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Wirachin Hoonpongsimanont, Miriam Kulkarni, Pedro Tomas-Domingo, Craig Anderson, Denise McCormack, Khoa Tu, Bharath Chakravarthy, Shahram Lotfipour
We evaluated the effectiveness of text messaging, versus email, as a delivery method to enhance knowledge retention of emergency medicine (EM) content in EM residents. We performed a multi-centered, prospective, randomized study consisting of postgraduate year (PGY) 1 to PGY 3 & 4 residents in three United States EM residency programs in 2014. Residents were randomized into one delivery group: text message or email. Participants completed a 40 question pre- and post-intervention exam. Primary outcomes were the means of pre- and post-intervention exam score differences...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Educational Evaluation for Health Professions
Deepthi Alapati, Edward E Morrisey
While our understanding of the genetics and pathology of congenital lung diseases such as surfactant protein deficiency, cystic fibrosis and alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency is extensive, treatment options are lacking. Since the lung is a barrier organ in direct communication with the external environment, targeted delivery of gene corrective technologies to the respiratory system via intra-tracheal or intranasal routes is an attractive option for therapy. CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technology is a promising approach to repair or inactivate disease causing mutations...
October 25, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Joice Sophia Ponraj, Zai-Quan Xu, Sathish Chander Dhanabalan, Haoran Mu, Yusheng Wang, Jian Yuan, Pengfei Li, Siddharatha Thakur, Mursal Ashrafi, Kenneth Mccoubrey, Yupeng Zhang, Shaojuan Li, Han Zhang, Qiaoliang Bao
Apart from conventional materials, the study of two-dimensional (2D) materials has emerged as a significant field of study for a variety of applications. Graphene-like 2D materials are important elements of potential optoelectronics applications due to their exceptional electronic and optical properties. The processing of these materials towards the realization of devices has been one of the main motivations for the recent development of photonics and optoelectronics. The recent progress in photonic devices based on graphene-like 2D materials, especially topological insulators (TIs) and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) with the methodology level discussions from the viewpoint of state-of-the-art designs in device geometry and materials are detailed in this review...
November 18, 2016: Nanotechnology
Mehrdad Namdari, Ali Eatemadi
Heart valves are currently under thorough investigation in tissue engineering (TE) research. Mechanical and biological heart valve prostheses which are recently used have several shortcomings. While allogenic and xenogenic biological prostheses are related to graft rejection, degeneration and thrombosis, resulting in a high rate of reoperation. Mechanical prostheses on the other hand are based on metallic, carbon, and polymeric components, and require continuous treatment with anticoagulant, which result in adverse reactions, e...
October 22, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Loes A M Leenen, Ben F M Wijnen, Reina J A de Kinderen, Caroline M van Heugten, Silvia M A A Evers, Marian H J M Majoie
INTRODUCTION: Self-management for people with epilepsy (PWE) should lead to shared decision-making and thus to adherence to the treatment plan. eHealth is an important way of supporting PWE in their self-management. METHOD: In this survey, we used a mixed method to explore the following: 1) which factors were monitored by PWE and how (using pen and paper or eHealth-tools), 2) how many PWE own a computer or smartphone, and 3) how do they perceive the use of eHealth...
October 22, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Hyun-Sung An, Youngwon Kim, Jung-Min Lee
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to examine the accuracy of inclinometer functions of the ActiGraph GT3X+ (AG) (worn on the waist and wrist) and the activPAL (AP) in assessing time spent sitting, standing, and stepping. METHODS: A total of 62 adults (age: 18-40 yrs; male:37; female:25) wore three activity monitors (AG waist, and AG wrist, and AP) while completing 15 different types of activities. The 15 activities were classified into 3 different postures (sitting, standing, and stepping) based on the directly observed behaviors...
October 18, 2016: Gait & Posture
Justin Donhauser
The world's leading environmental advisory institutions look to ecological theory and research as an objective guide for policy and resource management decision-making. In addition to the theoretical and broadly philosophical merits of doing so, it is therefore practically significant to clear up confusions about ecology's conceptual foundations and to clarify the basic workings of inferential methods used in the science. Through discussion of key moments in the genesis of the theoretical branch of ecology, this essay elucidates a general heuristic role of teleological metaphors in ecological research and defuses certain enduring confusions about work in ecology...
October 22, 2016: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
Richard H G Baxter
Both historically and at present, vector control is the most generally effective means of controlling malaria transmission. Insecticides are the predominant method of vector control, but the sterile insect technique (SIT) is a complementary strategy with a successful track record in both agricultural and public health sectors. Strategies of genetic and radiation-induced sterilization of Anopheles have to date been limited by logistical and/or regulatory hurdles. A safe and effective mosquito chemosterilant would therefore be of major utility to future deployment of SIT for malaria control...
October 2016: Chimia
Benjamin W Mooneyham, Michael D Mrazek, Alissa J Mrazek, Kaita L Mrazek, Dawa T Phillips, Jonathan W Schooler
During tasks that require continuous engagement, the mind alternates between mental states of focused attention and mind-wandering. Existing research has assessed the functional connectivity of intrinsic brain networks underlying the experience and training of these mental states using "static" approaches that assess connectivity across an entire task. To disentangle the functional connectivity between brain regions as the mind fluctuates between discrete brain states, we employed a dynamic functional connectivity approach that characterized brain activity using a sliding window...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Patrick Corrigan, Georg Schomerus, Valery Shuman, Dana Kraus, Debbie Perlick, Autumn Harnish, Magdalena Kulesza, Kathleen Kane-Willis, Sang Qin, David Smelson
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although advocates and providers identify stigma as a major factor in confounding the recovery of people with SUDs, research on addiction stigma is lacking, especially when compared to the substantive literature examining the stigma of mental illness. METHODS: A review of key studies from the stigma literature that yielded empirically supported concepts and methods from the mental health arena was contrasted with the much smaller and mostly descriptive findings from the addiction field...
October 25, 2016: American Journal on Addictions
Yupeng Hong, Francia Fang, Qi Zhang
The major cause of cancer-associated mortality is tumor metastasis, a disease that is far from understood. Many studies have observed circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in patients' circulation systems, and a few latest investigations showed that CTC clusters have a potentially high capacity of metastasis. The capture and analysis of CTC clusters offer new insights into tumor metastasis and can facilitate the development of cancer treatments. We reviewed the research history of the CTC clusters, as well as the technologies used for detecting and isolating CTC clusters...
October 24, 2016: International Journal of Oncology
Paula Ferrada, Rao R Ivatury, David A Spain, Kimberly A Davis, Michel Aboutanos, John J Fildes, Thomas M Scalea
INTRODUCTION: Acute Care Surgery (ACS), Trauma and Surgical Critical Care (SCC) fellowships graduate fellows deemed qualified to perform complex cases immediately upon graduation. We hypothesize international fellow rotations (IFR) can be a resource to supplement operative case exposure METHODS: A survey was sent to all program directors of ACS and SCC fellowships via email. Data was captured and analyzed using the Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap) tool. RESULTS: The survey was sent to 113 program directors (PDs) with a response rate of 42%...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Grace S Rozycki
Senior surgeon leaders have unique knowledge and wisdom that should be shared with the next generation of surgeons. In order to assess the type of wisdom and the best methods of transferring it, 62 senior surgeons with more than 30 years of clinical and leadership experience were interviewed to obtain the answers to eight questions. Replies were transcribed verbatim and qualitative research software was used to determine the most frequent replies. The reasserting of core values by today's surgical leaders is the first step in the transfer of knowledge and wisdom to the next generation of surgeons...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Jesse Burk-Rafel, Patricia B Mullan, Heather Wagenschutz, Alexandra Pulst-Korenberg, Eric Skye, Matthew M Davis
PURPOSE: Scholarly concentration programs-also known as scholarly projects, pathways, tracks, or pursuits-are increasingly common in U.S. medical schools. However, systematic, data-driven program development methods have not been described. METHOD: The authors examined scholarly concentration programs at U.S. medical schools that U.S. News & World Report ranked as top 25 for research or primary care (n = 43 institutions), coding concentrations and mission statements...
November 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Bridget C O'Brien, Win May, Tanya Horsley
This supplement includes the eight research papers accepted by the 2016 Research in Medical Education Program Planning Committee. In this Commentary, the authors use "conversations in medical education" as a guiding metaphor to explore what these papers contribute to the current scholarly discourse in medical education. They organize their discussion around two domains: the topic of study and the methodological approach. The authors map the eight research papers to six "hot topics" in medical education: (1) curriculum reform, (2) duty hours restriction, (3) learner well-being, (4) innovations in teaching and assessment, (5) self-regulated learning, and (6) learning environment, and to three purposes commonly served by medical education research: (1) description, (2) justification, and (3) clarification...
November 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Stephanie Lacefield Lewis
BACKGROUND: The survival rate for infants born with life-threatening problems has improved greatly over the last few decades. Nevertheless, infants still die in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) every day. Despite existing standards of care, some aspects of end-of-life care (EOLC) are still not delivered consistently. Little is known about how NICU nurses' individual experiences affect EOLC. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to explore, through lived and told stories, the affective, interactional, and meaning-related responses that NICU nurses have while caring for dying infants and their families...
October 24, 2016: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
I Adamska, K Marhelava, D Walkiewicz, U Kedzierska, M Markowska, P M Majewski
Our recent research on the pineal gland of young chickens confirmed that three genes encoding enzymes involved in pineal melatonin biosynthesis, tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (Tph1), arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (Aanat) and acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase (Asmt), are transcribed rhythmically under light:dark (L:D) 12:12 conditions in vivo. Additionally, in the pineal gland of maturing chickens, the dopa decarboxylase (Ddc) gene is transcribed rhythmically at a specific stage of the developmental process...
August 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
Xueling Suo, Du Lei, Fuqin Chen, Min Wu, Lei Li, Ling Sun, Xiaoli Wei, Hongyan Zhu, Lingjiang Li, Graham J Kemp, Qiyong Gong
Purpose To use diffusion-tensor (DT) imaging and graph theory approaches to explore the brain structural connectome in pediatric posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Materials and Methods This study was approved by the relevant research ethics committee, and all participants' parents or guardians provided informed consent. Twenty-four pediatric patients with PTSD and 23 control subjects exposed to trauma but without PTSD were recruited after the 2008 Sichuan earthquake. The structural connectome was constructed by using DT imaging tractography and thresholding the mean fractional anisotropy of 90 brain regions to yield 90 × 90 partial correlation matrixes...
October 25, 2016: Radiology
Lina Humbeck, Oliver Koch
The ever increasing bioactivity data that are produced nowadays allow exhaustive data mining and knowledge discovery approaches that change chemical biology research. A wealth of chemoinformatics tools, web services and applications therefore exists that supports a careful evaluation and analysis of experimental data to draw conclusions that can influence the further development of chemical probes and potential lead structures. This review focuses on open-source approaches that can be handled by scientists who are not familiar with computational methods having no expert knowledge in chemoinformatics and modeling...
October 25, 2016: ACS Chemical Biology
R M Vermeiren, J van der Meer
Research into cost-effectiveness of treatment of child psychiatric disorders is extremely limited. There are two main reasons for this: it's a new field and the type of research required is intrinsically complicated.<br/> AIM: To review selected articles that reveal the prevalence of child psychiatric disorders, demonstrate the complexity of cost-efficiency research in child psychiatry and point to the possible benefits of appropriate treatment.<br/> METHOD: We provide an overview of a selected number of articles dealing with the prevalence of child psychiatric disorders and the costs involved, we stress the diffulty of assessing whether current treatment is cost-effective and we describe the possible benefits of treatment...
2016: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
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