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Pancreas islet

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333970/-epicatechin-3-o-%C3%AE-d-allopyranoside-from-davallia-formosana-prevents-diabetes-and-dyslipidemia-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-mice
#1
Cheng-Hsiu Lin, Jin-Bin Wu, Jia-Ying Jian, Chun-Ching Shih
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects and molecular mechanism of (-)-epicatechin-3-O-β-D-allopyranoside from Davallia formosana (BB) (also known as Gu-Sui-Bu) on type 1 diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. This plant was demonstrated to display antioxidant activities and possess polyphenol contents. Diabetic mice were randomly divided into six groups and were given daily oral gavage doses of either BB (at three dosage levels), metformin (Metf) (at 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325643/alpha-cells-the-main-source-of-il-1%C3%AE-in-human-pancreas
#2
Florence Anquetil, Somayeh Sabouri, Charles Thivolet, Teresa Rodriguez-Calvo, Jose Zapardiel-Gonzalo, Natalie Amirian, Darius Schneider, Ericka Castillo, Yasaman Lajevardi, Matthias G von Herrath
Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is known to trigger beta cell dysfunction in vitro and could potentially play a role during the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. However, several clinical trials attempting to block IL-1β function have had minimal success. We therefore re-investigated local expression of IL-1β in human diabetic and non-diabetic pancreata. We obtained pancreatic tissue sections from the Network for Pancreatic Organ Donors with Diabetes (nPOD) including non-diabetic (n = 9), non-diabetic auto-antibody positive (AAb+, n = 5), type 1 diabetes (n = 6), and type 2 diabetes (n = 6) donors...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324008/vessel-network-architecture-of-adult-human-islets-promotes-distinct-cell-cell-interactions-in-situ-and-is-altered-after-transplantation
#3
Christian M Cohrs, Chunguang Chen, Stephan R Jahn, Julia Stertmann, Helena Chmelova, Jürgen Weitz, Andrea Bähr, Nikolai Klymiuk, Anja Steffen, Barbara Ludwig, Virginia Kamvissi, Eckhard Wolf, Stefan R Bornstein, Michele Solimena, Stephan Speier
Islet cell hormone release is modulated by signals from endothelial and endocrine cells within the islet. However, models of intra-islet vascularization and paracrine cell signaling are mostly based on rodent pancreas. We here assessed for the first time the architecture and endocrine cell interaction of the vascular network in unperturbed human islets in situ and their potential to re-establish their endogenous vascular network after transplantation in vivo. We prepared pancreas tissue slices of fresh tissue obtained from non-diabetic patients undergoing partial pancreatectomy...
January 27, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323942/incretin-therapies-do-not-expand-%C3%AE-cell-mass-or-alter-pancreatic-histology-in-young-male-mice
#4
Aaron R Cox, Carol J Lam, Matthew M Rankin, Jacqueline S Rios, Julia Chavez, Claire W Bonnyman, Kourtney B King, Roger A Wells, Deepti Anthony, Justin X Tu, Jenny J Kim, Changhong Li, Jake A Kushner
The impact of incretins upon pancreatic β-cell expansion remains extremely controversial. Multiple studies indicate that incretin-based therapies can increase β-cell proliferation, and incretins have been hypothesized to expand β-cell mass. However, considerable disagreement exists on whether incretins actually increase β-cell mass. Moreover, some reports indicate that incretins may cause metaplastic changes in pancreatic histology. To resolve these questions we treated a large cohort of mice with incretin-based therapies and carried out a rigorous analysis of β-cell turnover and pancreatic histology using high-throughput imaging...
March 8, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319566/pancreas-transplantation-from-pediatric-donors-a-unos-registry-analysis
#5
Mario Spaggiari, Martha Bissing, Maya Campara, Chun-Chieh Yeh, Ivo Tzvetanov, Hoonbae Jeon, Enrico Benedetti
BACKGROUND: Pancreas grafts from pediatric donors are still considered "not ideal". Perceived concerns are related to low islet mass and potential for graft thrombosis. METHODS: The study evaluated all pancreas transplants from January 2000 to May 2015 using the Organ Procurement and Transplant Network (OPTN) database. Comparative analysis of recipient and graft survival was performed between pediatric (≤18 years) and adult donors. In the pediatric group, the outcomes were stratified based on donor age (≤ 6 years; 7-12 years; 13-18 years) and weight (<30 kg; 30-95 Kg; >95 kg)...
March 18, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317048/acth-producing-neuroendocrine-tumor-of-the-pancreas-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#6
Justin Byun, Sung Hyun Kim, Hyang Sook Jeong, Yumie Rhee, Woo Jung Lee, Chang Moo Kang
Tumors that arise from the endocrine pancreas, or the islets of pancreas, are called pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Pancreatic NET have an incidence of <0.1 per one million persons, and can lead to secretion of ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). Herein, we presented a case of patient with Cushing's syndrome as a result of ACTH-producing pancreatic NET, who underwent successful laparoscopic distal pancreatosplenectomy. A 40-year-old Korean female patient with ophthalmologic discomfort, osteoporosis, and unexplained hypokalemia was admitted to our hospital...
February 2017: Ann Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303682/ultrastructural-alterations-of-pancreatic-beta-cells-in-human-diabetes-mellitus
#7
Matilde Masini, Luisa Martino, Lorella Marselli, Marco Bugliani, Ugo Boggi, Franco Filipponi, Piero Marchetti, Vincenzo De Tata
AIMS: Both types of diabetes are characterized by beta-cell failure and death, leading to insulin insufficiency. Very limited information is currently available about the ultrastructural alterations of beta cells in human diabetes. Our aim was to provide a comprehensive ultrastructural analysis of human pancreatic islets in type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS: We performed a morphometric electron microscopy evaluation of beta cells obtained from the pancreas of 8 non-diabetic (ND), 5 type 1 (T1D) and 8 type 2 (T2D) diabetic organ donors...
March 16, 2017: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296236/development-of-the-endocrine-pancreas-in-the-beagle-dog-from-fetal-to-adult-life
#8
Emilie Bricout-Neveu, Severine Pechberty, Karine Reynaud, Cindy Maenhoudt, Marie José Lecomte, Philippe Ravassard, Paul Czernichow
Our objectives were to describe, in Beagle dogs, the ontogenesis of beta (insulin-producing) and alpha (glucagon-producing) cells from fetal to early postnatal life and adulthood. In addition, to have some insight into interspecies comparison, Beagle dog pancreases were compared to pancreases from a Labrador and Chow Chow. At midgestation, the epithelium was dense, beta cells scarce, and alpha cells numerous and concentrated in the center of the pancreatic bud. From 36 to 45 days post conception (pc), beta cell numbers increased and the epithelium expanded and branched out...
March 14, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291266/spatial-and-quantitative-datasets-of-the-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-mass-distribution-in-lean-and-obese-mice
#9
Saba Parween, Maria Eriksson, Christoffer Nord, Elena Kostromina, Ulf Ahlgren
A detailed understanding of pancreatic β-cell mass distribution is a key element to fully appreciate the pathophysiology of models of diabetes and metabolic stress. Commonly, such assessments have been performed by stereological approaches that rely on the extrapolation of two-dimensional data and provide very limited topological information. We present ex vivo optical tomographic data sets of the full β-cell mass distribution in cohorts of obese ob/ob mice and their lean controls, together with information about individual islet β-cell volumes, their three-dimensional coordinates and shape throughout the volume of the pancreas between 4 and 52 weeks of age...
March 14, 2017: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283939/high-dose-of-radioactive-iodine-per-se-has-no-effect-on-glucose-metabolism-in-thyroidectomized-rats
#10
Roghaieh Samadi, Mahboubeh Ghanbari, Babak Shafiei, Sevda Gheibi, Fereidoun Azizi, Asghar Ghasemi
PURPOSE: Thyroid concentrates radioactive iodine by sodium-iodide symporter; this is used for treating hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer. Pancreas expresses NIS and radioactive iodine uptake may damage pancreatic beta-cells and predispose patients to type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine whether radioactive iodine is associated with glucose metabolism in thyroidectomized rats. METHODS: Forty male Wistar rats were divided into four groups (n = 10/each); control, thyroidectomized, thyroidectomized-treated with 131-I (TX+I), and thyroidectomized-treated with 131-I and L-thyroxine (TX+I+T4)...
March 10, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280376/single-donor-islet-transplantation-in-type-1-diabetes-patient-selection-and-special-considerations
#11
REVIEW
Jacob A Tatum, Max O Meneveau, Kenneth L Brayman
Type 1 diabetes mellitus is an autoimmune disorder of the endocrine pancreas that currently affects millions of people in the United States. Although the disease can be managed with exogenous insulin administration, the ultimate cure for the condition lies in restoring a patient's ability to produce their own insulin. Islet cell allotransplantation provides a means of endogenous insulin production. Though far from perfected, islet transplants are now a proven treatment for type 1 diabetics. However, proper patient selection is critical for achieving optimal outcomes...
2017: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279194/crispr-targeted-genome-editing-of-mesenchymal-stem-cell-derived-therapies-for-type-1-diabetes-a-path-to-clinical-success
#12
REVIEW
Dario Gerace, Rosetta Martiniello-Wilks, Najah Therese Nassif, Sara Lal, Raymond Steptoe, Ann Margaret Simpson
Due to their ease of isolation, differentiation capabilities, and immunomodulatory properties, the therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been assessed in numerous pre-clinical and clinical settings. Currently, whole pancreas or islet transplantation is the only cure for people with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and, due to the autoimmune nature of the disease, MSCs have been utilised either natively or transdifferentiated into insulin-producing cells (IPCs) as an alternative treatment. However, the initial success in pre-clinical animal models has not translated into successful clinical outcomes...
March 9, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273645/biomarkers-of-stress-mediated-metabolic-deregulation-in-diabetes-mellitus
#13
REVIEW
Dina R Johar, Larry H Bernstein
This review illustrates the relationship of oxidative and nitrative stress to diabetes mellitus and its complications. This is of considerable interest because diabetes mellitus is a lifetime systemic metabolic disease that may have childhood or adult onset and affects not only a triad of pancreatic islet cell insulin, pituitary insulin-like growth hormone, and liver steatosis, it has a long-term association with adiposity, atherosclerosis, coronary vascular disease, kidney disease of the nature afferent arteriolar sclerosis and nodular glomerulosclerosis, cerebrovascular disease, and amyloid deposition in the pancreas and kidney...
February 24, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272982/role-of-alpha-lipoic-acid-in-ameliorating-cyclosporine-a-induced-pancreatic-injury-in-albino-rats-a-structural-ultrastructural-and-morphometric-study
#14
Hala F Abd-Ellah, Nadia R A Abou-Zeid
The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of alpha-lipoic acid (α-LA) against cyclosporine A (CsA)-induced pancreatic toxicity in rats. Thirty-two male albino rats were divided into four equal groups. Group I treated orally (per os, p.o.) with vehicles and served as control; Group II received α-LA (100 mg/kg b.w. /day, p.o.) for 21 days; Group III received CsA (25 mg/kg b.w./day, p.o.) for 21 days; and Group IV received α-LA 1 hr before oral treatment by CsA for 21 days. Histological examination of the pancreas of CsA-treated rats showed marked changes represented by wide interlobular septae that contained congested blood vessels, cytoplasmic vacuolation of some acinar cells, and distortion of the other cells...
March 8, 2017: Ultrastructural Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271032/bezafibrate-ameliorates-diabetes-via-reduced-steatosis-and-improved-hepatic-insulin-sensitivity-in-diabetic-tallyho-mice
#15
Andras Franko, Susanne Neschen, Jan Rozman, Birgit Rathkolb, Michaela Aichler, Annette Feuchtinger, Laura Brachthäuser, Frauke Neff, Marketa Kovarova, Eckhard Wolf, Helmut Fuchs, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Andreas Peter, Martin Hrabě de Angelis
OBJECTIVE: Recently, we have shown that Bezafibrate (BEZ), the pan-PPAR (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor) activator, ameliorated diabetes in insulin deficient streptozotocin treated diabetic mice. In order to study whether BEZ can also improve glucose metabolism in a mouse model for fatty liver and type 2 diabetes, the drug was applied to TallyHo mice. METHODS: TallyHo mice were divided into an early (ED) and late (LD) diabetes progression group and both groups were treated with 0...
March 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269785/the-link-between-type-2-diabetes-and-neurodegeneration-roles-for-amyloid-%C3%AE-amylin-and-tau-proteins
#16
Prashant Bharadwaj, Nadeeja Wijesekara, Milindu Liyanapathirana, Philip Newsholme, Lars Ittner, Paul Fraser, Giuseppe Verdile
A wealth of evidence indicates a strong link between type 2 diabetes (T2D) and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although the precise mechanism remains unclear, T2D can exacerbate neurodegenerative processes. Brain atrophy, reduced cerebral glucose metabolism, and central nervous system insulin resistance are features of both AD and T2D. The T2D phenotype (glucose dyshomeostasis, insulin resistance, impaired insulin signaling) also promotes AD pathology, namely accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) and hyperphosphorylated tau and can induce other aspects of neuronal degeneration including inflammatory and oxidative processes...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266040/ex-vivo-porcine-organ-perfusion-models-as-a-suitable-platform-for-translational-transplant-research
#17
Rohan Kumar, Wen Yuan Chung, Ashley Robert Dennison, Giuseppe Garcea
In transplantation surgery, extending the criteria for organ donation to include organs that may have otherwise been previously discarded has provided the impetus to improve organ preservation. The traditional method of cold static storage (CS) has been tried and tested and is suitable for organs meeting standard criteria donation. Ex vivo machine perfusion is, however, associated with evidence suggesting that it may be better than CS alone and may allow for organ donation criteria to be extended. Much of our knowledge of organ preservation is derived from animal studies...
March 6, 2017: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262806/functional-annotation-of-sixty-five-type-2-diabetes-risk-snps-and-its-application-in-risk-prediction
#18
Yiming Wu, Runyu Jing, Yongcheng Dong, Qifan Kuang, Yan Li, Ziyan Huang, Wei Gan, Yue Xue, Yizhou Li, Menglong Li
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than sixty single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with increased risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, the identification of causal risk SNPs for T2D pathogenesis was complicated by the factor that each risk SNP is a surrogate for the hundreds of SNPs, most of which reside in non-coding regions. Here we provide a comprehensive annotation of 65 known T2D related SNPs and inspect putative functional SNPs probably causing protein dysfunction, response element disruptions of known transcription factors related to T2D genes and regulatory response element disruption of four histone marks in pancreas and pancreas islet...
March 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261314/maternal-high-fat-diet-intensifies-the-metabolic-response-to-stress-in-male-rat-offspring
#19
Roxana Karbaschi, Homeira Zardooz, Fariba Khodagholi, Leila Dargahi, Mina Salimi, FatemehSadat Rashidi
BACKGROUND: The mother's consumption of high-fat food can affect glucose metabolism and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responsiveness in the offspring and potentially affect the metabolic responses to stress as well. This study examines the effect of maternal high-fat diet on the expression of pancreatic glucose transporter 2 and the secretion of insulin in response to stress in offspring. METHODS: Female rats were randomly divided into normal and high-fat diet groups and were fed in accordance with their given diets from pre-pregnancy to the end of lactation...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261303/stimulation-of-%C3%AE-adrenergic-receptors-plays-a-protective-role-via-increased-expression-of-raf-1-and-pdx-1-in-hyperglycemic-rat-pancreatic-islet-rin-m5f-cells
#20
Sher Zaman Safi, Rajes Qvist, Gracie Ong, Hamed Karimian, Muhammad Imran, Ikram Shah
INTRODUCTION: It is a widely held view that a progressive reduction of beta-cell mass occurs in the progression of diabetes. RAF-1 kinase and pancreas duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX-1) are major factors that promote survival of cells and maintain normal insulin functions. In this study we investigated the effect of a β-adrenergic receptor agonist and antagonist on RAF-1 and PDX-1, and their respective effects on apoptosis and insulin release in RIN-m5F cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS: RIN-m5F cells were cultured in normal (5 mM) and high (25 mM) glucose to mimic diabetic conditions, followed by treatment with 5 µM, 10 µM and 20 µM of isoproterenol and isoproterenol + propranolol for 6, 12 and 24 h...
March 1, 2017: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
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