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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153862/tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-in-sleep-regulation
#1
REVIEW
Matthew D Rockstrom, Liangyu Chen, Ping Taishi, Joseph T Nguyen, Cody M Gibbons, Sigrid C Veasey, James M Krueger
This review details tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) biology and its role in sleep, and describes how TNF medications influence sleep/wake activity. Substantial evidence from healthy young animals indicates acute enhancement or inhibition of endogenous brain TNF respectively promotes and inhibits sleep. In contrast, the role of TNF in sleep in most human studies involves pathological conditions associated with chronic elevations of systemic TNF and disrupted sleep. Normalization of TNF levels in such patients improves sleep...
November 16, 2017: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122629/long-term-cilostazol-administration-prevents-age-related-decline-of-hippocampus-dependent-memory-in-mice
#2
Shuichi Yanai, Hideki Ito, Shogo Endo
Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are enzymes that hydrolyze and inactivate 3', 5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and/or 3', 5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). The regulation of intracellular signaling pathways mediated by cyclic nucleotides is imperative to synaptic plasticity and memory in animals. Because PDEs play an important role in this regulation, PDE inhibitors are considered as candidate compounds for treating cognitive and memory disorders. In the present study, we tested whether cilostazol, a selective PDE3 inhibitor, prevents the cognitive deterioration that occurs during the course of normal aging in mice...
November 6, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115280/real-time-cerebellar-neuroprosthetic-system-based-on-a-spiking-neural-network-model-of-motor-learning
#3
Tao Xu, Na Xiao, Xiaolong Zhai, Pak Kwan Chan, Chung Tin
Damage to the brain, as a result of various medical conditions, impacts everyday life of patients and there is still no complete cure to neurological disorders. Neuroprostheses that can functionally replace the damaged neural circuit have recently emerged as a possible solution to these problems. Here we describe the development of a real-time cerebellar neuroprosthetic system to substitute neural function in cerebellar circuitry for learning delay eyeblink conditioning (DEC). Approach: The system was empowered by a biologically realistic spiking neural network (SNN) model of the cerebellar neural circuit, which considers the neuronal population and anatomical connectivity of the network...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102278/incidence-of-high-risk-radiologic-features-in-patients-without-local-recurrence-after-stereotactic-ablative-radiation-therapy-for-early-stage-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#4
M I Ronden, J R van Sörnsen de Koste, C Johnson, B J Slotman, F O B Spoelstra, C J A Haasbeek, G Blom, E M Bongers, A Warner, A Ward, D Palma, S Senan
PURPOSE: To investigate, in the setting of stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR) for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer, the incidence and patterns of change in high-risk radiologic features (HRFs) in patients known to have no local recurrence. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Computed tomography (CT) scans of patients treated using volumetric modulated arc therapy SABR between 2008 and 2013 were eligible if follow-up scans were available for 2 years and no local recurrences were diagnosed...
September 22, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097328/lovastatin-suppresses-hyperexcitability-and-seizure-in-angelman-syndrome-model
#5
Leeyup Chung, Alexandra L Bey, Aaron J Towers, Xinyu Cao, Il Hwan Kim, Yong-Hui Jiang
Epilepsy is prevalent and often medically intractable in Angelman syndrome (AS). AS mouse model (Ube3a(m-/p+)) shows reduced excitatory neurotransmission but lower seizure threshold. The neural mechanism linking the synaptic dysfunction to the seizure remains elusive. We show that the local circuits of Ube3a(m-/p+)in vitro are hyperexcitable and display a unique epileptiform activity, a phenomenon that is reminiscent of the finding in fragile X syndrome (FXS) mouse model. Similar to the FXS model, lovastatin suppressed the epileptiform activity and audiogenic seizures in Ube3a(m-/p+)...
October 31, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095069/effects-of-tryptophan-depletion-on-selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitor-remitted-patients-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#6
Sean D Hood, Annabel Broyd, Hayley Robinson, Jessica Lee, Abdul-Rahman Hudaib, Dana A Hince
BACKGROUND: Serotonergic antidepressants are first-line medication therapies for obsessive-compulsive disorder, however it is not known if synaptic serotonin availability is important for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor efficacy. The present study tested the hypothesis that temporary reduction in central serotonin transmission, through acute tryptophan depletion, would result in an increase in anxiety in selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor-remitted obsessive-compulsive disorder patients...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069823/microrna-134-plasma-levels-before-and-after-treatment-with-valproic-acid-for-epilepsy-patients
#7
Xiaofeng Wang, Yifeng Luo, Shuangxi Liu, Liming Tan, Sanhu Wang, Rongyong Man
BACKGROUND: Temporal lobe epilepsy is the second most common neurological disorders characterized by recurrent spontaneous seizures. MicroRNAs play a vital role in regulating synaptic plasticity, brain development and post-transcriptional expression of proteins. In both animal models of epilepsy and human patients, miR-134, a brain-specific microRNA has recently been identified as a potential regulator of epileptogenesis. METHODS: microRNA identified as targets for the actions of valproic acid (VPA) are known to have important effects in brain function...
September 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067310/design-of-the-nl-enigma-study-exploring-the-effect-of-souvenaid-on-cerebral-glucose-metabolism-in-early-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
Nienke M E Scheltens, Ingrid S Kuyper, Ronald Boellaard, Frederik Barkhof, Charlotte E Teunissen, Laus M Broersen, Marieke M Lansbergen, Wiesje M van der Flier, Bart N M van Berckel, Philip Scheltens
INTRODUCTION: Alzheimer's disease is associated with early synaptic loss. Specific nutrients are known to be rate limiting for synapse formation. Studies have shown that administering specific nutrients may improve memory function, possibly by increasing synapse formation. This Dutch study explores the Effect of a specific Nutritional Intervention on cerebral Glucose Metabolism in early Alzheimer's disease (NL-ENIGMA, Dutch Trial Register NTR4718, http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview...
November 2016: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046153/potential-therapeutics-for-vascular-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia
#9
Miao-Kun Sun
As the human lifespan increases, the number of people affected by age-related dementia is growing at an epidemic pace. Vascular pathology dramatically affects cognitive profiles, resulting in dementia and cognitive impairment. While vascular dementia itself constitutes a medical challenge, hypoperfusion/vascular risk factors enhance amyloid toxicity and other memory-damaging factors and hasten Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other memory disorders' progression, as well as negatively affect treatment outcome. Few therapeutic options are, however, currently available to improve the prognosis of patients with vascular dementia and cognitive impairment, mixed AD dementia with vascular pathology, or other memory disorders...
October 16, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042752/spotlight-on-perampanel-in-the-management-of-seizures-design-development-and-an-update-on-place-in-therapy
#10
REVIEW
Michele A Faulkner
PURPOSE: Perampanel is a first-in-class antiepileptic medication approved for the treatment of partial (focal) seizures, and as adjunctive treatment for primarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures. The pharmacology, efficacy data, adverse-effect profile, pharmacokinetics and place in therapy are reviewed. SUMMARY: Perampanel is indicated for use in patients with epilepsy who are 12 years of age or older. It is the first medication designed specifically to be a non-competitive antagonist at post-synaptic α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate receptors...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036640/toxicokinetics-of-the-synthetic-cathinone-%C3%AE-pyrrolidinohexanophenone
#11
Yuji Fujita, Toshinori Mita, Kiyotaka Usui, Yoshito Kamijo, Satoshi Kikuchi, Makoto Onodera, Yasuhisa Fujino, Yoshihiro Inoue
Synthetic cathinones inhibit monoamine transporters, such as serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine transporters, and act on the central nervous system via increasing synaptic concentrations of monoamines. These compounds, which are highly addictive and potentially poisonous, are new psychoactive substances. In this study, we investigated the toxicokinetics of the synthetic cathinone, α-pyrrolidinohexanophenone (α-PHP), and assessed the relationship between the toxicokinetics and the long-term clinical symptoms induced by α-PHP in a male patient...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024676/perinatal-fluoxetine-prevents-the-effect-of-pre-gestational-maternal-stress-on-5-ht-in-the-pfc-but-maternal-stress-has-enduring-effects-on-mpfc-synaptic-structure-in-offspring
#12
Mary Gemmel, Nikolaos Kokras, Christina Dalla, Jodi L Pawluski
Maternal affective disorders are frequently treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications (SSRIs); with up to 10% of women being prescribed these medications during pregnancy. Infant development depends on the early serotonergic environment, which is altered by perinatal SSRIs, raising concern about how these medications affect neural outcomes. While clinical and preclinical research suggests an impact of SSRIs on the developing brain, more research is needed to determine the effects on neuroplasticity, the serotonergic system, and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in neural regions mediating behavior...
October 9, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016816/molecular-and-epigenetic-mechanisms-for-the-complex-effects-of-stress-on-synaptic-physiology-and-cognitive-functions
#13
Eunice Y Yuen, Jing Wei, Zhen Yan
Evidence over the past decades has found that stress, particularly through the corticosterone stress hormones, produces complex changes in glutamatergic signaling in prefrontal cortex, which leads to the alteration of cognitive processes medicated by this brain region. Interestingly, the effects of stress on glutamatergic transmission appear to be "U-shaped," depending upon the duration and severity of the stressor. These biphasic effects of acute vs chronic stress represent the adaptive vs maladaptive responses to stressful stimuli...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993209/rotigotine-a-dopamine-receptor-agonist-increased-bdnf-protein-levels-in-the-rat-cortex-and-hippocampus
#14
Naoki Adachi, Aya Yoshimura, Shuichi Chiba, Shintaro Ogawa, Hiroshi Kunugi
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) critically controls the fate and function of the neuronal network and has received much attention as a target of many brain diseases. Dopaminergic system dysfunction has also been implicated in a variety of neuropsychiatric diseases. Rotigotine, a non-ergot dopamine receptor agonist, is used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease and restless legs syndrome. To investigate the effects of rotigotine on neuronal functions both in vivo and in vitro, rats and primary cortical neurons were administered rotigotine, and the mRNA and protein expression levels of BDNF, its receptor TrkB and downstream signaling molecules, and synaptic proteins were determined...
October 6, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978896/actions-of-propofol-on-neurons-in-the-cerebral-cortex
#15
Masayuki Kobayashi, Yoshiyuki Oi
Propofol is primarily a hypnotic, and is widely used for induction and maintenance of anesthesia, as well as for sedation in various medical procedures. The exact mechanisms of its action are not well understood, although its neural mechanisms have been explored in in vivo and in vitro experiments. Accumulating evidence indicates that one of the major targets of propofol is the cerebral cortex. The principal effect of propofol is considered to be the potentiation of GABAA receptor-mediated inhibitory synaptic currents, but propofol has additional roles in modulating ion channels, including voltage-gated Na(+) channels and several K(+) channels...
2017: Journal of Nippon Medical School, Nippon Ika Daigaku Zasshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958589/exposing-primary-rat-retina-cell-cultures-to-%C3%AE-rays-an-in%C3%A2-vitro-model-for-evaluating-radiation-responses
#16
Lucia Gaddini, Maria Balduzzi, Alessandro Campa, Giuseppe Esposito, Fiorella Malchiodi-Albedi, Clarice Patrono, Andrea Matteucci
Retinal tissue can receive incidental γ-rays exposure during radiotherapy either of tumors of the eye and optic nerve or of head-and-neck tumors, and during medical diagnostic procedures. Healthy retina is therefore at risk of suffering radiation-related side effects and the knowledge of pathophysiological response of retinal cells to ionizing radiations could be useful to design possible strategies of prevention and management of radiotoxicity. In this study, we have exploited an in vitro model (primary rat retinal cell culture) to study an array of biological effects induced on retinal neurons by γ-rays...
September 27, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956341/targeting-phosphodiesterases-in-pharmacotherapy-for-substance-dependence
#17
Rui-Ting Wen, Jian-Hui Liang, Han-Ting Zhang
Substance dependence is a chronic relapsing brain disorder associated with adaptational changes in synaptic plasticity and neuronal functions. The high levels of substance consumption and relapse rate suggest more reliable medications are in need to better address the underlying causes of this disease. It has been well established that the intracellular second messengers cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cyclic GMP (cGMP) and their signaling systems play an important role in the molecular mechanisms of substance taking behaviors...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956340/pde-inhibitors-for-the-treatment-of-schizophrenia
#18
Gretchen L Snyder, Kimberly E Vanover
Schizophrenia is a pervasive neuropsychiatric disorder affecting over 1% of the world's population. Dopamine system dysfunction is strongly implicated in the etiology of schizophrenia. Data support the long-standing concept of schizophrenia as a disease characterized by hyperactivity within midbrain (striatal D2) dopamine systems. In addition, there is now considerable evidence that glutamate neurotransmission, mediated through NMDA-type receptors, is deficient in patients with schizophrenia and that hypoactivity in cortical dopamine and glutamate pathways is a key feature of this serious mental disorder...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953797/the-therapeutic-model-of-group-analytic-psychotherapy-in-brain-s-plasticity-modification-and-expression-in-patients-with-cognitive-and-psychiatric-disorders-a-hypothesis-of-neuron-immune-analysis-and-neuron-immune-modulation
#19
Catherine Mela
BACKGROUND: Dementia-like situations and depressive symptoms can be caused by a specific neuron circuit blockage, related with remote organic causes that are not cited in the CNS. Excessive cytokine secretion during stress situations is one of these causes which can be related with onset of cognitive symptoms including or accompanied by depressive ones, sometimes in an overlapping way. In both cases, chronic inflammation is a common hidden mechanism causing a vicious circle with mechanisms of somatic chronic stress and vice-versa while the serotonin pathway seems not to get seriously involved...
September 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942133/bush-mint-hyptis-suaveolens-and-spreading-hogweed-boerhavia-diffusa-medicinal-plant-extracts-differentially-affect-activities-of-cyp1a2-cyp2d6-and-cyp3a4-enzymes
#20
Nicholas Ekow Thomford, Kevin Dzobo, Faustina Adu, Shadreck Chirikure, Ambroise Wonkam, Collet Dandara
ETHNO-PHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Hyptis suaveolens (L) Poit and Boerhavia diffusa Linn are medicinal herbal plants commonly found in the tropics and sub-tropics. They are used to treat various conditions among them boils, dyslipidaemia, eczema, malaria, jaundice and gonorrhoea. Thus, the herbal medicinal extracts are now found as part of some commercial herbal formulations. There has not been adequate characterization of these medicinal herbs on their effects on drug metabolising enzymes...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
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