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Correctional psychiatry

L M Bijkersma-Pot, P Cuijpers, A T F Beekman, R A Schoevers
There is increasing attention to the costs and efficacy of health care and in particular to psychiatry. To weigh the costs and benefits appropriately, it is important to be able to compare effects.<br/> AIM: To describe the efficacy of psychiatric treatment compared to treatment in general medicine.<br/> METHOD: Narrative review.<br/> RESULTS: The average effect size of psychiatric treatment was 0.49 and that of general medicine treatment 0.45. The effect size of psychotherapy varied from 0...
2016: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
Carl Elliott
In the spring of 2015, 11 years after a mentally ill young man named Dan Markingson stabbed himself to death in an industry-sponsored drug study, officials at the University of Minnesota suspended recruitment of subjects into drug trials in its Department of Psychiatry. University officials agreed to act only after a scathing investigation by Minnesota Office of the Legislative Auditor found damning evidence of coerced recruitment, inadequate clinical care, superficial research oversight, a web of serious, disturbing conflicts of interest, and a pattern of misleading public statements by university officials aimed at deflecting scrutiny...
October 18, 2016: Accountability in Research
P-M Martin, R E Stanley, A P Ross, A E Freitas, C E Moyer, A C Brumback, J Iafrati, K S Stapornwongkul, S Dominguez, S Kivimäe, K A Mulligan, M Pirooznia, W R McCombie, J B Potash, P P Zandi, S M Purcell, S J Sanders, Y Zuo, V S Sohal, B N R Cheyette
Mice lacking DIX domain containing-1 (DIXDC1), an intracellular Wnt/β-catenin signal pathway protein, have abnormal measures of anxiety, depression and social behavior. Pyramidal neurons in these animals' brains have reduced dendritic spines and glutamatergic synapses. Treatment with lithium or a glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) inhibitor corrects behavioral and neurodevelopmental phenotypes in these animals. Analysis of DIXDC1 in over 9000 cases of autism, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia reveals higher rates of rare inherited sequence-disrupting single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) in these individuals compared with psychiatrically unaffected controls...
October 18, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Psychosis-Predictive Value of Self-Reported Schizotypy in a Clinical High-Risk Sample" by Rahel Flückiger, Stephan Ruhrmann, Martin Debbané, Chantal Michel, Daniela Hubl, Benno G. Schimmelmann, Joachim Klosterkötter and Frauke Schultze-Lutter (Journal of Abnormal Psychology, Advanced Online Publication, Sep 1, 2016, np). In the article, there was an error in the Author Note. The affiliation of Daniela Hubl was incorrectly listed as "University Hospital of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Bern...
October 2016: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
L I Schmitt, M M Halassa
While localizing sensory and motor deficits is one of the cornerstones of clinical neurology, behavioral and cognitive deficits in psychiatry remain impervious to this approach. In psychiatry, major challenges include the relative subtlety by which neural circuits are perturbed, and the limited understanding of how basic circuit functions relate to thought and behavior. Neurodevelopmental disorders offer a window to addressing the first challenge given their strong genetic underpinnings, which can be linked to biological mechanisms...
October 11, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
A R Rao, M Yourshaw, B Christensen, S F Nelson, B Kerner
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a common, complex and heritable psychiatric disorder characterized by episodes of severe mood swings. The identification of rare, damaging genomic mutations in families with BD could inform about disease mechanisms and lead to new therapeutic interventions. To determine whether rare, damaging mutations shared identity-by-descent in families with BD could be associated with disease, exome sequencing was performed in multigenerational families of the NIMH BD Family Study followed by in silico functional prediction...
October 11, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
M Fujita, E M Richards, M J Niciu, D F Ionescu, S S Zoghbi, J Hong, S Telu, C S Hines, V W Pike, C A Zarate, R B Innis
Basic studies exploring the importance of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) cascade in major depressive disorder (MDD) have noted that the cAMP cascade is downregulated in MDD and upregulated by antidepressant treatment. We investigated cAMP cascade activity by using (11)C-(R)-rolipram to image phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) in unmedicated MDD patients and after ~8 weeks of treatment with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). (11)C-(R)-rolipram positron emission tomographic (PET) scans were performed in 44 unmedicated patients during a major depressive episode and 35 healthy controls...
October 11, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
Gabriela Kopacheva-Barsova, Slavica Arsova
AIM: To prevent and to treat nasal trauma in children properly, because it can lead to displacement or depression of the nasal bones or septum. Second, our aim was, for the patient to recognise and create a mature decision for eventual nose changes which will be made with the operative intervention or they are not mature enough and the decisions were made by their parents. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Our retrospective study was made at University Clinic for Ear, Nose and Throat, Faculty of Medicine, Ss Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje in the period of 6 years (2005-2016)...
September 15, 2016: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Tarita N Collins, Joshua B Avondoglio, Linda M Terry
Mentally ill patients are entering the criminal justice system at alarming rates, representing a significant percentage of those incarcerated. Correctional facilities are mandated to provide mental health treatment to inmates. The increasing number of inmate patients has made psychiatry an important part of institutional operations. Psychiatrists are called to provide psychopharmacological interventions to aid in the safe operation of institutions and provide effective treatment to those with mental illness...
September 27, 2016: International Review of Psychiatry
Annette Hanson
Due to the growing number of ageing prisoners in the American correctional system, penal institutions are increasingly caring for patients with chronic and potentially terminal medical conditions. To address this problem states have attempted sentencing reform initiatives and adopted compassionate release programmes; however, these efforts have failed to significantly reduce the number of elderly or seriously ill inmates. Correctional mental health services are now called upon to aid in the care of prisoners at the end of life...
September 26, 2016: International Review of Psychiatry
K Stengler, J Rauschenbach, S G Riedel-Heller, T Becker, I Steinhart, G Gerlinger, I Hauth
Working and living for persons with mental illnesses are a major concern of rehabilitative psychiatry. In Germany the definition of rehabilitation for persons with mental illnesses is closely linked to different sectors of social welfare and to the strongly organized supply chain of prevention, acute treatment, rehabilitation and care. In successfully supporting people with mental health problems in terms of vocational integration, professionals face various obstacles. Besides finding the correct content, structural and organizational difficulties can also arise...
September 20, 2016: Der Nervenarzt
Kumiko Ando, Takahiro Soshi, Kanako Nakazawa, Takamasa Noda, Takayuki Okada
The Medical Treatment and Supervision Act (MTSA) was enacted in 2005 in Japan to promote the reintegration of clinical offenders with mental disorders into society. Under the MTSA, individuals who committed serious crimes in a state of insanity or diminished responsibility are diverted from the criminal justice system to the mental health system. Based on court decisions about MTSA-based treatment, clinical offenders have an obligation to engage in rehabilitation within their local community under the guidance of mental health professionals...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
(no author information available yet)
UNLABELLED: Patten SB, Williams JVA, Lavorato DH, et al. Perceived stigma among recipients of mental health care in the general Canadian population. Can J Psychiatry. 2016;61(8): 480-488. (Original DOI: 10.1177/0706743716639928)The published French translation of the above article's abstract was incorrect. The original English abstract for the above article and the correct French translation are provided below: OBJECTIVES: The Mental Health Experiences Scale is a measure of perceived stigma, the perception of negative attitudes and behaviours by people with mental disorders...
October 2016: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
Brian J Holoyda, Charles L Scott
As the need for mental healthcare services within correctional settings in the US increases, so does the need for a mental health workforce that is motivated to work within such systems. One potentially effective method by which to increase the number of psychiatrists working in jails, prisons, and parole clinics is to provide exposure to these environments during their training. Correctional settings can serve as unique training sites for medical students and psychiatric residents and fellows. Such training experiences can provide a host of benefits to both trainees and staff within the correctional mental health system...
August 30, 2016: International Review of Psychiatry
Roberto Tarantino, Lorenzo Nigro, Pasquale Donnarumma, Marika Rullo, Antonio Santoro, Roberto Delfini
After single or multilevel cervical corpectomy for the treatment of different diseases, many surgical options have been proposed over the years. As a single device, a winged expandable titanium cage (WETC) has been developed. We report the use of this device and our clinical results at 24 months of follow-up in a prospective series of 34 patients who underwent single or multilevel corpectomy for the treatment of cervical spondylosis. Thirty-four consecutive patients underwent single or multilevel cervical corpectomy followed by the insertion of a WETC for the treatment of cervical spondylosis at Department of Neurology and Psychiatry "Sapienza" University of Rome, Italy, from May 2011 to May 2013...
August 2, 2016: Neurosurgical Review
Z Hawi, T D R Cummins, J Tong, M Arcos-Burgos, Q Zhao, N Matthews, D P Newman, B Johnson, A Vance, H S Heussler, F Levy, S Easteal, N R Wray, E Kenny, D Morris, L Kent, M Gill, M A Bellgrove
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent and highly heritable disorder of childhood with negative lifetime outcomes. Although candidate gene and genome-wide association studies have identified promising common variant signals, these explain only a fraction of the heritability of ADHD. The observation that rare structural variants confer substantial risk to psychiatric disorders suggests that rare variants might explain a portion of the missing heritability for ADHD. Here we believe we performed the first large-scale next-generation targeted sequencing study of ADHD in 152 child and adolescent cases and 188 controls across an a priori set of 117 genes...
July 26, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
Mateen Moghbel, Andrew Newberg, Abass Alavi
Since it was first used to image the brain in 1976, positron emission tomography (PET) has been utilized in a wide range of neurologic and psychiatric applications. From cerebral metabolism to receptor concentration, various PET imaging techniques involving a host of radiopharmaceuticals have provided insight into countless facets of both the normal and diseased brain. Although the majority of these radiopharmaceuticals are still limited to the realm of research, one PET ligand in particular has gained widespread clinical use: (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose, a radiolabeled analog of glucose, has become an exceedingly prevalent clinical tool for the measurement of metabolism in organs throughout the body, including the brain...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Vaibhav Patil, Rishab Gupta, Rohit Verma, Yatan Pal Singh Balhara
Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS) is an idiosyncratic and potentially life-threatening reaction to neuroleptic drugs. Lithium is a first-line mood stabilizer used in the treatment and prophylaxis of bipolar disorder. There are several case reports of lithium-associated NMS, but only when it was given in combination with antipsychotics. Therefore, the possibility of NMS being secondary to the antipsychotics could not be ruled out in those cases. Here we present a case of lithium-induced NMS in a patient who was not being treated concomitantly with any other agent known to cause NMS...
July 2016: Oman Medical Journal
Raddy L Ramos, Joshua A Cuoco, Erik Guercio, Thomas Levitan
CONTEXT: Given the well-documented shortage of physicians in primary care and several other specialties, quantitative understanding of residency application and matching data among osteopathic and allopathic medical students has implications for predicting trends in the physician workforce. OBJECTIVES: To estimate medical student interest in neurology and psychiatry based on numbers of applicants and matches to neurology and psychiatry osteopathic and allopathic residency programs...
July 1, 2016: Journal of the American Osteopathic Association
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