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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393611/antoine-marie-chambeyron-1797-1851-a-forgotten-disciple-of-jean-etienne-esquirol-1772-1840
#1
Olivier Walusinski
Antoine-Marie Chambeyron (1797-1851) was a disciple of Jean-Etienne Esquirol (1772-1840) that history forgot, undoubtedly because he made no original contribution to psychiatric nosography. In 1827, his interest in the medical-legal status of the insane led him to translate into French and annotate the first medical-legal psychiatric treatise ever published, which was the work of the German philosopher Johann Christoph Hoffbauer (1766-1827). His translation played a role in shaping the French Law of 1838, the first piece of modern legislation aimed at protecting the rights of mental patients and limiting the State's power to confine them arbitrarily...
April 1, 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391708/moral-insanity-and-psychological-disorder-the-hybrid-roots-of-psychiatry
#2
David W Jones
This paper traces the significance of the diagnosis of 'moral insanity' (and the related diagnoses of 'monomania' and ' manie sans délire') to the development of psychiatry as a profession in the nineteenth century. The pioneers of psychiatric thought were motivated to explore such diagnoses because they promised public recognition in the high status surroundings of the criminal court. Some success was achieved in presenting a form of expertise that centred on the ability of the experts to detect quite subtle, 'psychological' forms of dangerous madness within the minds of offenders in France and more extensively in England...
April 1, 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385299/kick-the-bucket-one-hospital-system-s-journey-to-reduce-clostridium-difficile
#3
Molly Bridget Delaney
PROBLEM: Albert Einstein defines insanity as doing the same thing over again but expecting different results. Although the United States claims to reduce antibiotic abuse, practice strict isolation, and clean meticulously, the burden of Clostridium difficile outpaces goals. Unless innovative approaches are tried, we risk culling elderly, immunosuppressed, and otherwise debilitated populations. Emergency departments are a primary access point for patients who are unable to wait for primary care...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Emergency Nursing: JEN: Official Publication of the Emergency Department Nurses Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350189/the-laboratory-and-the-asylum-francis-walker-mott-and-the-pathological-laboratory-at-london-county-council-lunatic-asylum-claybury-essex-1895-1916
#4
Tatjana Buklijas
London County Council's pathological laboratory in the LCC asylum at Claybury, Essex, was established in 1895 to study the pathology of mental illness. Historians of psychiatry have understood the Claybury laboratory as a predecessor of the Maudsley Hospital in London: not only was this laboratory closed when the Maudsley was opened in 1916, but its director, Frederick Walker Mott, a champion of the 'German' model in psychiatry, was instrumental in the establishment of this institution. Yet, as I argue in this essay, for all the continuities with the Maudsley, the Claybury laboratory should not be seen solely as its predecessor - or as a British answer to continental laboratories such as Theodor Meynert's in Vienna...
March 1, 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325249/insane-in-the-membrane-insane-in-the-brain
#5
EDITORIAL
Henri H Versteeg, Marc Rodger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289276/david-skae-and-his-nineteenth-century-etiologic-psychiatric-diagnostic-system-looking-forward-by-looking-back
#6
K S Kendler
The Kraepelinian syndromal approach to diagnosis taken by DSM-III and its successors, which defines disorders by their clinical phenomenon, has come under rising criticism with increasing calls for an etiologically based nosology. The relative virtues of a syndromal versus etiologic psychiatric nosology have actually been debated within our field for a long time. To deepen and historically contextualize our current discussion, I review in detail the proposal for etiologic diagnostic systems for insanity by David Skae (1814-1873)...
March 14, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270478/jury-instructions-on-the-consequences-of-an-insanity-verdict
#7
Tanuja Gandhi, Maya Prabhu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260565/lunatic-asylum-in-the-workhouse-st-peter-s-hospital-bristol-1698-1861
#8
Leonard Smith
In recent years there has been growing acknowledgement of the place of workhouses within the range of institutional provision for mentally disordered people in nineteenth-century England. This article explores the situation in Bristol, where an entrenched workhouse-based model was retained for an extended period in the face of mounting external ideological and political pressures to provide a proper lunatic asylum. It signified a contest between the modernising, reformist inclinations of central state agencies and local bodies seeking to retain their freedom of action...
April 2017: Medical History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216771/filicide-in-the-united-states
#9
Phillip J Resnick
In the United States the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education determines the curriculum required for fellows in forensic psychiatry to become board certified as a subspecialist. Areas that must be covered during the one year fellowship include criminal issues, such as insanity; civil issues, such as tort law and Workers' Compensation; legal regulation of psychiatry, such as confidentiality and involuntary hospitalization; and correctional psychiatry issues, such as dual agency and prisoner's rights...
December 2016: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216769/the-insanity-defense-related-issues
#10
REVIEW
T V Asokan
For the past 150 years, there is no change in the understanding and knowledge other than autonomy and capacity to choose the right and wrong for criminal liability. The alternative concept that human behavior is the result of an interaction between biological and environmental factors other than free choice failed to impress the criminal justice system because of a direct threat to a society's deep seated need to blame someone than themselves for criminal harms that occur. The insanity defense has a long history, and is evolved after many tests that have been tried and tested...
December 2016: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216768/competence-to-stand-trial-an-overview
#11
REVIEW
Steven K Hoge
The legal concept of competence to stand trial has ancient roots. The history of this legal construct in Anglo-Saxon law will be reviewed. A competent defendant is a requirement of the criminal justice system because it reflects interests related to the dignity of the process, the accuracy of adjudication, and respect for the autonomy of defendants. In the United States, legal decisions have established the contours of the requirements related to competent participation in adjudication. Forensic psychiatrists have operationalized the requirements for assessment purposes...
December 2016: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182458/combined-evaluations-of-competency-to-stand-trial-and-mental-state-at-the-time-of-the-offense-an-overlooked-methodological-consideration
#12
Lauren Kois, James M Wellbeloved-Stone, Preeti Chauhan, Janet I Warren
Combined evaluations of competency to stand trial (CST; competency) and mental state at the time of the offense (MSO; sanity) frequently co-occur. However, most research examines the 2 as discrete constructs without considering 4 potential combined evaluation outcomes: competent-sane, incompetent-sane, competent-insane, and incompetent-insane. External validity can be improved if research more closely mirrored practice. It may be incorrect to assume incompetent defendants are similar across CST-only and combined evaluations, and insane defendants are similar across MSO-only and combined evaluations...
February 9, 2017: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181451/from-a-religious-view-of-madness-to-religious-mania-the-encyclop%C3%A3-die-pinel-esquirol
#13
Philippe Huneman
This paper focuses on the shift from a concept of insanity understood in terms of religion to another (as entertained by early psychiatry, especially in France) according to which it is believed that forms of madness tinged by religion are difficult to cure. The traditional religious view of madness, as exemplified by Pascal (inter alia), is first illustrated by entries from the Encyclopédie. Then the shift towards a medical view of madness, inspired by Vitalistic physiology, is mapped by entries taken from the same publication...
February 1, 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181446/-insane-criminals-and-the-criminally-insane-criminal-asylums-in-norway-1895-1940
#14
Hilde Dahl
This article looks into the establishment and development of two criminal asylums in Norway. Influenced by international psychiatry and a European reorientation of penal law, the country chose to institutionalize insane criminals and criminally insane in separate asylums. Norway's first criminal asylum was opened in 1895, and a second in 1923, both in Trondheim. Both asylums quickly filled up with patients who often stayed for many years, and some for their entire lives. The official aim of these asylums was to confine and treat dangerous and disruptive lunatics...
February 1, 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176787/dynamics-of-auditory-cortical-activity-during-behavioural-engagement-and-auditory-perception
#15
Ioana Carcea, Michele N Insanally, Robert C Froemke
Behavioural engagement can enhance sensory perception. However, the neuronal mechanisms by which behavioural states affect stimulus perception remain poorly understood. Here we record from single units in auditory cortex of rats performing a self-initiated go/no-go auditory task. Self-initiation transforms cortical tuning curves and bidirectionally modulates stimulus-evoked activity patterns and improves auditory detection and recognition. Trial self-initiation decreases the rate of spontaneous activity in the majority of recorded cells...
February 8, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156149/james-frame-s-the-philosophy-of-insanity-1860
#16
Jonathan Andrews, Chris Philo
Our aim in presenting this Classic Text is to foster wider analytical attention to a fascinating commentary on insanity by a former inmate of Glasgow Royal Asylum, Gartnavel, James Frame. Despite limited coverage in existing literature, his text (and other writings) have been surprisingly neglected by modern scholars. Frame's Philosophy presents a vivid, affecting, often destigmatizing account of the insane and their institutional provision in Scotland. Derived from extensive first-hand experience, Frame's chronicle eloquently and graphically delineates his own illness and the roles and perspectives of many other actors, from clinicians and managers to patients and relations...
March 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156148/liberty-and-the-individual-the-colony-asylum-in-scotland-and-england
#17
Gillian Allmond
This paper analyses the buildings, spaces and interiors of Bangour Village public asylum for the insane, near Edinburgh, and compares these with an English asylum, Whalley, near Preston, of similar early-twentieth-century date. The village asylum, which developed from a European tradition of rendering the poor productive through 'colonisation', was more enthusiastically and completely adopted in Scotland than in England, perhaps due to differences in asylum culture within the two jurisdictions. 'Liberty' and 'individuality', in particular, were highly valued within Scottish asylum discourses, arguably shaping material provision for the insane poor from the scale of the buildings to the quality of the furnishings...
March 2017: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127539/the-genial-tubercle-a-prospective-novel-landmark-for-the-diagnosis-of-mandibular-asymmetry
#18
Seung-Youp Lee, Dong-Soon Choi, Insan Jang, Geun-Su Song, Bong-Kuen Cha
INTRODUCTION: Identifying menton (Me) on posteroanterior cephalograms and three-dimensional (3D) cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images is difficult, because the midpoint of the symphyseal area is not identifiable after the mandibular symphysis fuses at an early age. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of the identification of the genial tubercle (GT) in patients with mandibular asymmetry and to compare it with that of the traditional landmark, Me. METHODS: The samples comprised 20 CBCT images of adults with mandibular asymmetry...
January 2017: Korean Journal of Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102827/a-low-cost-scalable-current-sensing-digital-headstage-for-high-channel-count-%C3%AE-ecog
#19
Michael Trumpis, Michele Insanally, Jialin Zou, Ashraf Elsharif, Ali Ghomashchi, N Sertac Artan, Robert C Froemke, Jonathan Viventi
OBJECTIVE: High channel count electrode arrays allow for the monitoring of large-scale neural activity at high spatial resolution. Implantable arrays featuring many recording sites require compact, high bandwidth front-end electronics. In the present study, we investigated the use of a small, light weight, and low cost digital current-sensing integrated circuit for acquiring cortical surface signals from a 61-channel micro-electrocorticographic (μECoG) array. APPROACH: We recorded both acute and chronic μECoG signal from rat auditory cortex using our novel digital current-sensing headstage...
April 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066017/madness-and-sanity-at-the-time-of-indian-independence
#20
Sanjeev Jain, Pratima Murthy, Alok Sarin
The backdrop of the Indian Independence offers glimpses of many 'metaphors of madness'. In this article, we explore this through a few instances, starting from 1857, around the time of the First War of Independence, to 1947, when India became an independent nation. Such metaphors have their parallels both in historical as well as in contemporary times, where instances of one man's imagination becoming another's concept of irrationality and insanity continue.
July 2016: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
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