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Pancreas islet

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632820/the-nexus-of-stem-cell-derived-beta-cells-and-genome-engineering
#1
Sara D Sackett, Aida Rodriguez, Jon S Odorico
Diabetes, type 1 and type 2 (T1D and T2D), are diseases of epidemic proportions, which are complicated and defined by genetics, epigenetics, environment, and lifestyle choices. Current therapies consist of whole pancreas or islet transplantation. However, these approaches require life-time immunosuppression, and are compounded by the paucity of available donors. Pluripotent stem cells have advanced research in the fields of stem cell biology, drug development, disease modeling, and regenerative medicine, and importantly allows for the interrogation of therapeutic interventions...
2017: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632818/benefits-of-islet-transplantation-as-an-alternative-to-pancreas-transplantation-retrospective-study-of-more-than-10-ten-years-of-experience-in-a-single-center
#2
Barbora Voglová, Martina Zahradnická, Peter Girman, Jan Kríž, Zuzana Berková, Tomáš Koblas, Ema Vávrová, Lenka Németová, Lucie Kosinová, David Habart, Eva Fábryová, Eva Dovolilová, Ivan Leontovyc, Tomáš Neškudla, Jan Peregrin, Jozef Kovác, Kvetoslav Lipár, Matej Kocík, Tomáš Marada, Jirí Svoboda, František Saudek
BACKGROUND: Pancreas transplantation (PTx) represents the method of choice in type 1 diabetic patients with conservatively intractable hypoglycemia unawareness syndrome. In 2005, the Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine (IKEM) launched a program to investigate the safety potential of islet transplantation (ITx) in comparison to PTx. AIM: This study aims to compare the results of PTx and ITx regarding severe hypoglycemia elimination, metabolic control, and complication rate...
2017: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628651/the-density-of-parasympathetic-axons-is-reduced-in-the-exocrine-pancreas-of-individuals-recently-diagnosed-with-type-1-diabetes
#3
Marcus Lundberg, Andreas Lindqvist, Nils Wierup, Lars Krogvold, Knut Dahl-Jørgensen, Oskar Skog
To elucidate the etiology of type 1 diabetes, the affected pancreas needs to be thoroughly characterized. Pancreatic innervation has been suggested to be involved in the pathology of the disease and a reduction of sympathetic innervation of the islets was recently reported. In the present study, we hypothesized that parasympathetic innervation would be altered in the type 1 diabetes pancreas. Human pancreatic specimens were obtained from a unique cohort of individuals with recent onset or long standing type 1 diabetes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626803/estimation-of-insulin-secretion-glucose-uptake-by-tissues-and-liver-handling-of-glucose-using-a-mathematical-model-of-glucose-insulin-homeostasis-in-lean-and-obese-mice
#4
Michael Brenner, Sakineh Esmaeili Mohsen Abadi, Ramin Balouchzadeh, H Felix Lee, Hoo Sang Ko, Michael Johns, Nehal Malik, Joshua J Lee, Guim Kwon
Destruction of the insulin-producing β-cells is the key determinant of diabetes mellitus regardless of their types. Due to their anatomical location within the islets of Langerhans scattered throughout the pancreas, it is difficult to monitor β-cell function and mass clinically. To this end, we propose to use a mathematical model of glucose-insulin homeostasis to estimate insulin secretion, glucose uptake by tissues, and hepatic handling of glucose. We applied the mathematical model by Lombarte et al. (2013) to compare various rate constants representing glucose-insulin homeostasis between lean (11% fat)- and high fat diet (HFD; 45% fat)-fed mice...
June 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625491/insulinotropic-action-of-2-4-dinitroanilino-benzoic-acid-through-the-attenuation-of-pancreatic-beta-cell-lesions-in-diabetic-rats
#5
Humera Jahan, M Iqbal Choudhary, Mehwish Manzoor, Khalid Mohammad Khan, Shahnaz Perveen, Atta-Ur Rahman
Beta cell destruction plays a key role in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes mellitus. It has also been argued that beta cell mass may also be compromised in some cases of type 2 diabetes, although this is controversial. Currently, the failure of oral antidiabetic insulin secretagogue drugs to properly correct type 2 diabetes demands novel approaches in the treatment of this condition. For any condition associated with diminished beta cell function, the aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro and in vivo antidiabetic effect in STZ-induced diabetic rats, and maximum tolerated dose (MTD) safety of novel anthranilic acid derivative, 2, 4-dinitroanilino-benzoic acid (1)...
June 15, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621290/efficacy-of-laparoscopic-ultrasonography-in-laparoscopic-resection-of-insulinoma
#6
REVIEW
Mengwei Wu, Huaitao Wang, Xiaobo Zhang, Feng Gao, Peng Liu, Boqiang Yu, Huanbing Qiu, Guanlong Huang, Xiaodong Tan
Insulinoma is the most common functioning islet cell tumor of the pancreas, with an annual incidence of 4 cases/1 million individuals. It is treated by surgical methods. Open surgery was once considered the standard approach for the treatment of insulinoma. However, the procedure is traumatic and requires a large incision, which does not satisfy the growing expectations of minimally invasive management of small-sized tumors. Insulinomas are usually benign solitary tumors and mostly occur sporadically, which makes them suitable candidates for laparoscopic management...
May 2017: Endoscopic Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617536/effects-of-mulberry-leaf-polysaccharide-on-oxidative-stress-in-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-of-type-2-diabetic-rats
#7
C-G Liu, Y-P Ma, X-J Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To explore and discuss the effects and mechanisms of mulberry leaf polysaccharide (MLP) on oxidative stress in pancreatic β-cells of type 2 diabetic rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The model of diabetic rats was established by inducing the Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with high-sugar and high-fat diet for 6 weeks and then giving them streptozotocin (STZ) by single intraperitoneal injection. The mulberry leaf polysaccharide was administered via gavage daily for 8 weeks, and the tissue morphology was observed through electron microscopy...
May 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611472/cd11a-icam-1-blockade-combined-with-il-2-targeting-therapy-causes-a-paradoxical-acceleration-of-type-1-diabetes
#8
Ekua W Brenu, Timothy J Bartley, Casey M Wright, Emma Hamilton-Williams
Enhancement of regulatory T cell (Treg) function is the goal of many immunotherapies aimed at treating type 1 diabetes (T1D). The use of IL-2 is hindered by its effects on other populations such as effector T cells and NK cells. Combination therapies aimed at suppressing effector T cells while using IL-2 to expand Tregs could be beneficial and have been trialed in T1D patients. We have investigated a combination therapy using IL-2 and αCD11a blocking antibody to simultaneously expand Tregs and suppress the activation and migration of autoreactive T cells...
June 14, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609372/pancreatic-polypeptide-cell-proliferation-in-the-pancreas-and-duodenum-coexisting-in-a-patient-with-pancreatic-adenocarcinoma-treated-with-a-glp-1-analog
#9
Geoffrey A Talmon, J David Wren, Christophe L Nguyen, Parviz M Pour
A partial pancreaticogastrodudenectomy was performed on a 66-year old man with type 2 diabetes mellitus because of an invasive, moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma in the head of the pancreas. In the adjacent grossly normal tissue of the uncinate process, there was a massive proliferation of pancreatic polypeptide (PP) cells confined to this region and showed invasive pattern. Strikingly, in the heaped area of his duodenum, there was a strikingly large number of PP, glucagon, a few insulin cells in a mini-islet-like patterns composed of glucagon and insulin cells...
July 2017: Pancreas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605545/atypical-forms-of-congenital-hyperinsulinism-in-infancy-are-associated-with-mosaic-patterns-of-immature-islet-cells
#10
Bing Han, Zainab Mohamed, Maria Salomon Estebanez, Ross J Craigie, Melanie Newbould, Edmund Cheesman, Raja Padidela, Mars Skae, Matthew Johnson, Sarah Flanagan, Sian Ellard, Karen E Cosgrove, Indraneel Banerjee, Mark J Dunne
Objectives: We aimed to characterise mosaic populations of pancreatic islet cells from patients with atypical CHI (CHI-A) and the expression profile of NKX2.2, a key transcription factor expressed in β-cells but suppressed in δ-cells in the mature pancreas. Patients/Methods: Tissue was isolated from three patients with CHI-A following subtotal pancreatectomy. CHI-A was diagnosed on the basis of islet mosaicism and the absence of histopathological hallmarks of focal- and diffuse CHI (CHI-D)...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605395/possible-type-1-diabetes-risk-prediction-using-ultrasound-imaging-to-assess-pancreas-inflammation-in-the-inducible-autoimmune-diabetes-bbdr-model
#11
Frederick R Roberts, Clinton Hupple, Elaine Norowski, Nicole C Walsh, Natalia Przewozniak, Ken-Edwin Aryee, Filia M Van Dessel, Agata Jurczyk, David M Harlan, Dale L Greiner, Rita Bortell, Chaoxing Yang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Studies of human cadaveric pancreas specimens indicate that pancreas inflammation plays an important role in type 1 diabetes pathogenesis. Due to the inaccessibility of pancreas in living patients, imaging technology to visualize pancreas inflammation is much in need. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of utilizing ultrasound imaging to assess pancreas inflammation longitudinally in living rats during the progression leading to type 1 diabetes onset. METHODS: The virus-inducible BBDR type 1 diabetes rat model was used to systematically investigate pancreas changes that occur prior to and during development of autoimmunity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598484/correction-an-intravascular-bioartificial-pancreas-device-ibap-with-silicon-nanopore-membranes-snm-for-islet-encapsulation-under-convective-mass-transport
#12
Shang Song, Charles Blaha, Willieford Moses, Jaehyun Park, Nathan Wright, Joey Groszek, William Fissell, Shant Vartanian, Andrew M Posselt, Shuvo Roy
Correction for 'An intravascular bioartificial pancreas device (iBAP) with silicon nanopore membranes (SNM) for islet encapsulation under convective mass transport' by Shang Song et al., Lab Chip, 2017, 17, 1778-1792.
June 9, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598088/-study-on-the-characteristics-of-bone-in-type-2-diabetic-rats-by-micro-ct
#13
Lan Yang, Lei-Lei Zheng, Yang Chen, Yu-Ying Tang, Jie Zhou, Yun Hu
OBJECTIVES: To study the characteristics of bone in type 2 diabetic rats using micro-CT. METHODS: Sixteen male Sprague Dawley(SD) rats, aged 8 week-old, were randomly divided into normal group and experimental group (n =10). Afer being fed with high-fat chow, the rats in experimental group were given low-dose streptozotocin (STZ,30 mg/kg) to induce type 2 diabetic disease. Serum glucose, insulin and tissue sections of pancreas is used to evaluate the effect of type 2 diabetic rat model...
September 2016: Sichuan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Sichuan University. Medical Science Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595319/distribution-and-developmental-changes-of-ghrelin-immunopositive-cells-in-the-pancreas-of-african-ostrich-chicks-struthio-camelus
#14
J X Wang, P Li, X T Zhang, L X Ye
Ghrelin, the endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), is produced by multiple cell types and affects feeding behavior, metabolic regulation, and energy balance. In the mammalian pancreas, the types of endocrine cells that are immunoreactive to ghrelin vary. However, little was known about its distribution and developmental changes in the pancreas of African ostrich chicks (Struthio camelus). In the present study, the distribution, morphological characteristics, and developmental changes of ghrelin-immunopositive (ghrelin-ip) cells in the pancreas of African ostrich chicks were investigated using immunohistochemistry...
June 8, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592636/interleukin-6-protects-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-from-apoptosis-by-stimulation-of-autophagy
#15
Amelia K Linnemann, Joseph Blumer, Michelle R Marasco, Therese J Battiola, Heidi M Umhoefer, Jee Young Han, Dudley W Lamming, Dawn Belt Davis
IL-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine with complex roles in inflammation and metabolic disease. The role of IL-6 as a pro- or anti-inflammatory cytokine is still unclear. Within the pancreatic islet, IL-6 stimulates secretion of the prosurvival incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) by α cells and acts directly on β cells to stimulate insulin secretion in vitro Uncovering physiologic mechanisms promoting β-cell survival under conditions of inflammation and stress can identify important pathways for diabetes prevention and treatment...
June 7, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589841/targeted-ablation-of-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-in-medaka
#16
Takayoshi Otsuka, Hiroyuki Takeda
The pancreas plays important roles in the regulation of blood glucose, and is a well-studied organ in mammals because its dysfunction causes serious disorders, such as diabetes mellitus. However, mammals have the limited capacity for tissue regeneration in their organs, including pancreas. Fish may be an attractive model for regeneration studies, as fish exhibit a greater capacity for regeneration than do mammals. To elucidate the regenerative capacity of pancreatic β cells in medaka, we generated transgenic lines, in which β cells can be specifically ablated using the nitroreductase (NTR)/metronidazole (Mtz) system...
June 2017: Zoological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589533/effects-of-exendin-4-and-selenium-on-the-expression-of-glp-1r-irs-1-and-preproinsulin-in-the-pancreas-of-diabetic-rats
#17
Ghinwa Barakat, Mohamed E Moustafa, Ibrahim Khalifeh, Mohammad H Hodroj, Anwar Bikhazi, Sandra Rizk
The mechanisms by which exendin-4 and selenium exert their antidiabetic actions are still unclear. Here, we investigated the effects of exendin-4 or selenium administration on the expression of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R), insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), and preproinsulin in the pancreas of diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin administration. Diabetic rats were injected intraperitoneally with 0.03 μg exendin-4/kg body weight/daily or treated with 5 ppm selenium in drinking water for a period of 4 weeks...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589383/von-hippel-lindau-disease-a-single-gene-several-hereditary-tumors
#18
REVIEW
J Crespigio, L C L Berbel, M A Dias, R F Berbel, S S Pereira, D Pignatelli, T L Mazzuco
The Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the predisposition for multiple tumors caused by germline mutations in the tumor suppressor gene VHL. This disease is associated with a high morbidity and mortality and presents a variable expression, with different phenotypes from family to family, affecting different organs during the lifetime. The main manifestations of VHL are hemangioblastomas of the central nervous system and retina, renal carcinomas and cysts, bilateral pheochromocytomas, cystic and solid tumors of the pancreas, cystadenomas of the epididymis, and endolymphatic sac tumors...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583545/simultaneous-subtotal-pancreatectomy-and-streptozotocin-injection-for-diabetes-modeling-in-cynomolgus-monkeys
#19
H Park, J B Park, J H Kim, K W Lee, H S Lee, G-S Kim, D-Y Shin, S-H Oh, S-M Jin, S J Kim
BACKGROUND: In an experimental animal model of islet transplantation, stable induction of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and islet isolation from donor pancreas are essential. Total pancreatectomy for IDDM induction and islet procurement in nonhuman primates leads to unwanted loss of exocrine function and may lead to morbidities associated with IDDM. METHODS: IDDM induction with streptozotocin (STZ) is associated with drug toxicity of STZ and necessitates the killing of another animal for islet procurement...
June 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583543/laparoscopy-assisted-spleen-preserving-distal-pancreatectomy-for-living-donor-pancreas-transplantation
#20
S Date, H Noguchi, K Kaku, K Kurihara, Y Miyasaka, Y Okabe, U Nakamura, T Ohtsuka, M Nakamura
BACKGROUND: Living pancreas transplantation plays an important role in the treatment of patients with severe type 1 diabetes. However, pancreatectomy is very invasive for the donor, and less-invasive surgical procedures are needed. Although some reports have described hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery for distal pancreatectomy in living-donor operations, less-invasive laparoscopy-assisted (LA) procedures are expected to increase the donor pool. We herein report the outcomes of four cases of LA spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy (Warshaw technique [WT]) in living pancreas donors...
June 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
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