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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290569/marine-natural-products
#1
REVIEW
John W Blunt, Brent R Copp, Robert A Keyzers, Murray H G Munro, Michèle R Prinsep
Covering: 2015. Previous review: Nat. Prod. Rep., 2016, 33, 382-431This review covers the literature published in 2015 for marine natural products (MNPs), with 1220 citations (792 for the period January to December 2015) referring to compounds isolated from marine microorganisms and phytoplankton, green, brown and red algae, sponges, cnidarians, bryozoans, molluscs, tunicates, echinoderms, mangroves and other intertidal plants and microorganisms. The emphasis is on new compounds (1340 in 429 papers for 2015), together with the relevant biological activities, source organisms and country of origin...
March 14, 2017: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283330/microwave-enhanced-pyrolysis-of-macroalgae-and-microalgae-for-syngas-production
#2
Yu Hong, Wanru Chen, Xiang Luo, Chengheng Pang, Edward Lester, Tao Wu
In this study, three different marine biomasses, i.e., microalgae-spirulina, chlorella and macroalgae-porphyra, were pyrolyzed in a laboratory-scale multimode-microwave cavity at 400, 550 and 700°C. Ovalbumin and cellulose were also chosen as model compounds to simulate algae. The influence of heating rate on pyrolysis and the βi curves of different samples under different temperatures were studied in detail. The porphyra was found to be the most reactive and produced the largest gaseous fraction (87.1wt%) amongst the three algae, which comprised of 73...
February 14, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282867/virus-resistance-is-not-costly-in-a-marine-alga-evolving-under-multiple-environmental-stressors
#3
Sarah E Heath, Kirsten Knox, Pedro F Vale, Sinead Collins
Viruses are important evolutionary drivers of host ecology and evolution. The marine picoplankton Ostreococcus tauri has three known resistance types that arise in response to infection with the Phycodnavirus OtV5: susceptible cells (S) that lyse following viral entry and replication; resistant cells (R) that are refractory to viral entry; and resistant producers (RP) that do not all lyse but maintain some viruses within the population. To test for evolutionary costs of maintaining antiviral resistance, we examined whether O...
March 8, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278262/responses-of-the-picoprasinophyte-micromonas-commoda-to-light-and-ultraviolet-stress
#4
Marie L Cuvelier, Jian Guo, Alejandra C Ortiz, Marijke J van Baren, Muhammad Akram Tariq, Frédéric Partensky, Alexandra Z Worden
Micromonas is a unicellular marine green alga that thrives from tropical to polar ecosystems. We investigated the growth and cellular characteristics of acclimated mid-exponential phase Micromonas commoda RCC299 over multiple light levels and over the diel cycle (14:10 hour light:dark). We also exposed the light:dark acclimated M. commoda to experimental shifts from moderate to high light (HL), and to HL plus ultraviolet radiation (HL+UV), 4.5 hours into the light period. Cellular responses of this prasinophyte were quantified by flow cytometry and changes in gene expression by qPCR and RNA-seq...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278122/cadmium-lead-mercury-and-arsenic-in-animal-feed-and-feed-materials-trend-analysis-of-monitoring-results
#5
Paulien Adamse, H J Ine Van der Fels-Klerx, Jacob de Jong
This study aimed to obtain insights into the presence of cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic in feed materials and feed over time, for the purpose of guiding national monitoring. Data from the Dutch feed monitoring program and from representatives of the feed industry in the period 2007-2013 were used. Data covered the concentrations of cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic in a variety of feed materials and compound feeds in The Netherlands. Trends in the percentage of samples that exceeded the maximum limit (ML), set by the European Commission, and trends in average, median and 90(th) percentile concentrations of each of these elements per feed material or compound feed were investigated...
March 2, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276458/coral-reef-grazer-benthos-dynamics-complicated-by-invasive-algae-in-a-small-marine-reserve
#6
Kostantinos A Stamoulis, Alan M Friedlander, Carl G Meyer, Iria Fernandez-Silva, Robert J Toonen
Blooms of alien invasive marine algae have become common, greatly altering the health and stability of nearshore marine ecosystems. Concurrently, herbivorous fishes have been severely overfished in many locations worldwide, contributing to increases in macroalgal cover. We used a multi-pronged, interdisciplinary approach to test if higher biomass of herbivorous fishes inside a no-take marine reserve makes this area more resistant to invasive algal overgrowth. Over a two year time period, we (1) compared fish biomass and algal cover between two fished and one unfished patch reef in Hawai'i, (2) used acoustic telemetry to determine fidelity of herbivorous fishes to the unfished reef, and (3) used metabarcoding and next-generation sequencing to determine diet composition of herbivorous fishes...
March 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276185/temporal-and-spatial-variations-in-the-composition-of-freshwater-photosynthetic-picoeukaryotes-revealed-by-miseq-sequencing-from-flow-cytometry-sorted-samples
#7
Shengnan Li, Gisèle Bronner, Cécile Lepère, Fanxiang Kong, Xiaoli Shi
The diversity and composition of photosynthetic picoeukaryotes (PPEs) in two large shallow lakes in China (Lake Taihu and Lake Chaohu) were investigated from flow cytometry sorted samples using Miseq high-throughput sequencing. We collected 65 samples covering different regions of the two lakes over four seasons to unveil spatial and temporal patterns of PPEs community composition. The use of flow cytometry sorting largely improved the efficiency of detecting PPEs sequences and over 70% of the retrieved reads belonged to PPEs...
March 9, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270054/marine-anti-biofouling-efficacy-of-amphiphilic-poly-coacrylate-grafted-pdmse-effect-of-graft-molecular-weight
#8
Cary A Kuliasha, John A Finlay, Sofia C Franco, Anthony S Clare, Shane J Stafslien, Anthony B Brennan
There is currently strong motivation due to ecological concerns to develop effective anti-biofouling coatings that are environmentally benign, durable, and stable for use by the maritime industry. The antifouling (AF) and fouling-release (FR) efficacy of amphiphilic, charged copolymers composed of ~52% acrylamide, ~34% acrylic acid, and ~14% methyl acrylate grafted to poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMSe) surfaces were tested against zoospores of the green alga Ulva linza and the diatom Navicula incerta. The biofouling response to molecular weight variation was analyzed for grafts ranging from ~100 to 1,400 kg mol(-1), The amphiphilic coatings showed a marked improvement in the FR response, with a 55% increase in the percentage removal of diatoms and increased AF efficacy, with 92% reduction in initial attachment density of zoospores, compared to PDMSe controls...
March 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262764/the-origin-of-carbon-isotope-vital-effects-in-coccolith-calcite
#9
H L O McClelland, J Bruggeman, M Hermoso, R E M Rickaby
Calcite microfossils are widely used to study climate and oceanography in Earth's geological past. Coccoliths, readily preserved calcite plates produced by a group of single-celled surface-ocean dwelling algae called coccolithophores, have formed a significant fraction of marine sediments since the Late Triassic. However, unlike the shells of foraminifera, their zooplankton counterparts, coccoliths remain underused in palaeo-reconstructions. Precipitated in an intracellular chemical and isotopic microenvironment, coccolith calcite exhibits large and enigmatic departures from the isotopic composition of abiogenic calcite, known as vital effects...
March 6, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261179/characterization-of-potential-polysaccharide-utilization-systems-in-the-marine-bacteroidetes-gramella-flava-jlt2011-using-a-multi-omics-approach
#10
Kai Tang, Yingfan Lin, Yu Han, Nianzhi Jiao
Members of phylum Bacteroidetes are distributed across diverse marine niches and Flavobacteria is often the predominant bacterial class decomposing algae-derived polysaccharides. Here, we report the complete genome of Gramella flava JLT2011 (Flavobacteria) isolated from surface water of the southeastern Pacific. A remarkable genomic feature is that the number of glycoside hydrolase (GH) genes in the genome of G. flava JLT2011 is more than 2-fold higher than that of other Gramella species. The functional profiles of the GHs suggest extensive variation in Gramella species...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253346/herbivore-induced-chemical-and-molecular-responses-of-the-kelps-laminaria-digitata-and-lessonia-spicata
#11
Andrés Ritter, Léa Cabioch, Loraine Brillet-Guéguen, Erwan Corre, Audrey Cosse, Laurence Dartevelle, Harold Duruflé, Carina Fasshauer, Sophie Goulitquer, François Thomas, Juan A Correa, Philippe Potin, Sylvain Faugeron, Catherine Leblanc
Kelps are founding species of temperate marine ecosystems, living in intertidal coastal areas where they are often challenged by generalist and specialist herbivores. As most sessile organisms, kelps develop defensive strategies to restrain grazing damage and preserve their own fitness during interactions with herbivores. To decipher some inducible defense and signaling mechanisms, we carried out metabolome and transcriptome analyses in two emblematic kelp species, Lessonia spicata from South Pacific coasts and Laminaria digitata from North Atlantic, when challenged with their main specialist herbivores...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251783/indole-signaling-and-micro-algal-auxins-decrease-the-virulence-of-vibrio-campbellii-a-major-pathogen-of-aquatic-organisms
#12
Qian Yang, Gde Sasmita Julyantoro Pande, Zheng Wang, Baochuan Lin, Robert A Rubin, Gary J Vora, Tom Defoirdt
Vibrios belonging to the Harveyi clade are major pathogens of marine vertebrates and invertebrates, causing major losses in wild and cultured organisms. Despite their significant impact, the pathogenicity mechanisms of these bacteria are not yet completely understood. In this study, we investigated the impact of indole signaling on the virulence of Vibrio campbellii. Elevated indole levels significantly decreased motility, biofilm formation, exopolysaccharide production and virulence to crustacean hosts. Indole furthermore inhibited the three-channel quorum sensing system of V...
March 2, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246643/unexpected-early-triassic-marine-ecosystem-and-the-rise-of-the-modern-evolutionary-fauna
#13
Arnaud Brayard, L J Krumenacker, Joseph P Botting, James F Jenks, Kevin G Bylund, Emmanuel Fara, Emmanuelle Vennin, Nicolas Olivier, Nicolas Goudemand, Thomas Saucède, Sylvain Charbonnier, Carlo Romano, Larisa Doguzhaeva, Ben Thuy, Michael Hautmann, Daniel A Stephen, Christophe Thomazo, Gilles Escarguel
In the wake of the end-Permian mass extinction, the Early Triassic (~251.9 to 247 million years ago) is portrayed as an environmentally unstable interval characterized by several biotic crises and heavily depauperate marine benthic ecosystems. We describe a new fossil assemblage-the Paris Biota-from the earliest Spathian (middle Olenekian, ~250.6 million years ago) of the Bear Lake area, southeastern Idaho, USA. This highly diversified assemblage documents a remarkably complex marine ecosystem including at least seven phyla and 20 distinct metazoan orders, along with algae...
February 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245605/tuberatolide-b-suppresses-cancer-progression-by-promoting-ros-mediated-inhibition-of-stat3-signaling
#14
Youn Kyung Choi, Junseong Kim, Kang Min Lee, Yu-Jeong Choi, Bo-Ram Ye, Min-Sun Kim, Seong-Gyu Ko, Seung-Hong Lee, Do-Hyung Kang, Soo-Jin Heo
Tuberatolide B (TTB, C27H34O₄) is a diastereomeric meroterpenoid isolated from the Korean marine algae Sargassum macrocarpum. However, the anticancer effects of TTB remain unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that TTB inhibits tumor growth in breast, lung, colon, prostate, and cervical cancer cells. To examine the mechanism by which TTB suppresses cell growth, we determined the effect of TTB on apoptosis, ROS generation, DNA damage, and signal transduction. TTB induced ROS production in MDA-MB-231, A549, and HCT116 cells...
February 25, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241461/quorum-sensing-inhibitors-from-the-sea-discovered-using-bacterial-n-acyl-homoserine-lactone-based-biosensors
#15
REVIEW
Kumar Saurav, Valeria Costantino, Vittorio Venturi, Laura Steindler
Marine natural products with antibiotic activity have been a rich source of drug discovery; however, the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains has turned attention towards the discovery of alternative innovative strategies to combat pathogens. In many pathogenic bacteria, the expression of virulence factors is under the regulation of quorum sensing (QS). QS inhibitors (QSIs) present a promising alternative or potential synergistic treatment since they disrupt the signaling pathway used for intra- and interspecies coordination of expression of virulence factors...
February 23, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237800/an-extract-of-the-marine-alga-alaria-esculenta-modulates-%C3%AE-synuclein-folding-and-amyloid-formation
#16
James C Giffin, Robert C Richards, Cheryl Craft, Nusrat Jahan, Cindy Leggiadro, Thierry Chopin, Michael Szemerda, Shawna L MacKinnon, K Vanya Ewart
The conversion of α-synuclein from its natively unfolded and α-helical tetrameric forms to an amyloid conformation is central to the emergence of Parkinson's disease. Therefore, prevention of this conversion may offer an effective way of avoiding the onset of this disease or delaying its progress. At different concentrations, an aqueous extract from the edible winged kelp (Alaria esculenta), was shown to lower and to raise the melting point of α-synuclein. Size fractionation of the extract resulted in the separation of these distinct activities...
February 23, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230766/extraction-and-identification-of-phlorotannins-from-the-brown-alga-sargassum-fusiforme-harvey-setchell
#17
Yajing Li, Xiaoting Fu, Delin Duan, Xiaoyong Liu, Jiachao Xu, Xin Gao
Phlorotannins are a group of complex polymers of phloroglucinol (1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene), which are unique compounds from marine brown algae. In our present study, a procedure for extraction and enrichment of phlorotannins from S. fusiforme with highly antioxidant potentials was established. After comparison of different extraction methods, the optimal extraction conditions were established as follows. The freeze-dried seaweed powder was extracted with 30% ethanol-water solvent with a solid/liquid ratio of 1:5 at temperature of 25 °C for 30 min...
February 21, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228913/biomass-and-habitat-characteristics-of-epiphytic-macroalgae-in-the-sibuti-mangroves-sarawak-malaysia
#18
Hasmidah Md Isa, Abu Hena Mustafa Kamal, Mohd Hanafi Idris, Zamri Rosli, Johan Ismail
Mangroves support diverse macroalgal assemblages as epibionts on their roots and tree trunks. These algae provide nutrients to the primary consumers in the aquatic food web and have been reported to be substantial contributors to marine ecosystems. The species diversity, biomass, and habitat characteristics of mangrove macroalgae were investigated at three stations in the Sibuti mangrove estuary, Sarawak, Malaysia, from November 2012 to October 2013. Three groups of macroalgae were recorded and were found to be growing on mangrove prop roots, namely Rhodophyta (Caloglossa ogasawaraensis, Caloglossa adhaerens, Caloglossa stipitata, Bostrychia anomala, and Hypnea sp...
January 2017: Tropical Life Sciences Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225766/marine-actinobacteria-as-a-source-of-compounds-for-phytopathogen-control-an-integrative-metabolic-profiling-bioactivity-and-taxonomical-approach
#19
Luz A Betancur, Sandra J Naranjo-Gaybor, Diana M Vinchira-Villarraga, Nubia C Moreno-Sarmiento, Luis A Maldonado, Zulma R Suarez-Moreno, Alejandro Acosta-González, Gillermo F Padilla-Gonzalez, Mónica Puyana, Leonardo Castellanos, Freddy A Ramos
Marine bacteria are considered as promising sources for the discovery of novel biologically active compounds. In this study, samples of sediment, invertebrate and algae were collected from the Providencia and Santa Catalina coral reef (Colombian Caribbean Sea) with the aim of isolating Actinobateria-like strain able to produce antimicrobial and quorum quenching compounds against pathogens. Several approaches were used to select actinobacterial isolates, obtaining 203 strains from all samples. According to their 16S rRNA gene sequencing, a total of 24 strains was classified within Actinobacteria represented by three genera: Streptomyces, Micromonospora, and Gordonia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222980/acute-water-quality-criteria-for-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-pesticides-plastic-additives-and-4-nonylphenol-in-seawater
#20
I Durán, R Beiras
Probabilistic environmental quality criteria for Naphthalene (Nap), Phenanthrene (Phe), Fluoranthene (Flu), Pyrene (Pyr), Triclosan (TCS), Tributyltin (TBT), Chlorpyrifos (CPY), Diuron (DUR), γ-Hexaclorocyclohexane (γ-HCH), Bisphenol A (BPA) and 4-Nonylphenol (4-NP) were derived from acute toxicity data using saltwater species representative of marine ecosystems, including algae, mollusks, crustaceans, echinoderms and chordates. Preferably, data concerns sublethal endpoints and early life stages from bioassays conducted in our laboratory, but the data set was completed with a broad literature survey...
February 17, 2017: Environmental Pollution
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