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Pancreas islet

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819632/detection-of-islet-cell-immune-reactivity-with-low-glycemic-index-foods-is-this-a-concern-for-type-1-diabetes
#1
Datis Kharrazian, Martha Herbert, Aristo Vojdani
Dietary management of autoimmune diabetes includes low glycemic foods classified from the glycemic index, but it does not consider the role that immunoreactive foods may play with the immunological etiology of the disease. We measured the reactivity of either monoclonal or polyclonal affinity-purified antibodies to insulin, insulin receptor alpha, insulin receptor beta, zinc transporter 8 (ZnT8), tyrosine phosphatase-based islet antigen 2 (IA2), and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 65 and 67 against 204 dietary proteins that are commonly consumed...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813430/reprogramming-human-gallbladder-cells-into-insulin-producing-%C3%AE-like-cells
#2
Feorillo Galivo, Eric Benedetti, Yuhan Wang, Carl Pelz, Jonathan Schug, Klaus H Kaestner, Markus Grompe
The gallbladder and cystic duct (GBCs) are parts of the extrahepatic biliary tree and share a common developmental origin with the ventral pancreas. Here, we report on the very first genetic reprogramming of patient-derived human GBCs to β-like cells for potential autologous cell replacement therapy for type 1 diabetes. We developed a robust method for large-scale expansion of human GBCs ex vivo. GBCs were reprogrammed into insulin-producing pancreatic β-like cells by a combined adenoviral-mediated expression of hallmark pancreatic endocrine transcription factors PDX1, MAFA, NEUROG3, and PAX6 and differentiation culture in vitro...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812213/heterogeneity-in-the-beta-cell-population-a-guided-search-into-its-significance-in-pancreas-and-in-implants
#3
REVIEW
Daniel Pipeleers, Ines De Mesmaeker, Thomas Robert, Freya Van Hulle
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Intercellular differences in function have since long been noticed in the pancreatic beta-cell population. Heterogeneity in cellular glucose responsiveness is considered of physiological and pathological relevance. The present review updates evidence for the physiologic significance of beta-cell heterogeneity in the pancreas. It also briefly discusses what this role would imply for beta-cell implants in diabetes. RECENT FINDINGS: Over the past 3 years, functionally different beta cells have been related to mechanisms that may underlie their heterogeneity in the pancreas, such as the stage in their life cycle and the degree of their clustering to islets with varying vascularization...
August 15, 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808402/role-of-adiantum-philippense-l-on-glucose-uptake-in-isolated-pancreatic-cells-and-inhibition-of-adipocyte-differentiation-in-3t3-l1-cell-line
#4
Tania Paul, Kishori G Apte, Pradeep B Parab, Biswadeep Das
BACKGROUND: Adiantum philippense (AP) is a pteridophyte that shows antihyperglycemic activity in vivo diabetic model, but the mechanism of action is unknown. OBJECTIVE: AP was found to play a pivotal role in minimizing the high blood glucose in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Simultaneously, it was observed that it could maintain the normal lipid profile even in diabetic condition. To investigate its insulin-like activity along with its inhibitory role on adipocyte differentiation became the objective of our present study...
July 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808079/the-impact-of-iugr-on-pancreatic-islet-development-and-%C3%AE-cell-function
#5
Brit H Boehmer, Sean W Limesand, Paul J Rozance
Placental insufficiency is a primary cause of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). IUGR increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) throughout life, which indicates that insults from placental insufficiency impair β-cell development during the perinatal period because β-cells have a central role in the regulation of glucose tolerance. The severely IUGR fetal pancreas is characterized by smaller islets, less β-cells, and lower insulin secretion. Because of the important associations among impaired islet growth, β-cell dysfunction, impaired fetal growth, and the propensity for T2DM, significant progress has been made in understanding the pathophysiology of IUGR and programing events in the fetal endocrine pancreas...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793270/pancreatic-islet-blood-flow-dynamics-in-primates
#6
Juan A Diez, Rafael Arrojo E Drigo, Xiaofeng Zheng, Olga V Stelmashenko, Minni Chua, Rayner Rodriguez-Diaz, Masahiro Fukuda, Martin Köhler, Ingo Leibiger, Sai Bo Bo Tun, Yusuf Ali, George J Augustine, Veluchamy A Barathi, Per-Olof Berggren
Blood flow regulation in pancreatic islets is critical for function but poorly understood. Here, we establish an in vivo imaging platform in a non-human primate where islets transplanted autologously into the anterior chamber of the eye are monitored non-invasively and longitudinally at single-cell resolution. Engrafted islets were vascularized and innervated and maintained the cytoarchitecture of in situ islets in the pancreas. Blood flow velocity in the engrafted islets was not affected by increasing blood glucose levels and/or the GLP-1R agonist liraglutide...
August 8, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791439/metabolic-crosstalk-between-fatty-pancreas-and-fatty-liver-effects-on-local-inflammation-and-insulin-secretion
#7
Felicia Gerst, Robert Wagner, Gabriele Kaiser, Madhura Panse, Martin Heni, Jürgen Machann, Malte N Bongers, Tina Sartorius, Bence Sipos, Falko Fend, Christian Thiel, Silvio Nadalin, Alfred Königsrainer, Norbert Stefan, Andreas Fritsche, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Susanne Ullrich, Dorothea Siegel-Axel
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Obesity-linked ectopic fat accumulation is associated with the development of type 2 diabetes. Whether pancreatic and liver steatosis impairs insulin secretion is controversial. We examined the crosstalk of human pancreatic fat cells with islets and the role of diabetogenic factors, i.e. palmitate and fetuin-A, a hepatokine released from fatty liver. METHODS: Human pancreatic resections were immunohistochemically stained for insulin, glucagon, somatostatin and the macrophage/monocyte marker CD68...
August 8, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789815/bioprinting-and-cellular-therapies-for-type-1-diabetes
#8
REVIEW
Dino J Ravnic, Ashley N Leberfinger, Ibrahim T Ozbolat
Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a chronic autoimmune disease that results from the destruction of beta (β) cells in the pancreatic islets, leading to loss of insulin production and resultant hyperglycemia. Recent developments in stem cell biology have generated much excitement for β-cell replacement strategies; β cells are one of many cell types in the complex islet environment and pancreas. In this Opinion, we discuss recent successful attempts to generate β cells and how this can be coupled with bioprinting technologies in order to fabricate pancreas tissues, which holds great potential for type 1 diabetes...
August 5, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770318/regulatory-t-cell-dysfunction-in-type-1-diabetes-what-s-broken-and-how-can-we-fix-it
#9
REVIEW
Caroline M Hull, Mark Peakman, Timothy I M Tree
Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease characterised by the destruction of insulin producing beta cells in the pancreas. Whilst it remains unclear what the original triggering factors for this destruction are, observations from the natural history of human type 1 diabetes, including incidence rates in twins, suggest that the disease results from a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Whilst many different immune cells have been implicated, including members of the innate and adaptive immune systems, a view has emerged over the past 10 years that beta cell damage is mediated by the combined actions of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells with specificity for islet autoantigens...
August 2, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769554/the-modulation-of-enzyme-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-from-dendritic-cells-for-the-treatment-of-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#10
REVIEW
Débora Moitinho Abram, Luis Gustavo Romani Fernandes, Antônio Celso Saragossa Ramos Filho, Patrícia Ucelli Simioni
Diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM1) is an autoimmune disease in which β-cells of the pancreas islet are destroyed by T lymphocytes. Specific T cells are activated by antigen-presenting cells, mainly dendritic cells (DCs). It is already known that the regulation of tryptophan pathway in DC can be a mechanism of immunomodulation. The enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is present in many cells, including DC, and participates in the metabolism of the amino acid tryptophan. Recent studies suggest the involvement of IDO in the modulation of immune response, which became more evident after the in vitro demonstration of IDO production by DC and of the ability of these cells to inhibit lymphocyte function through the control of tryptophan metabolism...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768911/a-ccr2-myeloid-cell-niche-required-for-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-growth
#11
Kristin Mussar, Stephanie Pardike, Tobias M Hohl, Gary Hardiman, Vincenzo Cirulli, Laura Crisa
Organ-specific patterns of myeloid cells may contribute tissue-specific growth and/or regenerative potentials. The perinatal stage of pancreas development marks a time characterized by maximal proliferation of pancreatic islets, ensuring the maintenance of glucose homeostasis throughout life. Ontogenically distinct CX3CR1+ and CCR2+ macrophage populations have been reported in the adult pancreas, but their functional contribution to islet cell growth at birth remains unknown. Here, we uncovered a temporally restricted requirement for CCR2+ myeloid cells in the perinatal proliferation of the endocrine pancreatic epithelium...
August 3, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767266/paul-langerhans-a-prilgrim-traveling-from-functional-histology-to-marine-biology
#12
REVIEW
Marius Raica, Anca Maria Cimpean
The nineteenth century was the time of a real revolution in science and medicine. A lot of seminal discoveries in medicine and biology were done in this time, and many of them were coincident with the introduction of the compound microscope by Hermann van Deijl and the standard histological technique by Paul Ehrlich. The main tissue types and individual cells were characterized and originally classified more than hundred years ago, although less attention was paid to their basic functions. This was mainly due to the modality of tissue specimen processing that allowed particularly detailed descriptive studies...
June 2017: Acta Medico-historica Adriatica: AMHA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765400/induction-of-iapp-amyloid-deposition-and-associated-diabetic-abnormalities-by-a-prion-like-mechanism
#13
Abhisek Mukherjee, Diego Morales-Scheihing, Natalia Salvadores, Ines Moreno-Gonzalez, Cesar Gonzalez, Kathleen Taylor-Presse, Nicolas Mendez, Mohammad Shahnawaz, A Osama Gaber, Omaima M Sabek, Daniel W Fraga, Claudio Soto
Although a large proportion of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) accumulate misfolded aggregates composed of the islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP), its role in the disease is unknown. Here, we show that pancreatic IAPP aggregates can promote the misfolding and aggregation of endogenous IAPP in islet cultures obtained from transgenic mouse or healthy human pancreas. Islet homogenates immunodepleted with anti-IAPP-specific antibodies were not able to induce IAPP aggregation. Importantly, intraperitoneal inoculation of pancreatic homogenates containing IAPP aggregates into transgenic mice expressing human IAPP dramatically accelerates IAPP amyloid deposition, which was accompanied by clinical abnormalities typical of T2D, including hyperglycemia, impaired glucose tolerance, and a substantial reduction on β cell number and mass...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754350/beneficial-metabolic-effects-of-dietary-epigallocatechin-gallate-alone-and-in-combination-with-exendin-4-in-high-fat-diabetic-mice
#14
Nupur M Pathak, Paul J B Millar, Varun Pathak, Peter R Flatt, Victor A Gault
OBJECTIVE: Significant attempts are being made to generate multifunctional, hybrid or peptide combinations as novel therapeutic strategies for type 2 diabetes, however this presents key challenges including design and pharmaceutical development. In this study, we evaluated metabolic properties of oral nutritional supplement epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) in combination with GLP-1 agonist exendin-4 in a mouse model of dietary-induced diabetes and obesity. METHODS: EGCG, exendin-4 or combination of both were administered twice-daily over 28 days to high fat (HF) mice on background of low-dose streptozotocin...
July 25, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753672/an-increase-in-immature-%C3%AE-cells-lacking-glut2-precedes-the-expansion-of-%C3%AE-cell-mass-in-the-pregnant-mouse
#15
Christine A Beamish, Linhao Zhang, Sandra K Szlapinski, Brenda J Strutt, David J Hill
A compensatory increase in β-cell mass occurs during pregnancy to counter the associated insulin resistance, and a failure in adaptation is thought to contribute to gestational diabetes. Insulin-expressing but glucose-transporter-2-low (Ins+Glut2LO) progenitor cells are present in mouse and human pancreas, being predominantly located in extra-islet β-cell clusters, and contribute to the regeneration of the endocrine pancreas following induced ablation. We therefore sought to investigate the contribution of Ins+Glut2LO cells to β-cell mass expansion during pregnancy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751653/biochemical-profiling-of-diabetes-disease-progression-by-multivariate-vibrational-microspectroscopy-of-the-pancreas
#16
Christoffer Nord, Maria Eriksson, Andrea Dicker, Anna Eriksson, Eivind Grong, Erwin Ilegems, Ronald Mårvik, Bård Kulseng, Per-Olof Berggren, András Gorzsás, Ulf Ahlgren
Despite the dramatic increase in the prevalence of diabetes, techniques for in situ studies of the underlying pancreatic biochemistry are lacking. Such methods would facilitate obtaining mechanistic understanding of diabetes pathophysiology and aid in prognostic and/or diagnostic assessments. In this report we demonstrate how a multivariate imaging approach (orthogonal projections to latent structures - discriminant analysis) can be applied to generate full vibrational microspectroscopic profiles of pancreatic tissues...
July 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742858/reduction-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-mitochondria-interactions-in-beta-cells-from-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#17
Charles Thivolet, Guillaume Vial, Romeo Cassel, Jennifer Rieusset, Anne-Marie Madec
Type 2 diabetes develops when beta cells are not able to fulfill insulin needs. The role of the endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria junction in coordinating the functions of these two organelles throughout the natural history of type 2 diabetes is determinant and may explain the alterations of insulin biosynthesis. Our goal was to study endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial interactions in human beta cells from organ donors with type 2 diabetes. Pancreas samples were obtained via the network for pancreatic organ donors with diabetes (nPOD) based on disease status with 12 subjects with type 2 diabetes and 9 non-diabetic controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735575/negotiating-the-complexities-of-exocrine-and-endocrine-dysfunction-in-chronic-pancreatitis
#18
Sinead N Duggan
Chronic pancreatitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pancreas characterised by irreversible morphological change and typically causing pain and/or permanent loss of function. This progressive, irreversible disease results in destruction of healthy pancreatic tissue and the development of fibrous scar tissue. Gradual loss of exocrine and endocrine function follows, along with clinical manifestations such as steatorrhoea, abdominal pain and diabetes. Nutrition in chronic pancreatitis has been described as a problem area and, until recently, there was little research on the topic...
July 24, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731996/-pancreatitis-genes-and-islet-cells-auto-transplant-updates-and-new-horizons
#19
Edgardo D Rivera Rivera
Pancreatitis is an inflammation of the pancreas that can progress from an acute presentation to an acute recurring presentation and eventually to chronic pancreatitis, which is characterized by irreversible morphological changes and scarring of the pancreas. The entity known as hereditary pancreatitis has been recognized in the literature for years and certainly the discovery of the PRSS1 gene in 1996 marked the beginning of a new era of genetic discoveries associated with the disease. Since then, multiple genes have been described as the causing agents of pancreatitis or disease modifiers, some of the most important ones being the PRSS1, SPINK1, CFTR, CASR, CTRC, CLDN2, and CPA1...
April 2017: Revista de Gastroenterología del Perú: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad de Gastroenterología del Perú
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729853/role-of-melatonin-galanin-and-rfamide-neuropeptides-qrfp26-and-qrfp43-in-the-neuroendocrine-control-of-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-function
#20
REVIEW
Iacopo Gesmundo, Tania Villanova, Dana Banfi, Giacomo Gamba, Riccarda Granata
Glucose homeostasis is finely regulated by a number of hormones and peptides released mainly from the brain, gastrointestinal tract, and muscle, regulating pancreatic secretion through cellular receptors and their signal transduction cascades. The endocrine function of the pancreas is controlled by islets within the exocrine pancreatic tissue that release hormones like insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, pancreatic polypeptide, and ghrelin. Moreover, both exocrine and endocrine pancreatic functions are regulated by a variety of hormonal and neural mechanisms, such as ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, or the inhibitory peptide somatostatin...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
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