gravimetric and GC-MS methods...
May 18, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Lucilla Taddei, Volha Chukhutsina, Bernard Lepetit, Giulio R Stella, Roberto Bassi, Herbert van Amerongen, Jean-Pierre Bouly, Marianne Jaubert, Giovanni Finazzi, Angela Falciatore
Marine diatoms are prominent phytoplankton organisms, optimally performing photosynthesis in extremely variable environments. Diatoms possess a strong ability to dissipate excess absorbed energy as heat via non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). This process relies on changes in carotenoid pigment composition (xanthophyll cycle) and on specific members of the light-harvesting complex (LHC) family specialized in photoprotection (LHCX), which potentially act as NPQ effectors. However, the link between light stress, NPQ, and the existence of different LHCX isoforms is not understood in these organisms...
May 17, 2018: Plant Physiology
Artem S Silchenko, Anton B Rasin, Mikhail I Kusaykin, Olesya S Malyarenko, Natalie M Shevchenko, Anastasya O Zueva, Anatoly I Kalinovsky, Tatyana N Zvyagintseva, Svetlana P Ermakova
Enzymatic depolymerization of fucoidans attracts many researchers due to the opportunity of obtaining standardized fucoidan fragments. Fucoidanase catalyzes the cleavage of fucoidan from Fucus evanescens (FeF) to form low molecular weight products (LMP) and a polymeric fraction (HMP) with 50.8 kDa molecular weight and more than 50% yield. NMR spectroscopy shows that the HMP fraction has regular structure and consists of a repeating fragment [→3)-α-l-Fucp2,4OSO3 - -(1 → 4)-α-l-Fucp2,4OSO3 - -(1 → 4)-α-l-Fucp2OSO3 - -(1→]n ...
August 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Matthew A Carson, John Nelson, M Leonor Cancela, Vincent Laizé, Paulo J Gavaia, Margaret Rae, Svenja Heesch, Eugene Verzin, Christine Maggs, Brendan F Gilmore, Susan A Clarke
Through the current trend for bioprospecting, marine organisms - particularly algae - are becoming increasingly known for their osteogenic potential. Such organisms may provide novel treatment options for osteoporosis and other musculoskeletal conditions, helping to address their large healthcare burden and the limitations of current therapies. In this study, extracts from two red algae - Plocamium lyngbyanum and Ceramium secundatum - were tested in vitro and in vivo for their osteogenic potential. In vitro, the growth of human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) was significantly greater in the presence of the extracts, particularly with P...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kevin A Martínez Andrade, Chiara Lauritano, Giovanna Romano, Adrianna Ianora
Cancer is the leading cause of death globally and finding new therapeutic agents for cancer treatment remains a major challenge in the pursuit for a cure. This paper presents an overview on microalgae with anti-cancer activities. Microalgae are eukaryotic unicellular plants that contribute up to 40% of global primary productivity. They are excellent sources of pigments, lipids, carotenoids, omega-3 fatty acids, polysaccharides, vitamins and other fine chemicals, and there is an increasing demand for their use as nutraceuticals and food supplements...
May 15, 2018: Marine Drugs
Jacqueline Stefels, Maria A van Leeuwe, Elizabeth M Jones, Michael P Meredith, Hugh J Venables, Alison L Webb, Sian F Henley
The Southern Ocean is a hotspot of the climate-relevant organic sulfur compound dimethyl sulfide (DMS). Spatial and temporal variability in DMS concentration is higher than in any other oceanic region, especially in the marginal ice zone. During a one-week expedition across the continental shelf of the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP), from the shelf break into Marguerite Bay, in January 2015, spatial heterogeneity of DMS and its precursor dimethyl sulfoniopropionate (DMSP) was studied and linked with environmental conditions, including sea-ice melt events...
June 28, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Huanxin Zhang, Xuexi Tang, Jiagen Shang, Xinyu Zhao, Tongfei Qu, Ying Wang
Naphthenic acids (NAs) account for 1-2% of crude oil and represent its main acidic component. However, the aquatoxic effects of NAs on marine phytoplankton and their ecological risks have remained largely unknown. Using the marine microalgae Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Platymonas helgolandica var. tsingtaoensis as the target, we studied the effects of NAs on their growth, cell morphology and physiological characteristics. The cell density decreased as the concentrations of NAs increased, indicating that they had an adverse effect on growth of the investigated algae in a concentration-dependent manner...
May 11, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Meiqi Fan, Amit Kumar Nath, Yujiao Tang, Young-Jin Choi, Trishna Debnath, Eun-Ju Choi, Eun-Kyung Kim
This review focuses on marine compounds with anti-prostate cancer properties. Marine species are unique and have great potential for the discovery of anticancer drugs. Marine sources are taxonomically diverse and include bacteria, cyanobacteria, fungi, algae, and mangroves. Marine-derived compounds, including nucleotides, amides, quinones, polyethers, and peptides are biologically active compounds isolated from marine organisms such as sponges, ascidians, gorgonians, soft corals, and bryozoans, including those mentioned above...
May 12, 2018: Marine Drugs
Eliseba García, Sabrina Clemente, José Carlos Hernández
One of the most important environmental factors controlling the distribution, physiology, morphology and behaviour of marine invertebrates is ocean pH. In the last decade, the effects of decreasing ocean pH as a result of climate change processes (i.e. ocean acidification) on marine organisms have been target of much research. However, the effects of natural pH variability in the species' niche have been largely neglected. Marine coastal habitats are characterized by a high environmental variability and, in some cases, organisms are already coping with pH values predicted by the end of the century...
April 25, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
Jiayun Chen, Hong Li, Zishuo Zhao, Xue Xia, Bo Li, Jinrong Zhang, Xiaojun Yan
Species of the brown algae of the genus Dictyota are rich sources of bioactive secondary metabolites with diverse structural features. Excellent progress has been made in the discovery of diterpenes possessing broad chemical defensive activities from this genus. Most of these diterpenes exhibit significant biological activities, such as antiviral, cytotoxic and chemical defensive activities. In the present review, we summarized diterpenes isolated from the brown algae of the genus.
May 11, 2018: Marine Drugs
Lubna Richter, Cresten B Mansfeldt, Michael M Kuan, Alexandra Cesare, Stephen T Menefee, Ruth E Richardson, Beth A Ahner
Given the challenges facing the economically favorable production of products from microalgae, understanding factors that might impact productivity rates including growth rates and accumulation of desired products, e.g., triacylglycerols (TAG) for biodiesel feedstock, remains critical. Although operational parameters such as media composition and reactor design can clearly effect growth rates, the role of microbe-microbe interactions is just beginning to be elucidated. In this study an oleaginous marine algae Chlorella spp...
May 11, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Charles Bachy, Christina J Charlesworth, Amy M Chan, Jan F Finke, Chee-Hong Wong, Chia-Lin Wei, Sebastian Sudek, Maureen L Coleman, Curtis A Suttle, Alexandra Z Worden
Prasinophytes are widespread marine algae for which responses to nutrient limitation and viral infection are not well understood. We studied the picoprasinophyte, Micromonas pusilla, grown under phosphate-replete (0.65±0.07 d-1 ) and 10-fold lower (low)-phosphate (0.11±0.04 d-1 ) conditions, and infected by the phycodnavirus MpV-SP1. Expression of 17% of Micromonas genes in uninfected cells differed by >1.5-fold (q<0.01) between nutrient conditions, with genes for P-metabolism and the uniquely-enriched Sel1-like repeat (SLR) family having higher relative transcript abundances, while phospholipid-synthesis genes were lower in low-P than P-replete...
May 11, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Paz Otero, Somaris E Quintana, Guillermo Reglero, Tiziana Fornari, Mónica R García-Risco
Marine organisms are potentially prolific sources of high qualify fatty acids that represent useful leads in the development of new nutraceutical agents. In this work, we investigated the lipid composition of six algae species from the Northwest of Spain ( Ulva intestinalis , Ulva lactuca , Fucus vesiculosus, Dictyota dichotoma, Cystoseira baccata and Himanthalia elongata ) and compared the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts obtained by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE). Furthermore, Fucus vesiculosus ( F...
May 10, 2018: Marine Drugs
Pin Li Zhuo, Jia Li Zhong, Dong Wang, Nian Jun Xu, Ya He Li
To study the combined effects of exogenous salicylic acid (SA) and ultraviolet radiation (UV) on marine green algae Ulva prolifera under high (160 Μmol·m-2 ·s-1 ) and low (70 Μmol·m-2 ·s-1 ) light intensities, the growth, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, photosynthetic rate of oxygen, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, soluble polysaccharide and soluble protein contents were investigated after they grew with or without ultraviolet (UV, 3.2 W·m-2 ) radiation in the presence or absence of SA (10 Μg·mL-1 ) for three days...
June 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Kazuhiro Kobayashi, Masaharu Tanaka, Yoichi Yatsukawa, Soichi Tanabe, Mitsuru Tanaka, Naohiko Ohkouchi
Recent growing health awareness is leading to increasingly conscious decisions by consumers regarding the production and traceability of food. Stable isotopic compositions provide useful information for tracing the origin of foodstuffs and processes of food production. Plants exhibit different ratios of stable carbon isotopes (δ13 C) because they utilized different photosynthetic (carbon fixation) pathways and grow in various environments. The origins of glutamic acid in foodstuffs can be differentiated on the basis of these photosynthetic characteristics...
2018: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
Igor Jerković, Zvonimir Marijanović, Marin Roje, Piotr M Kuś, Stela Jokić, Rozelinda Čož-Rakovac
Performed phytochemical study contributes to the knowledge of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of Halopteris filicina (Grateloup) Kützing, Dictyota dichotoma (Hudson) J. V. Lamouroux, Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile and Flabellia petiolata (Turra) Nizamuddin from the Adriatic Sea (single point collection). VOCs were investigated by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and analysed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS/FID). H. filicina headspace contained dimethyl sulfide (DMS; 12.8%), C8-compounds (e...
2018: PloS One
Yin-Ping Song, Xiang-Hong Liu, Zhen-Zhen Shi, Feng-Ping Miao, Sheng-Tao Fang, Nai-Yun Ji
Three undescribed bisabolane derivatives, trichaspin, trichaspsides A and B, three undescribed cyclonerane sesquiterpenes, 9-cycloneren-3,7,11-triol, 11-cycloneren-3,7,10-triol, and 7,10-epoxycycloneran-3,11,12-triol, and one undescribed harziane diterpene, 11-hydroxy-9-harzien-3-one, were obtained from the culture of Trichoderma asperellum cf44-2, an endophyte of the marine brown alga Sargassum sp. Their structures and relative configurations were assigned by analysis of 1D/2D NMR and MS data, and their absolute configurations were established by ECD or specific optical rotation data...
May 3, 2018: Phytochemistry
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