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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645651/post-transplant-cholangiopathy-classification-pathogenesis-and-preventive-strategies
#1
REVIEW
Yvonne de Vries, Fien A von Meijenfeldt, Robert J Porte
Biliary complications are the most frequent cause of morbidity, re-transplantation, and even mortality after liver transplantation. In general, biliary leakage and anastomotic and non-anastomotic biliary strictures (NAS) can be recognized. There is no consensus on the exact definition of NAS and different names and criteria have been used in literature. We propose to use the term post-transplant cholangiopathy for the spectrum of abnormalities of large donor bile ducts, that includes NAS, but also intraductal casts and intrahepatic biloma formation, in the presence of a patent hepatic artery...
June 20, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635176/genetic-loss-of-the-muscarinic-m3-receptor-m3-r-markedly-alters-bile-formation-and-cholestatic-liver-injury-in-mice
#2
Franziska Durchschein, Elisabeth Krones, Marion J Pollheimer, Gernot Zollner, Martin Wagner, Jean-Pierre Raufman, Peter Fickert
Hepatic innervation represents a potentially underestimated regulator of liver function and regeneration. The muscarinic 3 receptor (M3 -R) is the primary cholangiocyte receptor for the afferent parasympathetic innervation of bile ducts. We aimed to determine the specific role of the M3 -R in bile formation and models for cholestatic liver disease in mice. We compared bile flow and composition in M3 -R knock-out mice (M3 -R(-/-) ) and wild type littermates (WT). M3 -R(-/-) mice showed significantly reduced bile flow compared to WT mice, most likely due to decreased biliary HCO3(-) secretion...
June 21, 2017: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634394/the-roles-of-toll-like-receptor-4-in-the-pathogenesis-of-pathogen-associated-biliary-fibrosis-caused-by-clonorchis-sinensis
#3
Chao Yan, Bo Li, Fang Fan, Ying Du, Rui Ma, Xiao-Dan Cheng, Xiang-Yang Li, Bo Zhang, Qian Yu, Yu-Gang Wang, Ren-Xian Tang, Kui-Yang Zheng
Pathogen-associated biliary fibrosis (PABF) is a type of liver fibrosis characterized by injuries of cholangiocytes and extra cellular matrix (ECM) deposition around bile ducts caused by various bacteria, fungi, virus and parasites. Recent studies show that TLR4 plays an important role in several other types of liver fibrosis, but the mechanism of TLR4 in PABF is yet really unclear. In the present study, a PABF mouse model was established by a trematode infection-Clonorchis sinensis which dwells in the bile ducts and causes severe biliary fibrosis of mice...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622182/reflux-associated-cholecystopathy-analysis-of-76-gallbladders-from-patients-with-supra-oddi-union-of-the-pancreatic-duct-and-common-bile-duct-pancreatobiliary-maljunction-elucidates-a-specific-diagnostic-pattern-of-mucosal-hyperplasia-as-a-prelude-to-carcinoma
#4
Takashi Muraki, Bahar Memis, Michelle D Reid, Takeshi Uehara, Tetsuya Ito, Osamu Hasebe, Shinji Okaniwa, Naoto Horigome, Takeshi Hisa, Pardeep Mittal, Alexa Freedman, Shishir Maithel, Juan M Sarmiento, Alyssa Krasinskas, Jill Koshiol, Volkan Adsay
Pancreaticobiliary maljunction (PBM) is the anomalous union of the main pancreatic duct and common bile duct outside the Oddi-sphincter, allowing the reflux of pancreatic juice to the gallbladder. There is only limited awareness and understanding of the pathologic correlates of this condition, mostly from Japan; this entity is largely unrecognized in the West. In this study, 76 gallbladders from patients with PBM (64 from Japan; 12 from the United States) were analyzed and contrasted with 66 from non-PBM patients...
June 15, 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606651/mechanisms-of-bile-acid-mediated-inflammation-in-the-liver
#5
REVIEW
Man Li, Shi-Ying Cai, James L Boyer
Bile acids are synthesized in the liver and are the major component in bile. Impaired bile flow leads to cholestasis that is characterized by elevated levels of bile acid in the liver and serum, followed by hepatocyte and biliary injury. Although the causes of cholestasis have been extensively studied, the molecular mechanisms as to how bile acids initiate liver injury remain controversial. In this chapter, we summarize recent advances in the pathogenesis of bile acid induced liver injury. These include bile acid signaling pathways in hepatocytes as well as the response of cholangiocytes and innate immune cells in the liver in both patients with cholestasis and cholestatic animal models...
June 9, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606484/short-and-long-term-outcomes-after-a-reconstituting-and-fenestrating-subtotal-cholecystectomy
#6
Aafke H van Dijk, Sandra C Donkervoort, Wytze Lameris, Eefje de Vries, Quirijn Aj Eijsbouts, Bart C Vrouenraets, Olivier R Busch, Marja A Boermeester, Philip R de Reuver
BACKGROUND: Multiple surgical techniques are advised to safely perform cholecystectomy in difficult cases, such as conversion to open surgery or subtotal cholecystectomy (STC). A reconstituting and a fenestrating STC are techniques for STC. The aim of this study was to investigate short and long-term morbidity and quality of life associated with STC and to compare the outcomes after fenestrating and reconstituting STC. STUDY DESIGN: Patients who underwent STC were identified...
June 9, 2017: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601317/iatrogenic-injuries-of-the-extrahepatic-biliary-system
#7
Ghodratollah Maddah, Mohammad Taghi Rajabi Mashhadi, Mehdi Parvizi Mashhadi, Mehdi Jabbari Nooghabi, Masoumeh Hassanpour, Abbas Abdollahi
BACKGROUND: Iatrogenic traumatic extrahepatic biliary tract injuries though rarely occur; they can lead to exceedingly morbid complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the management strategies and outcomes of patients presented with iatrogenic bile duct injuries. METHODS: This is a retrospective study. Over 19 y, 124 patients were managed for iatrogenic biliary injuries at our institution. The data related to the etiology of biliary tract injury, symptoms of injury, laboratory and radiologic studies, injury-to-diagnosis time, type of biliary tract injury, injury management, hospitalization time, and postoperative complications were reviewed...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599080/bmp-signaling-governs-biliary-driven-liver-regeneration-in-zebrafish-via-tbx2b-and-id2a
#8
Tae-Young Choi, Mehwish Khaliq, Shinya Tsurusaki, Nikolay Ninov, Didier Y R Stainier, Minoru Tanaka, Donghun Shin
Upon mild liver injury, new hepatocytes originate from pre-existing hepatocytes. However, if hepatocyte proliferation is impaired, a manifestation of severe liver injury, biliary epithelial cells (BECs) contribute to new hepatocytes through BEC dedifferentiation into liver progenitor cells (LPCs), also termed oval cells or hepatoblast-like cells (HB-LCs), and subsequent differentiation into hepatocytes. Despite the identification of several factors regulating BEC dedifferentiation and activation, little is known about factors involved in the regulation of LPC differentiation into hepatocytes during liver regeneration...
June 9, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585107/a-technique-to-define-extrahepatic-biliary-anatomy-using-robotic-near-infrared-fluorescent-cholangiography
#9
Ajay V Maker, Nicholas Kunda
BACKGROUND: Bile duct injury is a rare but serious complication of minimally invasive cholecystectomy. Traditionally, intraoperative cholangiogram has been used in difficult cases to help delineate anatomical structures, however, new imaging modalities are currently available to aid in the identification of extrahepatic biliary anatomy, including near-infrared fluorescent cholangiography (NIFC) using indocyanine green (ICG).1-5 The objective of the study was to evaluate if this technique may aid in safe dissection to obtain the critical view...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574801/direct-gallbladder-indocyanine-green-injection-fluorescence-cholangiography-during-laparoscopic-cholecystectomy
#10
Claire Graves, Sora Ely, Olajire Idowu, Christopher Newton, Sunghoon Kim
BACKGROUND: Intravenous injection of indocyanine green (ICG) is used to illuminate extrahepatic biliary anatomy. Fluorescence of biliary structures may lower surgical complications that can arise due to inadvertent injury to the common bile duct. We describe a method of injecting ICG directly into the gallbladder to define the cystic duct and common bile duct anatomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A standard laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed using a laparoscope with near-infrared imaging capability...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571204/impact-of-biliary-calculi-on-the-liver
#11
Raju Rangaswamy, Chabungbam Gyan Singh, Haobam Manihar Singh, P Punyabati, Kuotho T Nyuwi
INTRODUCTION: Gallstone is implicated for hepatocellular injury due to chronic extra hepatic large bile duct obstruction with or without repeated episodes of cholangitis. AIM: To study the liver changes in patients undergoing operative procedure for gallstone disease and to determine the relationship between severity of these changes with position of biliary calculus in biliary tree. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty patients who underwent operative procedure for gallstone disease between October 2013 and September 2015 were evaluated...
April 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567121/an-alternative-treatment-for-biliary-injuries-characterized-by-complete-transection-of-the-common-bile-duct-intraperitoneal-rendezvous
#12
Bulent Odemis, Erkin Oztas, Muhammet Yener Akpinar, Ensar Ozdemir, Serkan Torun, Orhan Coskun
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558038/impact-of-cigarette-smoking-on-early-complications-after-liver-transplantation-a-single-center-experience-and-a-meta-analysis
#13
Qingshan Li, Yue Wang, Tao Ma, Xuemin Liu, Bo Wang, Zheng Wu, Yi Lv, Rongqian Wu
BACKGROUND: While studies have shown that cigarette smoking has negative implications on the long-term outcome following liver transplantation, its role in early complications is inconclusive. METHODS: The clinical data of 162 consecutive adult patients who underwent elective liver transplantation from January, 2012 to March, 2016 were analyzed. Patients were defined as active smokers, ex-smokers, or non-smokers on the basis of documentation at the time of liver transplantation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552812/retroinfundibular-laparoscopic-cholecystectomy-versus-standard-laparoscopic-cholecystectomy-in-difficult-cases
#14
Alaa M Sewefy, Aymen M Hassanen, Ahmed M Atyia, Amr M Gaafar
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy becomes the gold standard surgical procedure for treating gallstones. Standard laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SLC) requires proper dissection of Calot's triangle to achieve the critical view of safety. This may be difficult in certain conditions, resulting in higher incidence of bile duct injury and conversion to open. We aimed to compare the outcomes of laparoscopic cholecystectomy by retroinfundibular (RI) approach to that of SLC, in difficult cases...
May 24, 2017: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552422/8-methoxypsoralen-disrupts-mdr3-mediated-phospholipids-efflux-and-bile-acid-homeostasis-and-its-relevance-to-hepatotoxicity
#15
Guolin Zhao, Dengqiu Xu, Ziqiao Yuan, Zhenzhou Jiang, Wang Zhou, Zhijian Li, Mengyue Yin, Zhixing Zhou, Luyong Zhang, Tao Wang
Since its discovery in 1987, multidrug resistance 3 P-glycoprotein (MDR3) had recognized to play a crucial role in the translocation of phospholipids from the inner to outer leaflets of bile canalicular membranes. An increasing number of reports suggest that drug-mediated functional disruption of MDR3 is responsible for drug-induced cholestasis. 8-Methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) is used clinically to treat psoriasis, vitiligo and other skin disorders. However, psoralens safety for long-term use is a concern. In the current study, we evaluate 8-MOP's potential hepatotoxicity and effects on bile formation...
May 24, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535652/-analysis-of-clinical-prognosis-and-the-correlation-between-bile-duct-injury-after-transcatheter-arterial-chemoembolization-and-the-level-of-hepatic-arterial-embolization-in-patients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#16
H Y Xu, X P Yu, R Feng, H J Hu, W W Xiao
Objective: To evaluate the correlation between bile duct injury after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization and the level of hepatic arterial embolization, and to analyze the clinical prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma patients. Methods: From January18, 2012 to December18, 2014, 21 patients underwent TACE for HCC were retrospectively reviewed, including patients' clinical and pathological data. The clinical outcome and relevant factors for bile duct injury were analyzed. Results: A total of 21 patients were identified with bile duct injury at our single institution...
May 23, 2017: Zhonghua Zhong Liu za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Oncology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523311/study-concerning-the-histopathological-changes-in-chronic-hepatopathies
#17
Cristian Marius Daina, Lucia Georgeta Daina, Marinela Bonta, Daniela Rahotă, Gabriela MuŢiu
Chronic liver diseases represent a public health problem both at global level and in our country. Their significance is due not only to the large number of cases but also to their severe complications and associated diseases, which increase the gravity of prognosis. Hepatopathies generally develop by formation and accumulation of fibrous tissue, which leads to architectural distortions in the structure of the liver. Hepatic fibrosis is the result of chronic injury and plays a direct role in the pathogenesis of the hepatocellular dysfunction and portal hypertension...
2017: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523071/forsaken-foregut-case-report-of-simultaneous-black-esophagus-and-ischemic-cholangiopathy
#18
Paul A Cameron, Franzjosef Schweiger
Black esophagus or acute esophageal necrosis rarely occurs after severe hemodynamic compromise or low-flow states. Other contributing factors may include corrosive injury from gastric contents and diminished mucosal repair mechanisms. Ischemic cholangitis, another rare clinical entity, is also usually the result of a significant vascular and/or hypotensive insult to the biliary tree. We describe the first case of combined acute esophageal necrosis and ischemic cholangiopathy in a 62-year-old male who completely recovered from the esophageal injury but developed progressive liver failure from ischemic cholangiopathy...
2017: Case Reports in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509786/igg4-related-disease-of-the-biliary-tract-and-pancreas-clinical-and-experimental-advances
#19
Lowiek M Hubers, Ulrich Beuers
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is an immune-mediated disease of unknown cause. It predominantly affects the biliary tract [IgG4-associated cholangitis (IAC)] and pancreas [autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP)] of mostly elderly men. Accurate diagnostic tests are lacking. Patients benefit from predniso(lo)ne treatment. However, disease relapse is often seen. This review will address pathophysiological aspects and advances in diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. RECENT FINDINGS: The role of IgG1 and IgG4 in the pathophysiology of IgG4-RD was studied in mice which showed more intense organ damage of pancreas and salivary glands when IgG1 rather than IgG4 of patients with IgG4-RD was injected...
July 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506369/autoimmune-hepatitis-overlap-syndromes-and-liver-pathology
#20
REVIEW
Albert J Czaja, Herschel A Carpenter
Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) may have an atypical serum alkaline phosphatase elevation, antimitochondrial antibodies, histologic features of bile duct injury/loss, or cholangiographic findings of focal biliary strictures and dilations. These manifestations characterize the overlap syndromes. Patients can be classified as having AIH with features of primary biliary cholangitis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, or a cholestatic syndrome. The gold standard of diagnosis is clinical judgment. Histologic evaluation is a major diagnostic component...
June 2017: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
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