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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668080/control-of-the-ethylene-signaling-pathway-prevents-plant-defenses-during-intracellular-accommodation-of-the-rhizobia
#1
Fathi Berrabah, Thierry Balliau, El Hosseyn Aït-Salem, Jeoffrey George, Michel Zivy, Pascal Ratet, Benjamin Gourion
Massive intracellular populations of symbiotic bacteria, referred to as rhizobia, are housed in legume root nodules. Little is known about the mechanisms preventing the development of defense in these organs although genes such as symCRK and DNF2 of the model legume Medicago truncatula are required for this control after rhizobial internalization in host nodule cells. Here we investigated the molecular basis of the symbiotic control of immunity. Proteomic analysis was performed to compare functional (wild-type) and defending nodules (symCRK)...
April 18, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668066/mait-cell-mediated-cytotoxicity-roles-in-host-defense-and-therapeutic-potentials-in-infectious-diseases-and-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Patrick T Rudak, Joshua Choi, S M Mansour Haeryfar
Mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are unconventional, innate-like T lymphocytes that sense the presence of MHC-related protein 1 (MR1)-restricted ligands and select inflammatory cues. Consequently, they release potent immunomodulatory mediators, including IFN-γ, TNF-α, and/or IL-17. MAIT cells can also be viewed as killer cells. They display several NK cell-associated receptors, carry granules containing cytotoxic effector molecules, and swiftly upregulate perforin and granzymes upon activation. Accordingly, MAIT cells are capable of lysing MR1-expressing cells infected with a variety of pathogenic bacteria in in vitro settings and may also mount cytotoxic responses during microbial infections in vivo...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668047/miniaturization-of-the-microsuspension-salmonella-microsome-assay-in-agar-microplates
#3
José Ricardo R M Zwarg, Daniel A Morales, Bianca S Maselli, Werner Brack, Gisela A Umbuzeiro
The Salmonella/microsome assay (Ames test) is the most widely used mutagenicity test for the evaluation of pure chemicals and environmental samples. There are several versions of protocols available in the literature, including those that reduce the amount of sample needed for testing with liquid and agar media. The microsuspension version of the Salmonella/microsome assay is more sensitive than the standard protocol. It is performed using 5-times concentrated bacteria and less sample and S9 mixture, but still uses conventional Petri dishes (90 × 15 mm)...
April 18, 2018: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668034/response-of-formed-biofilm-of-enterobacter-cloacae-klebsiella-oxytoca-and-citrobacter-freundii-to-chlorite-based-disinfectants
#4
Linlin Cai, Huawei Wang, Lijiao Liang, Guangyu Wang, Xinglian Xu, Huhu Wang
Bacterial biofilms formed on equipment surfaces are potential sources of cross-contamination and can be responsible for the spread of bacteria involved in food spoilage, such as some Enterobacteriaceae family members. In this study, the effect of chlorite-based disinfectants, including sodium hypochlorite (SH), chlorine dioxide (CD), strongly acidic electrolyzed water (StAEW), and neutral electrolyzed water (NEW), on inactivation of mono-biofilms of Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Citrobacter freundii was evaluated separately...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667993/transition-metal-complexes-of-a-versatile-polyalkoxy-oxazolidine-based-ligand-derived-from-in-situ-cyclization
#5
Ayaan Saleem, Paulina A Kobielska, Klaus Harms, Maria G Katsikogianni, Richard Telford, Ghenadie Novitchi, Sanjit Nayak
One-pot reaction between 8-hydroxyquinoline-2-carboxaldehyde (HQC) and tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (TRIS) followed by in situ cyclization yielded an oxazolidine based ligand which produced four mononuclear complexes of MnII(1), CoII(2), NiII(3), ZnII(4), a tetranuclear iron (FeIII4) complex (5) and a trinuclear cobalt (CoIICoIII2) complex (6). Magnetic studies show dominant antiferromagnetic interaction in tetranuclear iron (FeIII4) complex 5 and presence of the slow relaxation of magnetisation in 6. The compounds were also studied for their antibacterial properties...
April 18, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667809/strand-displacement-probes-combined-with-isothermal-nucleic-acid-amplification-for-instrument-free-detection-from-complex-samples
#6
Elizabeth A Phillips, Taylor J Moehling, Sanchita Bhadra, Andrew D Ellington, Jacqueline C Linnes
Sensitive and specific detection of pathogens via nucleic acid amplification is currently constrained to laboratory settings and portable equipment with costly fluorescent detectors. Nucleic acid-detecting lateral flow immunoassay strips (LFIAs) offer a low-cost visual transduction strategy at points of need. Unfortunately, these LFIAs frequently detect amplification byproducts that can yield spurious results which can only be deciphered through statistical analysis. We integrated customizable strand displacement probes into standard loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays to prevent byproduct capture on commercial LFIAs...
April 18, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667657/unrivalled-diversity-the-many-roles-and-reactions-of-bacterial-cytochromes-p450-in-secondary-metabolism
#7
REVIEW
Anja Greule, Jeanette E Stok, James J De Voss, Max J Cryle
Covering: 2000 up to 2018The cytochromes P450 (P450s) are a superfamily of heme-containing monooxygenases that perform diverse catalytic roles in many species, including bacteria. The P450 superfamily is widely known for the hydroxylation of unactivated C-H bonds, but the diversity of reactions that P450s can perform vastly exceeds this undoubtedly impressive chemical transformation. Within bacteria, P450s play important roles in many biosynthetic and biodegradative processes that span a wide range of secondary metabolite pathways and present diverse chemical transformations...
April 18, 2018: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667480/the-human-gut-microbiota-metabolism-and-perspective-in-obesity
#8
Aline Corado Gomes, Christian Hoffmann, João Felipe Mota
The gut microbiota has been recognized as an important factor in the development of metabolic diseases such as obesity and is considered an endocrine organ involved in the maintenance of energy homeostasis and host immunity. Dysbiosis can change the functioning of the intestinal barrier and the gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) by allowing the passage of structural components of bacteria, such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS), which activate inflammatory pathways that may contribute to the development of insulin resistance...
April 18, 2018: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667377/the-usefulness-of-determination-of-the-procalcitonin-pct-concentration-in-gbs-piositive-pregnant-womens-blood-serum-for-anticipations-of-infections-in-newborns
#9
Wojciech Cnota, Dominika Mucha, Jan Mucha
Group-B streptococci (GBS) are commensal bacteria of the human body. They may, however, pose a serious life hazard to pregnant women. During labour, newborns of GBS-positive mothers run the risk of infections that may eventually lead to severe complications, sepsis or even death. For this reason, it is very important to find new diagnostic markers that will enable fast and effective diagnostics and control of the disease process. The level of procalcitonin emerges as a promising diagnostic parameter. AIM. Analysis of the impact of the procalcitonin (PCT) level in GBS-positive pregnant women on the possibility of complications and infections in mothers and newborns MATERIAL AND METHODS...
2018: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667371/biases-from-different-dna-extraction-methods-in-intestine-microbiome-research-based-on-16s-rdna-sequencing-a-case-in-the-koi-carp-cyprinus-carpio-var-koi
#10
Zhuoran Han, Jingfeng Sun, Aijun Lv, Anli Wang
This study examined the technical bias associated with different DNA extraction methods used in microbiome research. Three methods were used to extract genomic DNA from the same intestinal microbiota sample that was taken from the koi carp Cyprinus carpio var. koi, after which their microbial diversity and community structure were investigated on the basis of a 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing analysis. Biased results were observed in relation to the number of reads, alpha diversity indexes and taxonomic composition among the three DNA extraction protocols...
April 17, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667264/metagenomic-analysis-of-oral-microbiome-in-young-children-aged-6-8-y-living-in-a-rural-isolated-chinese-province
#11
Yuan Xu, Yuhuan Jia, Liang Chen, Wenming Huang, Deqin Yang
BACKGROUND: The mixed dentition is an important transition period from primary teeth. to permanent teeth. However, the caries prevalence of first permanent molar in mixed dentitions was about 30%, which almost represent the caries rate of permanent teeth in this period of time. Therefore, we assessed the oral bacterial profiles in young children (age 6-8) with mixed dentition with or without first molar caries for providing the research basis of caries etiology. METHODS: We collected samples of supragingival plaque and saliva from the children living in Guizhou, a rural isolated province in China...
April 18, 2018: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667009/encapsulating-viability-of-multi-strain-lactobacilli-as-potential-probiotic-in-pigs
#12
Sudthidol Piyadeatsoontorn, Rutjawate Taharnklaew, Tewa Upathanpreecha, Pairat Sornplang
Important aspects of the selection of probiotics to be used for mixing in animal feed include host species specificity and probiotic cell survival during production and storage of their products. The research was to screen and investigate some probiotic properties of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from pig fecal samples. One hundred and thirty-eight representative LAB isolates, which were isolated from 51 pig fecal samples, were tested for acid and bile tolerance, antimicrobial susceptibility, antibacterial activity, potential adhesion to the cell surface, and survival rates when stored in varied microencapsulation forms: freeze-dried, spray-dried, and micro-beads...
April 17, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666936/assessment-of-toxic-impact-of-metals-on-proline-antioxidant-enzymes-and-biological-characteristics-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-inoculated-cicer-arietinum-grown-in-chromium-and-nickel-stressed-sandy-clay-loam-soils
#13
Saima Saif, Mohammad Saghir Khan
Considering the heavy metal risk to soil microbiota and agro-ecosystems, the study was designed to determine metal toxicity to bacteria and to find metal tolerant bacteria carrying multifarious plant growth promoting activities and to assess their impact on chickpea cultivated in stressed soils. Metal tolerant strain SFP1 recognized as Pseudomonas aeruginosa employing 16S rRNA gene sequence determination showed maximum tolerance to Cr (400 μg/ml) and Ni (800 μg/ml) and produced variable amounts of indole acetic acid, HCN, NH3 , and ACC deaminase and could solubilize insoluble phosphates even under Cr (VI) and Ni stress...
April 17, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666882/river-flow-impacts-bacterial-and-archaeal-community-structure-in-surface-sediments-in-the-northern-gulf-of-mexico
#14
Alice C Ortmann, Pamela M Brannock, Lei Wang, Kenneth M Halanych
Meiobenthic community structure in the northern Gulf of Mexico has been shown to be driven by geographical differences due to inshore-offshore gradients and location relative to river discharge. Samples collected along three transects spanning Mobile Bay, Alabama, showed significant differences in meiobenthic communities east of the bay compared to those sampled from the west. In contrast, analysis of bacterial and archaeal communities from the same sediment samples shows that the inshore-offshore gradient has minimal impact on their community structure...
April 17, 2018: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666868/in-vitro-antibacterial-activity-of-oxide-and-non-oxide-bioceramics-for-arthroplastic-devices-ii-fourier-transform-infrared-spectroscopy
#15
Francesco Boschetto, Nami Toyama, Satoshi Horiguchi, Ryan M Bock, Bryan J McEntire, Tetsuya Adachi, Elia Marin, Wenliang Zhu, Osam Mazda, B Sonny Bal, Giuseppe Pezzotti
The metabolic response of Gram-positive Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) bacteria to bioceramic substrates was probed by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Oxide zirconia-toughened alumina (ZTA) and non-oxide silicon nitride (Si3N4) substrates were tested. Bacteria exposed to silica glass substrates were used as a control. S. epidermidis, a major cause of periprosthetic infections, was screened to obtain a precise time-lapse knowledge of its molecular composition and to mechanistically understand its interaction with different substrates...
April 18, 2018: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666821/probiotics-for-the-control-of-helminth-zoonosis
#16
REVIEW
Abadi Amare Reda
This paper is a comprehensive, concise, and an up to date review about probiotics effect and mechanisms against helminth infections of zoonotic importance. Zoonoses are diseases that can be transmitted from animals to humans in a reversible way. Despite zoonotic helminth diseases being still a challenge to the public health and the agriculture industries globally, they were still neglected in both human and veterinary medicine. Moreover, the increasing emergence of anthelmintic drug resistance constitutes failures of most disease control strategies, alarming for a quest to new alternative control approaches...
2018: Journal of Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666781/role-of-muramyl-dipeptide-in-lipopolysaccharide-mediated-biological-activity-and-osteoclast-activity
#17
REVIEW
Hideki Kitaura, Masahiko Ishida, Keisuke Kimura, Haruki Sugisawa, Akiko Kishikawa, Kazuhiro Shima, Saika Ogawa, Jiawei Qi, Wei-Ren Shen
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an endotoxin and bacterial cell wall component that is capable of inducing inflammation and immunological activity. Muramyl dipeptide (MDP), the minimal essential structural unit responsible for the immunological activity of peptidoglycans, is another inflammation-inducing molecule that is ubiquitously expressed by bacteria. Several studies have shown that inflammation-related biological activities were synergistically induced by interactions between LPS and MDP. MDP synergistically enhances production of proinflammatory cytokines that are induced by LPS exposure...
2018: Analytical Cellular Pathology (Amsterdam)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666764/evaluation-of-a-therapy-for-idiopathic-chronic-enterocolitis-in-rhesus-macaques-macaca-mulatta-and-linked-microbial-community-correlates
#18
Joshua M Taylor, Erik L Clarke, Kate Baker, Abigail Lauder, Dorothy Kim, Aubrey Bailey, Gary D Wu, Ronald G Collman, Lara Doyle-Meyers, Kasi Russell-Lodrigue, James Blanchard, Frederic D Bushman, Rudolf Bohm
Idiopathic chronic enterocolitis (ICE) is one of the most commonly encountered and difficult to manage diseases of captive rhesus macaques ( Macaca mulatta ). The etiology is not well understood, but perturbations in gut microbial communities have been implicated. Here we evaluated the effects of a 14-day course of vancomycin, neomycin, and fluconazole on animals affected with ICE, comparing treated, untreated, and healthy animals. We performed microbiome analysis on duodenal and colonic mucosal samples and feces in order to probe bacterial and/or fungal taxa potentially associated with ICE...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666620/the-impact-of-the-antimicrobial-compounds-produced-by-lactic-acid-bacteria-on-the-growth-performance-of-mycobacterium-avium-subsp-paratuberculosis
#19
Petr Kralik, Vladimir Babak, Radka Dziedzinska
Cell-free supernatants (CFSs) extracted from various lactic acid bacteria (LAB) cultures were applied to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) cells to determine their effect on MAP viability. In addition, 5% lactic acid (LA; pH 3) and commercially synthetized nisin bacteriocin were also tested. This procedure was chosen in order to mimic the influence of LAB compounds during the production and storage of fermented milk products, which can be contaminated by MAP. Its presence in milk and milk products is of public concern due to the possible ingestion of MAP by consumers and the discussed role of MAP in Crohn's disease...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666617/perspectives-of-phage-eukaryotic-cell-interactions-to-control-epstein-barr-virus-infections
#20
Andrzej Górski, Ryszard Międzybrodzki, Ewa Jończyk-Matysiak, Beata Weber-Dąbrowska, Natalia Bagińska, Jan Borysowski
Recently, leading medical journals emphasized the importance of further studies on the potential application of bacterial viruses (phages) for the treatment of antibiotics-resistant infections outlining the present status of the therapy and perspectives for the future. Furthermore, a leading scientific journal pointed to the recent progress in research on phage interactions with eukaryotic cells (especially cells of the immune system) and potential implications of their results for our broader understanding of the role of phages - not only as "bacteria eaters" - but also as an important part of our body defense protecting against external and internal pathogenic invaders (as suggested previously)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
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