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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732138/involving-citizens-in-priority-setting-for-public-health-research-implementation-in-infection-research
#1
Timothy M Rawson, Enrique Castro-Sánchez, Esmita Charani, Fran Husson, Luke S P Moore, Alison H Holmes, Raheelah Ahmad
BACKGROUND: Public sources fund the majority of UK infection research, but citizens currently have no formal role in resource allocation. To explore the feasibility and willingness of citizens to engage in strategic decision making, we developed and tested a practical tool to capture public priorities for research. METHOD: A scenario including six infection themes for funding was developed to assess citizen priorities for research funding. This was tested over two days at a university public festival...
July 21, 2017: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732082/osteosarcoma-enters-a-post-genomic-era-with-in-silico-opportunities-generation-of-the-high-dimensional-database-for-facilitating-sarcoma-biology-research-a-report-from-the-children-s-oncology-group-and-the-quadw-foundation
#2
Jason Glover, Tsz-Kwong Man, Donald A Barkauskas, David Hall, Tanya Tello, Mary Beth Sullivan, Richard Gorlick, Katherine Janeway, Holcombe Grier, Ching Lau, Jeffrey A Toretsky, Scott C Borinstein, Chand Khanna, Timothy M Fan
The prospective banking of osteosarcoma tissue samples to promote research endeavors has been realized through the establishment of a nationally centralized biospecimen repository, the Children's Oncology Group (COG) biospecimen bank located at the Biopathology Center (BPC)/Nationwide Children's Hospital in Columbus, Ohio. Although the physical inventory of osteosarcoma biospecimens is substantive (>15,000 sample specimens), the nature of these resources remains exhaustible. Despite judicious allocation of these high-value biospecimens for conducting sarcoma-related research, a deeper understanding of osteosarcoma biology, in particular metastases, remains unrealized...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731795/plant-size-and-competitive-dynamics-along-nutrient-gradients
#3
Deborah E Goldberg, Jason P Martina, Kenneth J Elgersma, William S Currie
Resource competition theory in plants has focused largely on resource acquisition traits that are independent of size, such as traits of individual leaves or roots or proportional allocation to different functions. However, plants also differ in maximum potential size, which could outweigh differences in module-level traits. We used a community ecosystem model called mondrian to investigate whether larger size inevitably increases competitive ability and how size interacts with nitrogen supply. Contrary to the conventional wisdom that bigger is better, we found that invader success and competitive ability are unimodal functions of maximum potential size, such that plants that are too large (or too small) are disproportionately suppressed by competition...
August 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731470/a-genomic-perspective-on-stoichiometric-regulation-of-soil-carbon-cycling
#4
Wyatt H Hartman, Rongzhong Ye, William R Horwath, Susannah G Tringe
Similar to plant growth, soil carbon (C) cycling is constrained by the availability of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). We hypothesized that stoichiometric control over soil microbial C cycling may be shaped by functional guilds with distinct nutrient substrate preferences. Across a series of rice fields spanning 5-25% soil C (N:P from 1:12 to 1:70), C turnover was best correlated with P availability and increased with experimental N addition only in lower C (mineral) soils with N:P⩽16. Microbial community membership also varied with soil stoichiometry but not with N addition...
July 21, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731436/impaired-processing-of-serial-order-determines-working-memory-impairments-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Maya De Belder, Patrick Santens, Anne Sieben, Wim Fias
BACKGROUND: Working memory (WM) problems are commonly observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the affected mechanisms leading to impaired WM are still insufficiently understood. The ability to efficiently process serial order in WM has been demonstrated to be fundamental to fluent daily life functioning. The decreased capability to mentally process serial position in WM has been put forward as the underlying explanation for generally compromised WM performance. OBJECTIVE: Determine which mechanisms, such as order processing, are responsible for deficient WM functioning in AD...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730791/a-mathematical-optimization-model-for-efficient-assignment-of-inpatients-in-an-oncology-center-in-china
#6
Ming Lv, Bo Kou, Zhi-Li Zhou, Wen-Bo He
This paper addresses a problem for assignment of chemo-receiving inpatients in an oncology care center, which has not been addressed in the literature. Chemotherapy is regarded as one of the most effective treatments for cancer. In recent years, as cancer incidence increased, the number of patients admitted to a cancer treatment center has also been rising. How to balance the workload of medical service resources by planning admission of patients has become an essential problem that must be given consideration by policy- makers...
May 2017: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730065/exploring-structural-violence-in-the-context-of-disability-and-poverty-in-zimbabwe
#7
Jennifer T Muderedzi, Arne H Eide, Stine H Braathen, Babill Stray-Pedersen
BACKGROUND: While it is widely assumed that disability, poverty and health are closely linked, research falls short of fully understanding the link. One approach to analysing the links between disability and poverty is through the concept of structural violence, referring to social structures that contribute to the impoverishment of individuals or communities. These structures can be political, ecological, legal and economic, among others. OBJECTIVE: To explore structural violence and how it affects families of children with cerebral palsy among the Tonga ethnic group living in poor rural communities of Binga in Zimbabwe...
2017: Afr J Disabil
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729776/expenditure-of-hospital-care-on-cancer-in-china-from-2011-to-2015
#8
Yue Cai, Ming Xue, Wanqing Chen, Maogui Hu, Zhiwen Miao, Lan Lan, Rongshou Zheng, Qun Meng
OBJECTIVE: A solid understanding of levels and trends of spending on cancer is important to evaluate whether our healthcare resources were wisely spent and to prioritize future resources for cancer treatment and prevention. However, studies on economic burden of cancers in China are scant and the results are inconsistent. METHODS: The Chinese hospital information database and nearly 350 million inpatient medical record data were used. As the ratios of cancer inpatient payments to total inpatient payments were mainly influenced by the grades and sites of hospitals, the estimates of payments of cancer inpatients in this study were stratified by hospital grades and provinces...
June 2017: Chinese Journal of Cancer Research, Chung-kuo Yen Cheng Yen Chiu
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728918/financing-transformative-health-systems-towards-achievement-of-the-health-sustainable-development-goals-a-model-for-projected-resource-needs-in-67-low-income-and-middle-income-countries
#9
Karin Stenberg, Odd Hanssen, Tessa Tan-Torres Edejer, Melanie Bertram, Callum Brindley, Andreia Meshreky, James E Rosen, John Stover, Paul Verboom, Rachel Sanders, Agnès Soucat
BACKGROUND: The ambitious development agenda of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) requires substantial investments across several sectors, including for SDG 3 (healthy lives and wellbeing). No estimates of the additional resources needed to strengthen comprehensive health service delivery towards the attainment of SDG 3 and universal health coverage in low-income and middle-income countries have been published. METHODS: We developed a framework for health systems strengthening, within which population-level and individual-level health service coverage is gradually scaled up over time...
July 14, 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728174/a-global-view-on-output-and-outcomes-of-cataract-surgery-with-national-indices-of-socioeconomic-development
#10
Wei Wang, William Yan, Andreas Müller, Mingguang He
Purpose: Cataract blindness accounts for a substantial proportion of blindness worldwide. Understanding the correlations between national levels of socioeconomic development with the quantity and quality of cataract surgery may provide insight for the prioritization and resource allocation for blindness prevention programs. Methods: The relationships between human development index (HDI), gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, and cataract surgical coverage (CSC) and visual outcome of cataract surgery were examined in a multinational study utilizing secondary data from the repository for Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness (RAAB), World Health Organization, Global Burden of Disease, United Nations, and the World Bank...
July 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727724/grandmothering-and-cognitive-resources-are-required-for-the-emergence-of-menopause-and-extensive-post-reproductive-lifespan
#11
Carla Aimé, Jean-Baptiste André, Michel Raymond
Menopause, the permanent cessation of ovulation, occurs in humans well before the end of the expected lifespan, leading to an extensive post-reproductive period which remains a puzzle for evolutionary biologists. All human populations display this particularity; thus, it is difficult to empirically evaluate the conditions for its emergence. In this study, we used artificial neural networks to model the emergence and evolution of allocation decisions related to reproduction in simulated populations. When allocation decisions were allowed to freely evolve, both menopause and extensive post-reproductive life-span emerged under some ecological conditions...
July 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727521/ethical-guidance-for-disaster-response-specifically-around-crisis-standards-of-care-a-systematic-review
#12
Jonathon P Leider, Debra DeBruin, Nicole Reynolds, Angelica Koch, Judy Seaberg
BACKGROUND: Terrorism, disease outbreaks, and other natural disasters and mass casualty events have pushed health care and public health systems to identify and refine emergency preparedness protocols for disaster response. Ethical guidance, alongside legal and medical frameworks, are increasingly common components of disaster response plans. OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the prevalence and content of ethical guidance offered for disaster response, specifically around crisis standards of care (CSCs)...
July 20, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727278/phylogeny-determines-flower-size-dependent-sex-allocation-at-flowering-in-a-hermaphroditic-family
#13
A L Teixido, B Guzmán, V G Staggemeier, F Valladares
1.In animal-pollinated hermaphroditic plants, optimal floral allocation determines relative investment into sexes, which is ultimately dependent on flower size. Larger flowers disproportionally increase maleness whereas smaller and less rewarding flowers favor female function. Although floral traits are thought to be strongly conserved, phylogenetic relationships in the interspecific patterns of resource allocation to floral sex remain overlooked. We investigated these patterns in Cistaceae, a hermaphroditic family...
July 20, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727183/a-randomised-controlled-trial-on-a-nurse-led-smartphone-based-self-management-programme-for-patients-with-poorly-controlled-type-2-diabetes-a-study-protocol
#14
Wenru Wang, Betsy Seah, Ying Jiang, Violeta Lopez, Cherry Tan, Suan Tee Lim, Hongliang Ren, Yin Hao Khoo
AIM: To develop and compare a nurse-led smartphone-based self-management programme with an existing nurse-led diabetes service on health-related outcomes for patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes in Singapore. BACKGROUND: Over the past decades, Asia has emerged as the 'diabetes epicentre' in the world due to rapid economic development, urbanisation and nutrition transition. There is an urgent need to develop more effective care management strategies in response to this rising diabetes epidemic...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727162/-will-i-want-these-stickers-tomorrow-preschoolers-ability-to-predict-current-and-future-needs
#15
Gema Martin-Ordas
Between 3 and 5 years of age, children develop the ability to plan for their own and others' future needs; however, they have great difficulty predicting future needs that conflict with current ones. Importantly, this ability has only been tested in the domain of physiological states (e.g., thirst). Therefore, it is still an open question whether in a different context preschoolers can disengage from their current needs to secure a different future one. In a Resource Allocation task, 4- and 5-year-olds had to distribute three types of rewards between themselves and another child for either 'right now' or 'tomorrow'...
July 20, 2017: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726738/scheduling-for-emergency-tasks-in-industrial-wireless-sensor-networks
#16
Changqing Xia, Xi Jin, Linghe Kong, Peng Zeng
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are widely applied in industrial manufacturing systems. By means of centralized control, the real-time requirement and reliability can be provided by WSNs in industrial production. Furthermore, many approaches reserve resources for situations in which the controller cannot perform centralized resource allocation. The controller assigns these resources as it becomes aware of when and where accidents have occurred. However, the reserved resources are limited, and such incidents are low-probability events...
July 20, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726599/improving-patient-experiences-of-mental-health-inpatient-care-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#17
T Wykes, E Csipke, P Williams, L Koeser, S Nash, D Rose, T Craig, P McCrone
BACKGROUND: Poorer patient views of mental health inpatient treatment predict both further admissions and, for those admitted involuntarily, longer admissions. As advocated in the UK Francis report, we investigated the hypothesis that improving staff training improves patients' views of ward care. METHOD: Cluster randomised trial with stepped wedge design in 16 acute mental health wards randomised (using the ralloc procedure in Stata) by an independent statistician in three waves to staff training...
July 20, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726543/differences-in-brain-architecture-in-remote-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#18
Aishwarya Rajesh, Gillian E Cooke, Jim M Monti, Andrew Jahn, Ana M Daugherty, Arthur Kramer
Mild TBI (mTBI) is brain trauma from an external impact with a loss of consciousness less than 30 minutes. MTBI results in several biopsychosocial impairments with pronounced cognitive deficits, thought to resolve within three months of injury. Previous research suggests that these impairments are due to a temporary inability to appropriately allocate neural resources in response to cognitive demands. Our study questioned this assumption and instead hypothesized that mTBI was associated with long-term neural disruptions and compromised brain structure integrity...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726024/thermal-physiology-of-three-sympatric-and-syntopic-liolaemidae-lizards-in-cold-and-arid-environments-of-patagonia-argentina
#19
F Duran, E L Kubisch, Jorgelina M Boretto
The thermal physiology determines the whole biology of ectotherm organisms, by limiting their acquisition and allocation of resources. Herein, we aim to add knowledge on how different species use the thermal resources when they coexist in a habitat, studying the thermal physiology of three sympatric and syntopic liolaemid lizards, Phymaturus querque, Phymaturus zapalensis, and Liolaemus elongatus during the summer season. We measured the body temperatures at capture places, the operative microenvironmental temperatures in the field, and the preferred body temperature in an experimental thermal gradient in the laboratory...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725950/genome-editing-and-assisted-reproduction-curing-embryos-society-or-prospective-parents
#20
Giulia Cavaliere
This paper explores the ethics of introducing genome-editing technologies as a new reproductive option. In particular, it focuses on whether genome editing can be considered a morally valuable alternative to preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). Two arguments against the use of genome editing in reproduction are analysed, namely safety concerns and germline modification. These arguments are then contrasted with arguments in favour of genome editing, in particular with the argument of the child's welfare and the argument of parental reproductive autonomy...
July 19, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
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