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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203565/tubular-dysfunction-mimicking-dent-s-disease-in-2-infants-born-with-extremely-low-birth-weight
#1
Midori Awazu, Mie Arai, Shoko Ohashi, Hirotaka Takahashi, Takashi Sekine, Kazushige Ikeda
Two preterm infants, with extremely low birth weight born at gestational weeks 24 and 25, showed generalized proximal tubular dysfunction during their stay in the neonatal intensive care unit, including glucosuria, low molecular weight proteinuria, phosphaturia, uricosuria, enzymuria (elevated urine N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase), panaminoaciduria, and hypercalciuria, associated with renal calcification. Renal tubular acidosis was not present in either patient. DNA mutation analysis for Dent's disease, performed in patient 1, was negative...
January 2017: Case Reports in Nephrology and Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202171/residual-renal-function-a-paradigm-shift
#2
Jerome Lowenstein, Jared J Grantham
Residual renal function (RRF) in patients undergoing dialysis treatments is currently viewed as glomerular filtrate that has escaped tubular reabsorption. RRF has been quantified as a clearance of urea or creatinine, or urea + creatinine. A major paradigm shift has followed the recognition that a substantial number of organic anion retention solutes (possible "uremic toxins") are protein-bound and therefore are not readily filtered. These protein-bound aryl compounds are secreted by renal tubular organic anion transporters (OATs)...
March 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185787/progression-of-renal-fibrosis-in-congenital-ckd-model-rats-with-reduced-number-of-nephrons
#3
Hidenori Yasuda, Yuki Tochigi, Kentaro Katayama, Hiroetsu Suzuki
A congenital reduction in the number of nephrons is a critical risk factor for both onset of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its progression to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Hypoplastic kidney (HPK) rats have only about 20% of the normal number of nephrons and show progressive CKD. This study used an immunohistological method to assess glomerular and interstitial pathogenesis in male HPK rats aged 35-210days. CD68 positive-macrophages were found to infiltrate into glomeruli in HPK rats aged 35 and 70days and to infiltrate into interstitial tissue in rats aged 140 and 210days...
February 6, 2017: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162133/restricted-nutrition-induced-low-birth-weight-low-number-of-nephrons-and-glomerular-mesangium-injury-in-japanese-quail
#4
H Nishimura, E Yaoita, M Nameta, K Yamaguchi, M Sato, C Ihoriya, L Zhao, H Kawachi, T Sasaki, Y Ikezumi, Y Ouchi, N Kashihara, T Yamamoto
Insufficient nutrition during the perinatal period causes structural alterations in humans and experimental animals, leading to increased vulnerability to diseases in later life. Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica, in which partial (8-10%) egg white was withdrawn (EwW) from eggs before incubation had lower birth weights than controls (CTs). EwW birds also had reduced hatching rates, smaller glomeruli and lower embryo weight. In EwW embryos, the surface condensate area containing mesenchymal cells was larger, suggesting that delayed but active nephrogenesis takes place...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161315/renal-development-in-the-fetus-and-premature-infant
#5
REVIEW
Stacy Rosenblum, Abhijeet Pal, Kimberly Reidy
Congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) are one of the leading congenital defects to be identified on prenatal ultrasound. CAKUT represent a broad spectrum of abnormalities, from transient hydronephrosis to severe bilateral renal agenesis. CAKUT are a major contributor to chronic and end stage kidney disease (CKD/ESKD) in children. Prenatal imaging is useful to identify CAKUT, but will not detect all defects. Both genetic abnormalities and the fetal environment contribute to CAKUT. Monogenic gene mutations identified in human CAKUT have advanced our understanding of molecular mechanisms of renal development...
February 1, 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138555/repair-after-nephron-ablation-reveals-limitations-of-neonatal-neonephrogenesis
#6
Florian Tögel, M Todd Valerius, Benjamin S Freedman, Rossella Latrino, Mor Grinstein, Joseph V Bonventre
The neonatal mouse kidney retains nephron progenitor cells in a nephrogenic zone for 3 days after birth. We evaluated whether de novo nephrogenesis can be induced postnatally beyond 3 days. Given the long-term implications of nephron number for kidney health, it would be useful to enhance nephrogenesis in the neonate. We induced nephron reduction by cryoinjury with or without contralateral nephrectomy during the neonatal period or after 1 week of age. There was no detectable compensatory de novo nephrogenesis, as determined by glomerular counting and lineage tracing...
January 26, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130427/nephron-number-hypertension-and-ckd-physiological-and-genetic-insight-from-humans-and-animal-models
#7
Xuexiang Wang, Michael R Garrett
The kidneys play a vital role in the excretion of waste products and the regulation of electrolytes, maintenance of acid-base balance, regulation of blood pressure, and production of several hormones. Any alteration in the structure of the nephron (basic functional unit of the kidney) can have a major impact on the kidney's ability to work efficiently. Progressive decline in kidney function can lead to serious illness and ultimately death if not treated by dialysis or transplantation. While there have been numerous studies that implicate lower nephron numbers as being an important factor in influencing susceptibility to develop hypertension and chronic kidney disease, a direct association has been difficult to establish because of three main limitations: (1) the large variation in nephron number observed in the human population; (2) no established reliable non-invasive methods to determine nephron complement; and (3) to-date, nephron measurements have been done after death which doesn't adequately account for potential loss of nephrons with age or disease...
January 27, 2017: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108282/hyperfiltration-associated-biomechanical-forces-in-glomerular-injury-and-response-potential-role-for-eicosanoids
#8
REVIEW
Mukut Sharma, Ram Sharma, Ellen T McCarthy, Virginia J Savin, Tarak Srivastava
Hyperfiltration is a well-known risk factor in progressive loss of renal function in chronic kidney disease (CKD) secondary to various diseases. A reduced number of functional nephrons due to congenital or acquired cause(s) results in hyperfiltration in the remnant kidney. Hyperfiltration-associated increase in biomechanical forces, namely pressure-induced tensile stress and fluid flow-induced shear stress (FFSS) determine cellular injury and response. We believe the current treatment of CKD yields limited success because it largely attenuates pressure-induced tensile stress changes but not the effect of FFSS on podocytes...
January 17, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105334/chronic-kidney-disease-in-children-and-the-role-of-epigenetics-future-therapeutic-trajectories
#9
Samuel N Uwaezuoke, Henrietta U Okafor, Vivian N Muoneke, Odutola I Odetunde, Chioma L Odimegwu
Global differences in the observed causes of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children are well documented and are attributed to dissimilarities in clime, race, hereditary, and ancestry. Thus, familial clustering and disparities in CKD prevalence rates across ethnic and racial groups indicate that the progression of renal disease has a strong genetic component. Mammalian studies have demonstrated a feasible nexus between nutrition and non-genetic exposure (around the time of conception and in epigenetic changes) in the expression of major genes identified in renal organogenesis...
December 2016: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103829/a-comparison-of-the-effects-of-oral-vs-intravenous-hydration-on-subclinical-acute-kidney-injury-in-living-kidney-donors-a-protocol-of-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#10
Shona Mackinnon, Emma Aitken, Ryan Ghita, Marc Clancy
BACKGROUND: Optimal treatment for established renal failure is living donor kidney transplantation. However this pathway exposes healthy individuals to significant reduction in nephron mass via major surgical procedure. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy is now the most common method for live donor transplantation, reducing both donor post-operative pain and recovery time. However this procedure exposes kidneys to additional haemodynamic stresses. It has been suggested that donor hydration-particularly the use of preoperative intravenous fluids-may counteract these stresses, reducing subclinical acute kidney injury and ultimately improving long-term renal function...
January 19, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101838/renal-consequences-of-preterm-birth
#11
REVIEW
Amelie Stritzke, Sumesh Thomas, Harish Amin, Christoph Fusch, Abhay Lodha
BACKGROUND: The developmental origin of health and disease concept identifies the brain, cardiovascular, liver, and kidney systems as targets of fetal adverse programming with adult consequences. As the limits of viability in premature infants have been pushed to lower gestational ages, the long-term impact of prematurity on kidneys still remains a significant burden during hospital stay and beyond. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to summarize available evidence, mechanisms, and short- and long-term renal consequences of prematurity and identify nephroprotective strategies and areas of uncertainty...
December 2017: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068076/bioavailability-and-kidney-responses-to-diclofenac-in-the-fathead-minnow-pimephales-promelas
#12
Lisa K Bickley, Ronny van Aerle, A Ross Brown, Adam Hargreaves, Russell Huby, Victoria Cammack, Richard Jackson, Eduarda M Santos, Charles R Tyler
Diclofenac is one of the most widely prescribed nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs worldwide. It is frequently detected in surface waters; however, whether this pharmaceutical poses a risk to aquatic organisms is debated. Here we quantified the uptake of diclofenac by the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) following aqueous exposure (0.2-25.0 μg L(-1)) for 21 days, and evaluated the tissue and biomolecular responses in the kidney. Diclofenac accumulated in a concentration- and time-dependent manner in the plasma of exposed fish...
February 7, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997529/renal-dysfunction-in-early-adulthood-following-birth-asphyxia-in-male-spiny-mice-and-its-amelioration-by-maternal-creatine-supplementation-during-pregnancy
#13
Stacey J Ellery, Domenic A LaRosa, Luise A Cullen-McEwen, Russell D Brown, Rod J Snow, David W Walker, Michelle M Kett, Hayley Dickinson
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury affects ~70% of asphyxiated newborns, and increases their risk of developing chronic kidney disease later in life. Acute kidney injury is driven by renal oxygen deprivation during asphyxia, thus we hypothesized that creatine administered antenatally would protect the kidney from the long-term effects of birth asphyxia. METHODS: Pregnant spiny mice were fed standard chow or chow supplemented with 5% creatine from 20-d gestation (midgestation)...
February 1, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982509/kidney-volume-and-ambulatory-blood-pressure-in-children
#14
Shari Gurusinghe, Arkadiy Palvanov, Mark E Bittman, Pamela Singer, Rachel Frank, Nataliya Chorny, Lulette Infante, Christine B Sethna
Low nephron number has been shown to be a risk factor for hypertension (HTN) in adulthood. Kidney volume may serve as a surrogate marker for nephron mass. The relationship between kidney volume and ambulatory blood pressure (BP) in the pediatric population is not known. A retrospective chart review of children younger than 21 years who were evaluated for HTN was performed. Twenty-four-hour BP and ultrasonography data were obtained. Multiple regression was used to examine associations between BP and kidney volume...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Clinical Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974315/mechanisms-of-blood-pressure-salt-sensitivity-new-insights-from-mathematical-modeling
#15
John S Clemmer, William Andrew Pruett, Thomas G Coleman, John E Hall, Robert L Hester
Mathematical modeling is an important tool for understanding quantitative relationships among components of complex physiological systems and for testing competing hypotheses. We used HumMod, a large physiological model, to test hypotheses of blood pressure (BP) salt sensitivity. Systemic hemodynamics, renal, and neurohormonal responses to chronic changes in salt intake were examined during normal renal function, fixed low or high plasma angiotensin II (Ang II) levels, bilateral renal artery stenosis, increased renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), and decreased nephron numbers...
December 14, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27958261/serum-uromodulin-concentrations-correlate-with-glomerular-filtration-rate-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#16
Danuta Fedak, Marek Kuźniewski, Andrzej Fugiel, Ewa Wieczorek-Surdacka, Bernadetta Przepiórkowska-Hoyer, Piotr Jasik, Przemysław Miarka, Paulina Dumnicka, Maria Kapusta, Bogdan Solnica, Władysław Sułowicz
INTRODUCTION Urinary uromodulin excretion has been associated with kidney diseases. However, serum uromodulin concentrations have not been extensively studied in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and the results of published studies are inconsistent. OBJECTIVES The aims of the study were to evaluate serum uromodulin concentrations in patients with CKD and to assess the utility of serum uromodulin measurements for diagnosing CKD stages. PATIENTS AND METHODS This observational study included 170 patients with CKD stages 1 to 5, not treated by renal replacement therapy, and 30 healthy individuals...
December 5, 2016: Polskie Archiwum Medycyny Wewnętrznej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899104/the-magnitude-of-nephron-number-reduction-mediates-intrauterine-growth-restriction-induced-long-term-chronic-renal-disease-in-the-rat-a-comparative-study-in-two-experimental-models
#17
Farid Boubred, Laurent Daniel, Christophe Buffat, Michel Tsimaratos, Charles Oliver, Martine Lelièvre-Pégorier, Umberto Simeoni
BACKGROUND: Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a risk factor for hypertension (HT) and chronic renal disease (CRD). A reduction in the nephron number is proposed to be the underlying mechanism; however, the mechanism is debated. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that IUGR-induced HT and CRD are linked to the magnitude of nephron number reduction, independently on its cause. METHODS: Systolic blood pressure (SBP), glomerular filtration rate (GFR), proteinuria, nephron number, and glomerular sclerosis were compared between IUGR offspring prenatally exposed to a maternal low-protein diet (9% casein; LPD offspring) or maternal administration of betamethasone (from E17 to E19; BET offspring) and offspring with a normal birth weight (NBW offspring)...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896391/histological-aspects-of-the-fixed-particle-model-of-stone-formation-animal-studies
#18
REVIEW
Saeed R Khan
Crystallization by itself is not harmful as long as the crystals are not retained in the kidneys and are allowed to pass freely down the renal tubules to be excreted in the urine. A number of theories have been proposed, and studies performed, to determine the mechanisms involved in crystal retention within the kidneys. It has been suggested that urinary transit through the nephron is too fast for crystals to grow large enough to be retained. Thus, free particle mechanism alone cannot lead to stone formation, and there must be a mechanism for crystal fixation within the kidneys...
February 2017: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895120/ankyrin-g-expression-regulates-apical-delivery-of-the-epithelial-sodium-channel-enac
#19
Christine A Klemens, Robert S Edinger, Lindsay Kightlinger, Xiaoning Liu, Michael B Butterworth
The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is the limiting entry point for Na(+) reabsorption in the distal kidney nephron and is regulated by numerous hormones, including the mineralocorticoid hormone aldosterone. Previously we identified ankyrin G (AnkG), a cytoskeletal protein involved in vesicular transport, as a novel aldosterone-induced protein that can alter Na(+) transport in mouse cortical collecting duct cells. However, the mechanisms underlying AnkG regulation of Na(+) transport were unknown. Here we report that AnkG expression directly regulates Na(+) transport by altering ENaC activity in the apical membrane...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894119/trajectories-and-predictors-of-allograft-dysfunction-after-renal-transplantation-in-children
#20
Vandréa Carla de Souza, Muriel Rabilloud, Pierre Cochat, Mario Bernardes Wagner, Clotilde Druck Garcia, Bruno Ranchin, Jean Iwaz, Luciano Selistre, Laurence Dubourg
BACKGROUND: The survival rates of renal transplant children are indeed on the rise, but it is still important to ensure that there is optimal renal function in these children in all their future growing years. The number of functioning nephrons and the graft ability to adapt to an increasing demand during body growth seem to be the most important factors for long-term allograft function. This study examined the long-term change in the glomerular filtration rate in a pediatric kidney transplant cohort and the importance of the recipient and donor ages in predicting transplant outcome...
2017: American Journal of Nephrology
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