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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228383/oral-fungal-bacterial-biofilm-models-in-vitro-a-review
#1
Marlene Chevalier, Stephane Ranque, Isabelle Prêcheur
Inclusion of fungi as commensals in oral biofilm is an important innovation in oral biology, and this work aimed to review the literature on the available biofilm and related disease in vitro models. Actually, thousands of bacterial and around one hundred of fungal phylotypes can colonize the oral cavity. Taxonomic profiling combined with functional expression analysis has revealed that Candida albicans, Streptococcus mutans and prominent periodontopathogens are not always present or numerically important in candidiasis, caries, or periodontitis lesions...
December 8, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228381/the-etiology-and-impact-of-co-infections-in-children-hospitalized-with-community-acquired-pneumonia
#2
Vikki G Nolan, Sandra R Arnold, Anna M Bramley, Krow Ampofo, Derek J Williams, Carlos G Grijalva, Wesley H Self, Evan J Anderson, Richard G Wunderink, Kathryn M Edwards, Andrew T Pavia, Seema Jain, Jonathan A McCullers
Background: Recognition that co-infections are common in children with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is increasing, but gaps remain in our understanding of their frequency and importance. Methods: We analyzed data from 2219 children hospitalized with CAP and compared demographics, clinical characteristics, and outcomes between groups with viruses alone, bacteria alone, or co-infections. We also assessed the frequency of selected pairings of co-detected pathogens and their clinical characteristics...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228354/prolonged-exposure-does-not-increase-soil-microbial-community-compositional-response-to-warming-along-geothermal-gradients
#3
Dajana Radujkovic, Erik Verbruggen, Bjarni D Sigurdsson, Niki I W Leblans, Ivan A Janssens, Sara Vicca, James T Weedon
Global change is expected to affect soil microbial communities through their responsiveness to temperature. It has been proposed that prolonged exposure to elevated temperatures may lead to progressively larger effects on soil microbial community composition. However, due to the relatively short-term nature of most warming experiments, this idea has been challenging to evaluate. The present study took advantage of natural geothermal gradients (from + 1°C to + 19°C above ambient) in two subarctic grasslands to test the hypothesis that long-term exposure ( > 50 years) intensifies the effect of warming on microbial community composition compared to short-term exposure (5-7 years)...
December 8, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228269/electroactive-haloalkaliphiles-exhibit-exceptional-tolerance-to-free-ammonia
#4
Pablo Ledezma, Yang Lu, Stefano Freguia
Electrochemical activity in bacteria has been observed in numerous environments and conditions. However, enrichments in circumneutral freshwater media where acetate is the main electron donor seem to invariably lead to the dominance of Geobacter spp. Here we report on an electroactive bacterial consortium which was enriched on acetate as electron donor, but in a medium which reproduces hydrolysed urine (high pH, high salinity and high free ammonia). The consortium was found to be free of Geobacter species, whereas a previously undescribed community dominated by species closely related to Pseudomonas and Desulfuromonas was established...
December 4, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228264/co-invading-symbiotic-mutualists-of-medicago-polymorpha-retain-high-ancestral-diversity-and-contain-diverse-accessory-genomes
#5
Stephanie S Porter, Joshua J Faber-Hammond, Maren L Friesen
Exotic, invasive plants and animals can wreak havoc on ecosystems by displacing natives and altering environmental conditions. However, much less is known about the identities or evolutionary dynamics of the symbiotic microbes that accompany invasive species. Most leguminous plants rely upon symbiotic rhizobium bacteria to fix nitrogen, and are incapable of colonizing areas devoid of compatible rhizobia. We compare the genomes of symbiotic rhizobia in a portion of the legume's invaded range, with those of the rhizobium symbionts from across the legume's native range...
December 6, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228256/diversity-patterns-of-microbial-eukaryotes-mirror-those-of-bacteria-in-antarctic-cryoconite-holes
#6
Pacifica Sommers, John L Darcy, Eli M S Gendron, Lee F Stanish, Elizabeth A Bagshaw, Dorota L Porazinska, Steven K Schmidt
Ice-lidded cryoconite holes on glaciers in the Taylor Valley, Antarctica, provide a unique system of natural mesocosms for studying community structure and assembly. We used high-throughput DNA sequencing to characterize both microbial eukaryotic communities and bacterial communities within cryoconite holes across three glaciers to study similarities in their spatial patterns. We expected that the alpha (phylogenetic diversity) and beta (pairwise community dissimilarity) diversity patterns of eukaryotes in cryoconite holes would be related to those of bacteria, and that they would be related to the biogeochemical gradient within the Taylor Valley...
December 6, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228224/relationship-between-escherichia-coli-growth-rate-and-bacterial-susceptibility-to-ciprofloxacin
#7
Galina V Smirnova, Oleg N Oktyabrsky
The effect of Escherichia coli growth rate on its susceptibility to ciprofloxacin was investigated using bacteria grown on different carbon sources and harboring mutations in genes encoding tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes. A 1-h treatment of the wild type (wt) grown on glucose, succinate, malate, α-ketoglutarate or acetate with 0.3 μg ml-1 ciprofloxacin decreased the number of surviving cells (CFU ml-1), 560, 110, 74, 62 and 5 times, respectively. Among the mutants tested, sucB strain, which grew 1.75 times slower than wt, was 7...
December 6, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228192/quantitative-analysis-of-o2-and-fe2-profiles-in-gradient-tubes-for-cultivation-of-microaerophilic-iron-ii-oxidizing-bacteria
#8
U Lueder, G Druschel, D Emerson, A Kappler, C Schmidt
The classical approach for cultivation of neutrophilic microaerophilic Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria are agar-based gradient tubes where these bacteria find optimal growth conditions in opposing gradients of oxygen (O2) and dissolved Fe(II) (Fe2+). The goals of this study were to quantify the temporal development of O2 and Fe2+ concentrations over time, to compare abiotic and microbially-inoculated tubes, and to test the suitability of different Fe(II)-sources for cultivation of freshwater and marine microaerophilic Fe(II)-oxidizers...
December 5, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228187/extracellular-nucleic-acids-of-the-marine-bacterium-rhodovulum-sulfidophilum-and-recombinant-rna-production-technology-using-bacteria
#9
Yo Kikuchi, So Umekage
Extracellular nucleic acids of high molecular weight are detected ubiquitously in seawater. Recent studies have indicated that these nucleic acids are, at least in part, derived from active production by some bacteria. The marine bacterium Rhodovulum sulfidophilum is one of those bacteria. Rdv. sulfidophilum is a non-sulfur phototrophic marine bacterium, which is known to form flocs, structured communities of cells, and to produce extracellular nucleic acids in culture media. Recently, it has been revealed that this bacterium produces gene transfer agent-like particles and that this particle production may be related to the extracellular nucleic acid production mechanism...
December 6, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228161/reductive-tetrachloroethene-dehalogenation-in-the-presence-of-oxygen-by-sulfurospirillum-multivorans-physiological-studies-and-proteome-analysis
#10
Jennifer Gadkari, Tobias Goris, Christian L Schiffmann, Raffael Rubick, Lorenz Adrian, Torsten Schubert, Gabriele Diekert
Reductive dehalogenation of organohalides is carried out by organohalide-respiring bacteria (OHRB) in anoxic environments. The tetrachloroethene (PCE)-respiring Epsilonproteobacterium Sulfurospirillum multivorans is one of few OHRB able to respire oxygen. Therefore, we investigated the organism's capacity to dehalogenate PCE in the presence of oxygen, which would broaden the applicability to use S. multivorans, unlike other commonly oxygen-sensitive OHRB, for bioremediation, e.g. at oxic/anoxic interphases...
December 5, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228157/gut-epithelial-vitamin-d-receptor-regulates-microbiota-dependent-mucosal-inflammation-by-suppressing-intestinal-epithelial-cell-apoptosis
#11
Lei He, Tianjing Liu, Yongyan Shi, Feng Tian, Huiyuan Hu, Dilip K Deb, Yinyin Chen, Marc Bissonnette, Yan Chun Li
Recent studies show that colonic vitamin D receptor (VDR) signaling protects the mucosal epithelial barrier and suppresses colonic inflammation, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains to be fully understood. To investigate the implication of colonic VDR down-regulation seen in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, we assessed the effect of gut epithelial VDR deletion on colonic inflammatory responses in an experimental colitis model. In 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis model, mice carrying VDR deletion in gut epithelial cells (VDRf/f;Villin-Cre or VDRΔIEC) or in colonic epithelial cells (VDRf/f;CDX2-Cre or VDRΔCEC) developed more severe clinical colitis than VDRf/f control mice, characterized by more robust TH1 and TH17 responses, with greater increases in mucosal IFN-γ+, IL-17+ and IFN-γ+IL-17+ T cells...
December 7, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228127/antibiotic-resistance-and-the-risk-of-recurrent-bacteremia
#12
Sjoukje H S Woudt, Sabine C de Greeff, Annelot F Schoffelen, Anne L M Vlek, Marc J M Bonten
Background: Direct health effects of antibiotic resistance are difficult to assess. We quantified the risk of recurrent bacteremia associated with antibiotic resistance. Methods: We extracted antimicrobial susceptibility testing data on blood isolates of Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp., Enterococcus spp. and Staphylococcus aureus from the Dutch surveillance system for antimicrobial resistance between 2008 and 2017. First and first recurrent (4-30days) bacteremia episodes were categorized as susceptible, single non-susceptible or co-non-susceptible (I/R), to 3rd generation cephalosporins -/+ carbapenems (Enterobacteriaceae), ceftazidime -/+ carbapenems (Pseudomonas spp...
December 7, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228010/nasal-carriage-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-at-a-palliative-care-unit-a-prospective-single-service-analysis
#13
Maria Heckel, Walter Geißdörfer, Franziska A Herbst, Stephanie Stiel, Christoph Ostgathe, Christian Bogdan
BACKGROUND: The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacterial microorganisms is a particular challenge for the health care systems. Little is known about the occurrence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (MDRGNB) in patients of palliative care units (PCU). AIM: The primary aim of this study was to determine the carriage of MRSA among patients of a PCU at a German University Hospital and to assess whether the positive cases would have been detected by a risk-factor-based screening-approach...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227942/the-interaction-between-bacterial-abundance-and-selected-pollutants-concentration-levels-in-an-arctic-catchment-southwest-spitsbergen-svalbard
#14
Klaudia Kosek, Katarzyna Kozak, Krystyna Kozioł, Katarzyna Jankowska, Stanisław Chmiel, Żaneta Polkowska
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been a topic of interest in environmental sciences for >60years. POPs in the Arctic have been investigated since the 1970s, when first atmospheric measurements revealed the presence of these pollutants in the polar regions. Major contaminant transport routes to the Arctic include atmospheric and oceanic transport, as well as inflow from rivers and sea ice. The sources of pollutants, such as industry, power generators, vehicle and ship exhausts, introduce the PAHs, phenols, formaldehyde or metals into the Arctic...
December 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227933/synthesis-biological-evaluation-and-metabolic-stability-of-phenazine-derivatives-as-antibacterial-agents
#15
Maddeboina Krishnaiah, Nathalia Rodrigues de Almeida, Venkatareddy Udumula, Zhongcheng Song, Yashpal Singh Chhonker, Mai M Abdelmoaty, Valter Aragao do Nascimento, Daryl J Murry, Martin Conda-Sheridan
Drug-resistant pathogens are a major cause of hospital- and community-associated bacterial infections in the United States and around the world. These infections are increasingly difficult to treat due to the development of antibiotic resistance and the formation of bacterial biofilms. In the paper, a series of phenazines were synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro antimicrobial activity against Gram positive (methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus, MRSA) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli, E. coli) bacteria...
November 9, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227931/synthesis-and-antibacterial-evaluation-of-novel-cationic-chalcone-derivatives-possessing-broad-spectrum-antibacterial-activity
#16
Wen-Chao Chu, Peng-Yan Bai, Zhao-Qing Yang, De-Yun Cui, Yong-Gang Hua, Yi Yang, Qian-Qian Yang, En Zhang, Shangshang Qin
There is an urgent need to identify new antibiotics with novel mechanisms that combat antibiotic resistant bacteria. Herein, a series of chalcone derivatives that mimic the essential properties of cationic antimicrobial peptides were designed and synthesized. Antibacterial activities against drug-sensitive bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica, as well as clinical multiple drug resistant isolates of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), KPC-2-producing and NDM-1-producing Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae were evaluated...
December 5, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227924/metal-interactions-with-the-transmembrane-region-of-hupe-ni2-transporter-explain-its-efficiency
#17
Magdalena Rowińska-Żyrek
Efficient nickel transport is crucial for the survival and virulence of various bacteria and fungi, with Ni2+ being required for the activity of nine enzymes such as [NiFe] hydrogenase, which catalyzes the reversible oxidation of molecular hydrogen for energy production. This work focuses on a region of transmembrane domain I from the HupE nickel transporter, highly conserved in the HupE/UreJ and NiCoT permease families, analyzing its interactions with native Ni2+ and two other metal ions (Cu2+ and Zn2+), which might interfere with nickel binding...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227905/antimicrobial-activity-of-gallic-acid-against-food-related-pseudomonas-strains-and-its-use-as-biocontrol-tool-to-improve-the-shelf-life-of-fresh-black-truffles
#18
Elena Sorrentino, Mariantonietta Succi, Luca Tipaldi, Gianfranco Pannella, Lucia Maiuro, Marina Sturchio, Raffaele Coppola, Patrizio Tremonte
Refrigeration alone or in combination with other technologies represents the main tool used in the last decades to preserve the freshness of black truffles. This is principally due to the delicateness and vulnerability of this edible hypogeous fungus, so that other invasive preservation practices cannot be adopted. However, the proliferation of some microbial species during the cold storage still represents an unsolved problem. Pseudomonads are among the main spoiler bacteria responsible for the deterioration of refrigerated black truffles...
December 2, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227871/production-of-biogenic-manganese-oxides-coupled-with-methane-oxidation-in-a-bioreactor-for-removing-metals-from-wastewater
#19
Shuji Matsushita, Daisuke Komizo, Linh Thi Thuy Cao, Yoshiteru Aoi, Tomonori Kindaichi, Noriatsu Ozaki, Hiroyuki Imachi, Akiyoshi Ohashi
Biogenic manganese oxide (BioMnOx) can efficiently adsorb various minor metals. The production of BioMnOx in reactors to remove metals during wastewater treatment processes is a promising biotechnological method. However, it is difficult to preferentially enrich manganese-oxidizing bacteria (MnOB) to produce BioMnOx during wastewater treatment processes. A unique method of cultivating MnOB using methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) to produce soluble microbial products is proposed here. MnOB were successfully enriched in a methane-fed reactor containing MOB...
December 1, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227855/a-case-report-of-successful-management-of-clostridium-difficile-colitis-with-antegrade-fidaxomicin-through-a-mucous-fistula-obviating-the-need-for-subtotal-colectomy
#20
Suzanne Arnott, Matthew Skancke, Sheena Chen, Bruce Abell
INTRODUCTION: Clostridium difficile is the most common cause of healthcare-associated infections and can have devastating morbidity and mortality. Traditional treatment algorithms involve intravenous metronidazole and enteric metronidazole or vancomycin. Fidaxomicin (DificidR) targets "switch regions" within RNA polymerases and effectively kills clostridium difficile bacteria and is typically administered orally primarily or through a naso/oro-gastric conduit. PRESENTATION OF CASE: 55-year-old with a recent elective surgical procedure was hospitalized with multifocal pneumonia and subsequently developed clostridium difficile colitis...
November 27, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
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