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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340250/improving-safety-culture-in-hospitals-facilitators-and-barriers-to-implementation-of-systemic-falls-investigative-method-sfim
#1
Aleksandra A Zecevic, Alvin Ho-Ting Li, Charity Ngo, Michelle Halligan, Anita Kothari
Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the facilitators and barriers to implementation of the Systemic Falls Investigative Method (SFIM) on selected hospital units. Design: A cross-sectional explanatory mixed methods design was used to converge results from a standardized safety culture survey with themes that emerged from interviews and focus groups. Findings were organized by six elements of the Ottawa Model of Research Use framework. Setting: A geriatric rehabilitation unit of an acute care hospital and a neurological unit of a rehabilitation hospital were selected purposefully due to the high frequency of falls...
March 17, 2017: International Journal for Quality in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335580/the-development-of-psychiatric-services-providing-an-alternative-to-full-time-hospitalization-is-associated-with-shorter-length-of-stay-in-french-public-psychiatry
#2
Coralie Gandré, Jeanne Gervaix, Julien Thillard, Jean-Marc Macé, Jean-Luc Roelandt, Karine Chevreul
International recommendations for mental health care have advocated for a reduction in the length of stay (LOS) in full-time hospitalization and the development of alternatives to full-time hospitalizations (AFTH) could facilitate alignment with those recommendations. Our objective was therefore to assess whether the development of AFTH in French psychiatric sectors was associated with a reduction in the LOS in full-time hospitalization. Using data from the French national discharge database of psychiatric care, we computed the LOS of patients admitted for full-time hospitalization...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334970/expenditure-tracking-and-review-of-reproductive-maternal-newborn-and-child-health-policy-in-pakistan
#3
Muhammad Ashar Malik, Abdul Sattar Nahyoun, Arjumand Rizvi, Zaid Ahmad Bhatti, Zulfiqar Ahmad Bhutta
Since 2001 substantial resources have been allocated to the reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health sector (RMNCH) in Pakistan. Many new programmes have been started and coverage of some existing programmes has been extended to un-served and rural areas. Despite these efforts the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5 were not achieved (2000-15). Maternal Mortality Ratio was reduced to 170 per 100 000 live births (target 100) by 2013 at an annual reduction rate of 3.6% (1990-2013). Against the target of 46 per 1000 live births, the Under Five Mortality Rate was reduced to 81 per 1000 live births by 2015 at an annual reduction rate of 2...
March 15, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333069/environmental-enrichment-in-kennelled-pit-bull-terriers-canis-lupus-familiaris
#4
Jenna Kiddie, Anna Bodymore, Alex Dittrich
Although social enrichment can be considered beneficial in helping dogs cope with the kennel environment, when taking individual needs into account, it places a large demand on the carers and may not be appropriate in under-resourced kennels. Some kennels are also designed in such a way that there is too much social interaction, in that individuals cannot choose to distance themselves from conspecifics. This study therefore aimed to assess the effects of easily accessible enrichment on the behaviour of kennelled Pit Bull Terrier type dogs rescued from a dog-fighting ring in the Philippines...
March 23, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332644/implementing-wildlife-disease-surveillance-in-the-netherlands-a-one-health-approach
#5
M Maas, A Gröne, T Kuiken, G Van Schaik, H I J Roest, J W B Van Der Giessen
The surveillance of (emerging) wildlife diseases can provide important, objective evidence of the circulation of pathogens of interest for veterinary and/or public health. The involvement of multiple research institutions in wildlife disease surveillance can ensure the best use of existing knowledge and expertise, but can also complicate or add challenges to the integration of wildlife disease surveillance components into a national programme. Documenting the existing efforts in a country's surveillance of wildlife diseases, including the institutes in which it takes place, provides a basis for policy-makers and authorities to identify gaps and priorities in their current surveillance programmes...
December 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332456/what-level-of-domestic-government-health-expenditure-should-we-aspire-to-for-universal-health-coverage
#6
Di Mcintyre, Filip Meheus, John-Arne Røttingen
Global discussions on universal health coverage (UHC) have focussed attention on the need for increased government funding for health care in many low- and middle-income countries. The objective of this paper is to explore potential targets for government spending on health to progress towards UHC. An explicit target for government expenditure on health care relative to gross domestic product (GDP) is a potentially powerful tool for holding governments to account in progressing to UHC, particularly in the context of UHC's inclusion in the Sustainable Development Goals...
April 2017: Health Economics, Policy, and Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332130/if-you-re-a-rawlsian-how-come-you-re-so-close-to-utilitarianism-and-intuitionism-a-critique-of-daniels-s-accountability-for-reasonableness
#7
Gabriele Badano
Norman Daniels's theory of 'accountability for reasonableness' is an influential conception of fairness in healthcare resource allocation. Although it is widely thought that this theory provides a consistent extension of John Rawls's general conception of justice, this paper shows that accountability for reasonableness has important points of contact with both utilitarianism and intuitionism, the main targets of Rawls's argument. My aim is to demonstrate that its overlap with utilitarianism and intuitionism leaves accountability for reasonableness open to damaging critiques...
March 22, 2017: Health Care Analysis: HCA: Journal of Health Philosophy and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331586/how-to-induce-defense-responses-in-wild-plant-populations-using-bilberry-vaccinium-myrtillus-as-example
#8
Tarald Seldal, Stein Joar Hegland, Knut Rydgren, Cesar Rodriguez-Saona, Joachim Paul Töpper
Inducible plant defense is a beneficial strategy for plants, which imply that plants should allocate resources from growth and reproduction to defense when herbivores attack. Plant ecologist has often studied defense responses in wild populations by biomass clipping experiments, whereas laboratory and greenhouse experiments in addition apply chemical elicitors to induce defense responses. To investigate whether field ecologists could benefit from methods used in laboratory and greenhouse studies, we established a randomized block-design in a pine-bilberry forest in Western Norway...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330914/evolution-of-male-and-female-choice-in-polyandrous-systems
#9
Mikael Puurtinen, Lutz Fromhage
We study the evolution of male and female mating strategies and mate choice for female fecundity and male fertilization ability in a system where both sexes can mate with multiple partners, and where there is variation in individual quality (i.e. in the availability of resources individuals can allocate to matings, mate choice and production of gametes). We find that when the cost of mating differs between sexes, the sex with higher cost of mating is reluctant to accept matings and is often also choosy, while the other sex accepts all matings...
March 29, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328372/psychiatric-genomics-and-mental-health-treatment-setting-the-ethical-agenda
#10
Camillia Kong, Michael Dunn, Michael Parker
Realizing the benefits of translating psychiatric genomics research into mental health care is not straightforward. The translation process gives rise to ethical challenges that are distinctive from challenges posed within psychiatric genomics research itself, or that form part of the delivery of clinical psychiatric genetics services. This article outlines and considers three distinct ethical concerns posed by the process of translating genomic research into frontline psychiatric practice and policy making...
April 2017: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328106/the-plant-vascular-system-from-resource-allocation-inter-organ-communication-and-defense-to-evolution-of-the-monocot-cambium
#11
EDITORIAL
William J Lucas, Chun-Ming Liu
In recent years, considerable attention has been paid to exploring the complex gene regulatory networks involved in the development of the plant vascular system. Such information is crucial to our understanding of the molecular and cellular events which give rise to the integrated tissues of the xylem and phloem, leading to the formation of structurally continuous conduits that interconnect various organs of the plant. Vascular development begins in the embryo to form progenitor cells, and upon germination, these progenitor cells and their decedents in the shoot and root meristems will form phloem and xylem, and the cambium...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327384/affiliation-affects-generosity-in-young-children-the-roles-of-minimal-group-membership-and-shared-interests
#12
Erin Sparks, Meghan G Schinkel, Chris Moore
Young children's willingness to share with others is selective, and is affected by their level of affiliation with the recipients of their generosity. We explored affiliation's impact on sharing behavior with two experiments comparing the effects of two distinct affiliative cues-minimal group membership and shared interests. Children (4- to 6-year-olds) completed a resource allocation task, making forced-choice decisions as to how to distribute stickers between themselves and others. In Experiment 1, the sharing partners were minimal in- and out-group members; in Experiment 2, they differed in their opinion of the participants' interests...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322184/the-norwegian-national-council-for-priority-setting-in-health-care-decisions-and-justifications
#13
Gry Wester, Berit Bringedal
Different countries have adopted different strategies for tackling the challenge of allocating scarce health care resources fairly. Norway is one of the countries that has pioneered the effort to resolve priority setting by using a core set of priority-setting criteria. While the criteria themselves have been subject to extensive debate and numerous revisions, the question of how the criteria have been applied in practice has received less attention. In this paper, we examine how the criteria feature in the decisions and justifications of the Norwegian National Council for Priority Setting in Health Care, which has played an active role in deliberating about health care provision and coverage in Norway...
March 21, 2017: Health Economics, Policy, and Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321941/tadpole-begging-reveals-high-quality
#14
Matthew B Dugas, Stephanie A Strickler, Jennifer L Stynoski
Parents can benefit from allocating limited resources non-randomly among offspring, and offspring solicitation (i.e., begging) is often hypothesized to evolve because it contains information valuable to choosy parents. We tested the predictions of three 'honest begging' hypotheses -Signal of Need, Signal of Quality, and Signal of Hunger - in the tadpoles of a terrestrial frog (Oophaga pumilio). In this frog, mothers provision tadpoles with trophic eggs, and when mothers visit, tadpoles perform a putative begging signal by stiffening their bodies and vibrating rapidly...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321765/recruitment-and-retention-of-south-asian-ethnic-minority-populations-in-behavioral-interventions-to-improve-type-2-diabetes-outcomes
#15
REVIEW
Bushra Mahmood, Rowshanak Afshar, Tricia S Tang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: South Asian (SA) immigrants have a higher burden of type 2 diabetes, report poor self-management, and remain a hard-to-engage group in behavioral interventions. The purpose of this review was to characterize recruitment and retention of SAs in behavioral interventions. RECENT FINDINGS: We identified 14 studies with limited information regarding recruitment and retention. Overall recruitment rates were low: 12 studies had a mean recruitment rate of 44% among those screened, and 9 studies with complete information on eligibility had a mean recruitment rate of 65...
April 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321640/how-qualitative-methods-can-be-used-to-inform-model-development
#16
Samantha Husbands, Susan Jowett, Pelham Barton, Joanna Coast
Decision-analytic models play a key role in informing healthcare resource allocation decisions. However, there are ongoing concerns with the credibility of models. Modelling methods guidance can encourage good practice within model development, but its value is dependent on its ability to address the areas that modellers find most challenging. Further, it is important that modelling methods and related guidance are continually updated in light of any new approaches that could potentially enhance model credibility...
March 20, 2017: PharmacoEconomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320531/global-trends-and-challenges-in-deceased-donor-kidney-allocation
#17
REVIEW
Diana A Wu, Christopher J Watson, J Andrew Bradley, Rachel J Johnson, John L Forsythe, Gabriel C Oniscu
Worldwide, the number of patients able to benefit from kidney transplantation is greatly restricted by the severe shortage of deceased donor organs. Allocation of this scarce resource is increasingly challenging and complex. Striking an acceptable balance between efficient use of (utility) and fair access to (equity) the limited supply of donated kidneys raises controversial but important debates at ethical, medical, and social levels. There is no international consensus on the recipient and donor factors that should be considered in the kidney allocation process...
March 17, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319151/ethical-problems-in-an-era-where-disasters-have-become-a-part-of-daily-life-a-qualitative-study-of-healthcare-workers-in-turkey
#18
M Murat Civaner, Kevser Vatansever, Kayihan Pala
BACKGROUND: Natural disasters, armed conflict, migration, and epidemics today occur more frequently, causing more death, displacement of people and economic loss. Their burden on health systems and healthcare workers (HCWs) is getting heavier accordingly. The ethical problems that arise in disaster settings may be different than the ones in daily practice, and can cause preventable harm or the violation of basic human rights. Understanding the types and the determinants of ethical challenges is crucial in order to find the most benevolent action while respecting the dignity of those affected people...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316542/analysing-the-costs-of-integrated-care-a-case-on-model-selection-for-chronic-care-purposes
#19
Marc Carreras, Inma Sánchez-Pérez, Pere Ibern, Jordi Coderch, José María Inoriza
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study is to investigate whether the algorithm proposed by Manning and Mullahy, a consolidated health economics procedure, can also be used to estimate individual costs for different groups of healthcare services in the context of integrated care. METHODS: A cross-sectional study focused on the population of the Baix Empordà (Catalonia-Spain) for the year 2012 (N = 92,498 individuals). A set of individual cost models as a function of sex, age and morbidity burden were adjusted and individual healthcare costs were calculated using a retrospective full-costing system...
August 19, 2016: International Journal of Integrated Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316161/-to-further-strengthen-the-construction-of-emergency-medical-treatment-system-of-massive-burn
#20
C Y Jia
Although clinical medicine of our country has made great progress in recent years, the rescue of massive burn casualties is still facing enormous challenges. No matter it is the top level design, system configuration, plan preparation, training, education, or the operation process, the medical resource allocation, and the treatment efficiency, are far behind the demand of social development. Therefore, further strengthen the construction of emergency medical treatment system of massive burn is the unshirkable responsibility of burn medical workers in our country...
March 20, 2017: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
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