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Baohan Pan, Kelly Byrnes, Mary Schwartz, C David Hansen, Claudia M Campbell, Malvina Krupiczojc, Michael J Caterina, Michael Polydefkis
We compared patterns of intraepidermal nerve fibers and mechanoreceptors from affected and unaffected plantar skin from patients with pachyonychia congenita (PC) and control subjects. Plantar biopsies from 10 genetically confirmed patients with PC (with a mutation in KRT6A) were performed at the ball of the foot (affected skin) and the arch (unaffected) and were compared to biopsies from corresponding locations in 10 control subjects. Tissue was processed to visualize intraepidermal nerve fibers (IENF) (PGP9...
October 20, 2016: Pain
Sapna M Amin, Alexandra M Haugh, Christina Y Lee, Bin Zhang, Jeffrey A Bubley, Emily A Merkel, Anna Elisa Verzì, Pedram Gerami
Recent studies have identified translocations involving the kinase domains of ALK, NTRK1, BRAF, RET, and ROS in spitzoid neoplasms. Subsequent studies have also characterized morphologic features corresponding to ALK and NTRK1 translocations. In this study, we sought to further compare morphologic features across a range of 49 genetically defined spitzoid neoplasms with ALK, NTRK1, BRAF, or RET fusions to determine discriminating features. We also compared them with a group of 22 spitzoid neoplasms, which were confirmed to be negative for fusions in ALK, NTRK1, BRAF, and RET...
October 21, 2016: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
T-C Chou, K-B Tsai, C-Y Wu, C-H Hong, C-H Lee
We present a case of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) coincident with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) on the breast of a woman with chronic arsenism. This case demonstrates the distinct association of chronic arsenism with two different primary cutaneous carcinomas. Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) was identified in the lesional skin of the MCC but not in that of the SCC, suggesting there are different interactions of MCPyV in the pathogenesis of SCC and MCC related to arsenic. Physicians need to be vigilant in the occurrence of both SCC and MCC in patients with chronic arsenism...
October 23, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
Bharat Rekhi, Shubada V Kane, Nirmala A Jambhekar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2016: Pathology
B Llombart, C Requena, J Cruz
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, highly aggressive tumor, and local or regional disease recurrence is common, as is metastasis. MCC usually develops in sun-exposed skin in patients of advanced age. Its incidence has risen 4-fold in recent decades as the population has aged and immunohistochemical techniques have led to more diagnoses. The pathogenesis of MCC remains unclear but UV radiation, immunosuppression, and the presence of Merkel cell polyomavirus in the tumor genome seem to play key roles. This review seeks to update our understanding of the epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, and clinical features of MCC...
October 19, 2016: Actas Dermo-sifiliográficas
Pamela A Lowry, Morganna L Freeman, Jeffery S Russell
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and lethal skin cancer with few known treatment options. Management of this disease is challenging, and oncology nurses must understand the medical, physical, and psychosocial burden that MCC places on the patient and family caregivers. Patients must navigate a complex medical and insurance network that often fails to support patients with rare cancers. Nurses must advocate for these patients to ensure quality comprehensive cancer care.
November 1, 2016: Oncology Nursing Forum
S Honeybul
Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare primary cutaneous neuroendocrine tumour that is locally aggressive. In most cases the primary treatment is local surgical excision; however, there is a high incidence recurrence both local and distant. Cerebral metastases from Merkel cell carcinoma are extremely uncommon with only 12 cases published in the literature. This case is particularly unusual in that, not only was no established primary lesion identified, but also the patient has survived for 10 years following initial diagnosis and for 9 years following excision of a single brain metastasis...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Surgical Case Reports
Alyssa B Chinen, Jennifer R Ferrer, Timothy J Merkel, Chad A Mirkin
Two synthetic approaches that allow one to control PEG content within spherical nucleic acids (SNAs) have been developed. One approach begins with RNA-modified gold nanoparticles followed by a backfill of PEG 2K alkanethiols, and the other involves co-adsorption of the two entities on a gold nanoparticle template. These two methods have been used to explore the role of PEG density on the chemical and biological properties of RNA-SNAs. Such studies show that while increasing the extent of PEGylation within RNA-SNAs extends their blood circulation half-life in mice, it also results in decreased cellular uptake...
October 20, 2016: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Joshua C Eby, Mary C Gray, Jason M Warfel, Tod J Merkel, Erik L Hewlett
ACT is an essential virulence factor of Bordetella pertussis and antibodies to ACT protect against B. pertussis infection in mice. The toxin is, therefore, a strong candidate antigen for addition to future acellular pertussis vaccines. In order to characterize the functionality of the immunologic response to ACT after infection, we have developed an assay for testing the ability of serum samples from subjects infected with B. pertussis to neutralize ACT-induced cytotoxicity in J774 macrophage cells. Baboons develop neutralizing anti-ACT antibodies following infection with B...
October 19, 2016: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
Parnian Ahmadi Moghaddam, Kristine M Cornejo, Lloyd Hutchinson, Keith Tomaszewicz, Karen Dresser, April Deng, Patrick OʼDonnell
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare primary cutaneous neuroendocrine tumor that typically occurs on the head and neck of the elderly and follows an aggressive clinical course. Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) has been identified in up to 80% of cases and has been shown to participate in MCC tumorigenesis. Complete spontaneous regression of MCC has been rarely reported in the literature. We describe a case of a 79-year-old man that presented with a rapidly growing, 3-cm mass on the left jaw. An incisional biopsy revealed MCC...
November 2016: American Journal of Dermatopathology
Allen P Miraflor, Philip E LeBoit, Scott A Hirschman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
Karen E James, Rui Xiao, Peter A Merkel, Pamela F Weiss
OBJECTIVES: To characterise the clinical course and outcomes of a cohort of children with granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA). METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of children diagnosed with GPA in a tertiary care facility from 2000-2014. All subjects met the American College of Rheumatology 1990 criteria for GPA or the 2008 European League against Rheumatism/Paediatric Rheumatology International Trials Organisation/Paediatric Rheumatology European Society criteria for GPA...
October 6, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
Paul F Lambert
Genetically engineered mice (GEMs) have provided valuable insights into the carcinogenic properties of various human tumor viruses, which, in aggregate, are etiologically associated with over 15% of all human cancers. This review provides an overview of seminal discoveries made through the use of GEM models for human DNA tumor viruses. Emphasis is placed on the discoveries made in the study of human papillomaviruses, Merkel cell carcinoma-associated polyomavirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, because GEMs have contributed extensively to our understanding of how these DNA tumor viruses directly contribute to human cancers...
September 29, 2016: Annual Review of Virology
Yuran Xie, Bryan Killinger, Anna Moszczynska, Olivia M Merkel
The use of small interference RNA (siRNA) to target oncogenes is a promising treatment approach for cancer. However, siRNA cancer therapies are hindered by poor delivery of siRNA to cancer cells. Transferrin receptor (TfR) is overexpressed in many types of tumor cells and therefore is a potential target for the selective delivery of siRNA to cancer cells. Here, we used the TfR binding peptide HAIYPRH (HAI peptide) conjugated to cationic polymer branched polyethylenimine (bPEI), optimized the coupling strategy, and the TfR selective delivery of siRNA was evaluated in cells with high (H1299) and low TfR expression (A549 and H460)...
October 10, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Linda Cook
Over the last 10 years, the number of identified polyomaviruses has grown to more than 35 subtypes, including 13 in humans. The polyomaviruses have similar genetic makeup, including genes that encode viral capsid proteins VP1, 2, and 3 and large and small T region proteins. The T proteins play a role in viral replication and have been implicated in viral chromosomal integration and possible dysregulation of growth factor genes. In humans, the Merkel cell polyomavirus has been shown to be highly associated with integration and the development of Merkel cell cancers...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Elisabeth Naschberger, Andrea Liebl, Vera S Schellerer, Manuela Schütz, Nathalie Britzen-Laurent, Patrick Kölbel, Ute Schaal, Lisa Haep, Daniela Regensburger, Thomas Wittmann, Ludger Klein-Hitpass, Tilman T Rau, Barbara Dietel, Valérie S Méniel, Alan R Clarke, Susanne Merkel, Roland S Croner, Werner Hohenberger, Michael Stürzl
Different tumor microenvironments (TMEs) induce stromal cell plasticity that affects tumorigenesis. The impact of TME-dependent heterogeneity of tumor endothelial cells (TECs) on tumorigenesis is unclear. Here, we isolated pure TECs from human colorectal carcinomas (CRCs) that exhibited TMEs with either improved (Th1-TME CRCs) or worse clinical prognosis (control-TME CRCs). Transcriptome analyses identified markedly different gene clusters that reflected the tumorigenic and angiogenic activities of the respective TMEs...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Steven F Merkel, Allison M Andrews, Evan M Lutton, Dakai Mu, Eloise Hudry, Bradley T Hyman, Casey A Maguire, Servio H Ramirez
Developing therapies for central nervous system (CNS) diseases is exceedingly difficult due to the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Notably, emerging technologies may provide promising new options for the treatment of CNS disorders. Adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9) has been shown to transduce cells in the CNS following intravascular administration in rodents, cats, pigs, and non-human primates. These results suggest that AAV9 is capable of crossing the BBB. However, mechanisms that govern AAV9 transendothelial trafficking at the BBB remain unknown...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
Brittany Oliver, Manfred Boehm, Douglas R Rosing, Lee S Shapiro, Daniel T Dempsey, Peter A Merkel, Chyi-Chia Richard Lee, Edward W Cowen
October 4, 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Carl P Frick, Daniel R Merkel, Christopher M Laursen, Stephan A Brinckmann, Christopher M Yakacki
This study explores the functionalization of main-chain nematic elastomers with a conductive metallic surface layer using a polydopamine binder. Using a two-stage thiol-acrylate reaction, a programmed monodomain is achieved for thermoreversible actuation. A copper layer (≈155 nm) is deposited onto polymer samples using electroless deposition while the samples are in their elongated nematic state. Samples undergo 42% contraction when heated above the isotropic transition temperature. During the thermal cycle, buckling of the copper layer is seen in the direction perpendicular to contraction; however, transverse cracking occurs due to the large Poisson effect experienced during actuation...
September 26, 2016: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Binbin Yue, Fang Hong, Sébastien Merkel, Dayong Tan, Jinyuan Yan, Bin Chen, Ho-Kwang Mao
The pressure effects on plastic deformation and phase transformation mechanisms of materials are of great importance to both Earth science and technological applications. Zircon-type materials are abundant in both nature and the industrial field; however, there is still no in situ study of their deformation behavior. Here, by employing radial x-ray diffraction in a diamond anvil cell, we investigate the dislocation-induced texture evolution of zircon-type gadolinium vanadate (GdVO_{4}) in situ under pressure and across its phase transitions to its high-pressure polymorphs...
September 23, 2016: Physical Review Letters
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