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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168475/chronic-kidney-disease
#1
REVIEW
Paola Romagnani, Giuseppe Remuzzi, Richard Glassock, Adeera Levin, Kitty J Jager, Marcello Tonelli, Ziad Massy, Christoph Wanner, Hans-Joachim Anders
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is defined by persistent urine abnormalities, structural abnormalities or impaired excretory renal function suggestive of a loss of functional nephrons. The majority of patients with CKD are at risk of accelerated cardiovascular disease and death. For those who progress to end-stage renal disease, the limited accessibility to renal replacement therapy is a problem in many parts of the world. Risk factors for the development and progression of CKD include low nephron number at birth, nephron loss due to increasing age and acute or chronic kidney injuries caused by toxic exposures or diseases (for example, obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus)...
November 23, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166383/prematurity-disrupts-glomeruli-development-while-prematurity-and-hyperglycemia-lead-to-altered-nephron-maturation-and-increased-oxidative-stress-in-newborn-baboons
#2
Danielle A Callaway, Lisa L McGill-Vargas, Amy Quinn, Jasmine L Jordan, Lauryn A Winter, Diana Anzueto, Edward J Dick, Cynthia L Blanco
BACKGROUND: Premature birth occurs when nephrogenesis is incomplete and has been linked to increased renal pathologies in the adult. Metabolic factors complicating preterm birth may have additional consequences for kidney development. Here, we evaluated the effects of prematurity and hyperglycemia on nephrogenesis in premature baboons when compared to term animals. METHODS: Baboons were delivered prematurely (67% gestation; n=9) or at term (n=7) and survived 2-4 weeks...
November 22, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142961/the-renal-pathology-of-obesity
#3
REVIEW
Nobuo Tsuboi, Yusuke Okabayashi, Akira Shimizu, Takashi Yokoo
Obesity causes various structural, hemodynamic, and metabolic alterations in the kidney. Most of these are likely to be compensatory responses to the systemic increase in metabolic demand that is seen with obesity. In some cases, however, renal injury becomes clinically apparent as a result of compensatory failure. Obesity-related glomerulopathy is the best known of such disease states. Factors that may sensitize obese individuals to renal compensatory failure and associated injury include the severity and number of obesity-associated conditions or complications, including components of metabolic syndrome, and the mismatch of body size to nephron mass, due to nephron reductions of congenital or acquired origin...
March 2017: KI Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120031/histopathological-immunohistochemical-and-stereological-analysis-of-the-effect-of-gingko-biloba-egb761-on-the-hippocampus-of-rats-exposed-to-long-term-cellphone-radiation
#4
Fikret Gevrek
Cellular phones are major sources of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) that can penetrate the human body and pose serious health hazards. The increasingly widespread use of mobile communication systems has raised concerns about the effects of cellphone radiofrequency (RF) on the hippocampus because of its close proximity to radiation during cellphone use. The effects of cellphone EMR exposure on the hippocampus of rats and the possible counteractive effects of ginkgo biloba (Egb761) were aimed to investigate...
November 9, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103408/effects-of-bisphenol-a-treatment-during-pregnancy-on-kidney-development-in-mice-a-stereological-and-histopathological-study
#5
P Nuñez, T Fernandez, M García-Arévalo, P Alonso-Magdalena, A Nadal, C Perillan, J Arguelles
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical found in plastics that resembles oestrogen in organisms. Developmental exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals, such as BPA, increases the susceptibility to type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases. Animal studies have reported a nephron deficit in offspring exposed to maternal diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the prenatal BPA exposure effects on nephrogenesis in a mouse model that was predisposed to T2DM. This study quantitatively evaluated the renal structural changes using stereology and histomorphometry methods...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092847/measuring-rat-kidney-glomerular-number-and-size-in-vivo-with-mri
#6
Edwin J Baldelomar, Jennifer R Charlton, Scott C Beeman, Kevin M Bennett
Nephron number is highly variable in humans and is thought to play an important role in renal health. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is the result of too few nephrons to maintain homeostasis. Currently, nephron number estimates can only be determined invasively or as a terminal assessment. Due to a lack of tools to measure and track nephron number in the living, the early stages of CKD often go unrecognized, preventing early intervention that might halt the progression of CKD. In this work, we present a technique to directly measure glomerular number (Nglom) and volume in vivo in the rat kidney (n=8) using MRI enhanced with the novel contrast agent cationized ferritin (CFE-MRI)...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043688/-correlation-between-prenatal-ultrasound-and-postnatal-diagnosis-of-birth-defects
#7
F J Murcia Pascual, L Delgado Cotán, V Jiménez Crespo, F Vázquez Rueda, E Rodríguez Cano, M Miño Mora, R M Paredes Esteban
OBJECTIVES: To assess the accuracy of prenatal ultrasound diagnosis and to analyze the protocol applied for congenital defects (CD) in our environment. METHODS: Descriptive study of prenatally diagnosed CD in our area between 2004-2013. Includes: total births, fetal medicine referrals (number of consultations, ultrasound, invasive techniques) anatomical and chromosomal abnormalities, confirmed diagnoses, necropsies performed, false diagnoses, absence of prenatal diagnoses, and number and reasons for abortions (VIEs)...
July 20, 2017: Cirugía Pediátrica: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Cirugía Pediátrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978800/new-insights-on-glomerular-hyperfiltration-a-japanese-autopsy-study
#8
Go Kanzaki, Victor G Puelles, Luise A Cullen-McEwen, Wendy E Hoy, Yusuke Okabayashi, Nobuo Tsuboi, Akira Shimizu, Kate M Denton, Michael D Hughson, Takashi Yokoo, John F Bertram
It has been suggested that low nephron number contributes to glomerular hypertension and hyperperfusion injury in progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD). The incidence of CKD in Japan is among the highest in the world, but the reasons remain unclear. We estimated total nephron (glomerular) number (NglomTOTAL) as well as numbers of nonsclerosed (NglomNSG) and globally sclerosed glomeruli (NglomGSG), and the mean volume of nonsclerosed glomeruli (VglomNSG) in Japanese normotensive, hypertensive, and CKD subjects and investigated associations between these parameters and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)...
October 5, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971994/early-life-stress-induces-priming-of-the-immune-response-in-kidneys-of-adult-male-rats
#9
Carmen De Miguel, Ijeoma E Obi, Dao H Ho, Analia S Loria, Jennifer S Pollock
Early life stress (ELS) in humans is associated with elevated pro-inflammatory markers. We hypothesized that ELS induces activation of the immune response in a rat model of ELS, maternal separation (MatSep), in adulthood. MatSep involves separating pups from the dam from postnatal day 2 to postnatal day 14 for 3hrs/day. Control rats are non-separated littermates. We determined circulating and renal immune cell numbers, renal immune cell activation markers, renal cytokine levels, and the renal inflammatory gene expression response to low dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in male MatSep and control rats...
September 27, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941301/cystatin-c-predicts-acute-kidney-injury-and-mortality-in-cirrhotics-a-prospective-cohort-study
#10
Rakhi Maiwall, Awinash Kumar, Ankit Bhardwaj, Guresh Kumar, Ajeet S Bhadoria, Shiv K Sarin
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Acute kidney injury is a frequent and ominous complication in cirrhosis. An episode of AKI damages the functional nephron mass, compromising the renal functional reserve. We aimed to study the incidence of AKI, probability of subsequent episodes, whether AKI itself predisposes to future AKI and the reliability of serum cystatin C(sCyC) as a biomarker in a prospective cohort of cirrhotics. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Five hundred and thirty-one cirrhotics without ongoing AKI were followed for development/resolution of AKI...
September 23, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939448/-solitary-kidney-management-and-outcome
#11
A Godron-Dubrasquet, C Didailler, J Harambat, B Llanas
Solitary functioning kidneys form an important subgroup of congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT). A solitary kidney can be congenital or acquired after unilateral nephrectomy and is often associated with ipsilateral urogenital anomalies. Both types of solitary functioning kidney are associated with an increased risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD). A low functional nephron number results in compensatory glomerular hypertension and enlargement of remnant nephrons, indicating glomerular hyperfiltration...
November 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875951/effects-of-cyclosporine-a-on-the-development-of-metanephros-in-the-pregnant-balb-c-mice
#12
Yu-Jie Liao, Rong-Shuang Huang, Wei-Jing Lai, Fang Liu, Liang Ma, Yuan-Sheng Xie, Stephen Salerno, Yi Li, Ping Fu
Background: Cyclosporine A (CsA) is a commonly used clinical immunosuppressant. However, CsA exposure in rabbits during the gestation period was shown to cause a postnatal decrease in the number of nephrons, with the effects remaining unknown. In this study, we aimed to explore the effects of CsA on metanephros development in the pregnant BALB/c mice. Methods: Pregnant mice were randomly divided into two groups, and CsA (10 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)) was subcutaneously injected from gestation day 10...
September 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868293/the-kidney-in-bardet-biedl-syndrome-possible-pathogenesis-of-urine-concentrating-defect
#13
REVIEW
Miriam Zacchia, Valentina Di Iorio, Francesco Trepiccione, Marianna Caterino, Giovambattista Capasso
BACKGROUND: The ciliopathies are a growing number of disorders caused by mutations in genes involved in the function of the primary cilium. Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) belongs to this group of disorders. In this setting, kidney dysfunction is highly variable, and urine concentrating defect, a common feature of multiple ciliopathies, has been described as the most frequent defect. Here we review the mechanism of urine concentration and describe the possible mechanism underling this defect in ciliopathies and especially BBS, based on the current body of literature...
July 2017: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845468/evolutionary-nephrology
#14
Robert L Chevalier
Progressive kidney disease follows nephron loss, hyperfiltration, and incomplete repair, a process described as "maladaptive." In the past 20 years, a new discipline has emerged that expands research horizons: evolutionary medicine. In contrast to physiologic (homeostatic) adaptation, evolutionary adaptation is the result of reproductive success that reflects natural selection. Evolutionary explanations for physiologically maladaptive responses can emerge from mismatch of the phenotype with environment or evolutionary tradeoffs...
May 2017: KI Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818273/a-novel-genetic-model-to-explore-the-brenner-hypothesis-linking-nephron-endowment-and-number-with-hypertension
#15
Sean P Didion
Nephron endowment, the total number of nephrons an individual is born with, is determined by both genetic and environmental factors during embryonic development. In 1988, Brenner hypothesized that there was an inverse relationship between nephron number and hypertension. Over the course of one's lifetime it is predicted that even healthy individuals will lose a significant percentage of nephrons as part of normal aging. Thus, a low nephron endowment at birth or in combination with age- or disease-related nephron loss could pre-dispose individuals to the development of hypertension...
September 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811528/prenatal-hypoxia-leads-to-hypertension-renal-renin-angiotensin-system-activation-and-exacerbates-salt-induced-pathology-in-a-sex-specific-manner
#16
S L Walton, H Bielefeldt-Ohmann, R R Singh, J Li, T M Paravicini, M H Little, K M Moritz
Prenatal hypoxia is associated with growth restriction and adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Here, we describe renal and cardiovascular outcomes in ageing mouse offspring prenatally exposed to hypoxia (12% O2) from embryonic day 14.5 until birth. At 12 months of age, both male and female offspring exposed to prenatal hypoxia had elevated mean arterial pressure. Glomerular number was reduced by 25% in hypoxia-exposed male, but not female, offspring and this was associated with increased urinary albumin excretion, glomerular hypertrophy and renal fibrosis...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804978/birthweight-and-serum-uric-acid-in-american-adolescents
#17
Erika T Rhone, J Bryan Carmody
Elevated serum uric acid is associated with hypertension and chronic kidney disease. We evaluated the relationship between birthweight and uric acid in a nationally representative sample of 5390 US adolescents aged 12-15 in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 1999 to 2012. There was an inverse association between birthweight and uric acid after adjustment for sex, age, race, obesity, and dietary sodium intake. Each 1 kg increase in birthweight was associated with decreased uric acid by 0...
August 2017: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802883/neoadjuvant-therapy-for-localized-and-locally-advanced-renal-cell-carcinoma
#18
REVIEW
Ahmet Bindayi, Zachary A Hamilton, Michelle L McDonald, Kendrick Yim, Frederick Millard, Rana R McKay, Steven C Campbell, Brian I Rini, Ithaar H Derweesh
Neoadjuvant Targeted Molecular Therapy in the setting of localized and locally advanced renal cell carcinoma has emerged as a strategy to render primary renal tumors amenable to planned surgical resection in settings where radical resection or nephron-sparing surgery was not thought to be safe or feasible. Presurgical tumor reduction has been demonstrated in a number of studies including a recently published randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study, and an expanding body of literature suggests benefit in select patients...
August 9, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794066/insights-into-cellular-and-molecular-basis-for-urinary-tract-infection-in-autosomal-dominant-polycystic-kidney-disease
#19
Chao Gao, Long Zhang, Ye Zhang, Darren Paul Wallace, Reynold I Lopez-Soler, Paul J Higgins, Wenzheng Zhang
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a broad term referring to an infection of the kidneys, ureters, bladder and/or urethra. Due to its prevalence, frequent recurrence and rising resistance to antibiotics, UTI has become a challenge in clinical practice. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common monogenic disorder of the kidney and is characterized by the growth of fluid-filled cysts in both kidneys. Progressive cystic enlargement, inflammation and interstitial fibrosis result in nephron loss with subsequent decline in kidney function...
August 9, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791668/obesity-related-glomerulopathy-pathogenesis-pathologic-clinical-characteristics-and-treatment
#20
REVIEW
Tianhua Xu, Zitong Sheng, Li Yao
In light of the rapid increase in the number of obesity incidences worldwide, obesity has become an independent risk factor for chronic kidney disease. Obesity-related glomerulopathy (ORG) is characterized by glomerulomegaly in the presence or absence of focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis lesions. IgM and complement 3 (C3) nonspecifically deposit in lesions without immune-complex-type deposits during ORG immunofluorescence. ORG-associated glomerulomegaly and focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis can superimpose on other renal pathologies...
September 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
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