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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340477/environmental-analysis-of-typical-antibiotic-resistant-bacteria-and-args-in-farmland-soil-chronically-fertilized-with-chicken-manure
#1
Xiang Zhao, Jinhua Wang, Lusheng Zhu, Weili Ge, Jun Wang
Antibiotics and the corresponding resistant bacteria and resistance genes (ARGs) are generally considered emerging pollutants. To assess the impacts of tetracycline (TC) and sulfonamide (SA) antibiotics that are eliminated with fecaluria as drug prototypes, farmland soil used to research long-term fertilization with chicken manure was collected at four sites in Shandong Province. In this study, the rates of bacterial drug resistance to the same antibiotic decreased with an increase in the concentration of that antibiotic, and the resistance rates to TCs were lower than those to SAs...
March 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340466/a-flexible-and-disposable-battery-powered-by-bacteria-using-eyeliner-coated-paper-electrodes
#2
Ramya Veerubhotla, Debabrata Das, Debabrata Pradhan
Herein, an environment friendly paper-based biobattery is demonstrated that yields a power of 12.5W/m(3). Whatman filter papers were used not only as support for electrode fabrication but also as separator of the biobattery. To provide electrical conductivity to the paper-based cathode and anode, commercially available eyeliner containing carbon nanoparticles and Fe3O4 was directly employed as conductive ink without any binder. With an instant start-up, the as-fabricated biocompatible electrodes could hold bacteria in an active form at the anode allowing chemical oxidation of organic fuel producing current...
March 9, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340435/optimization-of-hydrogen-dispersion-in-thermophilic-up-flow-reactors-for-ex-situ-biogas-upgrading
#3
Ilaria Bassani, Panagiotis G Kougias, Laura Treu, Hugo Porté, Stefano Campanaro, Irini Angelidaki
This study evaluates the efficiency of four novel up-flow reactors for ex situ biogas upgrading converting externally provided CO2 and H2 to CH4, via hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. The gases were injected through stainless steel diffusers combined with alumina ceramic sponge or through alumina ceramic membranes. Pore size, input gas loading and gas recirculation flow rate were modulated to optimize gas-liquid mass transfer, and thus methanation efficiency. Results showed that larger pore size diffusion devices achieved the best kinetics and output-gas quality converting all the injected H2 and CO2, up to 3...
March 12, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340427/identification-and-characterization-of-a-%C3%AE-defensin-gene-involved-in-the-immune-defense-response-of-channel-catfish-ictalurus-punctatus
#4
Jieyao Zhu, Hong Wang, Jun Wang, Xingli Wang, Shuang Peng, Yi Geng, Kaiyu Wang, Pin Ouyang, Zhiqiong Li, Xiaoli Huang, Defang Chen
Antimicrobial peptides are small peptides that play important roles in a host's innate immune response. As an important antimicrobial peptide, β-defensin widely distribute in mammals, insects and plants with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. In this study, the β-defensin gene of the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, was cloned, sequenced, and subjected to a bioinformatic analysis. The β-defensin gene of the channel catfish contains three exons and two introns, and encodes a precursor peptide consisting of two domains: a signal peptide of 24 amino acid residues and a mature peptide of 43 amino acid residues...
March 21, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340310/viruses-in-cystic-fibrosis-patients-airways
#5
Lisa Billard, Rozenn Le Berre, Léa Pilorgé, Christopher Payan, Geneviève Héry-Arnaud, Sophie Vallet
Although bacteria have historically been considered to play a major role in cystic fibrosis (CF) airway damage, a strong impact of respiratory viral infections (RVI) is also now recognized. Emerging evidence confirms that respiratory viruses are associated with deterioration of pulmonary function and exacerbation and facilitation of bacterial colonization in CF patients. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the current knowledge on respiratory viruses in CF airways, to discuss the resulting inflammation and RVI response, to determine how to detect the viruses, and to assess their clinical consequences, prevalence, and interactions with bacteria...
March 24, 2017: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340291/-head-to-head-prenyl-synthases-in-some-pathogenic-bacteria
#6
Christopher J Schwalen, Xinxin Feng, Weidong Liu, Bing O-Dowd, Tzu-Ping Ko, Christopher J Shin, Rey-Ting Guo, Douglas A Mitchell, Eric Oldfield
Many organisms contain "head-to-head" isoprenoid synthases and here, we investigate three types of such enzymes from the pathogens Neisseria meningitidis, N. gonorrhoeae, and Enterococcus hirae. The E. hirae enzyme was found to produce dehydrosqualene and we solved an inhibitor-bound structure which revealed a fold similar to that of CrtM from Staphylococcus aureus. In contrast, the homologous proteins from Neisseria spp. carried out only the "first half" reaction, yielding presqualene diphosphate (PSPP). Based on product analyses, bioinformatics, and mutagenesis we conclude that the Neisseria proteins are HpnDs (PSPP synthases)...
March 24, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340269/prevention-of-dna-damage-and-anticarcinogenic-activity-of-activia-%C3%A2-in-a-preclinical-model
#7
S M A Limeiras, F M Ogo, L A L Genez, C M Carreira, E J T Oliveira, L R Pessatto, S C Neves, J R Pesarini, L C Schweich, R A Silva, W B Cantero, A C M B Antoniolli-Silva, R J Oliveira
Colorectal cancer is a global public health issue. Studies have pointed to the protective effect of probiotics on colorectal carcinogenesis. Activia(®) is a lacto probiotic product that is widely consumed all over the world and its beneficial properties are related, mainly, to the lineage of traditional yoghurt bacteria combined with a specific bacillus, DanRegularis, which gives the product a proven capacity to intestinal regulation in humans. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antigenotoxic, antimutagenic, and anticarcinogenic proprieties of the Activia product, in response to damage caused by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) in Swiss mice...
March 22, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340252/urinary-tract-infection-recent-insight-into-the-evolutionary-arms-race-between-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli-and-our-immune-system
#8
Sebastian Schwab, Katarzyna Jobin, Christian Kurts
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections worldwide. Humans evolved various immune-dependent and independent defense mechanisms, while pathogens evolved multiple virulence factors to fight back. This article summarizes recent findings regarding the arms race between hosts and pathogens in UTIs. It was recently reported that macrophage subsets regulate neutrophil-mediated defense in primary UTIs but seem to subvert adaptive immunity upon re-infection. Moreover, some bacterial strains can survive inside macrophages, leading to recurrent infections...
March 15, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339985/effects-of-dietary-rapeseed-meal-supplementation-on-cecal-microbiota-in-laying-hens-with-different-flavin-containing-monooxygenase-3-genotypes
#9
C Long, J Wang, H J Zhang, S G Wu, G H Qi
To evaluate the effect of dietary rapeseed meal (RM) supplementation on cecal trimethylamine and bacteria in laying hens with different flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3) genotypes, a 3 × 2 2-factorial arrangement was employed using FMO3 genotypes (AA, AT, and TT) and dietary RM (0 and 14% of diet) as the main effects. At 50 wk of age, 36 hens of AT genotype and 36 hens of TT genotype were randomly allotted to one of the 2 dietary treatments, and each dietary treatment consisted of 3 replicates with 6 birds each...
March 4, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339796/the-identification-of-fungi-collected-from-the-ceca-of-commercial-poultry
#10
J A Byrd, D Y Caldwell, D J Nisbet
Under normal conditions, fungi are ignored unless a disease/syndrome clinical signs are reported. The scientific communities are largely unaware of the roles fungi play in normal production parameters. Numerous preharvest interventions have demonstrated that beneficial bacteria can play a role in improving productions parameters; however, most researchers have ignored the impact that fungi may have on production. The goal of the present study was to record fungi recovered from commercial broiler and layer houses during production...
February 22, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339699/effects-of-chlorine-and-hydrogen-peroxide-sanitation-in-low-bacterial-content-water-on-biofilm-formation-model-of-poultry-brooding-house-waterlines
#11
P Maharjan, G Huff, W Zhang, S Watkins
An in vitro experiment was performed to determine if biofilm would develop when polyvinylchloride (PVC) test coupons (material used for poultry waterlines) were exposed to low bacterial content warm water (≤1000 cfu/mL, test water) and also to determine if biofilm development would be influenced by adding a sanitizer. PVC sections 2.54 cm long and internal diameter of 1. 90 cm were used as test coupons to grow biofilm. Two coupons were immersed in 600 mL test water in a beaker. Nine beakers were utilized similarly with a total of 18 coupons...
February 22, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339688/an-activity-staining-method-on-filtration-paper-enables-high-throughput-screening-of-temperature-sensitive-and-inactive-mutations-of-rice-%C3%AE-amylase-for-improvement-of-rice-grain-quality
#12
Hiromoto Yamakawa, Rieko Hirai-Kimura, Yuriko Nakata, Masaru Nakata, Masaharu Kuroda, Takeshi Yamaguchi
α-Amylase is a starch-hydrolyzing enzyme (EC 3.2.1.1) indispensable for germination of cereal seeds, but it is also expressed during the ripening stage. Previous studies demonstrated that the enzyme is activated in developing rice seeds under extremely hot weather and triggers a loss of grain quality by hindering the accumulation of storage starch in the endosperm. Since inactive or, preferably, heat-labile α-amylases are preferable for breeding premium rice, we developed a method for rapid screening of inactive and temperature-sensitive mutants of the enzyme by combining the random mutagenesis by error-prone PCR and an on-filter activity test of the recombinant enzyme expressed by Escherichia coli...
February 21, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339597/compositional-differences-in-multi-species-biofilms-formed-on-various-orthodontic-adhesives
#13
Jung-Sub An, Kyungsun Kim, Soha Cho, Bum-Soon Lim, Sug-Joon Ahn
Objectives: To investigate the aspects of multi-species biofilm formation on various orthodontic adhesives with different surface characteristics. Methods: Multi-species biofilms using 13 bacterial species were grown on the surfaces of composite, compomer, and resin-modified glass-ionomer cement (RMGI). The changes in Streptococcus mutans (Sm), Streptococcus sobrinus (Ss), Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa), and total bacteria were determined at day 1 (T1) and day 4 (T2) using real-time polymerase chain reaction...
January 25, 2017: European Journal of Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339543/climatic-factors-and-prevalence-of-campylobacter-in-commercial-broiler-flocks-in-thailand
#14
S Prachantasena, P Charununtakorn, S Muangnoicharoen, L Hankla, N Techawal, P Chaveerach, P Tuitemwong, N Chokesajjawatee, N Williams, T Humphrey, T Luangtongkum
Campylobacter are bacteria associated with human foodborne disease worldwide. Poultry and poultry products are generally considered as a main source of these organisms. Compared to temperate zones, baseline information on Campylobacter in tropical regions is limited. Thus, the objectives of the present study were 1) to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter in Thai broiler flocks and 2) to investigate the association between climatic factors (i.e., rainfall, ambient temperature, and relative humidity) and Campylobacter colonization status of broiler flocks in Thailand...
October 6, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339522/influence-of-postbiotic-rg14-and-inulin-combination-on-cecal-microbiota-organic-acid-concentration-and-cytokine-expression-in-broiler-chickens
#15
K Y Kareem, T C Loh, H L Foo, S A Asmara, H Akit
This study examined the effects of different combinations of inulin and postbiotics RG14 on growth performance, cecal microbiota, volatile fatty acids (VFA), and ileal cytokine expression in broiler chickens. Two-hundred-and sixteen, one-day-old chicks were allocated into 6 treatment groups, namely, a basal diet (negative control, NC), basal diet + neomycin and oxytetracycline (positive control, PC), T1 = basal diet + 0.15% postbiotic RG14 + 1.0% inulin, T2 = basal diet + 0.3% postbiotic RG14 + 1.0% inulin, T3 = basal diet + 0...
October 6, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339520/efficacy-of-bacillus-subtilis-and-bacitracin-methylene-disalicylate-on-growth-performance-digestibility-blood-metabolites-immunity-and-intestinal-microbiota-after-intramuscular-inoculation-with-escherichia-coli-in-broilers
#16
M Manafi, S Khalaji, M Hedayati, N Pirany
This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of Bacillus subtilis (BS) on broiler performance and health after intramuscular inoculation with E. coli and compare its effect with a growth promoter antibiotic. In a completely randomized design manner, 360 male Ross 308 chicks were divided into 6 treatments and 5 replicates of 12 chicks in each replicate. Experimental treatments included control diet, control + E. coli (0.5 mL of culture containing 108 CFU of E. coli/ml), control + 0.1% BS, control + 0...
October 6, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339473/characterization-of-lignocellulolytic-activities-from-fungi-isolated-from-the-deep-sea-sponge-stelletta-normani
#17
Ramón Alberto Batista-García, Thomas Sutton, Stephen A Jackson, Omar Eduardo Tovar-Herrera, Edgar Balcázar-López, María Del Rayo Sánchez-Carbente, Ayixon Sánchez-Reyes, Alan D W Dobson, Jorge Luis Folch-Mallol
Extreme habitats have usually been regarded as a source of microorganisms that possess robust proteins that help enable them to survive in such harsh conditions. The deep sea can be considered an extreme habitat due to low temperatures (<5°C) and high pressure, however marine sponges survive in these habitats. While bacteria derived from deep-sea marine sponges have been studied, much less information is available on fungal biodiversity associated with these sponges. Following screening of fourteen fungi isolated from the deep-sea sponge Stelletta normani sampled at a depth of 751 metres, three halotolerant strains (TS2, TS11 and TS12) were identified which displayed high CMCase and xylanase activities...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339315/identification-of-asymptomatic-prosthetic-joint-infection-microbiologic-and-operative-treatment-outcomes
#18
Przemysław L Bereza, Alicja Ekiel, Aleksandra Auguściak-Duma, Małgorzata Aptekorz, Iwona Wilk, Piotr Wojciechowski, Damian J Kusz, Gayane Martirosian
BACKGROUND: This prospective study investigated the role of mechanical and biological factors in aseptic implant loosening or presumed silent prosthetic joint infection (PJI). METHODS: Thirty-seven patients were investigated. Microbiologic and molecular methods were used to detect bacteria on the surface of the failed implants removed during revision arthroplasty. Histopathologic analysis was performed. The influence of body mass index (BMI) and various co-morbidities on implant failure also was determined...
March 24, 2017: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339197/correction-to-opportunistic-sampling-of-roadkill-as-an-entry-point-to-accessing-natural-products-assembled-by-bacteria-associated-with-non-anthropoidal-mammalian-microbiomes
#19
Jeremy L Motley, Blake W Stamps, Carter A Mitchell, Alec T Thompson, Jayson Cross, Jianlan You, Douglas R Powell, Bradley S Stevenson, Robert H Cichewicz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 24, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339054/overexpression-of-tim-3-reduces-helicobacter-pylori-associated-inflammation-through-tlr4-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-in%C3%A2-vitro
#20
Fucai Wang, Zhirong Mao, Dongsheng Liu, Jing Yu, Youhua Wang, Wen Ye, Dongjia Lin, Nanjin Zhou, Yong Xie
The present study aimed to investigate the interaction between T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin-domain-containing molecule-3 (Tim-3) and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor κB (NF‑κB) signaling in Helicobacter pylori-infected RAW264.7 macrophage cells. RAW264.7 cells were co‑cultured with H. pylori SS1 at different bacteria/cell ratios, and subsequently the mRNA expression of Tim‑3, TLR4, and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) was measured by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR)...
March 21, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
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