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marine algae

Jong Woo Hyeon, Sang Eun Jeong, Kyunghwa Baek, Che Ok Jeon
A Gram-staining-negative, strictly aerobic bacterial strain, designated MA7-20T, was isolated from a marine alga, Porphyridium marinum, in Korea. Cells showing oxidase-positive and catalase-positive activities were motile rods with bipolar flagella. Growth of strain MA7-20T was observed at 15-45 C (optimum, 30-37 C), at pH 6.0-10.5 (optimum, pH 7.0-8.0) and in the presence of 0-7 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 2-3 %). Strain MA7-20T contained summed feature 8 (comprising C18:1 ω7c/C18:1 ω6c) and 11-methyl-C18:1 ω7c and C18:0 as the major fatty acids and ubiquinone-10 as the sole isoprenoid quinone...
November 2, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Yueming Zhu, Peng Chen, Yunjuan Bao, Yan Men, Yan Zeng, Jiangang Yang, Jibin Sun, Yuanxia Sun
A novel marine strain representing efficient degradation ability toward brown algae was isolated, identified, and assigned to Bacillus weihaiensis Alg07. The alga-associated marine bacteria promote the nutrient cycle and perform important functions in the marine ecosystem. The de novo sequencing of the B. weihaiensis Alg07 genome was carried out. Results of gene annotation and carbohydrate-active enzyme analysis showed that the strain harbored enzymes that can completely degrade alginate and laminarin, which are the specific polysaccharides of brown algae...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
Lisa C Shriver-Lake, Jinny L Liu, P Audrey Brozozog Lee, Ellen R Goldman, Richard Dietrich, Erwin Märtlbauer, George P Anderson
Marine toxins, such as saxitoxin and domoic acid are associated with algae blooms and can bioaccumulate in shell fish which present both health and economic concerns. The ability to detect the presence of toxin is paramount for the administration of the correct supportive care in case of intoxication; environmental monitoring to detect the presence of toxin is also important for prevention of intoxication. Immunoassays are one tool that has successfully been applied to the detection of marine toxins. Herein, we had the variable regions of two saxitoxin binding monoclonal antibodies sequenced and used the information to produce recombinant constructs that consist of linked heavy and light variable domains that make up the binding domains of the antibodies (scFv)...
November 21, 2016: Toxins
Cho-Rong Kim, Young-Min Kim, Min-Kyeong Lee, In-Hye Kim, Youn-Hee Choi, Taek-Jeong Nam
Pyropia yezoensis (P. yezoensis) is a marine algae that exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antitumor and anti-aging activities. In this study, we investigated the effects of the P. yezoensis peptide, PYP1‑5, on collagen synthesis in the human dermal fibroblast cell line Hs27. Skin aging is related to reduced collagen production and the activities of multiple enzymes, including matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which degrade collagen structure in the dermis, and tissue inhibitor of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), which inhibit the action of MMPs...
November 18, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Cai Zhang, Xiaohua Chen, Jiangtao Wang, Liju Tan
To investigate toxic effects of microplastic on marine microalgae Skeletonema costatum, both algal growth inhibition test and non-contact shading test were carried out, and algal photosynthesis parameters were also determined. The SEM images were used to observe interactions between microplastic and algae. It was found that microplastic (mPVC, average diameter 1 μm) had obvious inhibition on growth of microalgae and the maximum growth inhibition ratio (IR) reached up to 39.7% after 96 h exposure. However, plastic debris (bPVC, average diameter 1 mm) had no effects on growth of microalgae...
November 18, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Nobuo Ueda, Gemma S Richards, Bernard M Degnan, Alexandrea Kranz, Maja Adamska, Roger P Croll, Sandie M Degnan
In many marine invertebrates, larval metamorphosis is induced by environmental cues that activate sensory receptors and signalling pathways. Nitric oxide (NO) is a gaseous signalling molecule that regulates metamorphosis in diverse bilaterians. In most cases NO inhibits or represses this process, although it functions as an activator in some species. Here we demonstrate that NO positively regulates metamorphosis in the poriferan Amphimedon queenslandica. High rates of A. queenslandica metamorphosis normally induced by a coralline alga are inhibited by an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and by a NO scavenger...
November 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
Andrés H Arias, Anissa Souissi, Olivier Glippa, Marion Roussin, David Dumoulin, Sopheak Net, Baghdad Ouddane, Sami Souissi
This study is focused on the removal, accumulation and degradation of three environmental ubiquitous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phenanthrene (PHE), fluoranthene (FLA) and pyrene (PYR), by the marine alga Rhodomonas baltica enriched from the English Channel. After separation, purification and culture in several phases, R. baltica was exposed to PAH concentrations that are frequently encountered in the field in several anthropized environments. The results showed that R. baltica can grow under PAH stress, efficiently remove up to 70% of these compounds from the medium by 216 h of culture and selectively bioaccumulate PAHs by their hydrophobicity...
November 19, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Einat Segev, Thomas P Wyche, Ki Hyun Kim, Jörn Petersen, Claire Ellebrandt, Hera Vlamakis, Natasha Barteneva, Joseph N Paulson, Liraz Chai, Jon Clardy, Roberto Kolter
Emiliania huxleyi is a model coccolithophore micro-alga that generates vast blooms in the ocean. Bacteria are not considered among the major factors influencing coccolithophore physiology. Here we show through a laboratory model system that the bacterium Phaeobacter inhibens, a well-studied member of the Roseobacter group, intimately interacts with E. huxleyi. While attached to the algal cell, bacteria initially promote algal growth but ultimately kill their algal host. Both algal growth enhancement and algal death are driven by the bacterially-produced phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid...
November 18, 2016: ELife
Katarzyna Frankowiak, Xingchen T Wang, Daniel M Sigman, Anne M Gothmann, Marcelo V Kitahara, Maciej Mazur, Anders Meibom, Jarosław Stolarski
Roughly 240 million years ago (Ma), scleractinian corals rapidly expanded and diversified across shallow marine environments. The main driver behind this evolution is uncertain, but the ecological success of modern reef-building corals is attributed to their nutritional symbiosis with photosynthesizing dinoflagellate algae. We show that a suite of exceptionally preserved Late Triassic (ca. 212 Ma) coral skeletons from Antalya (Turkey) have microstructures, carbonate (13)C/(12)C and (18)O/(16)O, and intracrystalline skeletal organic matter (15)N/(14)N all indicating symbiosis...
November 2016: Science Advances
Amira A Goda, Khayria M Naguib, Magdy M Mohamed, Hassan A Amra, Somaia A Nada, Abdel-Rahman B Abdel-Ghaffar, Chris R Gissendanner, Khalid A El Sayed
Penitrem A (PA) is a food mycotoxin produced by several terrestrial and few marine Penicillium species. PA is a potent tremorgen through selective antagonism of the calcium-dependent potassium BK (Maxi-K) channels. Discovery of natural products that can prevent the toxic effects of PA is important for food safety. Astaxanthin (AST) is a marine natural xanthophyll carotenoid with documented antioxidant activity. Unlike other common antioxidants, AST can cross blood brain barriers (BBBs), inducing neuroprotective effects...
November 9, 2016: Marine Drugs
Margaret Murray, Aimee L Dordevic, Lisa Ryan, Maxine P Bonham
Marine macroalgae are gaining recognition among the scientific community as a significant source of functional food ingredients. Due to the harsh environments in which macroalgae survive, they produce unique bioactive compounds that are not found in terrestrial plants. Polyphenols are the predominant bioactive compound in brown algae and are accountable for the majority of its biological activity. Phlorotannins are a type of polyphenol that are unique to marine sources and have exhibited protective effects against hyperglycaemia, hyperlipidaemia, inflammation and oxidative stress, known risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetic complications, in cell culture, animal studies and some human studies...
November 11, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Peng Zhang, Xiao-Ming Li, Xin-Xin Mao, Attila Mándi, Tibor Kurtán, Bin-Gui Wang
A new indolyl-6,10b-dihydro-5aH-[1]benzofuro[2,3-b]indole derivative, varioloid A (1), was isolated from the marine alga-derived endophytic fungus Paecilomyces variotii EN-291. Its structure was elucidated on the basis of extensive analysis of 1D and 2D NMR data and the absolute configuration was determined by time-dependent density functional theory-electronic circular dichroism (TDDFT-ECD) calculations. A similar compound, whose planar structure was previously described but the relative and absolute configurations and (13)C NMR data were not reported, was also identified and was tentatively named as varioloid B (2)...
2016: Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry
Shengqiang Wang, Cong Xiao, Joji Ishizaka, Zhongfeng Qiu, Deyong Sun, Qian Xu, Yuanli Zhu, Yu Huan, Yuji Watanabe
Knowledge of phytoplankton community structures is important to the understanding of various marine biogeochemical processes and ecosystem. Fluorescence excitation spectra (F(λ)) provide great potential for studying phytoplankton communities because their spectral variability depends on changes in the pigment compositions related to distinct phytoplankton groups. Commercial spectrofluorometers have been developed to analyze phytoplankton communities by measuring the field F(λ), but estimations using the default methods are not always accurate because of their strong dependence on norm spectra, which are obtained by culturing pure algae of a given group and are assumed to be constant...
October 17, 2016: Optics Express
Fabio Marino, Gianfranco Di Caro, Concetta Gugliandolo, Antonio Spanò, Caterina Faggio, Giuseppa Genovese, Marina Morabito, Annamaria Russo, Davide Barreca, Francesco Fazio, Andrea Santulli
Several compounds from marine organisms have been studied for their potential use in aquaculture. Among the red algae, Asparagopsis taxiformis is considered one of the most promising species for the production of bioactive metabolites with numerous proposed applications. Here, the in vitro antibacterial activity, the easy handling and the absence of adverse effects on marine fish species are reported. Depending on the seasonal period of sampling, ethanol extracts of A. taxiformis exhibited significantly different inhibitory activity against fish pathogenic bacteria...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Velayutham Sadeeshkumar, Arul Duraikannu, Samuthrapandian Ravichandran, Wilson Sylvester Fredrick, Ramar Sivaperumal, Paulrasu Kodisundaram
Dieckol (DEK) is a naturally occuring phlorotannins found in marine brown algae Ecklonia cava which is attributed with various pharmacological properties. This study was aimed to investigate the protective role of DEK on N-Nitrosdiethylamine (NDEA) induced rat hepatocarcinogenesis. In this investigation 0.01% NDEA in drinking water for 15 weeks to induce hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). DEK was administered orally (10, 20 and 40mg/kg body weight) for 15 weeks with 0.01% NDEA through drinking water. Hepatocarcinogesis was measured by the increased activities of serum liver marker enzymes namely aspartate trasaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), α-fetoprotein (AFP) and total bilirubin along with increased elevation of cytochrome p450, lipid peroxidation markers, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), lipid hydroperoxides (HP), protein carbonyl content (PCC) and conjugated dienes (CD)...
November 5, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Susan B Watson, Friedrich Jüttner
Volatile Organic Sulfur Compounds (VOSCs) are instrumental in global S-cycling and greenhouse gas production. VOSCs occur across a diversity of inland waters, and with widespread eutrophication and climate change, are increasingly linked with malodours in organic-rich waterbodies and drinking-water supplies. Compared with marine systems, the role of VOSCs in biogeochemical processes is far less well characterized for inland waters, and often involves different physicochemical and biological processes. This review provides an updated synthesis of VOSCs in inland waters, focusing on compounds known to cause malodours...
November 8, 2016: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Zhiyong Li, Yuezhu Wang, Jinlong Li, Fang Liu, Liming He, Ying He, Shenyue Wang
Sponges host complex symbiotic communities, but to date, the whole picture of the metabolic potential of sponge microbiota remains unclear, particularly the difference between the shallow-water and deep-sea sponge holobionts. In this study, two completely different sponges, shallow-water sponge Theonella swinhoei from the South China Sea and deep-sea sponge Neamphius huxleyi from the Indian Ocean, were selected to compare their whole symbiotic communities and metabolic potential, particularly in element transformation...
November 7, 2016: Marine Biotechnology
Beenish Saba, Ann D Christy, Zhongtang Yu, Anne C Co, Rafiq Islam, Olli H Tuovinen
Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were designed for laboratory scale experiments to study electroactive biofilms in anodic chambers. Anodic biofilms and current generation during biofilm growth were examined using single chambered MFCs submersed in algal catholyte. A culture of the marine green alga Nanochloropsis salina was used as a biocatholyte, and a rumen fluid microbiota was the anodic chamber inoculum. Electrical impedance spectroscopy was performed under varying external resistance once a week to identify mass transport limitations at the biofilm-electrolyte interface during the four-week experiment...
October 13, 2016: Bioelectrochemistry
Daniel W Amato, James M Bishop, Craig R Glenn, Henrietta Dulai, Celia M Smith
Generally unseen and infrequently measured, submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) can transport potentially large loads of nutrients and other land-based contaminants to coastal ecosystems. To examine this linkage we employed algal bioassays, benthic community analysis, and geochemical methods to examine water quality and community parameters of nearshore reefs adjacent to a variety of potential, land-based nutrient sources on Maui. Three common reef algae, Acanthophora spicifera, Hypnea musciformis, and Ulva spp...
2016: PloS One
Ewelina Orlowska, Alexander Roller, Marc Pignitter, Franz Jirsa, Regina Krachler, Wolfgang Kandioller, Bernhard K Keppler
A series of monomeric and dimeric Fe(III) complexes with O,O-; O,N-; O,S-coordination motifs has been prepared and characterized by standard analytical methods in order to elucidate their potential to act as model compounds for aquatic humic acids. Due to the postulated reduction of iron in humic acids and following uptake by microorganisms, the redox behavior of the models was investigated with cyclic voltammetry. Most of the investigated compounds showed iron reduction potentials accessible to biological reducing agents...
January 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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