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Pancreas islet

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515766/pancreatic-protective-and-hypoglycemic-effects-of-vitex-agnus-castus-l-fruit-hydroalcoholic-extract-in-d-galactose-induced-aging-mouse-model
#1
Akram Ahangarpour, Ali Akbar Oroojan, Layasadat Khorsandi, Seyedeh Asma Najimi
D-galactose induces pancreatic disorder along with aging mouse model. Vitex agnus-castus (VAC) has potential pancreatic protective effect. Hence, this study was designed to evaluate the hypoglycemic and pancreas protective effects of VAC hydroalcoholic extract in D-galactose-induced aging female mice. In the present experimental study, 72 adult female Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) mice (weighing 30-35 g) were divided into 6 groups of control, VAC hydroalcoholic extract, D-galactose, D-galactose + VAC hydroalcoholic extract, aged, aged + VAC hydroalcoholic extract...
April 2017: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512677/heterogeneity-of-proliferative-markers-in-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-of-patients-with-severe-hypoglycemia-following-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass
#2
Mary-Elizabeth Patti, Allison B Goldfine, Jiang Hu, Dag Hoem, Anders Molven, Jeffrey Goldsmith, Wayne H Schwesinger, Stefano La Rosa, Franco Folli, Rohit N Kulkarni
AIMS: Severe postprandial hypoglycemia with neuroglycopenia is an increasingly recognized, debilitating complication of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. Increased secretion of insulin and incretin hormones is implicated in its pathogenesis. Histopathologic examination of pancreas has demonstrated increased islet size and/or nuclear diameter in post-RYGB patients who underwent pancreatectomy for severe refractory hypoglycemia with neuroglycopenia (RYGB + NG). We aimed to determine whether β-cell proliferation or apoptosis is altered in RYGB + NG...
May 17, 2017: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510792/a-systematic-review-of-proinsulin-secreting-pancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumors
#3
Timothy D Murtha, Beatrice C Lupsa, Sachin Majumdar, Dhanpat Jain, Ronald R Salem
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) are a heterogeneous group of islet cell-derived neoplasms with a propensity toward hormone production. Among PNETs, proinsulin-secreting tumors (proinsulinomas) are exceedingly rare. The objective of this study is to collect and summarize the existing literature to provide a comprehensive evaluation of this uncommon disease. METHODS: A systematic review was performed to characterize the clinicopathologic features of proinsulinoma...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505316/pancreas-atrophy-and-islet-amyloid-deposition-in-patients-with-elderly-onset-type-2-diabetes
#4
An Xin, Hiroki Mizukami, Wataru Inaba, Taro Yoshida, Yu-Ki Takeuchi, Soroku Yagihashi
Context: With prolonged life-expectancy, we often encounter patients with elderly onset type 2 diabetes (eT2DM). Although clinical features of eT2DM are suggested to be different from those in patients with middle-aged onset type 2 diabetes (mT2DM), islet pathology in eT2DM has not been addressed. Objective: We attempted to characterize the pancreatic pathology in eT2DM and sought for its clinical implication. Methods: Pancreata from 13 young non-diabetic (20-29 y...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504618/butyrate-reduces-high-fat-diet-induced-metabolic-alterations-hepatic-steatosis-and-pancreatic-beta-cell-and-intestinal-barrier-dysfunctions-in-prediabetic-mice
#5
V A Matheus, Lcs Monteiro, R B Oliveira, D A Maschio, C B Collares-Buzato
In this study, we investigated the effect of diet supplementation with sodium butyrate (5% w/w), a short-chain fatty acid produced by the intestinal microbiota, on metabolic parameters, body adiposity, hepatic and pancreatic lipid accumulation, beta cell function/mass as well as on the structure and function of the tight junction-mediated intestinal epithelial barrier in both normal and obese/prediabetic C57 mice fed a regular (control) or high-fat diet for 60 days, respectively. Butyrate treatment significantly inhibited all the high-fat-induced metabolic dysfunctions evaluated, i...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493059/characterization-of-oatp1b3-and-oatp2b1-transporter-expression-in-the-islet-of-the-adult-human-pancreas
#6
Michelle Kim, Perri Deacon, Rommel G Tirona, Richard B Kim, Christopher L Pin, Henriette E Meyer Zu Schwabedissen, Rennian Wang, Ute I Schwarz
Organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATPs) are membrane proteins that mediate cellular uptake of structurally diverse endogenous and exogenous compounds, including bile salts, thyroid and sex hormones, pharmacological agents, and toxins. Roles of OATPs in human liver are well established. Our recent report suggested the presence of the hepatic transporter OATP1B3 in human β cells. The aim of this study was to better characterize cellular localization and interindividual variation in OATP1B3 expression in human adult islets as a function of age, sex, and pancreatic disease, and to assess the expression of other OATPs...
May 10, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492724/human-islet-xenotransplantation-in-rodents-a-literature-review-of-experimental-model-trends
#7
Leandro Ryuchi Iuamoto, André Silva Franco, Fábio Yuji Suguita, Felipe Futema Essu, Lucas Torres Oliveira, Juliana Mika Kato, Matheus Belloni Torsani, Alberto Meyer, Wellington Andraus, Eleazar Chaib, Luiz Augusto Carneiro D'Albuquerque
Among the innovations for the treatment of type 1 diabetes, islet transplantation is a less invasive method of treatment, although it is still in development. One of the greatest barriers to this technique is the low number of pancreas donors and the low number of pancreases that are available for transplantation. Rodent models have been chosen in most studies of islet rejection and type 1 diabetes prevention to evaluate the quality and function of isolated human islets and to identify alternative solutions to the problem of islet scarcity...
April 2017: Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489277/pancreas-after-islet-pai-transplantation-in-non-uremic-type-1-diabetes-a-strategy-for-restoring-durable-insulin-independence
#8
S A Wisel, J M Gardner, G R Roll, J Harbell, C E Freise, S Feng, S M Kang, R Hirose, D B Kaufman, A Posselt, P G Stock
Islet transplantation offers a minimally-invasive approach for beta cell replacement in diabetic patients with hypoglycemic unawareness. Attempts at insulin independence may require multiple islet re-infusions from distinct donors, thus increasing the risk for allogeneic sensitization. Currently, solid organ pancreas transplant is the only remaining surgical option following failed islet transplantation in the US. However, the immunologic impact of repeated exposure to donor antigens on subsequent pancreas transplantation is unclear...
May 10, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487991/blood-glycemia-modulating-effects-of-melanian-snail-protein-hydrolysates-in-mice-with-type%C3%A2-ii-diabetes
#9
Jae-Suk Choi, Joo-Wan Kim, Jeong Been Park, Sang Eun Pyo, Yong-Ki Hong, Sae Kwang Ku, Mi-Ryung Kim
Freshwater animal proteins have long been used as nutrient supplements. In this study, melanian snail (Semisulcospira libertina) protein hydrolysates (MPh) were found to exert anti-diabetic and protective effects against liver and kidney damage in mice with type II diabetes adapted to a 45% kcal high-fat diet (HFD). The hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective and nephroprotective effects of MPh were analyzed after 12 weeks of the continuous oral administration of MPh at 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg. Diabetic control mice exhibited an increase in body weight, and blood glucose and insulin levels, with a decrease in serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels...
June 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486599/antenatal-blockade-of-nmda-receptors-by-memantine-reduces-the-susceptibility-to-diabetes-induced-by-a-high-fat-diet-in-rats-with-intrauterine-growth-restriction
#10
Xiao-Ting Huang, Shao-Jie Yue, Chen Li, Jia Guo, Yan-Hong Huang, Jian-Zhong Han, Dan-Dan Feng, Zi-Qiang Luo
Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is closely related to the later development of type 2 diabetes in adulthood. Excessive activation of glutamate receptors causes excitatory neurotoxicity, which is primarily mediated by N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), resulting in neuronal injury or death. Inhibition of NMDARs enhances the GSIS and survival of islet cells in type 2 diabetic mouse and human islets. Here, we examined whether antenatal blockade of NMDARs by Memantine could decrease the risk of diabetes induced by a high-fat (HF) diet at adulthood in IUGR rats...
May 8, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482873/clinical-impact-of-duodenal-pancreatic-heterotopia-is-there-a-need-for-surgical-treatment
#11
Alexander Betzler, Soeren T Mees, Josefine Pump, Sebastian Schölch, Carolin Zimmermann, Daniela E Aust, Jürgen Weitz, Thilo Welsch, Marius Distler
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic heterotopia (PH) is defined as ectopic pancreatic tissue outside the normal pancreas and its vasculature and duct system. Most frequently, PH is detected incidentally by histopathological examination. The aim of the present study was to analyze a large single-center series of duodenal PH with respect to the clinical presentation. METHODS: A prospective pancreatic database was retrospectively analyzed for cases of PH of the duodenum. All pancreatic and duodenal resections performed between January 2000 and October 2015 were included and screened for histopathologically proven duodenal PH...
May 8, 2017: BMC Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477380/antibodies-against-h1n1-influenza-virus-cross-react-with-alpha-cells-of-pancreatic-islets
#12
Zongli Qi, Hanyu Hu, Zhihua Wang, Guanghua Wang, Yan Li, Xiangrong Zhao, Yangmeng Feng, Xueping Huo, Jingying Sun, Qing Feng, Yang Liu, Nana Wang, Chunyan Guo, Yuan Li, Ruian Wang, Jun Hu
Epidemiological studies have documented that the incidence of human type 1 diabetes (T1D) is significantly increased after H1N1 epidemic. However, direct link between T1D and virus infection remains elusive. We generated 84 clones of murine mAbs against the H1N1 and performed immunohistochemistry in normal human tissue microarray. The results demonstrated that two clones specifically cross-reacted with human pancreatic tissues α cell of pancreatic islet. RT-PCR and DNA sequencing showed that the amino acid sequences of light and heavy chains of these clones were different...
May 6, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467935/deciphering-pancreatic-islet-%C3%AE-cell-and-%C3%AE-cell-maturation-pathways-and-characteristic-features-at-the-single-cell-level
#13
Wei-Lin Qiu, Yu-Wei Zhang, Ye Feng, Lin-Chen Li, Liu Yang, Cheng-Ran Xu
Pancreatic β and α cells play essential roles in maintaining glucose homeostasis. However, the mechanisms by which these distinct cell populations are generated, expand, and mature during pancreas development remain unclear. In this study, we addressed this critical question by performing a single-cell transcriptomic analysis of mouse β and α cells sorted from fetal to adult stages. We discovered that β and α cells use different regulatory strategies for their maturation and that cell proliferation peaks at different developmental times...
May 2, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467694/durable-control-of-autoimmune-diabetes-in-mice-achieved-by-intraperitoneal-transplantation-of-neo-islets-three-dimensional-aggregates-of-allogeneic-islet-and-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#14
Christof Westenfelder, Anna Gooch, Zhuma Hu, Jon Ahlstrom, Ping Zhang
Novel interventions that reestablish endogenous insulin secretion and thereby halt progressive end-organ damage and prolong survival of patients with autoimmune Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) are urgently needed. While this is currently accomplished with allogeneic pancreas or islet transplants, their utility is significantly limited by both the scarcity of organ donors and life-long need for often-toxic antirejection drugs. Coadministering islets with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that exert robust immune-modulating, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and angiogenic actions, improves intrahepatic islet survival and function...
May 3, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464577/-the-lesser-omentum-approach-for-laparoscopic-pancreatic-enucleation
#15
R Liu, Q Liu, Z M Zhao, G D Zhao, X L Tan, Y X Gao, Z Z Yin
Objective: To evaluate the feasibility and strategy of the lesser omentum approach for laparoscopic pancreatic enucleation. Methods: Between June 2011 and October 2013, 6 laparoscopic pancreatic enucleations were performed by lesser omentum approach.The average age was 42 years, including 1 male and 5 female.The preoperation diagnosis of 6 cases were pancreatic islet cell tumors determined by abdominal CT/MRI, ultrasound and digital subtraction angiography.The tumors of 3 cases located in pancreatic neck, 2 tumors located in neck and body of pancreas, and 1 tumor located in pancreatic body...
May 1, 2017: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454347/effect-of-cigarette-smoke-exposure-and-mutant-kras-overexpression-on-pancreatic-cell-proliferation
#16
Howard P Glauert, R Scott Elliott, Sung Gu Han, Mark Athey, Eun Y Lee, C Gary Gairola
Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-associated mortality. The major risk factor for pancreatic cancer is cigarette smoking. Kras mutations are commonly observed in human pancreatic cancers. The present study examined the hypothesis that exposure to cigarette smoke and overexpression of a mutant Kras gene in the pancreas affects pancreatic cell proliferation in mice. Mice overexpressing the mutant Kras gene (KRas(G12D)) in the pancreas as well as wild-type mice were exposed to environmental tobacco smoke for 2 weeks...
March 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444910/characterization-of-porcine-endogenous-retrovirus-expression-in-neonatal-and-adult-pig-pancreatic-islets
#17
Nizar I Mourad, Claire Crossan, Victoria Cruikshank, Linda Scobie, Pierre Gianello
BACKGROUND: Pig islets represent an alternative to the current modes of treatment for patients with diabetes. However, the concerns over pathogen transmission including that of PERV limit their immediate, widespread usage in humans. It has been previously demonstrated that PERV copy number and particularly expression levels can vary considerably between individuals and within different tissues of a single animal. In general, expression levels have been found to be particularly low in the pancreas compared to other porcine tissues suggesting a reduced risk associated with the use of this tissue...
April 26, 2017: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442507/protein-kinase-stk25-aggravates-the-severity-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-pancreas-disease-in-mice
#18
Esther Nunez Duran, Belen Chanclon, Silva Sütt, Joana Real, Hanns-Ulrich Marschall, Ingrid Wernstedt-Asterholm, Emelie Cansby, Margit Mahlapuu
Characterising the molecular networks that negatively regulate pancreatic β-cell function is essential for understanding the underlying pathogenesis and developing new treatment strategies for type 2 diabetes. We recently identified serine/threonine protein kinase 25 (STK25) as a critical regulator of ectopic fat storage, meta-inflammation, and fibrosis in liver and skeletal muscle. Here, we assessed the role of STK25 in control of progression of non-alcoholic fatty pancreas disease in the context of chronic exposure to dietary lipids in mice...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441528/phosphorylation-of-neurog3-links-endocrine-differentiation-to-the-cell-cycle-in-pancreatic-progenitors
#19
Nicole A J Krentz, Dennis van Hoof, Zhongmei Li, Akie Watanabe, Mei Tang, Cuilan Nian, Michael S German, Francis C Lynn
During pancreatic development, proliferating pancreatic progenitors activate the proendocrine transcription factor neurogenin 3 (NEUROG3), exit the cell cycle, and differentiate into islet cells. The mechanisms that direct robust NEUROG3 expression within a subset of progenitor cells control the size of the endocrine population. Here we demonstrate that NEUROG3 is phosphorylated within the nucleus on serine 183, which catalyzes its hyperphosphorylation and proteosomal degradation. During progression through the progenitor cell cycle, NEUROG3 phosphorylation is driven by the actions of cyclin-dependent kinases 2 and 4/6 at G1/S cell-cycle checkpoint...
April 24, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439456/metformin-ameliorates-insulitis-in-stz-induced-diabetic-mice
#20
Xue Han, Yu-Long Tao, Ya-Ping Deng, Jia-Wen Yu, Jian Cai, Guo-Fei Ren, Yuan-Nan Sun, Guo-Jun Jiang
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Metformin is currently the most widely used first-line hypoglycemic agent for diabetes mellitus. Besides glucose-lowering action, there is increasingly interest in the potential anti-inflammatory action of this drug. In the present study, we investigated the actions of metformin on experimental insulitis using STZ-induced diabetic mice. METHODS: Mice with acute diabetes induced by STZ were administered metformin by gavage. Changes of blood glucose and body weight, and the daily amount of food and water intake were measured...
2017: PeerJ
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