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Myeloid regulatory cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897450/vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-overexpression-in-myelodysplastic-syndrome-bone-marrow-cells-biological-and-clinical-implications
#1
Rosangela Invernizzi, Erica Travaglino, Matteo Giovanni Della Porta, Luca Malcovati, Anna Gallì, Raffaella Bastia, Mariella Ciola, Ilaria Ambaglio, Emanuela Boveri, Vittorio Rosti, Mario Cazzola
In myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) may have regulatory effects on the hematopoietic system and contribute to disease progression. We analyzed by immunocytochemistry VEGF expression in bone marrow (BM) cells from 188 patients with MDS and 96 non-hemopathic subjects. We also measured VEGF BM plasma levels and in vitro VEGF release. Our aims were to evaluate whether VEGF expression abnormalities were associated with relevant laboratory or clinical findings and their possible prognostic value...
November 29, 2016: Leukemia & Lymphoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895816/clinical-impact-of-chemotherapy-to-improve-tumor-microenvironment-of-pancreatic-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Takahiro Tsuchikawa, Shintaro Takeuchi, Toru Nakamura, Toshiaki Shichinohe, Satoshi Hirano
A perioperative multimodal strategy including combination chemotherapy and radiotherapy, in addition to surgical resection, has been acknowledged to improve patient prognosis. However chemotherapy has not been actively applied as an immunomodulating modality because of concerns about various immunosuppressive effects. It has recently been shown that certain chemotherapeutic agents could modify tumor microenvironment and host immune responses through several underlying mechanisms such as immunogenic cell death, local T-cell infiltration and also the eradication of immune-suppressing regulatory cells such as regulatory T cells (Tregs) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells...
November 15, 2016: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895397/th17-involvement-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-progression-to-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis
#3
REVIEW
Carla Melisa Chackelevicius, Sabrina Eliana Gambaro, Claudio Tiribelli, Natalia Rosso
The nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. NAFLD encompasses a wide histological spectrum ranging from benign simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Sustained inflammation in the liver is critical in this process. Hepatic macrophages, including liver resident macropaghes (Kupffer cells), monocytes infiltrating the injured liver, as well as specific lymphocytes subsets play a pivotal role in the initiation and perpetuation of the inflammatory response, with a major deleterious impact on the progression of fatty liver to fibrosis...
November 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885273/fatty-acid-binding-protein-fabp4-mechanistically-links-obesity-with-aggressive-aml-by-enhancing-aberrant-dna-methylation-in-aml-cells
#4
F Yan, N Shen, J X Pang, Y W Zhang, E Y Rao, A M Bode, A Al-Kali, D E Zhang, M R Litzow, B Li, S J Liu
Obesity is becoming more prevalent worldwide and is a major risk factor for cancer development. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML), the most common acute leukemia in adults, remains a frequently fatal disease. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which obesity favors AML growth and uncovered the fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) and DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) regulatory axis that mediates aggressive AML in obesity. We showed that leukemia burden was much higher in high-fat diet-induced obese mice, which had higher levels of FABP4 and IL-6 in sera...
November 25, 2016: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875974/nanoparticle-systems-modulating-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#5
Avia Wilkerson, Julian Kim, Alex Y Huang, Mei Zhang
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a heterogeneous population of immature myeloid cells that are preferentially expanded in cancer. They arise from myeloid progenitor cells that do not differentiate into mature dendritic cells (DCs), granulocytes, or macrophages, and are rather thought to play a pivotal role in immune escape and cancer progression. MDSCs are characterized by the ability to suppress T cell proliferation and cytotoxicity, inhibit natural killer T (NKT) cell activation, and induce the differentiation and expansion of regulatory T cells (Treg)...
November 22, 2016: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872207/myeloid-specific-gene-deletion-of-protein-phosphatase-2a-magnifies-myd88-and-trif-dependent-inflammation-following-endotoxin-challenge
#6
Lei Sun, Tiffany T Pham, Timothy T Cornell, Kelli L McDonough, Walker M McHugh, Neal B Blatt, Mary K Dahmer, Thomas P Shanley
Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a member of the intracellular serine/threonine phosphatases. Innate immune cell activation triggered by pathogen-associated molecular patterns is mediated by various protein kinases, and PP2A plays a counter-regulatory role by deactivating these kinases. In this study, we generated a conditional knockout of the α isoform of the catalytic subunit of PP2A (PP2ACα). After crossing with myeloid-specific cre-expressing mice, effective gene knockout was achieved in various myeloid cells...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868073/the-crosstalk-between-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-and-immune-cells-to-establish-immune-tolerance-in-transplantation
#7
REVIEW
Chao Zhang, Shuo Wang, Cheng Yang, Ruiming Rong
Myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a heterogeneous population of myeloid precursor and progenitor cells and endowed with a robust immunosuppressive activity in multiple pathophysiological conditions. Recent studies have uncovered the crosstalk between MDSCs and immune cells (i.e., natural killer cells, dendritic cells, macrophages, natural killer T cells, and regulatory T cells) and its role in the establishment and maintenance of immune tolerant microenvironment in transplantation. Considering their strong immunosuppressive capability, MDSCs could become a prospective clinical regimen during transplantation tolerance induction, resulting in long-term graft survival with decreased or without immunosuppressive drugs...
2016: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866535/-regulatory-analysis-of-hypoxia-on-innate-immunity-of-human-corneal-epithelium
#8
K P Pang, H Pan, X Y Wu
Objective: To investigate the role of hypoxia on the regulation of innate immunity of human corneal epithelium. Methods: Telomerase-immortalized human epithelial cells (THCEs) were incubated under normoxia (21% O2) or hypoxic (1% O2) conditions respectively. After 6, 12, 24, 48 h culture, the mRNA and protein levels of toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis. After 24 h culture, THCEs of each group were challenged respectively with TLR4 ligand lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (1 μg/ml) for 6 h...
November 15, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865176/adoptive-immunotherapy-for-hematological-malignancies-current-status-and-new-insights-in-chimeric-antigen-receptor-t-cells
#9
REVIEW
Alessandro Allegra, Vanessa Innao, Demetrio Gerace, Doriana Vaddinelli, Caterina Musolino
Hematological malignancies frequently express cancer-associated antigens that are shared with normal cells. Such tumor cells elude the host immune system because several T cells targeted against self-antigens are removed during thymic development, and those that persist are eliminated by a regulatory population of T cells. Chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells (CAR-Ts) have emerged as a novel modality for tumor immunotherapy due to their powerful efficacy against tumor cells. These cells are created by transducing genes-coding fusion proteins of tumor antigen-recognition single-chain Fv connected to the intracellular signaling domains of T cell receptors, and are classed as first-, second- and third-generation, differing on the intracellular signaling domain number of T cell receptors...
November 10, 2016: Blood Cells, Molecules & Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861788/phenotypically-resembling-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-are-increased-in-children-with-hiv-and-exposed-infected-with-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#10
Nelita Du Plessis, Ruschca Jacobs, Andrea Gutschmidt, Zhuo Fang, Paul D van Helden, Manfred B Lutz, Anneke C Hesseling, Gerhard Walzl
Increased disease susceptibility during early life has been linked to immune immaturity, regulatory T-cell/TH2 immune biasing and hyporesponsiveness. The contribution of myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) remains uninvestigated. Here, we assessed peripheral MDSC in HIV-infected and -uninfected children with tuberculosis (TB) disease before, during and after TB treatment, along with matched household contacts (HHCs), HIV-exposed, -infected and -uninfected children without recent TB exposure. Serum analytes and enzymes associated with MDSC accumulation/activation/function were measured by colorimetric- and fluorescence arrays...
November 8, 2016: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861288/innate-immune-regulations-and-liver-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#11
Ling Lu, Haoming Zhou, Ming Ni, Xuehao Wang, Ronald Busuttil, Jerzy Kupiec-Weglinski, Yuan Zhai
Liver ischemia reperfusion activates innate immune system to drive the full development of inflammatory hepatocellular injury. Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) stimulate myeloid and dendritic cells via pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to initiate the immune response. Complex intracellular signaling network transduces inflammatory signaling to regulate both innate immune cell activation and parenchymal cell death. Recent studies have revealed that DAMPs may trigger not only proinflammatory but also immune regulatory responses by activating different PRRs or distinctive intracellular signaling pathways or in special cell populations...
December 2016: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853649/cd24-blunts-oral-squamous-cancer-development-and-dampens-the-functional-expansion-of-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells
#12
Caroline W Fugle, Yongliang Zhang, Feng Hong, Shaoli Sun, Caroline Westwater, Saleh Rachidi, Hong Yu, Elizabeth Garret-Mayer, Keith Kirkwood, Bei Liu, Zihai Li
CD24 expression has been implicated in the oncogenesis of multiple types of cancer and high tumor expression is considered a poor prognosis factor; however, the role of CD24 in oral cancer progression is unknown. Unlike other cancer types, we found that higher CD24 levels in human oral cancers are correlated to lower clinical stage and better overall survival. We then dissected the role of CD24 and mechanisms in oral cancer pathogenesis in mice using a genetic strategy and demonstrated that CD24 deficiency increased the oral cavity tumor burden in response to the carcinogen 4-nitroquioline 1-oxide (4-NQO)...
2016: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853305/tropomyosin-receptor-kinase-c-targeted-delivery-of-a-peptidomimetic-ligand-photosensitizer-conjugate-induces-antitumor-immune-responses-following-photodynamic-therapy
#13
Chin Siang Kue, Anyanee Kamkaew, Siew Hui Voon, Lik Voon Kiew, Lip Yong Chung, Kevin Burgess, Hong Boon Lee
Tropomyosin receptor kinase C (TrkC) targeted ligand-photosensitizer construct, IYIY-diiodo-boron-dipyrromethene (IYIY-I2-BODIPY) and its scrambled counterpart YIYI-I2-BODIPY have been prepared. IYIY-I2-BODIPY binds TrkC similar to neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), and NT-3 has been reported to modulate immune responses. Moreover, it could be shown that photodynamic therapy (PDT) elevates antitumor immune responses. This prompted us to investigate the immunological impacts mediated by IYIY-I2-BODIPY in pre- and post-PDT conditions...
November 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851970/the-hematopoietic-transcription-factors-runx1-and-erg-prevent-aml1-eto-oncogene-overexpression-and-onset-of-the-apoptosis-program-in-t-8-21-amls
#14
Amit Mandoli, Abhishek A Singh, Koen H M Prange, Esther Tijchon, Marjolein Oerlemans, Rene Dirks, Menno Ter Huurne, Albertus T J Wierenga, Eva M Janssen-Megens, Kim Berentsen, Nilofar Sharifi, Bowon Kim, Filomena Matarese, Luan N Nguyen, Nina C Hubner, Nagesha A Rao, Emile van den Akker, Lucia Altucci, Edo Vellenga, Hendrik G Stunnenberg, Joost H A Martens
The t(8;21) acute myeloid leukemia (AML)-associated oncoprotein AML1-ETO disrupts normal hematopoietic differentiation. Here, we have investigated its effects on the transcriptome and epigenome in t(8,21) patient cells. AML1-ETO binding was found at promoter regions of active genes with high levels of histone acetylation but also at distal elements characterized by low acetylation levels and binding of the hematopoietic transcription factors LYL1 and LMO2. In contrast, ERG, FLI1, TAL1, and RUNX1 bind at all AML1-ETO-occupied regulatory regions, including those of the AML1-ETO gene itself, suggesting their involvement in regulating AML1-ETO expression levels...
November 15, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848178/dysregulation-of-tet2-in-hematologic-malignancies
#15
REVIEW
Shigeru Chiba
The TET dioxygenases, TET1, TET2, and TET3, catalyze transfer of an oxygen atom to the methyl group of 5-methylcytocine (5-mC), converting it to 5-hydroxymethylcytocine (5-hmC). Among the genes encoding these enzymes, ten-eleven translocation 2 (TET2) is frequently mutated somatically in both myeloid and lymphoid malignancies. Because these TET2 mutations result in the impairment of the dioxygenase activity of TET2, it is thought that these mutations interfere with 5-mC to 5-hmC conversion. There is ample evidence indicating that TET2 mutations are a driver of tumorigenesis in blood cells and that TET2 mutations are often acquired at the hematopoietic stem/early progenitor cell stage...
November 15, 2016: International Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846884/future-perspectives-in-melanoma-research-meeting-report-from-the-melanoma-bridge-napoli-december-1st-4th-2015
#16
Paolo A Ascierto, Sanjiv Agarwala, Gerardo Botti, Alessandra Cesano, Gennaro Ciliberto, Michael A Davies, Sandra Demaria, Reinhard Dummer, Alexander M Eggermont, Soldano Ferrone, Yang Xin Fu, Thomas F Gajewski, Claus Garbe, Veronica Huber, Samir Khleif, Michael Krauthammer, Roger S Lo, Giuseppe Masucci, Giuseppe Palmieri, Michael Postow, Igor Puzanov, Ann Silk, Stefani Spranger, David F Stroncek, Ahmad Tarhini, Janis M Taube, Alessandro Testori, Ena Wang, Jennifer A Wargo, Cassian Yee, Hassane Zarour, Laurence Zitvogel, Bernard A Fox, Nicola Mozzillo, Francesco M Marincola, Magdalena Thurin
The sixth "Melanoma Bridge Meeting" took place in Naples, Italy, December 1st-4th, 2015. The four sessions at this meeting were focused on: (1) molecular and immune advances; (2) combination therapies; (3) news in immunotherapy; and 4) tumor microenvironment and biomarkers. Recent advances in tumor biology and immunology has led to the development of new targeted and immunotherapeutic agents that prolong progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of cancer patients. Immunotherapies in particular have emerged as highly successful approaches to treat patients with cancer including melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), renal cell carcinoma (RCC), bladder cancer, and Hodgkin's disease...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846813/granulocyte-colony-stimulating-factor-treatment-ameliorates-lupus-nephritis-through-the-expansion-of-regulatory-t-cells
#17
Ji-Jing Yan, Enkthuya Jambaldorj, Jae-Ghi Lee, Joon Young Jang, Jung Min Shim, Miyeun Han, Tai Yeon Koo, Curie Ahn, Jaeseok Yang
BACKGROUND: Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) can induce regulatory T cells (Tregs) as well as myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). Despite the immune modulatory effects of G-CSF, results of G-CSF treatment in systemic lupus erythematosus are still controversial. We therefore investigated whether G-CSF can ameliorate lupus nephritis and studied the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: NZB/W F1 female mice were treated with G-CSF or phosphate-buffered saline for 5 consecutive days every week from 24 weeks of age, and were analyzed at 36 weeks of age...
November 15, 2016: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836182/myeloid-dendritic-cells-exhibit-defects-in-activation-and-function-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis
#18
Jürgen Haas, Alexander Schwarz, Mirjam Korporal-Kuhnke, Sven Jarius, Brigitte Wildemann
BACKGROUND: Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are functionally defective in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and this dysfunction is related to an imbalanced composition of naïve and memory Treg subtypes. Several lines of evidence indicate that these abnormalities might result from a premature decline in thymic-dependent Treg neogenesis. Myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) critically determine Treg differentiation in the thymus, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin receptor (TSLPR) expressed on mDCs is a key component of the signaling pathways involved in this process...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826058/the-progenitor-cell-dilemma-cellular-and-functional-heterogeneity-in-assistance-or-escalation-of-liver-injury
#19
REVIEW
Veronika Lukacs-Kornek, Frank Lammert
Liver progenitor cells (LPCs) are quiescent cells that are activated during liver injury and thought to give rise to hepatocytes and cholangiocytes in order to support liver regeneration and tissue restitution. While hepatocytes are capable of self-renewal, during most chronic injuries the proliferative capacity of hepatocytes is inhibited thus LPCs provide main source for regeneration. Despite extensive lineage tracing studies, their role and involvement in these processes are often controversial. Additionally, increasing evidence suggest that the LPC compartment consists of heterogeneous cell populations that are actively involved in cellular interactions with myeloid and lymphoid cells during regeneration...
November 5, 2016: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824808/aberrant-expression-of-microrna-9-contributes-to-development-of-intracranial-aneurysm-by-suppressing-proliferation-and-reducing-contractility-of-smooth-muscle-cells
#20
Jing Luo, Hengwei Jin, Yuhua Jiang, Huijian Ge, Jiwei Wang, Youxiang Li
BACKGROUND MiR-9 is reportedly involved with many diseases, such as acute myeloid leukemia and liver oncogenesis. In the present study we investigated the molecular mechanism, including the potential regulator and signaling pathways, of MYOCD, which is the gene that in humans encodes the protein myocardin. MATERIAL AND METHODS We searched the online miRNA database (www.mirdb.org) with the "seed sequence" located within the 3'-UTR of the target gene, and then validated MYOCD to be the direct gene via luciferase reporter assay system, and further confirmed it in cultured cells by using Western blot analysis and realtime PCR...
November 8, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
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