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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874189/incapacity-of-the-mind-secondary-to-medication-misuse-as-a-not-criminally-responsible-defense
#1
Sebastien S Prat, Bruno J Losier, Heather M Moulden, Gary A Chaimowitz
The manifestations of disorders of the mind may play a role in the occurrence of criminal behavior. In the majority of the cases, the presence of a psychiatric disorder is cited as the reason that an individual was not fully aware of his behavior. However, other conditions, such as seizure disorders or hypoglycemia, have also been linked to an inability to understand the nature and consequences of one's actions. On occasion, these situations can be explained by a state of automatism that may be described as insane or noninsane...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856683/the-challenging-experience-questionnaire-characterization-of-challenging-experiences-with-psilocybin-mushrooms
#2
Frederick S Barrett, Matthew P Bradstreet, Jeannie-Marie S Leoutsakos, Matthew W Johnson, Roland R Griffiths
Acute adverse psychological reactions to classic hallucinogens ("bad trips" or "challenging experiences"), while usually benign with proper screening, preparation, and support in controlled settings, remain a safety concern in uncontrolled settings (such as illicit use contexts). Anecdotal and case reports suggest potential adverse acute symptoms including affective (panic, depressed mood), cognitive (confusion, feelings of losing sanity), and somatic (nausea, heart palpitation) symptoms. Responses to items from several hallucinogen-sensitive questionnaires (Hallucinogen Rating Scale, the States of Consciousness Questionnaire, and the Five-Dimensional Altered States of Consciousness questionnaire) in an Internet survey of challenging experiences with the classic hallucinogen psilocybin were used to construct and validate a Challenging Experience Questionnaire...
December 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837570/the-importance-of-the-patients-deemed-not-guilty-by-reason-of-insanity-for-the-psychiatric-reform
#3
EDITORIAL
Athanasios Douzenis
According to the Greek Penal Law if someone "because of a morbid disturbance of his mental functioning" (article 34) is acquitted of a crime or misdemeanour that the law punishes with more than 6 months imprisonment, then the court orders that this individual should be kept in a public psychiatric institution if the court reaches the conclusion that this person poses a threat to public safety.1 Individuals who have broken the law and deemed "not guilty by reason of insanity" are treated in psychiatric units of Psychiatric Hospitals according to the article 69 of the Penal Code...
July 2016: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837146/book-review-catharine-coleborne-insanity-identity-and-empire-immigrants-and-institutional-confinement-in-australia-and-new-zealand-1873-1910
#4
Mark Finnane
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819465/elucidating-the-validity-of-the-externalizing-spectrum-of-psychopathology-in-correctional-forensic-and-community-samples
#5
Martin Sellbom
Krueger and colleagues (2007) have elaborated on a hierarchical structural model of externalizing psychopathology, with a general overarching factor and 2 residual liability factors reflecting callous-aggression and substance misuse. The current study used an independent set of symptom and behavior indicators (items derived from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form) to test alternative models of externalizing. In mixed-sex samples of correctional inmates (n = 42,290), forensic criminal defendants (n = 1,065), and community participants (n = 2,214), a bifactor model based on Krueger, Markon, Patrick, Benning, and Kramer (2007) was associated with better model fit relative to a 1-factor model, 2-factor model, and a bifactor model with 2 random bifactors...
November 2016: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805715/fetal-abduction-comparison-of-two-cases
#6
Ann W Burgess, Maeghan A Dillon, Kellie Y Chiou, Savannah B Hulsopple
The current article compares two cases involving the murders of two pregnant mothers for the kidnapping of their fetuses. The structure of the crimes includes seven steps. Both mothers were befriended by their killers (one before and one on the day of the murder and abduction), rendered unconscious by blunt force trauma, and then killed (one by strangulation and one by gunshot). Both bodies were moved after the murders and hidden, and later discovered by the circumstances of the babies' births: crude cesarean section operations...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796624/violence-trauma-mental-health-and-substance-use-among-homeless-youth-juggalos
#7
Robin Petering, Harmony Rhoades, Hailey Winetrobe, David Dent, Eric Rice
Insane Clown Posse is a musical duo whose fans are known as Juggalos. Many homeless youths (HY) identify as Juggalos, most likely because the group's music embraces poverty and being an outsider in mainstream society. Juggalos are stereotyped as being violent, undereducated, poor, racist, crime-committing youth, and in 2011 the FBI officially labeled Juggalos as a gang. However, little is known about the intersection of HY and Juggalos. A convenience sample of Los Angeles-area, drop-in service-seeking HY completed a self-administered questionnaire (N = 495)...
October 28, 2016: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783776/the-meanings-assigned-to-disablement-based-on-military-habitus
#8
Nádia Xavier Moreira, Ludmila Fontenele Cavalcanti, Rodriane de Oliveira Souza
This is a qualitative study based on in-depth interviews, with the aim of analyzing the meanings associated with a social phenomenon, specifically disabilities in the military field. A total of 22 people were interviewed, 3 managers and 19 Brazilian Navy professionals responsible for coordinating, standardizing, enforcing and overseeing the Special Care Program (Programa de Assistência Especial) in Rio de Janeiro. Data was processed using the Interpretation of Meaning Approach, based on the concept of disablement and military habitus...
October 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774235/what-does-recent-neuroscience-tell-us-about-criminal-responsibility
#9
Uri Maoz, Gideon Yaffe
A defendant is criminally responsible for his action only if he is shown to have engaged in a guilty act-actus reus (eg for larceny, voluntarily taking someone else's property without permission)-while possessing a guilty mind-mens rea (eg knowing that he had taken someone else's property without permission, intending not to return it)-and lacking affirmative defenses (eg the insanity defense or self-defense). We therefore first review neuroscientific studies that bear on the nature of voluntary action, and so could, potentially, tell us something of importance about the actus reus of crimes...
April 2016: Journal of Law and the Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726095/would-a-madman-have-been-so-wise-as-this-the-effects-of-source-credibility-and-message-credibility-on-validation
#10
Jeffrey E Foy, Paul C LoCasto, Stephen W Briner, Samantha Dyar
Readers rapidly check new information against prior knowledge during validation, but research is inconsistent as to whether source credibility affects validation. We argue that readers are likely to accept highly plausible assertions regardless of source, but that high source credibility may boost acceptance of claims that are less plausible based on general world knowledge. In Experiment 1, participants read narratives with assertions for which the plausibility varied depending on the source. For high credibility sources, we found that readers were faster to read information confirming these assertions relative to contradictory information...
October 10, 2016: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720501/putting-negative-attitudes-on-the-agenda-not-criminally-responsible-reform-act-publicity-and-juror-decision-making
#11
Evelyn M Maeder, Susan Yamamoto, Lesley Zannella
The current study examined the effect of publicity about Canada's recent Not Criminally Responsible (NCR) Reform Act - legislation surrounding accused in insanity cases that purportedly aims to enhance public safety - on juror decision-making. In line with agenda-setting theory, we expected that NCR Reform Act publicity might reinforce certain fears about the insanity defence, dependent on whether it had either a positive or negative evaluative slant. Contrary to previous work on the insanity defence, participants in this study generally favoured a NCR verdict...
September 2016: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698075/-noisy-restless-and-incoherent-puerperal-insanity-at-dundee-lunatic-asylum
#12
Morag Allan Campbell
Puerperal insanity has been described as a nineteenth-century diagnosis, entrenched in contemporary expectations of proper womanly behaviour. Drawing on detailed study of establishment registers and patient case notes, this paper examines the puerperal insanity diagnosis at Dundee Lunatic Asylum between 1820 and 1860. In particular, the study aims to consider whether the class or social status of the patients had a bearing on how their conditions were perceived and rationalized, and how far the puerperal insanity diagnosis, coloured by the values assigned to it by the medical officers, may have been reserved for some women and not for others...
October 3, 2016: History of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695227/public-knowledge-and-attitudes-toward-epilepsy-in-majmaah
#13
Aqeel Munahi Almutairi, Tahir Ansari, Waqas Sami, Salah Baz
OBJECTIVES: Epilepsy is very common in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, occurring in 6.54 out of every 1000 individuals. The current study was conducted to determine the level of public awareness of and attitudes toward epilepsy in the city of Majmaah, Saudi Arabia. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This descriptive study was conducted in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia. The study population included respondents derived from preselected public places in the city. Stratified random sampling was used, and the sample size was made up of 706 individuals...
October 2016: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689571/orthodontic-tunnel-miniscrews-with-and-without-tio2-nanotube-arrays-as-a-drug-delivery-system-in-vivo-study
#14
Bong-Kuen Cha, Dong-Soon Choi, Insan Jang, Byung-Hak Choe, Won-Youl Choi
Orthodontic tunnel miniscrews with and without TiO2 nanotube arrays were fabricated to improve the induction of new bone formation and osseointegration. To inject the drug of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein, tunnels in a conventional machined miniscrew were machined by a computer-numerical-control lathe. TiO2 nanotube arrays to load the drug were also formed on the surface of the tunnel miniscrew by anodic oxidation. To obtain clean TiO2 nanotube arrays, two-step anodic oxidation was conducted...
September 28, 2016: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648506/pyrotherapy-for-the-treatment-of-psychosis-in-the-21st-century-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#15
Zachary D Zuschlag, Callie J Lalich, Edward B Short, Mark Hamner, David A Kahn
The concept that fevers can improve the condition of patients with certain medical and psychiatric diseases dates back to Hippocrates. Over the centuries, it has been observed that fevers and infectious agents have been beneficial for a broad spectrum of diseases, including neurologic conditions such as epilepsy and psychiatric illnesses including melancholy and psychosis. Interest in the concept of fever as a treatment for disease, termed pyrotherapy or pyretotherapy, peaked in the late 1800s and early 1900s thanks to the Nobel Prize winning work of Julius Wagner-Jauregg for his studies with malaria therapy for general paralysis of the insane, now more commonly referred to as neurosyphilis...
September 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27636693/nicu-culture-of-care-for-infants-with-neonatal-abstinence-syndrome-a-focused-ethnography
#16
Monica Marie Nelson
PURPOSE: The purpose of this focused ethnography was to describe the culture of care and nonpharmacologic nursing interventions performed by NICU nurses for infants with neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). METHOD: Roper and Shapira's framework for the analysis included participant observation, individual interviews, and examination of existing documents. SAMPLE: Twelve full-time nurses were observed and interviewed. RESULTS: Results described the culture of care provided to infants with NAS by NICU nurses as evidenced by six themes: learn the baby (routine care, comfort care, environment, adequate rest and sleep, feeding), core team relationships (support, interpersonal relationships), role satisfaction (nurturer/comforter, becoming an expert), grief, making a difference (wonderful insanity, critical to them), and education and care of the mother...
2016: Neonatal Network: NN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27631856/detecting-information-processing-bias-toward-psychopathology-interpreting-likert-scales-at-intake-assessment
#17
Christoph Flückiger, Hansjörg Znoj, Andreea Vîslă
Since the programmatic Rosenhan study, there is a broad discussion of how to actively construct clinical realities on both "insane" and "sane" perspectives. To inform patients about the output of the psychometric questionnaires assessed at intake is a required task in many clinical routines. Information processing bias toward psychopathology may impact many clinical communications and thus lead to clinical errors. Based on an output of the commonly used Symptom Check List 90, case examples demonstrate various grades of balanced and unbalanced alternatives of how to consider the psychopathological as well as the unproblematic poles of Likert scales in discussing psychometric questionnaires at Session 1...
September 2016: Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27628878/petteri-pietikainen-madness-a-history-milton-park-abingdon-uk-and-new-york-routledge-2015-pp-346-%C3%A2-29-00-paperback-isbn-978-0-415-71318-4-andrew-scull-madness-in-civilization-a-cultural-history-of-insanity-from-the-bible-to-freud-from-the-madhouse-to-modern
#18
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27628858/-i-am-very-glad-and-cheered-when-i-hear-the-flute-the%C3%A2-treatment-of-criminal-lunatics-in-late-victorian-broadmoor
#19
Jade Shepherd
Through an examination of previously unseen archival records, including patients' letters, this article examines the treatment and experiences of patients in late Victorian Broadmoor Criminal Lunatic Asylum and stakes the place of this institution within the broader history of therapeutic regimes in British asylums. Two main arguments are put forth. The first relates to the evolution of treatment in Victorian asylums. Historians tend to agree that in the 1860s and 1870s 'psychiatric pessimism' took hold, as the optimism that had accompanied the growth of moral treatment, along with its promise of a cure for insanity, abated...
October 2016: Medical History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27608678/ethiopian-teachers-their-knowledge-attitude-and-practice-towards-epilepsy
#20
Meron Awraris Gebrewold, Fikre Enquselassie, Redda Teklehaimanot, Seid Ali Gugssa
BACKGROUND: In Ethiopia where the burden of epilepsy is highest among school age children and teenagers, and where people with epilepsy (PWE) and their relatives suffers from high level of perceived stigma, there had not been any study that assessed the knowledge, attitude and practice of teachers towards PWE. This study aims to assess and understand the social and demographic determinants of knowledge, attitude and practice of teachers towards PLW in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. METHODS: Multistage cluster sampling procedure was used to identify twenty schools from three sub cities of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia...
September 8, 2016: BMC Neurology
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