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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647724/observed-and-projected-trends-in-paediatric-health-resources-and-services-in-china-between-2003-and-2030-a-time-series-study
#1
Xin-Yu Zhang, Ying Gao, Chang-Ping Li, Rong-Xiu Zheng, Jie-Li Chen, Lin Zhao, You-Fa Wang, Yao-Gang Wang
OBJECTIVES: The two-child policy took effect in China on 1 January 2016, thus officially ending the one-child policy. The resultant growth in the population will create a considerable demand for public services such as paediatric healthcare, even while there are limited paediatric resources. We estimated the relationship between paediatric health resources and services and child mortality to determine the degree of the deficiency of such resources in China. Projecting the quantity of paediatric health resource allocation and service supply through 2030 will help provide data reference for future policy decision making...
June 24, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645542/young-children-s-inclusion-decisions-in-moral-and-social-conventional-group-norm-contexts
#2
Michael T Rizzo, Shelby Cooley, Laura Elenbaas, Melanie Killen
Being a member of a peer group involves making decisions about whom to include in or exclude from the group. Sometimes these decisions are related to whether members of the group support or challenge the norms of the group. To examine how young children weigh concerns for group norms and group membership in both moral and social-conventional norm contexts, children (3- to 6-year-olds; N=73) were asked to decide between including an ingroup member who challenged the group's norm or an outgroup member who supported the norm...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639384/nurses-attitudes-towards-older-people-care-an-integrative-review
#3
REVIEW
Kathy L Rush, Stormee Hickey, Sheila Epp, Robert Janke
AIMS/OBJECTIVES: To examine hospital nurses' attitudes towards caring for older adults and delineate associated factors contributing to their attitudes. BACKGROUND: Population aging is of international significance. A nursing workforce able to care for the ageing population is critical for ensuring quality older adult care. A synthesis of research related to nurses' attitudes towards older adult care is important for informing care quality and the nursing workforce issues...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638512/an-early-assessment-of-the-acgme-cler-program-a-national-survey-of-designated-institutional-officials
#4
Timothy R Long, Julie A Doherty, Katrin R Frimannsdottir, Steven H Rose
BACKGROUND: The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) Clinical Learning Environment Review (CLER) is an innovative element of the ACGME's new accreditation system. To date, little information has been collected regarding the value of CLER. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to collect information on designated institutional officials' (DIOs') perspectives about the initial CLER visits conducted at their institutions. METHODS: The authors created and distributed a survey to DIOs about their initial CLER visits...
June 2017: Journal of Graduate Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637880/a-study-comparing-vein-integrity-and-clinical-outcomes-vico-in-open-vein-harvesting-and-two-types-of-endoscopic-vein-harvesting-for-coronary-artery-bypass-grafting-the-vico-randomised-clinical-trial
#5
Bhuvaneswari Krishnamoorthy, William R Critchley, Alexander J Thompson, Katherine Payne, Julie Morris, Rajamiyer V Venkateswaran, Ann L Caress, James E Fildes, Nizar Yonan
Background -Current consensus statements maintain that endoscopic vein harvesting (EVH) should be standard care in coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) but vein quality and clinical outcomes have been questioned. The Vein Integrity and Clinical Outcome (VICO) trial was designed to assess the impact of different vein harvesting methods on vessel damage and if this contributes to clinical outcomes following CABG. Methods -A single centre, randomised clinical trial of patients undergoing CABG with an internal mammary artery, and with one to four vein grafts were recruited...
June 21, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637856/how-to-get-the-most-bang-for-your-buck-the-evolution-and-physiology-of-nutrition-dependent-resource-allocation-strategies
#6
REVIEW
Enoch Ng'oma, Anna M Perinchery, Elizabeth G King
All organisms use resources to grow, survive and reproduce. The supply of these resources varies widely across landscapes and time, imposing ultimate constraints on the maximal trait values for allocation-related traits. In this review, we address three key questions fundamental to our understanding of the evolution of allocation strategies and their underlying mechanisms. First, we ask: how diverse are flexible resource allocation strategies among different organisms? We find there are many, varied, examples of flexible strategies that depend on nutrition...
June 28, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637726/interventions-for-preventing-mother-to-child-hiv-transmission-protocol-of-an-overview-of-systematic-reviews
#7
Windy Mariane Virenia Wariki, Erika Ota, Rintaro Mori, Charles S Wiysonge, Hacsi Horvath, Jennifer S Read
INTRODUCTION: Various interventions to prevent mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT) of HIV have been investigated and implemented. A number of systematic reviews assessing the efficacy of interventions for the prevention of MTCT of HIV reported antiretroviral prophylaxis, caesarean section before labour and before ruptured membranes, and complete avoidance of breastfeeding were efficacious for preventing MTCT of HIV. Recent WHO guidelines recommend lifelong antiretroviral therapy for all pregnant women for treatment of the woman's own HIV infection and for prevention of MTCT of HIV...
June 21, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637477/determinants-of-intra-household-food-allocation-between-adults-in-south-asia-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Helen Harris-Fry, Niva Shrestha, Anthony Costello, Naomi M Saville
BACKGROUND: Nutrition interventions, often delivered at the household level, could increase their efficiency by channelling resources towards pregnant or lactating women, instead of leaving resources to be disproportionately allocated to traditionally favoured men. However, understanding of how to design targeted nutrition programs is limited by a lack of understanding of the factors affecting the intra-household allocation of food. METHODS: We systematically reviewed literature on the factors affecting the allocation of food to adults in South Asian households (in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Islamic Republic of Iran, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka) and developed a framework of food allocation determinants...
June 21, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637473/sustainability-in-health-care-by-allocating-resources-effectively-share-7-supporting-staff-in-evidence-based-decision-making-implementation-and-evaluation-in-a-local-healthcare-setting
#9
Claire Harris, Kelly Allen, Cara Waller, Tim Dyer, Vanessa Brooke, Marie Garrubba, Angela Melder, Catherine Voutier, Anthony Gust, Dina Farjou
BACKGROUND: This is the seventh in a series of papers reporting Sustainability in Health care by Allocating Resources Effectively (SHARE) in a local healthcare setting. The SHARE Program was a systematic, integrated, evidence-based program for resource allocation within a large Australian health service. It aimed to facilitate proactive use of evidence from research and local data; evidence-based decision-making for resource allocation including disinvestment; and development, implementation and evaluation of disinvestment projects...
June 21, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637449/task-shifting-interpersonal-counseling-for-depression-a-pragmatic-randomized-controlled-trial-in-primary-care
#10
Camila T Matsuzaka, Milton Wainberg, Andrea Norcini Pala, Elis V Hoffmann, Bruno M Coimbra, Rosaly F Braga, Annika C Sweetland, Marcelo F Mello
BACKGROUND: Task shifting approaches (rational redistribution of tasks among health workforce teams) to train lay professionals to assist with integrating mental health treatment in primary care has been recommended to close the mental health treatment gap for depression in low- and middle-income countries. This study aims to examine the a new model for depression care in a low-resource environment compared to enhanced treatment at usual (E-TAU). METHODS: We trained non-specialist community health workers (local lay employees of the public health system) to provide Interpersonal Counseling (IPC) to treat depressive symptoms in the Brazilian, São Paulo city, family health strategy (FHS)...
June 21, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634891/a-scoping-review-of-the-public-health-impact-of-vitamin-d-fortified-dairy-products-for-fracture-prevention
#11
REVIEW
Mickael Hiligsmann, Audrey Neuprez, Fanny Buckinx, Médéa Locquet, Jean-Yves Reginster
PURPOSE: Dairy products are rich in nutrients that positively influence bone health and hence fracture risk, and have therefore been recommended and used for fracture prevention. To help decision makers to efficiently allocate scare resources, it is further important to assess the public health and economic impact of any health intervention. In recent years, several studies have been conducted to estimate the public health and/or economic impact of dairy products but no overview is currently available...
December 2017: Archives of Osteoporosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633473/experimental-evolution-and-the-adjustment-of-metabolic-strategies-in-lactic-acid-bacteria
#12
Herwig Bachmann, Douwe Molenaar, Filipe Branco Dos Santos, Bas Teusink
Experimental evolution of microbes has gained lots of interest in recent years, mainly due to the ease of strain characterisation through next-generation sequencing. While evolutionary and systems biologists use experimental evolution to address fundamental questions in their respective fields, studies with lactic acid bacteria are often more directed by applied questions. Insight into population and genome dynamics are valuable for experimental design and data interpretation, and it is becoming increasingly apparent how different constraints limit and govern the outcome of microbial adaptation to a selective environment...
June 19, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633170/teaching-primary-care-genetics-a-randomized-controlled-trial-comparison
#13
Deanna Telner, June C Carroll, Glenn Regehr, Diana Tabak, Kara Semotiuk, Risa Freeman
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Given the increasing discussions of the impact of genetic medicine within family medicine, it is important to determine the most effective way of teaching this material to family medicine residents (FMRs). The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the impact of three methods of delivering primary care genetic content to FMRs. METHODS: Curriculum materials and assessment tools were created to teach and evaluate knowledge, skills, and attitudes around four core competencies in primary care genetics, with a focus on hereditary colorectal cancer (CRC)...
June 2017: Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632013/task-demands-in-osces-influence-learning-strategies
#14
Alexandre Lafleur, Jonathan Laflamme, Jimmie Leppink, Luc Côté
THEORY: Models on pre-assessment learning effects confirmed that task demands stand out among the factors assessors can modify in an assessment to influence learning. However, little is known about which tasks in objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) improve students' cognitive and metacognitive processes. Research is needed to support OSCE designs that benefit students' metacognitive strategies when they are studying, reinforcing a hypothesis-driven approach. With that intent, hypothesis-driven physical examination (HDPE) assessments ask students to elicit and interpret findings of the physical exam to reach a diagnosis ("Examine this patient with a painful shoulder to reach a diagnosis")...
March 2, 2017: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631538/just-healthcare-and-human-flourishing-why-resource-allocation-is-not-just-enough
#15
Jayne Hewitt
Over many years, different theories have been developed to guide the social practices and policies of institutions so that they demonstrate equal concern and respect for all, and satisfy the requirements of justice. Although the normative principles described in a theory may support just institutions, whether this results in just outcomes will depend on how the decisions that implement the principles are made and actioned. As a societal institution charged with caring for people, ensuring just outcomes is a distinct concern in healthcare...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629350/the-utility-of-the-hematoxylin-and-eosin-staining-in-patients-with-suspected-hirschsprung-disease
#16
Josephine Amanda Setiadi, Andi Dwihantoro, Kristy Iskandar, Didik Setyo Heriyanto, Gunadi
BACKGROUND: While immunohistochemistry (IHC) methods have been widely conducted for the diagnosis of Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) in developed countries, there are very few studies on their use in developing countries where hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining is a key element of the diagnosis of HSCR. We aimed to determine the accuracy of HE staining in the diagnosis of HSCR using S100 IHC as the reference standard in Indonesia. METHODS: All histopathology performed for the suspicion of HSCR patients from January 2013 to August 2015 in Dr...
June 19, 2017: BMC Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628931/-the-probabilistic-efficiency-frontier-a-value-assessment-of-treatment-options-in-hepatitis-c
#17
Axel C Mühlbacher, Andrew Sadler
Background The German Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG) recommends the concept of the efficiency frontier to assess health care interventions. The efficiency frontier supports regulatory decisions on reimbursement prices for the appropriate allocation of health care resources. Until today this cost-benefit assessment framework has only been applied on the basis of individual patient-relevant endpoints. This contradicts the reality of a multi-dimensional patient benefit. Objective The objective of this study was to illustrate the operationalization of multi-dimensional benefit considering the uncertainty in clinical effects and preference data in order to calculate the efficiency of different treatment options for hepatitis C (HCV)...
June 19, 2017: Das Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628868/an-overview-on-exploration-and-environmental-impact-of-unconventional-gas-sources-and-treatment-options-for-produced-water
#18
REVIEW
Tânia L S Silva, Sergio Morales-Torres, Sérgio Castro-Silva, José L Figueiredo, Adrián M T Silva
Rising global energy demands associated to unbalanced allocation of water resources highlight the importance of water management solutions for the gas industry. Advanced drilling, completion and stimulation techniques for gas extraction, allow more economical access to unconventional gas reserves. This stimulated a shale gas revolution, besides tight gas and coalbed methane, also causing escalating water handling challenges in order to avoid a major impact on the environment. Hydraulic fracturing allied to horizontal drilling is gaining higher relevance in the exploration of unconventional gas reserves, but a large amount of wastewater (known as "produced water") is generated...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627860/the-world-health-organization-disability-assessment-schedule-2-0-can-predict-the-institutionalization-of-the-patients-with-stroke
#19
Hsiang-Yueh Hu, Wen-Chou Chi, Kwang-Hwa Chang, Chia-Feng Yen, Reuben Escorpizo, Hua-Fang Liao, Shih-Wei Huang, Tsan-Hon Liou
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0) is a well-known questionnaire used to evaluate disability. We can not only evaluate disability but also obtain additional information by using the standardized WHODAS 2.0 scores. AIM: To predict the institutionalization of the patients with stroke by using the standardized WHODAS 2.0 scores. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: The data of 10,255 patients with stroke were acquired from the Data Bank of Persons with Disabilities (TDPD) in Taiwan...
June 19, 2017: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627303/the-surprise-question-in-paediatric-palliative-care-a-prospective-cohort-study
#20
Kimberley Burke, Lucy Helen Coombes, Antoinette Menezes, Anna-Karenia Anderson
BACKGROUND: The question 'would you be surprised if this patient died in the next 12-months' is widely used for identifying adult patients in the last year of life. However, this has not yet been studied in children. AIM: To assess the prognostic accuracy of the surprise question when used by a multidisciplinary team to predict survival outcomes of children with life-limiting conditions over a 3 and 12 month period. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study...
June 1, 2017: Palliative Medicine
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