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Correctional psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693537/detail-dynamics-and-depth-useful-correctives-for-some-current-research-trends
#1
Barnaby Nelson, Jessica A Hartmann, Josef Parnas
SummarySeveral research trends in contemporary psychiatry would benefit from greater emphasis on detailed assessment, modelling dynamic change, and micro-level analysis. This may assist with clarifying nosological and pathoaetiological issues. We make this case by referring to three areas: psychopathology and nosology; prediction research; and 'big N' data sets.Declaration of interestNone.
May 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687311/correction-to-the-italian-dystonia-registry-rationale-design-and-preliminary-findings
#2
Giovanni Defazio, M Esposito, G Abbruzzese, C L Scaglione, G Fabbrini, G Ferrazzano, S Peluso, R Pellicciari, A F Gigante, G Cossu, R Arca, L Avanzino, F Bono, M R Mazza, L Bertolasi, R Bacchin, R Eleopra, C Lettieri, F Morgante, M C Altavista, L Polidori, R Liguori, S Misceo, G Squintani, M Tinazzi, R Ceravolo, E Unti, L Magistrelli, M Coletti Moja, N Modugno, M Petracca, N Tambasco, M S Cotelli, M Aguggia, A Pisani, M Romano, M Zibetti, A R Bentivoglio, A Albanese, P Girlanda, A Berardelli
In the original article, Gina Ferrazzano was affiliated to Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Neuromed Institute IRCCS, Sapienza University of Rome, Pozzilli, Italy.The corrected affiliation should be: Neuromed Institute IRCCS, Pozzilli, IS, Italy.
April 18, 2018: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652315/-music-therapy-procedures-controlled-by-the-brain-potentials-in-treatment-of-functional-disorders
#3
A A Zemlyanaya, G S Radchenko, A I Fedotchev
Twenty years ago, the Korsakov's Journal of Neurology and Psychiatry has published the article of Ya.I. Levin 'Brain music in the treatment of patients with insomnia'. This publication was the starting point for an innovative approach to preventing and correcting functional disorders of a person via musical or music-like stimuli that are controlled by the brain potentials of patient's. This approach called 'Music of the brain' is fully consistent with modern ideas about preventive neuroscience as a new field of scientific research at the intersection of neuroscience and preventive medicine...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621822/-web-based-field-studies-on-diagnostic-classification-and-code-assignment-of-mental-disorders-comparison-of-icd-11-and-icd-10
#4
Wolfgang Gaebel, Mathias Riesbeck, Jürgen Zielasek, Ariane Kerst, Eva Meisenzahl-Lechner, Volker Köllner, Matthias Rose, Tobias Hofmann, Ingo Schäfer, Annett Lotzin, Peer Briken, Verena Klein, Franziska Brunner, Jared W Keeley, Tahilia J Rebello, Howard F Andrews, Geoffrey M Reed, Nenad F I Kostanjsek, Alkomiet Hasan, Pamina Russek, Peter Falkai
The German Society for Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy (DGPPN,) conducted a comprehensive field study (principal investigator WG) funded by the German Federal Ministry of Health in cooperation with 4 other German medical societies in the field of mental health (DGPM, DGPPR, DeGFS, DGfS) * to support WHO's development of the ICD-11 (Chapters 6 and 17). The objective of the web-based field study was to compare ICD-10 and ICD-11 (beta draft) for selected mental disorders, regarding consistency, accuracy and assessment of utility...
March 2018: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580107/erratum
#5
(no author information available yet)
Narayan SW, Jamieson HA, Nishtala PS. Evaluation of the National Minimum Data Set for Neurological Conditions in Older Adults. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology. 2017; 30(6):331-336. doi: 10.1177/0891988717732154 In the above-referenced article, the corresponding author's qualifications were incorrectly listed as BPharm, MPharm, PG DipClinPharm, PhD which is an overlap of another author's qualifications. The online and print versions have been updated to reflect the correct qualification of the corresponding author as BPharm, MPharmPrac...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551660/fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders-fasd-what-we-know-and-what-we-should-know-the-knowledge-of-german-health-professionals-and-parents
#6
Mirjam N Landgraf, Lucia Albers, Birte Rahmsdorf, Katharina Vill, Lucia Gerstl, Michaela Lippert, Florian Heinen
OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to evaluate the knowledge about fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and the implementation of the German guideline for FASD among different professionals in the health and social system and among parents with children with FASD. METHODS: A questionnaire about FASD, containing 20 items, was sent by post to all children's hospitals (n = 287), all hospitals for child and adolescent psychiatry (n = 173), all social paediatric centres (n = 162), all neuropaediatricians (n = 129) and all youth welfare offices (n = 672) in Germany...
March 2, 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532566/application-of-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-psychiatric-clinical-evaluation-controversies-and-avenues
#7
Sevdalina Kandilarova, Drozdstoy Stoyanov, Ivo D Popivanov, Stefan Kostianev
RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: In this study, we have attempted to replicate the findings of altered emotional processing in depressed patients compared with healthy controls by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging during passive viewing of positive, negative, and neutral pictures from the International Affective Pictures System. METHODS: Nineteen medicated depressed patients and 19 sex and age-matched healthy controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during presentation of affective pictures in a block design...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523913/-autoimmune-encephalitis-with-psychotic-symptoms-diagnostics-warning-signs-and-practical-approach
#8
REVIEW
J Steiner, H Prüß, S Köhler, A Hasan, P Falkai
Despite intensive research, a precise cause of schizophrenic and schizoaffective disorders has not yet been identified. Therefore, psychiatric diagnoses are still made based on clinical ICD-10/DSM‑5 criteria and not on any objective markers; however, various causes or pathophysiological processes may ultimately lead to similar symptoms. An important task for the future of psychiatry is to identify disease subtypes with a distinct pathophysiology to develop more specific and causally acting therapies. A new diagnostic entity has become established in clinical neurology and psychiatry in recent years: autoimmune encephalitis with psychotic symptoms caused by specific antineuronal antibodies has been identified as a rare but potentially treatable cause of psychotic disorders; however, these inflammatory brain diseases are not reliably detected by routine psychiatric diagnostics...
March 9, 2018: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490691/improving-the-identification-of-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-in-the-context-of-an-alzheimer-s-type-dementia
#9
Alan J Thomas, Fariba Mahin-Babaei, Mohammad Saidi, Debbie Lett, John Paul Taylor, Lauren Walker, Johannes Attems
BACKGROUND: Dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) are the two most common neurodegenerative causes of dementia. They commonly occur together, especially in older people, but clinical identification of these diseases in dementia is difficult in such circumstances. We therefore conducted a study using cases with both comprehensive prospective clinical assessments and complete neuropathological examination to determine if it is possible to identify such mixed cases clinically and to determine features which may identify DLB in the presence of AD dementia...
March 1, 2018: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485233/a-survey-of-recognition-and-treatment-of-at-risk-mental-state-by-japanese-psychiatrists
#10
Naohisa Tsujino, Hiromi Tagata, Yoko Baba, Akiko Kojima, Taiju Yamaguchi, Naoyuki Katagiri, Takahiro Nemoto, Masafumi Mizuno
AIM: The importance of early intervention in psychiatry is widely recognised among psychiatrists. However, it is unknown whether precise knowledge of at-risk mental state has been disseminated. With this survey, we aimed to reveal how Japanese psychiatrists diagnosed patients with at-risk mental state and prescribed treatment strategies for them. METHODS: Using fictional case vignettes, we conducted a questionnaire survey of psychiatrists (n = 1,399) who worked in Tokyo...
February 27, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427067/individual-biological-sensitivity-to-environmental-influences-testing-the-differential-susceptibility-properties-of-the-5httlpr-polymorphism-in-relation-to-depressive-symptoms-and-delinquency-in-two-adolescent-general-samples
#11
Cecilia Åslund, Kent W Nilsson
The gene-environment interaction research field in psychiatry has traditionally been dominated by the diathesis-stress framework, where certain genotypes are assumed to confer increased risk for adverse outcomes in a stressful environment. In later years, theories of differential susceptibility, or biological sensitivity, suggest that candidate genes that interact with environmental events do not exclusively confer a risk for behavioural or psychiatric disorders but rather seem to alter the sensitivity to both positive and negative environmental influences...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388527/against-the-stream-antidepressants-are-not-antidepressants-an-alternative-approach-to-drug-action-and-implications-for-the-use-of-antidepressants
#12
Joanna Moncrieff
Although antidepressants are regarded as effective and specific treatments, they are barely superior to placebo in randomised trials, and differences are unlikely to be clinically relevant. The conventional disease-centred understanding of drug action regards antidepressants as targeting an underlying brain process, but an alternative 'drug-centred' view suggests they are psychoactive substances that modify normal mental states and behaviour. These alterations, such as numbing of emotions, may reduce feelings of depression, and also create amplified placebo effects in randomised trials...
February 2018: BJPsych Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368227/intertwining-personal-and-reward-relevance-evidence-from-the-drift-diffusion-model
#13
A Yankouskaya, R Bührle, E Lugt, M Stolte, J Sui
In their seminal paper 'Is our self nothing but reward', Northoff and Hayes (Biol Psychiatry 69(11):1019-1025, Northoff, Hayes, Biological Psychiatry 69(11):1019-1025, 2011) proposed three models of the relationship between self and reward and opened a continuing debate about how these different fields can be linked. To date, none of the proposed models received strong empirical support. The present study tested common and distinct effects of personal relevance and reward values by de-componenting different stages of perceptual decision making using a drift-diffusion approach...
January 24, 2018: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283984/stigmatization-of-mentally-ill-patients-through-media
#14
Dragan Babić, Romana Babić, Ivan Vasilj, Esmina Avdibegović
The stigmatization of mentally ill patients has negative labelling, marginalization and exclusion of people simply because they have a mental illness. Stigma has negative consequences for the individual and his family, as well as for psychiatry as a profession and the entire community. Stigma weakens the mentally ill, reinforcing a sense of alienation, which has negative consequences on the course of the illness. The media can inform the public about the treatment of mentally ill patients by conveying correct information, who can then act positively towards improving the quality of treatment...
December 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230023/pharmacogenetics-predictors-of-methylphenidate-efficacy-in-childhood-adhd
#15
N M Myer, J R Boland, S V Faraone
Stimulant medication has long been effective in treating attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and is currently the first-line pharmacological treatment for children. Both methylphenidate and amphetamine modulate extracellular catecholamine levels through interaction with dopaminergic, adrenergic and serotonergic system components; it is therefore likely that catecholaminergic molecular components influence the effects of ADHD treatment. Using meta-analysis, we sought to identify predictors of pharmacotherapy to further the clinical implementation of personalized medicine...
December 12, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151788/attitudes-toward-mentally-ill-patients-a-comparison-between-romanian-and-international-medical-students
#16
Codruta Alina Popescu, Anca Dana Buzoianu, Soimita Mihaela Suciu, Sebastian Mihai Armean
Background: Stigmatizing attitudes to mental illness, and especially schizophrenia, are not limited to the general population but are also common among health professionals. Health professionals are in a position to model health related attitudes both in the general public and patients. Medical students are an interesting group to focus upon, since they are future health professionals and correcting stigmatizing attitudes is still possible during their educational curriculum. Methods: This study investigated the attitude toward mental illness in medical students at the Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy...
2017: Clujul Medical (1957)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133952/engaging-homeostatic-plasticity-to-treat-depression
#17
E R Workman, F Niere, K F Raab-Graham
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a complex and heterogeneous mood disorder, making it difficult to develop a generalized, pharmacological therapy that is effective for all who suffer from MDD. Through the fortuitous discovery of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists as effective antidepressants, we have gained key insights into how antidepressant effects can be produced at the circuit and molecular levels. NMDAR antagonists act as rapid-acting antidepressants such that relief from depressive symptoms occurs within hours of a single injection...
January 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112197/association-of-genetic-ancestry-with-striatal-dopamine-d2-d3-receptor-availability
#18
C E Wiers, P C Towb, C A Hodgkinson, P-H Shen, C Freeman, G Miller, E Lindgren, E Shokri-Kojori, Ş B Demiral, S W Kim, D Tomasi, H Sun, G-J Wang, D Goldman, N D Volkow
Despite ethnic differences in allele frequencies of variants in dopaminergic genes associated with dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability (D2R), no study to date has investigated the relationship between genetic ancestry and striatal D2R. Here, we show that ancestry-informative markers significantly predict dorsal striatal D2R in 117 healthy ethnically diverse residents of the New York metropolitan area using Positron Emission Tomography (PET) with [(11)C]raclopride (P<0.0001), while correcting for age, sex, BMI, education, smoking status, and estimated socioeconomic status (ZIP codes)...
November 7, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992996/attention-profiles-in-childhood-absence-epilepsy-compared-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#19
Hyun-Jeong Lee, Eun-Hee Kim, Mi-Sun Yum, Tae-Sung Ko, Hyo-Won Kim
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the attention profiles of subjects with childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) to those of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and controls. METHOD: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 20 children (age 7.2 ± 1.6 years, 5 boys) in whom CAE was diagnosed at the Department of Pediatric Neurology of Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea. ADHD and control subjects were selected from children who visited the Department of Pediatric Psychiatry and were confirmed as having or not having ADHD based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) and the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL)...
February 2018: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989100/pleiotropic-genes-in-psychiatry-calcium-channels-and-the-stress-related-fkbp5-gene-in-antidepressant-resistance
#20
Chiara Fabbri, Filippo Corponi, Diego Albani, Ilaria Raimondi, Gianluigi Forloni, Koen Schruers, Siegfried Kasper, Alexander Kautzky, Joseph Zohar, Daniel Souery, Stuart Montgomery, Carlotta Pia Cristalli, Vilma Mantovani, Julien Mendlewicz, Alessandro Serretti
A candidate gene and a genome-wide approach were combined to study the pharmacogenetics of antidepressant response and resistance. Investigated genes were selected on the basis of pleiotropic effect across psychiatric phenotypes in previous genome-wide association studies and involvement in antidepressant response. Three samples with major depressive disorder (total=671) were genotyped for 44 SNPs in 8 candidate genes (CACNA1C, CACNB2, ANK3, GRM7, TCF4, ITIH3, SYNE1, FKBP5). Phenotypes were response/remission after 4weeks of treatment and treatment-resistant depression (TRD)...
February 2, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
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