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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425906/effects-of-vagal-neuromodulation-on-feeding-behavior
#1
Nicole A Pelot, Warren M Grill
Implanted vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) for obesity was recently approved by the FDA. However, its efficacy and mechanisms of action remain unclear. Herein, we synthesize clinical and preclinical effects of VNS on feeding behavior and energy balance and discuss engineering considerations for understanding and improving the therapy. Clinical cervical VNS (≤30 Hz) to treat epilepsy or depression has produced mixed effects on weight loss as a side effect, albeit in uncontrolled, retrospective studies. Conversely, preclinical studies (cervical and subdiaphragmatic VNS) mostly report decreased food intake and either decreased weight gain or weight loss...
February 6, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414594/changes-in-sleep-patterns-after-vagus-nerve-stimulation-deep-brain-stimulation-or-epilepsy-surgery-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#2
REVIEW
Óscar Romero-Osorio, Sebastián Gil-Tamayo, Daniel Nariño, Diego Rosselli
PURPOSE: Perform a systematic review of the literature on the effects of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), deep brain stimulation (DBS) and epilepsy surgery in subjective and objective sleep parameters. METHODS: We performed a literature search in the main medical databases: Medline, Embase, Cochrane, DARE and LILACS, looking for studies that evaluated the effects of VNS, DBS or epilepsy surgery on sleep parameters. In all, 36 studies, coming from 11 countries, including reviews, cohort studies, case series and case reports were included...
January 31, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414137/the-effect-of-vagus-nerve-stimulator-in-controlling-status-epilepticus-in-children
#3
Satyanarayana Gedela, Bilal Sitwat, William P Welch, Robert T Krafty, Yoshimi Sogawa
PURPOSE: This study explores the effect of Vagus Nerve Stimulator (VNS) on Status Epilepticus (SE) in children with medically intractable epilepsy. METHODS: Retrospective review was conducted in children with a history of at least two SE, who had VNS implantation and had at least one year follow up after the procedure. RESULTS: Sixteen patients met inclusion/exclusion criteria. The median age of seizure onset and surgery was 1.3 years and 9...
January 23, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379392/epilepsy-surgery-in-hospital-universiti-sains-malaysia-our-experiences-since-2004
#4
Ang Song Yee, John Tharakan, Zamzuri Idris, Shalini Bhaskar, Sanihah Abdul Halim, Salmi Abd Razak, Zabidi Azhar Mohd Hussin, Regunath Kandasamy, Wan Mohd Nazaruddin Wan Hassan, Laila Mukmin, Mohamad Hasyizan Hassan, Tan Yew Chin, Badrisyah Idris, Abdul Rahman Izaini Ghani, Hillol Kanti Pal, Jain George, Sani Sayuthi, Mohamed Saufi Awang, Jafri Malin Abdullah
Epilepsy surgery has been performed by a few centres in Malaysia, including Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM). To date, a total of 15 patients have undergone epilepsy surgery in HUSM. The epilepsy surgery included anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) with amygdalohippocampectomy (AH) and Vagal nerve stimulation (VNS). The surgical outcomes of the patients were assessed using the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) outcome scale. The ILAE scores for patients who underwent ATL with AH were comparatively better than those who underwent VNS...
December 2017: Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences: MJMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350262/vagal-nerve-stimulation-for-medically-refractory-epilepsy-in-angelman-syndrome-a-series-of-three-cases
#5
REVIEW
Krystal L Tomei, Christine Y Mau, Michael Ghali, Jayoung Pak, Ira M Goldstein
BACKGROUND: We describe three children with Angelman syndrome and medically refractory epilepsy. METHODS: Case series of three pediatric patients with Angelman syndrome and medically refractory epilepsy. All three patients failed medical treatment and were recommended for vagal nerve stimulator (VNS) implantation. RESULTS: Following VNS implantation, all three patients experienced reduction in seizure frequency greater than that afforded by medication alone...
January 19, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336393/cardiac-surgery-in-a-patient-with-implanted-vagal-nerve-stimulator
#6
Aashish Jain, Dheeraj Arora, Yatin Mehta
The prevalence of epilepsy worldwide is around 0.5%-2% of the population. Antiepileptic medications are the first line of treatment in most of the cases but approximately 25%-30% epilepsy patients are refractory to the single or combination therapy. The surgical option for temporal lobe epilepsy is temporal lobectomy, which has its inherent risk of neurological deficits after the surgery. Patients who are either refractory to combination therapy or do not want surgical temporal lobectomy are the candidates for electrical stimulation therapy...
January 2018: Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336017/long-term-surveillance-of-sudep-in-drug-resistant-epilepsy-patients-treated-with-vns-therapy
#7
Philippe Ryvlin, Elson L So, Charles M Gordon, Dale C Hesdorffer, Michael R Sperling, Orrin Devinsky, Mark T Bunker, Bryan Olin, Daniel Friedman
OBJECTIVE: Limited data are available regarding the evolution over time of the rate of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy patients (SUDEP) in drug-resistant epilepsy. The objective is to analyze a database of 40 443 patients with epilepsy implanted with vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) therapy in the United States (from 1988 to 2012) and assess whether SUDEP rates decrease during the postimplantation follow-up period. METHODS: Patient vital status was ascertained using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Death Index (NDI)...
January 16, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306976/deep-brain-stimulation-of-the-anterior-nucleus-of-the-thalamus-for-drug-resistant-epilepsy
#8
REVIEW
Tim A M Bouwens van der Vlis, Olaf E M G Schijns, Frédéric L W V J Schaper, Govert Hoogland, Pieter Kubben, Louis Wagner, Rob Rouhl, Yasin Temel, Linda Ackermans
Despite the use of first-choice anti-epileptic drugs and satisfactory seizure outcome rates after resective epilepsy surgery, a considerable percentage of patients do not become seizure free. ANT-DBS may provide for an alternative treatment option in these patients. This literature review discusses the rationale, mechanism of action, clinical efficacy, safety, and tolerability of ANT-DBS in drug-resistant epilepsy patients. A review using systematic methods of the available literature was performed using relevant databases including Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library pertaining to the different aspects ANT-DBS...
January 6, 2018: Neurosurgical Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297653/mechanism-of-action-of-non-invasive-cervical-vagus-nerve-stimulation-for-the-treatment-of-primary-headaches
#9
Bruce Simon, Justyna Blake
Stimulation of the cervical vagus nerve with implanted vagus nerve stimulation (iVNS) has been used clinically for more than 20 years to treat patients with epilepsy. More recently, a non-invasive cervical vagus nerve stimulation (nVNS), gammaCore, was developed, which has been purported to also stimulate the vagus nerve without the cost and morbidity associated with an iVNS system. gammaCore has been used to acutely treat various types of primary headaches, including migraine and cluster headaches (CH), and for the prevention of episodic, chronic, and menstrual migraines and CH...
November 2017: American Journal of Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289803/application-of-a-rubber-band-with-hooks-on-both-ends-for-vagus-nerve-stimulator-implantation
#10
Hiroshi Hosoyama, Ryosuke Hanaya, Toshiaki Otsubo, Masanori Sato, Yumi Kashida, Sei Sugata, Masaya Katagiri, Koji Iida, Kazunori Arita
BACKGROUND: Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a valuable therapeutic option for many types of drug-resistant epilepsy. Muscle hooks and carotid endarterectomy rings have been used for cervical delamination preceding the implantation of stimulation electrodes. The attachment on both sides of a rubber band of Kamiyama-style hanging needles, as are used for scalp and dural retraction during craniotomy, yields a useful tool for VNS implantation. Here we report our experience with this method...
December 28, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287215/impact-of-vagus-nerve-stimulation-on-sleep-related-breathing-disorders-in-adults-with-epilepsy
#11
Aude Salvadé, Philippe Ryvlin, Andrea O Rossetti
BACKGROUND: Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) can induce a sleep apnea syndrome (SAS), which in turn can worsen seizure control and represents a cardiovascular risk factor. Epidemiology of VNS-induced SAS has received little attention to date. The purpose of this study was to estimate the VNS-induced SAS prevalence and to explore clinical variables potentially correlating with its development. METHODS: We analyzed the computerized medical records of 18 consecutive adults treated for refractory epilepsy with VNS, implanted between May 2008 and October 2015...
December 26, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287185/insufficient-efficacy-of-vagus-nerve-stimulation-for-epileptic-spasms-and-tonic-spasms-in-children-with-refractory-epilepsy
#12
Tohru Okanishi, Ayataka Fujimoto, Mitsuyo Nishimura, Sotaro Kanai, Hirotaka Motoi, Yoichiro Homma, Hideo Enoki
BACKGROUND: Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) leads to palliation of refractory seizures. Epileptic spasms (ES) and tonic spasms (TS) appear in children with West syndrome and symptomatic generalized epilepsy. Both types of spasms are often characterized by truncal muscular contractions and ictal electroencephalography (EEG) findings comprising the contiguous phases: phase 1) 15-20 Hz, spindle-like fast activity (occur in 70%), 2) diffuse polyphasic δ/θ waves (100%), and 3) electrodecremental activity (70%)...
December 15, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262385/-experience-and-solution-of-complications-of-vagus-nerve-stimulation-therapy-in-139-implant-patients-with-medically-refractory-epilepsy
#13
Daiki Uchida, Takamichi Yamamoto, Tomohiro Yamazoe, Kentaro Iijima, Ayataka Fujimoto, Hideo Enoki, Tokutaro Tanaka
BACKGROUND: Vagus nerve stimulation(VNS)for patients with intractable epilepsy was approved by the Japan Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in 2010. More than 1,500 VNS systems were implanted by the end of August 2016. The aim of the present report is to describe complications we experienced at our department and consider the way to avoid them. METHODS AND PATIENTS: We retrospectively reviewed 139 consecutive patients(122 new implantations and 17 reimplantations)between December 2010 and March 2016...
December 2017: No Shinkei Geka. Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240833/vagal-nerve-stimulation-triggers-widespread-responses-and-alters-large-scale-functional-connectivity-in-the-rat-brain
#14
Jiayue Cao, Kun-Han Lu, Terry L Powley, Zhongming Liu
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a therapy for epilepsy and depression. However, its efficacy varies and its mechanism remains unclear. Prior studies have used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to map brain activations with VNS in human brains, but have reported inconsistent findings. The source of inconsistency is likely attributable to the complex temporal characteristics of VNS-evoked fMRI responses that cannot be fully explained by simplified response models in the conventional model-based analysis for activation mapping...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184345/vagus-nerve-stimulation-modulates-complexity-of-heart-rate-variability-differently-during-sleep-and-wakefulness
#15
Karthi Balasubramanian, K Harikumar, Nithin Nagaraj, Sandipan Pati
Progressive loss of heart rate variability (HRV) and complexity are associated with increased risk of mortality in patients with cardiovascular disease and are a candidate marker for patients at risk of sudden cardiac death. HRV is influenced by the cardiac autonomic nervous system (ANS), although it is unclear which arm of the ANS (sympathetic or parasympathetic) needs to be perturbed to increase the complexity of HRV. In this case-control study, we have analyzed the relation between modulation of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) and changes in complexity of HRV as a function of states of vigilance...
October 2017: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163522/the-vagus-nerve-in-the-neuro-immune-axis-implications-in-the-pathology-of-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#16
REVIEW
Bruno Bonaz, Valérie Sinniger, Sonia Pellissier
The vagus nerve (VN) is the longest nerve of the organism and a major component of the parasympathetic nervous system which constitutes the autonomic nervous system (ANS), with the sympathetic nervous system. There is classically an equilibrium between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems which is responsible for the maintenance of homeostasis. An imbalance of the ANS is observed in various pathologic conditions. The VN, a mixed nerve with 4/5 afferent and 1/5 efferent fibers, is a key component of the neuro-immune and brain-gut axes through a bidirectional communication between the brain and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144716/mechanism-of-action-of-non-invasive-cervical-vagus-nerve-stimulation-for-the-treatment-of-primary-headaches
#17
Bruce Simon, Justyna Blake
Stimulation of the cervical vagus nerve with implanted vagus nerve stimulation (iVNS) has been used clinically for more than 20 years to treat patients with epilepsy. More recently, a non-invasive cervical vagus nerve stimulation (nVNS), gammaCore, was developed, which has been purported to also stimulate the vagus nerve without the cost and morbidity associated with an iVNS system. gammaCore has been used to acutely treat various types of primary headaches, including migraine and cluster headaches (CH), and for the prevention of episodic, chronic, and menstrual migraines and CH...
November 2017: American Journal of Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077707/a-novel-controller-based-on-state-transition-models-for-closed-loop-vagus-nerve-stimulation-application-to-heart-rate-regulation
#18
Hector M Romero-Ugalde, Virginie Le Rolle, Jean-Luc Bonnet, Christine Henry, Alain Bel, Philippe Mabo, Guy Carrault, Alfredo I Hernández
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is an established adjunctive therapy for pharmacologically refractory epilepsy and depression and is currently in active clinical research for other applications. In current clinical studies, VNS is delivered in an open-loop approach, where VNS parameters are defined during a manual titration phase. However, the physiological response to a given VNS configuration shows significant inter and intra-patient variability and may significantly evolve through time. VNS closed-loop approaches, allowing for the optimization of the therapy in an adaptive manner, may be necessary to improve efficacy while reducing side effects...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059589/high-frequency-burst-vagal-nerve-simulation-therapy-in-a-natural-primate-model-of-genetic-generalized-epilepsy
#19
C Á Szabó, F S Salinas, A M Papanastassiou, J Begnaud, M Ravan, K S Eggleston, R Shade, C Lutz, M De La Garza
PURPOSE: Since the approval of Vagal Nerve Stimulation (VNS) Therapy for medically refractory focal epilepsies in 1997, it has been also reported to be effective for a wide range of generalized seizures types and epilepsy syndromes. Instead of conventional VNS Therapy delivered at 20-30Hz signal frequencies, this study evaluates efficacy and tolerability of high-frequency burst VNS in a natural animal model for genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE), the epileptic baboon. METHODS: Two female baboons (B1 P...
October 12, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053705/vagus-nerve-stimulation-in-pregnant-rats-and-effects-on-inflammatory-markers-in-the-brainstem-of-neonates
#20
Allison Judkins, Rhaya L Johnson, Samuel T Murray, Steven M Yellon, Christopher G Wilson
BackgroundVagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is an Food and Drug Administration-approved method delivering electrical impulses for treatment of depression and epilepsy in adults. The vagus nerve innervates the majority of visceral organs and cervix, but potential impacts of VNS on the progress of pregnancy and the fetus are not well studied.MethodsWe tested the hypothesis that VNS in pregnant dams does not induce inflammatory changes in the cardio-respiratory control regions of the pups' brainstem, potentially impacting the morbidity and mortality of offspring...
November 22, 2017: Pediatric Research
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