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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068076/bioavailability-and-kidney-responses-to-diclofenac-in-the-fathead-minnow-pimephales-promelas
#1
Lisa K Bickley, Ronny van Aerle, Andrew Ross Brown, Adam Hargreaves, Russell Huby, Victoria Cammack, Richard Jackson, Eduarda M Santos, Charles R Tyler
Diclofenac is one of the most widely prescribed non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs worldwide. It is frequently detected in surface waters; however, whether this pharmaceutical poses a risk to aquatic organisms is debated. Here we quantified the uptake of diclofenac by the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) following aqueous exposure (0.2 to 25.0 µg L(-1)) for 21 days, and evaluated the tissue and biomolecular responses in the kidney. Diclofenac accumulated in a concentration- and time- dependent manner in the plasma of exposed fish...
January 9, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997529/renal-dysfunction-in-early-adulthood-following-birth-asphyxia-in-male-spiny-mice-and-its-amelioration-by-maternal-creatine-supplementation-during-pregnancy
#2
Stacey J Ellery, Domenic A LaRosa, Luise Cullen-McEwen, Russell D Brown, Rod J Snow, David W Walker, Michelle M Kett, Hayley Dickinson
BACKGROUND: Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) affects ~70% of asphyxiated newborns, and increases their risk of developing chronic kidney disease (CKD) later in life. AKI is driven by renal oxygen deprivation during asphyxia, thus we hypothesized that creatine administered antenatally would protect the kidney from the long-term effects of birth asphyxia. METHODS: Pregnant spiny mice were fed standard chow or chow supplemented with 5% creatine from 20-days gestation (mid-getstation)...
December 20, 2016: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982509/kidney-volume-and-ambulatory-blood-pressure-in-children
#3
Shari Gurusinghe, Arkadiy Palvanov, Mark E Bittman, Pamela Singer, Rachel Frank, Nataliya Chorny, Lulette Infante, Christine B Sethna
Low nephron number has been shown to be a risk factor for hypertension (HTN) in adulthood. Kidney volume may serve as a surrogate marker for nephron mass. The relationship between kidney volume and ambulatory blood pressure (BP) in the pediatric population is not known. A retrospective chart review of children younger than 21 years who were evaluated for HTN was performed. Twenty-four-hour BP and ultrasonography data were obtained. Multiple regression was used to examine associations between BP and kidney volume...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Clinical Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974315/mechanisms-of-blood-pressure-salt-sensitivity-new-insights-from-mathematical-modeling
#4
John S Clemmer, William Andrew Pruett, Thomas G Coleman, John E Hall, Robert L Hester
Mathematical modeling is an important tool for understanding quantitative relationships among components of complex physiological systems and for testing competing hypotheses. We used HumMod, a large physiological model, to test hypotheses of blood pressure (BP) salt sensitivity. Systemic hemodynamics, renal, and neurohormonal responses to chronic changes in salt intake were examined during normal renal function, fixed low or high plasma angiotensin II (Ang II) levels, bilateral renal artery stenosis, increased renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), and decreased nephron numbers...
December 14, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27958261/serum-uromodulin-concentrations-correlate-with-glomerular-filtration-rate-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#5
Danuta Fedak, Marek Kuźniewski, Andrzej Fugiel, Ewa Wieczorek-Surdacka, Bernadetta Przepiórkowska-Hoyer, Piotr Jasik, Przemysław Miarka, Paulina Dumnicka, Maria Kapusta, Bogdan Solnica, Władysław Sułowicz
INTRODUCTION Urinary uromodulin excretion has been associated with kidney diseases. However, serum uromodulin concentrations have not been extensively studied in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and the results of published studies are inconsistent. OBJECTIVES The aims of the study were to evaluate serum uromodulin concentrations in patients with CKD and to assess the utility of serum uromodulin measurements for diagnosing CKD stages. PATIENTS AND METHODS This observational study included 170 patients with CKD stages 1 to 5, not treated by renal replacement therapy, and 30 healthy individuals...
December 5, 2016: Polskie Archiwum Medycyny Wewnętrznej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899104/the-magnitude-of-nephron-number-reduction-mediates-intrauterine-growth-restriction-induced-long-term-chronic-renal-disease-in-the-rat-a-comparative-study-in-two-experimental-models
#6
Farid Boubred, Laurent Daniel, Christophe Buffat, Michel Tsimaratos, Charles Oliver, Martine Lelièvre-Pégorier, Umberto Simeoni
BACKGROUND: Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a risk factor for hypertension (HT) and chronic renal disease (CRD). A reduction in the nephron number is proposed to be the underlying mechanism; however, the mechanism is debated. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that IUGR-induced HT and CRD are linked to the magnitude of nephron number reduction, independently on its cause. METHODS: Systolic blood pressure (SBP), glomerular filtration rate (GFR), proteinuria, nephron number, and glomerular sclerosis were compared between IUGR offspring prenatally exposed to a maternal low-protein diet (9% casein; LPD offspring) or maternal administration of betamethasone (from E17 to E19; BET offspring) and offspring with a normal birth weight (NBW offspring)...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896391/histological-aspects-of-the-fixed-particle-model-of-stone-formation-animal-studies
#7
REVIEW
Saeed R Khan
Crystallization by itself is not harmful as long as the crystals are not retained in the kidneys and are allowed to pass freely down the renal tubules to be excreted in the urine. A number of theories have been proposed, and studies performed, to determine the mechanisms involved in crystal retention within the kidneys. It has been suggested that urinary transit through the nephron is too fast for crystals to grow large enough to be retained. Thus, free particle mechanism alone cannot lead to stone formation, and there must be a mechanism for crystal fixation within the kidneys...
November 28, 2016: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895120/ankyrin-g-expression-regulates-apical-delivery-of-the-epithelial-sodium-channel-enac
#8
Christine A Klemens, Robert S Edinger, Lindsay Kightlinger, Xiaoning Liu, Michael B Butterworth
The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is the limiting entry point for Na(+) reabsorption in the distal kidney nephron and is regulated by numerous hormones, including the mineralocorticoid hormone aldosterone. Previously we identified ankyrin G (AnkG), a cytoskeletal protein involved in vesicular transport, as a novel aldosterone-induced protein that can alter Na(+) transport in mouse cortical collecting duct cells. However, the mechanisms underlying AnkG regulation of Na(+) transport were unknown. Here we report that AnkG expression directly regulates Na(+) transport by altering ENaC activity in the apical membrane...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894119/trajectories-and-predictors-of-allograft-dysfunction-after-renal-transplantation-in-children
#9
Vandréa Carla de Souza, Muriel Rabilloud, Pierre Cochat, Mario Bernardes Wagner, Clotilde Druck Garcia, Bruno Ranchin, Jean Iwaz, Luciano Selistre, Laurence Dubourg
BACKGROUND: The survival rates of renal transplant children are indeed on the rise, but it is still important to ensure that there is optimal renal function in these children in all their future growing years. The number of functioning nephrons and the graft ability to adapt to an increasing demand during body growth seem to be the most important factors for long-term allograft function. This study examined the long-term change in the glomerular filtration rate in a pediatric kidney transplant cohort and the importance of the recipient and donor ages in predicting transplant outcome...
2017: American Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870681/kidney-cancer
#10
S Brandon Hancock, Christos S Georgiades
The number of new cases of renal cell carcinoma has been steadily increasing since the 1960s, reaching 62,000 and 89,000 annually in the United States and Europe, respectively, in 2016. The current standard of care for early-stage disease is nephron-sparing surgery, which has a demonstrated long-term disease-free survival and an acceptable safety profile. Technical developments (thin, powerful probes and real-time image guidance systems) have allowed image-guided percutaneous ablation to become a viable option for stage I renal cell carcinoma...
November 2016: Cancer Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843201/indoxyl-sulfate-induces-mesangial-cell-proliferation-via-the-induction-of-cox-2
#11
Shuzhen Li, Sijie Cheng, Zhenzhen Sun, Harr-Keshauve Mungun, Wei Gong, Jing Yu, Weiwei Xia, Yue Zhang, Songming Huang, Aihua Zhang, Zhanjun Jia
Indoxyl sulfate (IS) is one of important uremic toxins and is markedly accumulated in the circulation of end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients, which might contribute to the damage of residual nephrons and progressive loss of residual renal function (RRF). Thus this study was undertaken to investigate the role of IS in modulating mesangial cell (MC) proliferation and the underlying mechanism. The proliferation of MCs induced by IS was determined by cell number counting, DNA synthase rate, and cell cycle phase analysis...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822171/grape-seed-powder-improves-renal-failure-of-chronic-kidney-disease-patients
#12
Khaoula Turki, Kamel Charradi, Habib Boukhalfa, Monia Belhaj, Ferid Limam, Ezzedine Aouani
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a syndrome characterized by progressive and irreversible deterioration of renal function linked to slow destruction of renal parenchyma, eventually terminating in death when sufficient number of nephrons are damaged. Oxidative stress is commonly observed in CKD patients resulting from an imbalance between overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and impairment of defence mechanisms. Grape seed extract (GSE) is a polyphenolic mixture exhibiting antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties...
2016: EXCLI journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818506/the-contribution-of-branching-morphogenesis-to-kidney-development-and-disease
#13
REVIEW
Kieran M Short, Ian M Smyth
The mammalian kidney develops from a simple epithelial bud to an arborized network of tubules, which are fated to form the ureter, renal pelvis and collecting ducts. This process of ductal elaboration is achieved through an ancient developmental mechanism known as branching morphogenesis that is widely employed in glandular organs, the vasculature and lungs. It breaks up large solid tissues facilitating secretion, excretion and gas exchange, depending on the tissue. In the kidney, growth of the ureteric bud is driven by interactions between progenitor cells in the tips of the epithelial tree and their mesenchymal 'caps'...
December 2016: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785420/why-are-upper-tract-urothelial-carcinoma-two-different-diseases
#14
REVIEW
Tibor Szarvas, Orsolya Módos, András Horváth, Péter Nyirády
In the last few years growing evidence highlighted the differences between upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) and urothelial bladder carcinoma (UBC) which cannot be explained solely by their different anatomical location. The aim of this review was to summarize current progress in UTUC research and to underline the differences and similarities between UTUC and UBC by focusing on epidemiology, etiology, staging and risk factors as well as on surgical and medical management. UBC and UTUC sharing common risk factors such as smoking and aromatic amines, while aristolochic acid exposure or familiar Lynch syndrome are rather specific for UTUC...
October 2016: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753812/ssa-04-3-leptin-adiponectin-in-cardiometabolic-disease
#15
Patricio Lopez-Jaramillo
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are major causes of death and illness worldwide. In recent decades an increased prevalence of CVD mortality has been reported in low-medium income countries, which has been associated with changes in life styles, deficiencies in health systems and the persistence of social inequities.The metabolic syndrome comprises a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors, with insulin resistance and increased adiposity as its central features. Identifying individuals with metabolic syndrome is important due to its association with an increased risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748703/dual-kidney-transplantation-is-it-worth-it
#16
Renaud Snanoudj, Marc-Olivier Timsit, Marion Rabant, Claire Tinel, Hélène Lazareth, Lionel Lamhaut, Frank Martinez, Christophe Legendre
Use of expanded criteria donor (ECD) kidneys, which are associated with a reduced graft survival rate, has become widely adopted in elderly recipients in an old-to-old allocation system. However, the results are frequently unsatisfactory, and a high proportion of these ECD kidneys are discarded. Dual kidney transplantation (DKT) is an underutilized way to expand the pool of ECD kidneys and to rapidly transplant elderly patients with satisfactory results because of the transplantation of double the nephronic mass...
September 29, 2016: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743436/xanthogranulomatous-pyelonephritis
#17
Selahattin Çaliskan, Emrah Özsoy, Selçuk Kaba, Orhan Koca, Metin Isak Öztürk
INTRODUCTION: Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis is a chronic destructive granulomatous inflammation of the kidney. This pathology was firstly described in 1916 and a small number of patient series were reported in the literature. In this study, we aimed to report the patients with xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis in our nephrectomy cases. METHODS: The patients who underwent nephrectomy and were diagnosed with xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis in our hospital database were reviewed retrospectively...
October 2016: Archives of Iranian Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707706/solute-transport-and-oxygen-consumption-along-the-nephrons-effects-of-na-transport-inhibitors
#18
Anita T Layton, Kamel Laghmani, Volker Vallon, Aurélie Edwards
Sodium and its associated anions are the major determinant of extracellular fluid volume, and the reabsorption of Na(+) by the kidney plays a crucial role in long-term blood pressure control. The goal of this study was to investigate the extent to which inhibitors of transepithelial Na(+) transport (TNa) along the nephron alter urinary solute excretion and TNa efficiency and how those effects may vary along different nephron segments. To accomplish that goal, we used the multinephron model developed in the companion study (28)...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707705/a-computational-model-for-simulating-solute-transport-and-oxygen-consumption-along-the-nephrons
#19
Anita T Layton, Volker Vallon, Aurélie Edwards
The goal of this study was to investigate water and solute transport, with a focus on sodium transport (TNa) and metabolism along individual nephron segments under differing physiological and pathophysiological conditions. To accomplish this goal, we developed a computational model of solute transport and oxygen consumption (QO2 ) along different nephron populations of a rat kidney. The model represents detailed epithelial and paracellular transport processes along both the superficial and juxtamedullary nephrons, with the loop of Henle of each model nephron extending to differing depths of the inner medulla...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683625/association-of-increasing-gfr-with-change-in-albuminuria-in-the-general-population
#20
Toralf Melsom, Vidar Stefansson, Jørgen Schei, Marit Solbu, Trond Jenssen, Tom Wilsgaard, Bjørn O Eriksen
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Hyperfiltration at the single-nephron level has been proposed as an early stage of kidney dysfunction of different origins. Evidence supporting this hypothesis in humans is lacking, because there is no method of measuring single-nephron GFR in humans. However, increased whole-kidney GFR in the same individual implies an increased single-nephron GFR, because the number of nephrons does not increase with age. We hypothesized that an increase in GFR would be associated with an increased albumin-to-creatinine ratio in a cohort of the general population...
December 7, 2016: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
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