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Nephron number

Renaud Snanoudj, Marc-Olivier Timsit, Marion Rabant, Claire Tinel, Hélène Lazareth, Lionel Lamhaut, Frank Martinez, Christophe Legendre
Use of expanded criteria donor (ECD) kidneys, which are associated with a reduced graft survival rate, has become widely adopted in elderly recipients in an old-to-old allocation system. However, the results are frequently unsatisfactory, and a high proportion of these ECD kidneys are discarded. Dual kidney transplantation (DKT) is an underutilized way to expand the pool of ECD kidneys and to rapidly transplant elderly patients with satisfactory results because of the transplantation of double the nephronic mass...
September 29, 2016: Transplantation
Selahattin Çaliskan, Emrah Özsoy, Selçuk Kaba, Orhan Koca, Metin Isak Öztürk
INTRODUCTION: Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis is a chronic destructive granulomatous inflammation of the kidney. This pathology was firstly described in 1916 and a small number of patient series were reported in the literature. In this study, we aimed to report the patients with xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis in our nephrectomy cases. METHODS: The patients who underwent nephrectomy and were diagnosed with xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis in our hospital database were reviewed retrospectively...
October 2016: Archives of Iranian Medicine
Anita T Layton, Kamel Laghmani, Volker Vallon, Aurélie Edwards
Sodium and its associated anions are the major determinant of extracellular fluid volume, and renal Na+ reabsorption plays a crucial role in long-term blood pressure control. The goal of this study was to investigate the extent to which inhibitors of transepithelial Na$^+$ transport (T$_{\rm Na}$) along the nephron alter urinary solute excretion and T$_{\rm Na}$ efficiency, and how those effects may vary along different nephron segments. We used the multi-nephron model developed in the companion study [28], which represents detailed transcellular and paracellular transport processes along the nephrons of a rat kidney...
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Anita T Layton, Volker Vallon, Aurélie Edwards
The goal of this study was to investigate water and solute transport, with a focus on sodium transport (T$_{\rm Na}$) and metabolism along individual nephron segments under differing physiological and pathophysiological conditions. To accomplish this goal, we developed a computational model of solute transport and oxygen consumption (Q$_{\rm O2}$) along different nephron populations of a rat kidney. The model represents detailed epithelial and paracellular transport processes along both the superficial and juxtamedullary nephrons, with the loop of Henle of each model nephron extending to differing depths of the inner medulla...
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Toralf Melsom, Vidar Stefansson, Jørgen Schei, Marit Solbu, Trond Jenssen, Tom Wilsgaard, Bjørn O Eriksen
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Hyperfiltration at the single-nephron level has been proposed as an early stage of kidney dysfunction of different origins. Evidence supporting this hypothesis in humans is lacking, because there is no method of measuring single-nephron GFR in humans. However, increased whole-kidney GFR in the same individual implies an increased single-nephron GFR, because the number of nephrons does not increase with age. We hypothesized that an increase in GFR would be associated with an increased albumin-to-creatinine ratio in a cohort of the general population...
September 28, 2016: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
Taro Tsujimura, Mana Idei, Masahiro Yoshikawa, Osamu Takase, Keiichi Hishikawa
The gene encoding bone morphogenetic protein-7 (Bmp7) is expressed in the developing kidney in embryos and also in the mature organ in adults. During kidney development, expression of Bmp7 is essential to determine the final number of nephrons in and proper size of the organ. The secreted BMP7 acts on the nephron progenitor cells to exert its dual functions: To maintain and expand the progenitor population and to provide them with competence to respond to differentiation cues, each relying on distinct signaling pathways...
September 26, 2016: World Journal of Stem Cells
Matthew J Watson, Abhinav Sidana, Annerleim Walton-Diaz, M Minhaj Siddiqui, Ryan Andrew Hankins, Gennady Bratslavsky, W Marston Linehan, Adam Metwali
INTRODUCTION: Multifocal and hereditary kidney cancers often require repeated ipsilateral nephron sparing procedures with higher blood loss and complication rates when compared to first time renal surgery. Consequently, many surgeons avoid minimally invasive techniques in the setting. We present the characteristics, complications and short-term renal functional outcomes of patients who underwent a repeat robotic partial nephrectomy (rRPNx). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A database was retrospectively reviewed to identify patients who underwent robotic partial nephrectomies between January 2007 and December 2013...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Endourology
Patricio Lopez-Jaramillo
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are major causes of death and illness worldwide. In recent decades an increased prevalence of CVD mortality has been reported in low-medium income countries, which has been associated with changes in life styles, deficiencies in health systems and the persistence of social inequities.The metabolic syndrome comprises a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors, with insulin resistance and increased adiposity as its central features. Identifying individuals with metabolic syndrome is important due to its association with an increased risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Laurent Pinelli, Antoine Nissant, Aurélie Edwards, Stéphane Lourdel, Jacques Teulon, Marc Paulais
ClC-K2, a member of the ClC family of Cl(-) channels and transporters, forms the major basolateral Cl(-) conductance in distal nephron epithelial cells and therefore plays a central role in renal Cl(-) absorption. However, its regulation remains largely unknown because of the fact that recombinant ClC-K2 has not yet been studied at the single-channel level. In the present study, we investigate the effects of voltage, pH, Cl(-), and Ca(2+) on native ClC-K2 in the basolateral membrane of intercalated cells from the mouse connecting tubule...
September 2016: Journal of General Physiology
Melissa H Little, Alexander N Combes, Minoru Takasato
The treatment of renal failure has seen little change in the past 70 years. Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are treated with renal replacement therapy, including dialysis or organ transplantation. The growing imbalance between the availability of donor organs and prevalence of ESRD is pushing an increasing number of patients to undergo dialysis. Although the prospect of new treatment options for patients through regenerative medicine has long been suggested, advances in the generation of human kidney cell types through the directed differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells over the past 2 years have brought this prospect closer to delivery...
October 2016: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
Chang Ho Jeon, Nak Jong Seong, Chang Jin Yoon, Seok-Soo Byun, Sang Eun Lee
BACKGROUND: With the wider application of nephron-sparing surgery, there has been an increase in the occurrence of postoperative hemorrhage. However, despite such an increase, there are only a limited number of reports regarding renal artery embolization (RAE) for the management of postoperative bleeding after nephron-sparing surgery, especially after robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (RALPN). PURPOSE: To evaluate the safety and clinical efficacy of transcatheter RAE for postoperative hemorrhage after open partial nephrectomy (OPN) and RALPN...
August 2016: Acta Radiologica Open
Zhongwei Li, Toshikazu Araoka, Jun Wu, Hsin-Kai Liao, Mo Li, Marta Lazo, Bing Zhou, Yinghui Sui, Min-Zu Wu, Isao Tamura, Yun Xia, Ergin Beyret, Taiji Matsusaka, Ira Pastan, Concepcion Rodriguez Esteban, Isabel Guillen, Pedro Guillen, Josep M Campistol, Juan Carlos Izpisua Belmonte
Transit-amplifying nephron progenitor cells (NPCs) generate all of the nephrons of the mammalian kidney during development. Their limited numbers, poor in vitro expansion, and difficult accessibility in humans have slowed basic and translational research into renal development and diseases. Here, we show that with appropriate 3D culture conditions, it is possible to support long-term expansion of primary mouse and human fetal NPCs as well as NPCs derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Expanded NPCs maintain genomic stability, molecular homogeneity, and nephrogenic potential in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo...
October 6, 2016: Cell Stem Cell
Maria Cristina Aisa, Benito Cappuccini, Antonella Barbati, Aldo Orlacchio, Mauro Baglioni, Gian Carlo Di Renzo
BACKGROUND: Premature and/or intrauterine growth-restricted neonates have an increased risk of developing postnatal renal injuries in later life. Studies on renal physiology in these neonates at a corrected age of 30-40 days are scarce and mostly relate to preterm infants. The data from these studies often lack the results of correlation analyses between biochemical parameters and nephron number-data which could provide additional insight and/or improve recognition of individuals at higher risk of renal failure...
August 25, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Stacey Hokke, Victor G Puelles, James A Armitage, Karen Fong, John F Bertram, Luise A Cullen-McEwen
Increasing consumption of a high fat 'Western' diet has led to a growing number of pregnancies complicated by maternal obesity. Maternal overnutrition and obesity have health implications for offspring, yet little is known about their effects on offspring kidney development and renal function. Female C57Bl6 mice were fed a high fat diet (HFD, 21% fat) or matched normal fat diet (NFD, 6% fat) for 6 weeks prior to pregnancy and throughout gestation and lactation. HFD dams were overweight and glucose intolerant prior to mating but not in late gestation...
2016: PloS One
Yan P Wang, Xu Chen, Zhi K Zhang, Hong Y Cui, Peng Wang, Yue Wang
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to characterize changes in apoptosis and the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in fetal growth restriction (FGR). MATERIALS AND METHOD: Fetuses were collected from patients who visited our hospital to either terminate or abort their pregnancy. Kidneys of fetuses which suffered with FGR, (n=11) at gestational age of 33.4±0.5 weeks and those from non-FGR (n=12) at gestational age of 34.3±0.9 weeks were collected. TUNEL, Bax and Bcl-2 staining were examined...
July 2016: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
Mariusz Kaczmarczyk, Beata Loniewska, Anna Kuprjanowicz, Agnieszka Binczak-Kuleta, Iwona Goracy, Malgorzata Ryder, Olga Taryma-Lesniak, Andrzej Ciechanowicz
BACKGROUND: Abnormal congenital nephron number has been implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension and renal disease. The RET receptor complex propagates signals essential for nephrogenesis and the RET c.1296G>A polymorphism, leading to aberrant splicing of exon 7, is associated with reduced kidney volume, a surrogate for nephron endowment. The glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family receptor alpha 1 (GFRA1) is a component of the RET receptor complex, and three alternatively spliced GFRA1 transcripts (with or without exon 5) have been identified...
October 2016: Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers
Ryan A Hankins, Annerleim Walton-Diaz, Hong Truong, Joanna Shih, Gennady Bratslavsky, Peter A Pinto, W Marston Linehan, Adam R Metwalli
OBJECTIVE: To identify renal function outcomes after robotic multiplex partial nephrectomy (RMxPNx), we reviewed our institutional database at the National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute. To our knowledge, we present the largest series of RMxPNx renal function outcomes to date. Robotic partial nephrectomy has been employed for oncologic control and to prevent dialysis dependence in hereditary multifocal renal cell carcinoma conditions. We have termed robotic surgery on a single kidney with three or more lesions a RMxPNx...
November 2016: International Urology and Nephrology
Xing Chen, Xiao-Ming Hou, You-Fei Fan, Yu-Ting Jin, Yu-Lin Wang
The sonic hedgehog (SHH) morphogen regulates cell differentiation and controls a number of genes during renal morphogenesis. To date, the effects of SHH on fibroblast growth factors (Fgfs) in embryonic kidney development remain unclear. In the present study, explants of BALB/c mouse embryonic kidney tissues were used to investigate the role of exogenous SHH on Fgf8 and Fgf10 expression levels ex vivo. Ureteric bud branches and epithelial metanephric derivatives were used to determine the renal morphogenesis with Dolichos biflorus agglutinin or hematoxylin‑eosin staining...
October 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Hodaka Yamada, Makoto Kuro-O, Kazuo Hara, Yuichiro Ueda, Ikuyo Kusaka, Masafumi Kakei, San-E Ishikawa
BACKGROUND: Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) regulates mineral homeostasis. In developed renal dysfunction, FGF23 levels increase to maintain the phosphate excretion capacity. However, in diabetic patients with early-stage renal impairment, the FGF23 elevation is not very sensitive. We hypothesized that urinary phosphate (U-P)/serum FGF23 ratio would theoretically be an index that reflects the number of nephrons (nephron index). In this study, we determined whether the nephron index would be associated with renal function and vascular diseases in diabetic patients...
2016: PloS One
María Teresa Fernández García, Paula Núñez Martínez, Vanessa García de la Fuente, Marta Sánchez Pitiot, María Del Carmen Muñiz Salgueiro, Carmen Perillán Méndez, Juan Argüelles Luis, Aurora Astudillo González
The kidneys are vital organs responsible for excretion, fluid and electrolyte balance and hormone production. The nephrons are the kidney's functional and structural units. The number, size and distribution of the nephron components contain relevant information on renal function. Stereology is a branch of morphometry that applies mathematical principles to obtain three-dimensional information from serial, parallel and equidistant two-dimensional microscopic sections. Because of the complexity of stereological studies and the lack of scientific literature on the subject, the aim of this paper is to clearly explain, through animal models, the basic concepts of stereology and how to calculate the main kidney stereological parameters that can be applied in future experimental studies...
July 23, 2016: Nefrología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española Nefrologia
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