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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713640/human-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-respond-to-short-term-hypoxia-by-secreting-factors-beneficial-for-human-islets-in-vitro-and-potentiate-antidiabetic-effect-in-vivo
#1
Simen W Schive, Mohammad Reza Mirlashari, Grete Hasvold, Mengyu Wang, Dag Josefsen, Hans Petter Gullestad, Olle Korsgren, Aksel Foss, Gunnar Kvalheim, Hanne Scholz
Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) release factors beneficial for islets in vitro and protect against hyperglycemia in rodent models of diabetes. Oxygen tension has been shown to induce metabolic changes and alter ASCs' release of soluble factors. The effects of hypoxia on the antidiabetic properties of ASCs have not been explored. To investigate this, we incubated human ASCs for 48 h in 21% (normoxia) or 1% O2 (hypoxia) and compared viability, cell growth, surface markers, differentiation capability, and soluble factors in the conditioned media (CM)...
2017: Cell Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710249/amyloid-precursor-protein-in-pancreatic-islets
#2
Joshua Kulas, Kendra Puig, Colin K Combs
The amyloid precursor protein (APP) has been extensively investigated for its role in the production of amyloid beta (Aβ), a plaque forming peptide in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Epidemiological evidence suggests type 2 diabetes is a risk factor for AD. The pancreas is an essential regulator of blood glucose levels through the secretion of the hormones insulin and glucagon. Pancreatic dysfunction is a well characterized consequence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. In this study we have examined the expression and processing of pancreatic APP to test the hypothesis that APP may play a role in pancreatic function and the pathophysiology of diabetes...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705881/defining-a-novel-role-for-the-pdx1-transcription-factor-in-islet-%C3%AE-cell-maturation-and-proliferation-during-weaning
#3
Jason M Spaeth, Manisha Gupte, Mark Perelis, Yu-Ping Yang, Holly Cyphert, Shuangli Guo, Jin-Hua Liu, Min Guo, Joseph Bass, Mark A Magnuson, Christopher Wright, Roland Stein
The transcription factor encoded by the Pancreas Duodenum Homeobox-1 (Pdx1) gene is a critical transcriptional regulator, as it has fundamental actions in the formation of all pancreatic cell types, islet β cell development, and adult islet β cell function. Transgenic- and cell line-based experiments have identified 5'-flanking conserved sequences that control pancreatic and β cell-type-specific transcription, which are found within Area I (base pairs (bp) -2694 to -2561), II (bp -2139 to -1958), III (bp -1879 to -1799), and IV (bp -6200 to -5670)...
July 13, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702321/a-high-content-small-molecule-screen-identifies-novel-inducers-of-definitive-endoderm
#4
Alexander Korostylev, Pallavi U Mahaddalkar, Oliver Keminer, Kamyar Hadian, Kenji Schorpp, Philip Gribbon, Heiko Lickert
OBJECTIVES: Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) can generate any given cell type in the human body. One challenge for cell-replacement therapy is the efficient differentiation and expansion of large quantities of progenitor cells from pluripotent stem cells produced under good manufacturing practice (GMP). FOXA2 and SOX17 double positive definitive endoderm (DE) progenitor cells can give rise to all endoderm-derived cell types in the thymus, thyroid, lung, pancreas, liver, and gastrointestinal tract...
July 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699200/ultrasonographic-features-of-insulinoma-in-six-ferrets
#5
Ruey-Shyuan Wu, Yi-Jing Liu, Che-Chu Chu, Hock Gan Heng, Min-Yuan Chia, Hsien-Chi Wang, Kuan-Sheng Chen
Insulinoma is a functional, insulin-secreting tumor, arising from the beta islet cells of the pancreas. It is one of the most common neoplasms in ferrets and has been associated with clinical signs of hypoglycemia, such as ptyalism, pawing at the mouth, seizures, lethargy, and coma. The ultrasonographic features of insulinoma in ferrets have not been previously reported. The purpose of this retrospective case series study was to describe the ultrasonographic features of confirmed insulinoma in a group of ferrets...
July 11, 2017: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685509/stepwise-approach-to-problematic-hypoglycemia-in-korea-educational-technological-and-transplant-interventions
#6
REVIEW
Sang Man Jin
Impaired awareness of hypoglycemia has been found to be prevalent in 20% to 40% of people with type 1 diabetes. If a similar prevalence exists in Koreans with type 1 diabetes, at a minimum, thousands of people with type 1 diabetes suffer at least one unpredicted episode of severe hypoglycemia per year in Korea. For patients with problematic hypoglycemia, an evidence-based stepwise approach was suggested in 2015. The first step is structured education regarding multiple daily injections of an insulin analog, and the second step is adding a technological intervention, such as continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion or real-time continuous glucose monitoring...
June 2017: Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681964/a-shared-comparison-of-diabetes-mellitus-and-neurodegenerative-disorders
#7
Mahmoud Morsi, Ahmed Maher, Ahmed Metwally, Omnia Abo-Elmagd, Dina Johar, Larry Bernstein
Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is one of the most common diseases in the world population, associated with obesity, pancreatic endocrine changes, cardiovascular disease, renal glomerular disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral neuropathy, neurodegenerative disease, retinal disease, sleep apnea, some of which are bundled into the metabolic syndrome. The main characteristic of this disease is hyperglycemia, and often with albuminuria. Nevertheless, the classic features, with ketoacidosis in the extreme, are only a first layer of description of this condition...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681493/changes-in-the-pancreas-in-experimental-diabetes-and-the-effect-of-lycopene-on-these-changes-proliferating-apoptotic-and-estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-positive-cells
#8
Mustafa Sandıkcı, Levent Karagenc, Mustafa Yıldız
This study aimed to investigate the changes occurring in estrogen receptor (ER) α-positive cells, proliferating cells, apoptotic cells and malondialdehyde expression in the pancreas of experimentally induced adult diabetic rats and to determine the effect of orally administered lycopene on these changes. Experimental diabetes was induced using a single dose of 50 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ). Following the administration of STZ, four groups of animals were established: Control+corn oil, control+lycopene, diabetic+corn oil and diabetic+lycopene...
July 6, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679961/islet-inflammation-and-ductal-proliferation-may-be-linked-to-increased-pancreatitis-risk-in-type-2-diabetes
#9
Belinda Schludi, Abu Saleh Md Moin, Chiara Montemurro, Tatyana Gurlo, Aleksey V Matveyenko, David Kirakossian, David W Dawson, Sarah M Dry, Peter C Butler, Alexandra E Butler
Pancreatitis is more frequent in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), although the underlying cause is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that ongoing β cell stress and apoptosis in T2DM induces ductal tree proliferation, particularly the pancreatic duct gland (PDG) compartment, and thus potentially obstructs exocrine outflow, a well-established cause of pancreatitis. PDG replication was increased 2-fold in human pancreas from individuals with T2DM, and was associated with increased pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN), lesions associated with pancreatic inflammation and with the potential to obstruct pancreatic outflow...
July 6, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679401/heterotopic-pancreas-in-the-omphalomesenteric-duct-remnant-in-a-9-month-old-girl-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#10
Zitong Zhao, Chiang Khi Sim, Sangeeta Mantoo
BACKGROUND: Heterotopic pancreas most commonly occurs in the upper gastrointestinal tract of adults, usually as an incidental finding. It seldom occurs at the umbilicus, and even rarely in the pediatric age group. CASE PRESENTATION: Here we present a case of heterotopic pancreatic tissue in the omphalomesenteric duct remnant of a 9-month-old baby girl. She presented with redness at the base of the umbilicus associated with occasional mild wetness. A urachal fistula was suspected by ultrasound...
July 5, 2017: Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672975/the-protective-effect-of-ginsenoside-rg1-on-aging-mouse-pancreas-damage-induced-by-d-galactose
#11
Zhaoying Dong, Mengxiong Xu, Jie Huang, Linbo Chen, Jieyu Xia, Xiongbin Chen, Rong Jiang, Lu Wang, Yaping Wang
The protective effect and mechanism of Ginsenoside Rg1 on aging mouse pancreas damaged by D-galactose (D-gal)-induced was studied. Two-month-old male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into three groups of 10 mice per group. The D-gal group of mice received hypodermic injection of D-gal (120 mg/kg/day) for 42 days; the Rg1+D-gal group of mice receiving D-gal + intraperitoneal injection Rg1 (40 mg/kg/day) for 27 days from the 16th day of D-gal replication; and the naïve group that constituted the normal control mice receiving the same dose of saline instead of the drug...
July 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670537/the-serological-and-biochemical-markers-of-adrenal-cortex-and-endocrine-pancreas-dysfunction-in-patients-with-hashimoto-s-thyroiditis-a-hospital-based-pilot-study
#12
Jaya Prakash Sahoo, Jayakumar Selviambigapathy, Sadishkumar Kamalanathan, V S Negi, M G Sridhar, Sitanshu Sekhar Kar, Muthupillai Vivekanandan
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of both islet cell and adrenal autoimmunity among Asian Indian hypothyroidism patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) is lacking in literature. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to assess the proportion of Addison's disease (AD) and type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in patients with HT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The patients with hypothyroidism due to HT were included in this study over 2 years. Primary hypothyroidism was defined as high serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (>5...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670511/radioactive-iodine-therapy-and-glucose-tolerance
#13
REVIEW
Roghaieh Samadi, Babak Shafiei, Fereidoun Azizi, Asghar Ghasemi
Radioactive iodine therapy is commonly used as an adjuvant therapy in follicular and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and in the treatment of Graves' disease (GD). The basis of this therapy is the accumulation of radioactive iodine by the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) in the thyroid gland. Expression of NIS by extrathyroidal tissues such as islets of pancreas has been reported. Radioactive iodine uptake by pancreatic beta-cells can potentially damage these cells. In this study, we discuss the possible associations between radioactive iodine and glucose intolerance...
July 2017: Cell Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663145/type-1-diabetes-and-type-1-interferonopathies-localization-of-a-type-1-common-thread-of-virus-infection-in-the-pancreas
#14
REVIEW
Virginie S E Jean-Baptiste, Chang-Qing Xia, Michael J Clare-Salzler, Marc S Horwitz
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) has been associated with both genetic and environmental factors. Increasing incidence of T1D worldwide is prompting researchers to adopt different approaches to explain the biology of T1D, beyond the presence and activity of autoreactive lymphocytes. In this review, we propose inflammatory pathways as triggers for T1D. Within the scope of those inflammatory pathways and in understanding the pathogenesis of disease, we suggest that viruses, in particular Coxsackieviruses, act by causing a type 1 interferonopathy within the pancreas and the microenvironment of the islet...
June 21, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662504/anti-diabetic-effects-of-the-ethyl-acetate-fraction-of-trichilia-catigua-in-streptozo-tocin-induced-type-1-diabetic-rats
#15
Rodrigo Mello Gomes, Luis Fernando de Paulo, Cynthia Priscilla do Nascimento Bonato Panizzon, Camila Quaglio Neves, Bruna Colombo Cordeiro, Jacqueline Nelisis Zanoni, Flávio Andrade Francisco, Silvano Piovan, Paulo Cezar de Freitas Mathias, Renata Longhini, João Carlos Palazzo de Mello, Júlio Cezar de Oliveira, Gustavo Rodrigues Pedrino, Angela Adamski da Silva Reis, Alessandra Lourenço Cecchini, Maria Raquel Marçal Natali
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Trichilia catigua A. Juss., known as "catuaba" in Brazil, has been popularly used as a tonic for fatigue, impotence and memory deficits. Previously, our group demonstrated that the ethyl-acetate fraction (EAF) of T. catigua has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. The present study evaluated the anti-diabetic activity of EAF in type 1 diabetic rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups (N: non-diabetic group, D: type 1 diabetic group, NC: non-diabetic + EAF group and DC: type 1 diabetic + EAF group)...
June 29, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658792/serous-microcystic-adenoma-of-pancreas-a-case-series-from-a-tertiary-care-centre-in-southern-india
#16
K Rajasree Varma, Saji Francis, P P Sathi, C Saikiran Reddy
Serous microcystic adenoma is a rare exocrine tumour of the cystic neoplasm of pancreas seen predominantly in the elderly population. The first patient was a 56-year-old diabetic woman with abdominal pain, constipation and loss of weight since two months. The second patient was a 73-year-old female with complaints of abdominal pain and back pain since one year. The third patient was a 72-year-old diabetic man with complaints of burning sensation in the right lumbar region since two months. Clinical and laboratory examinations were normal...
May 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656301/involvement-of-exogenous-3%C3%A2-deoxyglucosone-in-%C3%AE-%C3%A2-cell-dysfunction-induces-impaired-glucose-regulation
#17
Lurong Zhang, Liang Zhou, Xiudao Song, Guoqiang Liang, Zhongrui Xu, Fei Wang, Fei Huang, Guorong Jiang
β‑cell dysfunction is the primary cause of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). 1,2‑dicarbonyl compounds, such as 3‑deoxyglucosone (3DG) have been reported to increase the risk of T2DM. Abnormal elevation of plasma 3DG may impair β‑cell function and thereby, it is linked to T2DM. Previous findings suggest that exogenous 3DG may serve an important role in the development of pre‑diabetes. In the present study, the authors examine whether exogenous 3DG induces impaired glucose regulation in mice by decreasing β‑cell function involving of accumulation of plasma 3DG...
June 27, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655651/cichoric-acid-improved-hyperglycaemia-and-restored-muscle-injury-via-activating-antioxidant-response-in-mld-stz-induced-diabetic-mice
#18
Di Zhu, Xinglin Zhang, Yajie Niu, Zhijun Diao, Bo Ren, Xingyu Li, Zhigang Liu, Xuebo Liu
Cichoric acid (CA), extracted from edible plants and vegetables, is a potential natural nutraceutical, with antioxidant and hypoglycaemic biological functions. The objective of this study was to explore the potential underlying molecular mechanisms involved in normalizing diabetes-related changes in hyperglycaemia via pancreas apoptosis and muscle injury induced by multiple low-dose STZ (MLD-STZ) injection in response to dietary supplementation with CA. To induce the MLD-STZ diabetic mice, the C57BL/6J mice were intraperitoneally injected with STZ (50 mg/kg body weight) for consecutive five days...
June 26, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655312/transplantation-of-human-fetal-pancreatic-progenitor-cells-ameliorates-renal-injury-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-nephropathy
#19
Yongwei Jiang, Wenjian Zhang, Shiqing Xu, Hua Lin, Weiguo Sui, Honglin Liu, Liang Peng, Qing Fang, Li Chen, Jinning Lou
BACKGROUND: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a severe complication of diabetes mellitus (DM). Pancreas or islet transplantation has been reported to prevent the development of DN lesions and ameliorate or reverse existing glomerular lesions in animal models. Shortage of pancreas donor is a severe problem. Islets derived from stem cells may offer a potential solution to this problem. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of stem cell-derived islet transplantation on DN in a rat model of streptozotocin-induced DM...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646042/on-the-role-il-4-il-13-heteroreceptor-plays-in-regulation-of-type-1-diabetes
#20
Tobechukwu K Ukah, Alexis N Cattin-Roy, Weirong Chen, Mindy M Miller, Subhasis Barik, Habib Zaghouani
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) manifests when the insulin-producing pancreatic β cells are destroyed as a consequence of an inflammatory process initiated by lymphocytes of the immune system. The NOD mouse develops T1D spontaneously and serves as an animal model for human T1D. The IL-4Rα/IL-13Rα1 heteroreceptor (HR) serves both IL-4 and IL-13 cytokines, which are believed to function as anti-inflammatory cytokines in T1D. However, whether the HR provides a responsive element to environmental (i.e., physiologic) IL-4/IL-13 in the regulation of peripheral tolerance and the development of T1D has yet to be defined...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
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