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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454049/response-surface-method-optimization-of-a-novel-hypericin-formulation-in-p123-micelles-for-colorectal-cancer-and-antimicrobial-photodynamic-therapy
#1
Maiara Camotti Montanha, Larissa Lachi Silva, Fernanda Belincanta Borghi Pangoni, Gabriel Batista Cesar, Renato Sonchini Gonçalves, Wilker Caetano, Noboru Hioka, Tania Toyomi Tominaga, Márcia Edilaine Lopes Consolaro, Andréa Diniz, Elza Kimura
The photodynamic properties of Hypericin (Hyp) may be used as an alternative treatment for malignancies of the lower gastrointestinal tract and for the prevention of surgical-site infection; however, its use in photodynamic therapy has been limited because of its poor hydrosolubility. Therefore, in order to improve its water solubility and its photodynamic effect, Hyp was encapsulated in Pluronic P123 (P123) and the photodynamic effects against intestinal and epidermal bacteria and against two lineages of intestinal colon carcinoma cells were investigated...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454040/the-role-of-dissimilatory-arsenate-reducing-bacteria-in-the-biogeochemical-cycle-of-arsenic-based-on-the-physiological-and-functional-analysis-of-aeromonas-sp-o23a
#2
Witold Uhrynowski, Klaudia Debiec, Aleksandra Sklodowska, Lukasz Drewniak
Dissimilatory arsenate reducing bacteria (DARB) are known to contribute to the mobilization of arsenic and other elements from minerals. Despite this, metabolic capabilities of only a few DARB strains have been thoroughly investigated so far, and the influence of these bacteria on the bioavailability of arsenic in the environment is still a topic for discussion. In this study, Aeromonas sp. O23A, one of the dominant DARB strains found in the Zloty Stok mine (SW Poland), was subjected to a detailed physiological and functional analysis aimed to identify the actual environmental impact of this strain...
April 25, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453974/influences-of-dissolved-oxygen-concentration-on-biocathodic-microbial-communities-in-microbial-fuel-cells
#3
Laura Rago, Pierangela Cristiani, Federica Villa, Sarah Zecchin, Alessandra Colombo, Lucia Cavalca, Andrea Schievano
Dissolved oxygen (DO) at cathodic interface is a critical factor influencing microbial fuel cells (MFC) performance. In this work, three MFCs were operated with cathode under different DO conditions: i) air-breathing (A-MFC); ii) water-submerged (W-MFC) and iii) assisted by photosynthetic microorganisms (P-MFC). A plateau of maximum current was reached at 1.06±0.03mA, 1.48±0.06mA and 1.66±0.04mA, increasing respectively for W-MFC, P-MFC and A-MFC. Electrochemical and microbiological tools (Illumina sequencing, confocal microscopy and biofilm cryosectioning) were used to explore anodic and cathodic biofilm in each MFC type...
April 7, 2017: Bioelectrochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453971/segmented-filamentous-bacteria-th17-inducers-and-helpers-in-a-hostile-world
#4
REVIEW
Pamela Schnupf, Valérie Gaboriau-Routhiau, Philippe J Sansonetti, Nadine Cerf-Bensussan
The Th17 cell composition in the murine gut is strikingly dependent on the presence of the commensal segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB). SFB potently stimulates innate and adaptive immune responses and protects the host from pathogens both in and outside of the gut, partly due to its unique ability to promote a Th17-fostering environment. Recent work has highlighted the role of the tight adherence of SFB to the intestinal surface in mediating the potent immunostimulatory potential of SFB. Progress has also been made in our understanding of how SFB fosters this protective immune environment on the cellular and molecular level...
April 25, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453818/downstream-element-determines-rnase-y-cleavage-of-the-saepqrs-operon-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#5
Gabriella Marincola, Christiane Wolz
In gram-positive bacteria, RNase J1, RNase J2 and RNase Y are thought to be major contributors to mRNA degradation and maturation. In Staphylococcus aureus, RNase Y activity is restricted to regulating the mRNA decay of only certain transcripts. Here the saePQRS operon was used as a model to analyze RNase Y specificity in living cells. A RNase Y cleavage site is located in an intergenic region between saeP and saeQ. This cleavage resulted in rapid degradation of the upstream fragment and stabilization of the downstream fragment...
April 27, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453782/sempi-a-genome-based-secondary-metabolite-prediction-and-identification-web-server
#6
Paul F Zierep, Natàlia Padilla, Dimitar G Yonchev, Kiran K Telukunta, Dennis Klementz, Stefan Günther
The secondary metabolism of bacteria, fungi and plants yields a vast number of bioactive substances. The constantly increasing amount of published genomic data provides the opportunity for an efficient identification of gene clusters by genome mining. Conversely, for many natural products with resolved structures, the encoding gene clusters have not been identified yet. Even though genome mining tools have become significantly more efficient in the identification of biosynthetic gene clusters, structural elucidation of the actual secondary metabolite is still challenging, especially due to as yet unpredictable post-modifications...
April 27, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453774/effect-of-dietary-bacteriophage-supplementation-on-internal-organs-fecal-excretion-and-ileal-immune-response-in-laying-hens-challenged-by-salmonella-enteritidis
#7
P A Adhikari, D E Cosby, N A Cox, J H Lee, W K Kim
With the current researches on replacing antibiotics with different dietary interventions, bacteriophages (BP) are potential antimicrobial intervention because of their ability to affect specific bacteria. A study was conducted to evaluate the role of BP against Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) on SE internal organs colonization and ileum immune response in laying hens. Hens were challenged both orally and intracloacally with 108 cfu/mL cells of nalidixic acid resistant Salmonella Enteritidis (SENAR)...
April 26, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453652/mhc-b-variability-within-the-finnish-landrace-chicken-conservation-program
#8
J E Fulton, M E Berres, J Kantanen, M Honkatukia
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a cluster of genes involved with immune responses. The chicken MHC has been shown to influence resistance to viruses, bacteria, and infections from both internal and external parasites. The highly variable chicken MHC haplotypes were initially identified by the use of haplotype-specific serological reagents. A novel SNP-based panel encompassing 210,000 bp of the MHC-B locus was developed to allow fine scale genetic analyses including rapid identification of novel haplotypes for which serological reagents are not available...
April 26, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453484/can-better-management-of-periodontal-disease-delay-the-onset-and-progression-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Alice Harding, Sarita Robinson, St John Crean, Sim K Singhrao
A risk factor relationship exists between periodontal disease and Alzheimer's disease (AD) via tooth loss, and improved memory following dental intervention. This links the microbial contribution from indigenous oral periodontal pathogens to the manifestation of chronic conditions, such as AD. Here, we use Porphyromonas gingivalis infection to illustrate its effect on mental health. P. gingivalis infection, in its primary sub-gingival niche, can cause polymicrobial synergy and dysbiosis. Dysbiosis describes the residency of select commensals from the oral cavity following co-aggregation around the dominant keystone pathogen, such as P...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453340/prospective-randomized-trial-comparing-the-efficacy-of-surgical-preparation-solutions-in-hand-surgery
#10
Peter Z Xu, John R Fowler, Robert J Goitz
BACKGROUND: Decontamination of the skin prior to incision is part of the standard of care for any surgical procedure. Previous studies have demonstrated variable efficacy of different surgical preparation solutions based on anatomic location. The purpose of this study is to determine the effectiveness of 3 commonly used surgical preparation solutions in eliminating bacteria from the skin prior to incision for common elective soft tissue hand procedures. METHODS: A total of 240 patients undergoing clean, elective, soft tissue hand surgery were prospectively randomized to 1 of 3 groups (ChloraPrep, DuraPrep, or Betadine)...
May 2017: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453272/bacterial-iron-uptake-pathways-gates-for-the-import-of-bactericide-compounds
#11
Isabelle J Schalk, Gaëtan L A Mislin
Bacterial resistance to most antibiotics in clinical use has reached alarming proportions. A challenge for modern medicine will be to discover new antibiotics or strategies to combat multidrug resistant bacteria, especially Gram-negative bacteria for which the situation is particularly critical. Vectorization of bactericide compounds by siderophores (iron chelators produced by bacteria) is a promising strategy able to considerably increase the efficacy of drugs. Such a Trojan horse strategy can also extend activity of specific Gram-positive antibiotics to Gram-negative bacteria...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453269/production-of-protein-concentrate-and-1-3-propanediol-by-wheat-based-thin-stillage-fermentation
#12
Kornsulee Ratanapariyanuch, Youn Young Shim, Shahram Emami, Martin John Tarsisius Reaney
Fermentation of wheat with yeast produces thin stillage (W-TS) and distiller's wet grains. A subsequent fermentation of W-TS (two-stage fermentation, TSF) with endemic bacteria at 25 and 37 °C decreased glycerol and lactic acid concentrations while 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) and acetic acid accumulated with greater 1,3-PD and acetic acid produced at 37 °C. During TSF, W-TS colloids coagulated and floated in the fermentation medium producing separable liquid and slurry fractions. The predominant endemic bacteria in W-TS were Lactobacillus panis, L...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449345/proton-pump-inhibitors-do-not-increase-the-risk-for-recurrent-spontaneous-bacterial-peritonitis-in-patients-with-cirrhosis
#13
Jung Hee Kim, Kyung Sook Lim, Yang Won Min, Hyuk Lee, Byung-Hoon Min, Poong-Lyul Rhee, Jae J Kim, Kwang Cheol Koh, Seung Woon Paik
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The present study aimed to assess the real impact of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use on incidence of recurrent spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) in a homogenous population composed of cirrhotic patients with a previous SBP where differences related with SBP incidence between PPI users and non-users are less likely to exist. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study enrolled 307 cirrhotic patients taking diuretics for ascites control and had a previous SBP...
May 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449322/a-bacterium-with-close-genetic-identity-to-pseudomonas-mandelii-associated-with-spring-fish-kills-in-wild-bluegill-lepomis-macrochirus-rafinesque-and-pumpkinseed-sunfish-lepomis-gibbosus-linnaeus
#14
J Lovy, D Dicarlo-Emery, J M Hutcheson
Pseudomonas fluorescens are known bacterial pathogens in fish. The P. fluorescens group contains at least nine different bacterial species, although species from fish have rarely been differentiated. Two isolated fish kills affecting wild bluegills, Lepomis macrochirus Rafinesque, and pumpkinseed sunfish, Lepomis gibbosus (Linnaeus), occurred in the spring of 2015 during cool water temperatures (12.5°C-15.5°C). Disease signs included severe bacteraemia with rare gross external signs. Pure bacterial cultures isolated from kidneys of all affected fish were identified as P...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449243/pathologic-features-of-mycobacteriosis-in-naturally-infected-syngnathidae-and-novel-transcriptome-assembly-in-association-with-disease
#15
S B Fogelson, M D Fast, J Leary, A C Camus
Syngnathidae (seahorses, seadragons and pipefish) suffer significant losses from non-tuberculous mycobacteria. However, they produce markedly different lesions in response to the disease compared to other teleost species, notably infrequent granuloma formation. This study evaluated 270 syngnathid fish, from which 92 were diagnosed with mycobacteriosis by histopathology, culture or both. Microscopic lesions variably consisted of random foci of coagulative necrosis in multiple organs, containing high numbers of free bacteria and large aggregates or sheets of macrophages with cytoplasm laden with acid-fast bacilli...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449118/polyphosphate-accumulating-bacterial-community-colonizing-the-calcium-bodies-of-terrestrial-isopod-crustaceans-titanethes-albus-and-hyloniscus-riparius
#16
Rok Kostanjšek, Vittori Miloš, Vesna Srot, Peter A van Aken, Štrus Jasna
Terrestrial isopods from the group Trichoniscidae accumulate calcium in specialized organs, known as the calcium bodies. These consist of two pairs of epithelial sacs located alongside the digestive system. These organs contain various forms of calcium and constantly present bacteria. To elucidate their origin and role, we analyzed the bacteria of the calcium bodies in the cave-dwelling isopod Titanethes albus and the epigean species Hyloniscus riparius, by microscopy, histochemistry, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, 16S rRNA analysis and in situ hybridization...
April 25, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449057/the-streptomyces-master-regulator-bldd-binds-c-di-gmp-sequentially-to-create-a-functional-bldd2-c-di-gmp-4-complex
#17
Maria A Schumacher, Wenjie Zeng, Kim C Findlay, Mark J Buttner, Richard G Brennan, Natalia Tschowri
Streptomyces are ubiquitous soil bacteria that undergo a complex developmental transition coinciding with their production of antibiotics. This transition is controlled by binding of a novel tetrameric form of the second messenger, 3΄-5΄ cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP) to the master repressor, BldD. In all domains of life, nucleotide-based second messengers allow a rapid integration of external and internal signals into regulatory pathways that control cellular responses to changing conditions. c-di-GMP can assume alternative oligomeric states to effect different functions, binding to effector proteins as monomers, intercalated dimers or, uniquely in the case of BldD, as a tetramer...
April 26, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449040/toxin-antitoxin-systems-and-their-role-in-disseminating-and-maintaining-antimicrobial-resistance
#18
Qiu E Yang, Timothy R Walsh
Toxin-antitoxin systems (TAs) are ubiquitous among bacteria and play a crucial role in the dissemination and evolution of antibiotic resistance, such as maintaining multi-resistant plasmids and inducing persistence formation. Generally, activities of the toxins are neutralised by their conjugate antitoxins. In contrast, antitoxins are more liable to degrade under specific conditions such as stress, and free active toxins interfere with essential cellular processes including replication, translation and cell-wall synthesis...
March 16, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449019/the-clear-and-present-danger-of-carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-cpe-in-new-zealand-time-for-a-national-response-plan
#19
Matthew Blakiston, Helen Heffernan, Sally Roberts, Joshua Freeman
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in general poses a threat to the sustainability of modern healthcare, but a particularly urgent and serious threat is posed by a specific group of antibiotic-resistant bacteria known as carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE). CPE are resistant to nearly all antibiotics and include common pathogens such as Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. In New Zealand, the incidence of CPE has increased from three isolates in 2012 to 45 in 2016. The current epidemiology of CPE in New Zealand has similarities with the extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) epidemic in the early 2000s (just before ESBL-PE underwent a non-linear increase in incidence)...
April 28, 2017: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448952/sepsis-and-septic-shock-pathogenesis-and-treatment-perspectives
#20
REVIEW
Hayk Minasyan
The majority of bacteremias do not develop to sepsis: bacteria are cleared from the bloodstream. Oxygen released from erythrocytes and humoral immunity kill bacteria in the bloodstream. Sepsis develops if bacteria are resistant to oxidation and proliferate in erythrocytes. Bacteria provoke oxygen release from erythrocytes to arterial blood. Abundant release of oxygen to the plasma triggers a cascade of events that cause: 1. oxygen delivery failure to cells; 2. oxidation of plasma components that impairs humoral regulation and inactivates immune complexes; 3...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
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