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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614683/single-nephron-glomerular-filtration-rate-in-healthy-adults
#1
Aleksandar Denic, Jerry Mathew, Lilach O Lerman, John C Lieske, Joseph J Larson, Mariam P Alexander, Emilio Poggio, Richard J Glassock, Andrew D Rule
BACKGROUND: The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) assesses the function of all nephrons, and the single-nephron GFR assesses the function of individual nephrons. How the single-nephron GFR relates to demographic and clinical characteristics and kidney-biopsy findings in humans is unknown. METHODS: We identified 1388 living kidney donors at the Mayo Clinic and the Cleveland Clinic who underwent a computed tomographic (CT) scan of the kidney with the use of contrast material and an iothalamate-based measurement of the GFR during donor evaluation and who underwent a kidney biopsy at donation...
June 15, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570550/dissection-and-culture-of-mouse-embryonic-kidney
#2
Bejan Aresh, Christiane Peuckert
The goal of this protocol is to describe a method for the dissection, isolation, and culture of mouse metanephric rudiments. During mammalian kidney development, the two progenitor tissues, the ureteric bud and the metanephric mesenchyme, communicate and reciprocally induce cellular mechanisms to eventually form the collecting system and the nephrons of the kidney. As mammalian embryos grow intrauterine and therefore are inaccessible to the observer, an organ culture has been developed. With this method, it is possible to study epithelial-mesenchymal interactions and cellular behavior during kidney organogenesis...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490528/combining-new-tools-to-assess-renal-function-and-morphology-a-holistic-approach-to-study-the-effects-of-aging-and-a-congenital-nephron-deficit
#3
Stefania Geraci, Jorge Chacón-Caldera, Luise Anne Cullen-McEwen, Lothar R Schad, Carsten Sticht, Victor G Puelles, John F Bertram, Norbert Gretz
Recently, new methods for assessing renal function in conscious mice (transcutaneous assessment) and for counting and sizing all glomeruli in whole kidneys (MRI) were described. In the present study, these methods were used to assess renal structure and function in aging mice, and in mice born with a congenital low nephron endowment. Age-related nephron loss was analysed in adult C57BL/6 mice (10-50 weeks of age) and congenital nephron deficit was assessed in glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor heterozygous (GDNF HET) null mutant mice...
May 10, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481398/evolutionary-trade-offs-in-kidney-injury-and-repair
#4
REVIEW
Yutian Lei, Hans-Joachim Anders
Evolutionary medicine has proven helpful to understand the origin of human disease, e.g. in identifying causal roles of recent environmental changes impacting on human physiology (environment-phenotype mismatch). In contrast, diseases affecting only a limited number of members of a species often originate from evolutionary trade-offs for usually physiologic adaptations assuring reproductive success in the context of extrinsic threats. For example, the G1 and G2 variants of the APOL1 gene supporting control of Trypanosoma infection come with the trade-off that they promote the progression of kidney disease...
May 8, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446592/bim-gene-dosage-is-critical-in-modulating-nephron-progenitor-survival-in-the-absence-of-micrornas-during-kidney-development
#5
Débora M Cerqueira, Andrew J Bodnar, Yu Leng Phua, Rachel Freer, Shelby L Hemker, Loren D Walensky, Neil A Hukriede, Jacqueline Ho
Low nephron endowment at birth has been associated with an increased risk for developing hypertension and chronic kidney disease. We demonstrated in an earlier study that conditional deletion of the microRNA (miRNA)-processing enzyme Dicer from nephron progenitors results in premature depletion of the progenitors and increased expression of the proapoptotic protein Bim (also known as Bcl-2L11). In this study, we generated a compound mouse model with conditional deletion of both Dicer and Bim, to determine the biologic significance of increased Bim expression in Dicer-deficient nephron progenitors...
April 26, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439668/urinary-podocalyxin-as-a-possible-novel-marker-of-intrauterine-nephrogenesis-and-extrauterine-podocyte-injury
#6
Taihei Hayashi, Shuko Tokuriki, Takashi Okuno, Genrei Ohta, Aiko Igarashi, Yusei Ohshima
BACKGROUND: The number of nephrons at birth is determined during fetal development and is modulated thereafter by postnatal podocyte injury. Hyperfiltration, caused by a reduced number of nephrons, is a risk factor for chronic kidney disease. It is therefore important to monitor the formation of nephrons. METHODS: Urine samples were collected from infants within 1-2 days of birth, with follow-up sampling for preterm infants at 37-39 weeks of corrected age. Urinary levels of podocalyxin (PCX), β2-microglobulin (β2MG), N-acetyl-ß-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), total protein (TP), microalbumin (mAlb) and creatinine were measured and the relationship between these markers evaluated...
April 25, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435991/polycythemia-capillary-rarefaction-and-focal-glomerulosclerosis-in-two-adolescents-born-extremely-low-birth-weight-and-premature
#7
Nariaki Asada, Takanori Tsukahara, Megumi Furuhata, Daisuke Matsuoka, Shunsuke Noda, Kuniaki Naganuma, Akinori Hashiguchi, Midori Awazu
BACKGROUND: Low birthweight infants have a reduced number of nephrons and are at high risk of chronic kidney disease. Preterm birth and/or intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) may also affect peritubular capillary development, as has been shown in other organs. CASE-DIAGNOSIS/TREATMENT: We report two patients with a history of preterm birth and extremely low birthweight who showed polycythemia and renal capillary rarefaction. Patient 1 and 2, born at 25 weeks of gestation with a birthweight of 728 and 466 g, showed mild proteinuria at age 8 and 6 years, respectively...
April 24, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419522/a-general-empirical-model-for-renal-drug-handling-in-pharmacokinetic-analyses
#8
Daniel F B Wright, Stephen B Duffull
Dose adjustment in renal insufficiency is generally based on the assumption that renal drug clearance is related linearly to glomerular filtration rate. The theory underpinning this model is the Intact Nephron Hypothesis, where impaired renal function is said to be caused by a reduction in the number of complete (intact) nephrons. The purpose of this commentary is to propose a general empirical model for renal drug handling. We will explore models for renal function under two scenarios; one that aligns with the intact nephron hypothesis, and one that relaxes the assumptions of this hypothesis...
April 16, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336816/glomerular-density-and-volume-in-renal-biopsy-specimens-of-children-with-proteinuria-relative-to-preterm-birth-and-gestational-age
#9
Kentaro Koike, Yohei Ikezumi, Nobuo Tsuboi, Go Kanzaki, Kotaro Haruhara, Yusuke Okabayashi, Takaya Sasaki, Makoto Ogura, Akihiko Saitoh, Takashi Yokoo
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: A low total nephron number, which is associated with low birth weight (LBW), may indicate increased susceptibility to early-onset renal diseases in children. However, few studies have assessed renal biopsy findings in LBW children. We examined the relationship between LBW and glomerular density (GD) and/or glomerular volume (GV) in renal biopsy samples as a surrogate for total nephron number. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Renal biopsy findings of children of LBW were compared with those of age-matched control subjects of normal birth weight (NBW) who were histopathologically diagnosed with FSGS or minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) from 1995 to 2011...
April 3, 2017: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336815/can-renal-biopsy-be-used-to-estimate-total-nephron-number
#10
EDITORIAL
Jennifer R Charlton, Carolyn L Abitbol
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 3, 2017: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335864/using-zebrafish-to-study-kidney-development-and-disease
#11
REVIEW
Stephanie Jerman, Zhaoxia Sun
The kidneys are a crucial pair of organs that are responsible for filtering the blood to remove waste, maintain electrolyte and water homeostasis, and regulate blood pressure. There are a number of factors, both genetic and environmental, that can impair the function of the kidneys resulting in significant morbidity and mortality for millions of people affected by kidney disease worldwide. The zebrafish, Danio rerio, has emerged as an attractive vertebrate model in the study of kidney development and disease and has proven to be a powerful tool in the advancement of how kidney development occurs in vertebrates and how the kidney repairs itself after injury...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319949/the-impact-of-kidney-development-on-the-life-course-a-consensus-document-for-action
#12
(no author information available yet)
Hypertension and chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a significant impact on global morbidity and mortality. The Low Birth Weight and Nephron Number Working Group has prepared a consensus document aimed to address the relatively neglected issue for the developmental programming of hypertension and CKD. It emerged from a workshop held on April 2, 2016, including eminent internationally recognized experts in the field of obstetrics, neonatology, and nephrology. Through multidisciplinary engagement, the goal of the workshop was to highlight the association between fetal and childhood development and an increased risk of adult diseases, focusing on hypertension and CKD, and to suggest possible practical solutions for the future...
2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315934/gas1-expression-in-parietal-cells-of-bowman-s-capsule-in-experimental-diabetic-nephropathy
#13
Brenda I Luna-Antonio, Rafael Rodriguez-Muñoz, Carmen Namorado-Tonix, Paula Vergara, Jose Segovia, Jose L Reyes
Gas1 (Growth Arrest-Specific 1) is a pleiotropic protein with novel functions including anti-proliferative and proapoptotic activities. In the kidney, the expression of Gas1 has been described in mesangial cells. In this study, we described that renal parietal cells of Bowman's capsule (BC) and the distal nephron cells also express Gas1. The role of Gas1 in the kidney is not yet known. There is a subpopulation of progenitor cells in Bowman's capsule with self-renewal properties which can eventually differentiate into podocytes as a possible mechanism of regeneration in the early stages of diabetic nephropathy...
March 18, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306565/can-podocytes-be-regenerated-in-adults
#14
Stuart J Shankland, Benjamin S Freedman, Jeffrey W Pippin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Podocytes are critical components of the nephron filtration barrier and are depleted in many kidney injuries and disease states. Terminally differentiated adult podocytes are highly specialized, postmitotic cells, raising the question of whether the body has any ability to regenerate lost podocytes. This timely question has recently been illuminated by a series of innovative studies. Here, we review recent progress on this topic of significant interest and debate. RECENT FINDINGS: The innovation of genetic labeling techniques enables fate tracing of individual podocytes, providing the strongest evidence yet that podocytes can be replaced by nearby progenitor cells...
May 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284520/a-developmental-approach-to-the-prevention-of-hypertension-and-kidney-disease-a-report-from-the-low-birth-weight-and-nephron-number-working-group
#15
Valerie A Luyckx, Norberto Perico, Marco Somaschini, Dario Manfellotto, Herbert Valensise, Irene Cetin, Umberto Simeoni, Karel Allegaert, Bjorn Egil Vikse, Eric A Steegers, Dwomoa Adu, Giovanni Montini, Giuseppe Remuzzi, Barry M Brenner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 8, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279366/-impact-of-robotic-assistance-on-the-use-and-the-outcomes-of-nephron-sparing-surgery-a-single-center-experience
#16
T Fardoun, B Peyronnet, E Oger, G Verhoest, R Mathieu, Z Khene, B Pradere, Q Alimi, A Manunta, N Rioux-Leclercq, J-J Patard, S-F Kammerer-Jacquet, K Bensalah
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the acquisition of a Da Vinci(®) robot on the use and outcomes of partial nephrectomy (PN). PATIENTS AND METHODS: It was a single center retrospective study including 280 patients who underwent PN from January 2006 to May 2013. The number of PN, tumors and patients' characteristics and perioperative outcomes have been assessed over 3 periods defined according to the main surgical approach: 2006-2008 (open PN), 2008-2010 (laparoscopic PN) and 2010-2013 (robotic PN)...
December 2016: Progrès en Urologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259131/dysfunction-of-kidney-endothelium-after-ischemia-reperfusion-and-its-prevention-by-mitochondria-targeted-antioxidant
#17
S S Jankauskas, N V Andrianova, I B Alieva, A N Prusov, D D Matsievsky, L D Zorova, I B Pevzner, E S Savchenko, Y A Pirogov, D N Silachev, E Y Plotnikov, D B Zorov
One of the most important pathological consequences of renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is kidney malfunctioning. I/R leads to oxidative stress, which affects not only nephron cells but also cells of the vascular wall, especially endothelium, resulting in its damage. Assessment of endothelial damage, its role in pathological changes in organ functioning, and approaches to normalization of endothelial and renal functions are vital problems that need to be resolved. The goal of this study was to examine functional and morphological impairments occurring in the endothelium of renal vessels after I/R and to explore the possibility of alleviation of the severity of these changes using mitochondria-targeted antioxidant 10-(6'-plastoquinonyl)decylrhodamine 19 (SkQR1)...
December 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256177/complications-during-pregnancy-and-fetal-development-implications-for-the-occurrence-of-chronic-kidney-disease
#18
REVIEW
Ashley D Newsome, Gwendolyn K Davis, Norma B Ojeda, Barbara T Alexander
Numerous epidemiological studies indicate an inverse association between birth weight and the risk for chronic kidney disease. Areas covered: Historically, the first studies to address the developmental origins of chronic disease focused on the inverse relationship between birth weight and blood pressure. A reduction in nephron number was a consistent finding in low birth weight individuals and experimental models of developmental insult. Recent studies indicate that a congenital reduction in renal reserve in conjunction with an increase in blood pressure that has its origins in fetal life increases vulnerability to renal injury and disease...
March 2017: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203565/tubular-dysfunction-mimicking-dent-s-disease-in-2-infants-born-with-extremely-low-birth-weight
#19
Midori Awazu, Mie Arai, Shoko Ohashi, Hirotaka Takahashi, Takashi Sekine, Kazushige Ikeda
Two preterm infants, with extremely low birth weight born at gestational weeks 24 and 25, showed generalized proximal tubular dysfunction during their stay in the neonatal intensive care unit, including glucosuria, low molecular weight proteinuria, phosphaturia, uricosuria, enzymuria (elevated urine N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase), panaminoaciduria, and hypercalciuria, associated with renal calcification. Renal tubular acidosis was not present in either patient. DNA mutation analysis for Dent's disease, performed in patient 1, was negative...
January 2017: Case Reports in Nephrology and Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202171/residual-renal-function-a-paradigm-shift
#20
Jerome Lowenstein, Jared J Grantham
Residual renal function (RRF) in patients undergoing dialysis treatments is currently viewed as glomerular filtrate that has escaped tubular reabsorption. RRF has been quantified as a clearance of urea or creatinine, or urea + creatinine. A major paradigm shift has followed the recognition that a substantial number of organic anion retention solutes (possible "uremic toxins") are protein-bound and therefore are not readily filtered. These protein-bound aryl compounds are secreted by renal tubular organic anion transporters (OATs)...
March 2017: Kidney International
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