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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735226/perinatal-fluoxetine-effects-on-social-play-the-hpa-system-and-hippocampal-plasticity-in-pre-adolescent-male-and-female-rats-interactions-with-pre-gestational-maternal-stress
#1
Mary Gemmel, Mariah Hazlett, Eszter Bögi, Sonsoles De Lacalle, Lesley A Hill, Nikolaos Kokras, Geoffrey L Hammond, Christina Dalla, Thierry D Charlier, Jodi L Pawluski
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications (SSRIs) are the first lines of treatment for maternal affective disorders, and are prescribed to up to 10% of pregnant women. Concern has been raised about how perinatal exposure to these medications affect offspring neurobehavioral outcomes, particularly those related to social interactions, as recent research has reported conflicting results related to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk in children prenatally exposed to SSRIs. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the effects of perinatal exposure to the SSRI fluoxetine on social play behaviors and the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal system, using a model of pre-gestational maternal stress...
July 15, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731336/triple-reuptake-inhibitors-as-potential-therapeutics-for-depression-and-other-disorders-design-paradigm-and-developmental-challenges
#2
Murugaiah A M Subbaiah
Although first-line antidepressants offer therapeutic benefit, about 35% of depressed patients are not adequately treated, creating a large unmet medical need. These medicines mostly enhance the synaptic levels of serotonin and/or norepinephrine. Evidence from preclinical and clinical studies implicate dopamine hypofunction in the pathophysiology of depression. Triple reuptake inhibitors (TRIs), which elevate dopamine in addition to serotonin and norepinephrine, may demonstrate greater efficacy, with the reversal of anhedonia and improved tolerability...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728834/calcium-signaling-and-molecular-mechanisms-underlying-neurodegenerative-diseases
#3
REVIEW
Ekaterina Pchitskaya, Elena Popugaeva, Ilya Bezprozvanny
Calcium (Ca(2+)) is a ubiquitous second messenger that regulates various activities in eukaryotic cells. Especially important role calcium plays in excitable cells. Neurons require extremely precise spatial-temporal control of calcium-dependent processes because they regulate such vital functions as synaptic plasticity. Recent evidence indicates that neuronal calcium signaling is abnormal in many of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington's disease (HD) and Parkinson's disease (PD)...
June 30, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714074/altered-metabolomic-genomic-signature-a-potential-noninvasive-biomarker-of-epilepsy
#4
Helen C Wu, Fabien Dachet, Farhad Ghoddoussi, Shruti Bagla, Darren Fuerst, Jeffrey A Stanley, Matthew P Galloway, Jeffrey A Loeb
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify noninvasive biomarkers of human epilepsy that can reliably detect and localize epileptic brain regions. Having noninvasive biomarkers would greatly enhance patient diagnosis, patient monitoring, and novel therapy development. At the present time, only surgically invasive, direct brain recordings are capable of detecting these regions with precision, which severely limits the pace and scope of both clinical management and research progress in epilepsy...
July 17, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687316/levodopa-l-dopa-attenuates-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-response-and-cell-death-signaling-through-drd2-in-sh-sy5y-neuronal-cells-under-%C3%AE-synuclein-induced-toxicity
#5
Juhyun Song, Byeong C Kim, Dai-Trang T Nguyen, Manikandan Samidurai, Seong-Min Choi
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the formation of Lewy bodies (LBs) in dopaminergic neurons. α-Synuclein (α-syn), a major protein component of LBs, is known to regulate synaptic plasticity, with a crucial role in memory and motor function in the central nervous system. Levodopa (L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine; also known as L-DOPA) is considered the most effective medication for controlling the symptoms of PD. However, it is unclear whether L-DOPA improves the neuropathology of PD. In the present study, we investigated the effect of L-DOPA on SH-SY5Y neuronal cells under α-syn-induced toxicity...
July 4, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679595/poor-sleep-is-associated-with-csf-biomarkers-of-amyloid-pathology-in-cognitively-normal-adults
#6
Kate E Sprecher, Rebecca L Koscik, Cynthia M Carlsson, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Ozioma C Okonkwo, Mark A Sager, Sanjay Asthana, Sterling C Johnson, Ruth M Benca, Barbara B Bendlin
OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between sleep quality and CSF markers of Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology in late midlife. METHODS: We investigated the relationship between sleep quality and CSF AD biomarkers in a cohort enriched for parental history of sporadic AD, the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention. A total of 101 participants (mean age 62.9 ± 6.2 years, 65.3% female) completed sleep assessments and CSF collection and were cognitively normal...
July 5, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664920/fgf1-a-new-weapon-to-control-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#7
REVIEW
Emanuel Gasser, Christopher P Moutos, Michael Downes, Ronald M Evans
A hypercaloric diet combined with a sedentary lifestyle is a major risk factor for the development of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and associated comorbidities. Standard treatment for T2DM begins with lifestyle modification, and includes oral medications and insulin therapy to compensate for progressive β-cell failure. However, current pharmaceutical options for T2DM are limited in that they do not maintain stable, durable glucose control without the need for treatment intensification...
June 30, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630404/activation-of-d1r-pka-mtor-signaling-cascade-in-medial-prefrontal-cortex-underlying-the-antidepressant-effects-of-l-spd
#8
Bing Zhang, Fei Guo, Yuqin Ma, Yingcai Song, Rong Lin, Fu-Yi Shen, Guo-Zhang Jin, Yang Li, Zhi-Qiang Liu
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by diverse symptoms. Although several antidepressants can influence dopamine system in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), but the role of D1R or D2R subtypes of dopamine receptor during anti-depression process is still vague in PFC region. To address this question, we investigate the antidepressant effect of levo-stepholidine (l-SPD), an antipsychotic medication with unique pharmacological profile of D1R agonism and D2R antagonism, and clarified its molecular mechanisms in the mPFC...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625767/early-life-stress-perturbs-the-function-of-microglia-in-the-developing-rodent-brain-new-insights-and-future-challenges
#9
REVIEW
Frances K Johnson, Arie Kaffman
The role of the innate immune system in mediating some of the consequences of childhood abuse and neglect has received increasing attention in recent years. Most of the work to date has focused on the role that neuroinflammation plays in the long-term adult psychiatric and medical complications associated with childhood maltreatment. The effects of stress-induced neuroinflammation on neurodevelopment have received little attention because until recently this issue has not been studied systematically in animal models of early life stress...
June 15, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625569/synaptic-dysfunction-in-alzheimer-s-disease-from-the-role-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-peptide-to-the-%C3%AE-secretase-adam10
#10
Stefano Musardo, Elena Marcello
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is emerging as the most prevalent and socially disruptive illness of aging populations as more people live long enough to become affected. Although AD is placing a considerable and increasing burden on patients, caregivers and society, it represents the largest unmet medical need in neurology, because it is currently incurable. In the last few years, the amyloid hypothesis, which points to amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) as the initiating factor in AD, had a central role in the development of therapeutic strategies for AD...
June 15, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605546/plasticity-related-gene-expression-during-eszopiclone-induced-sleep
#11
Dmitry Gerashchenko, Ravi K Pasumarthi, Thomas S Kilduff
Study Objectives: Experimental evidence suggests that restorative processes depend on synaptic plasticity changes in the brain during sleep. We used the expression of plasticity-related genes to assess synaptic plasticity changes during drug-induced sleep. Methods: We first characterized sleep induced by eszopiclone in mice during baseline conditions and during the recovery from sleep deprivation. We then compared the expression of 18 genes and 2 miRNAs critically involved in synaptic plasticity in these mice...
June 12, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597477/effective-expression-of-drebrin-in-hippocampus-improves-cognitive-function-and-alleviates-lesions-of-alzheimer-s-disease-in-app-swe-ps1-%C3%AE-e9-mice
#12
Yan Liu, Yan-Feng Xu, Ling Zhang, Lan Huang, Pin Yu, Hua Zhu, Wei Deng, Chuan Qin
AIMS: Alzheimer's disease (AD), a progressive development dementia, is increasingly impacting patients' living conditions worldwide. Despite medical care and funding support, there are still no highly individualized drugs and practical strategies for clinical prevention and treatment. Developmentally regulated brain protein (abbreviated as Drebrin or Dbn, also known as Dbn1 in mouse) exists in neurons, especially in dendrites, and is an actin-binding protein that modulates synaptic morphology and long-term memory...
July 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589176/arhgef9-disease-phenotype-clarification-and-genotype-phenotype-correlation
#13
Michael Alber, Vera M Kalscheuer, Elysa Marco, Elliott Sherr, Gaetan Lesca, Marianne Till, Gyri Gradek, Antje Wiesener, Christoph Korenke, Sandra Mercier, Felicitas Becker, Toshiyuki Yamamoto, Stephen W Scherer, Christian R Marshall, Susan Walker, Usha R Dutta, Ashwin B Dalal, Vanessa Suckow, Payman Jamali, Kimia Kahrizi, Hossein Najmabadi, Berge A Minassian
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to generate a review and description of the phenotypic and genotypic spectra of ARHGEF9 mutations. METHODS: Patients with mutations or chromosomal disruptions affecting ARHGEF9 were identified through our clinics and review of the literature. Detailed medical history and examination findings were obtained via a standardized questionnaire, or if this was not possible by reviewing the published phenotypic features. RESULTS: A total of 18 patients (including 5 females) were identified...
June 2017: Neurology. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571558/protein-profile-analysis-of-two-australian-snake-venoms-by-one-dimensional-gel-electrophoresis-and-ms-ms-experiments
#14
Dessi Georgieva, Diana Hildebrand, Rodrigo Simas, Monika A Coronado, Marcel Kwiatkowski, Hartmut Schlüter, Raghuvir Arni, Patrick Spencer, Christian Betzel
The Pseudechis colletti and Pseudechis butleri venoms were analyzed by 1-D gel electrophoresis, followed by mass spectrometric analysis of tryptic peptides obtained from the protein bands. Both venoms contain highly potent pharmacologically active components, which were assigned to the following protein families: basic and acidic phospholipases A2 (PLA2s), L-amino acid oxidases (LAAOs), P-III metalloproteinases (P-III SVMPs), 5'-nucleotidases (5'-NTDs), cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISPs), venom nerve growth factors (VNGFs) and post-synaptic neurotoxins...
May 31, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569348/black-tar-heroin-skin-popping-as-a-cause-of-wound-botulism
#15
Ihtesham A Qureshi, Mohtashim A Qureshi, Mohammad Rauf Afzal, Alberto Maud, Gustavo J Rodriguez, Salvador Cruz-Flores, Darine Kassar
BACKGROUND: Botulism is a rare potentially fatal and treatable disorder caused by a bacteria-produced toxin that affects the presynaptic synaptic membrane resulting in a characteristic neuromuscular dysfunction. It is caused by either the ingestion of the toxin or the bacteria, inhalation, or wound infection. We present our observations with a descriptive case series of wound botulism secondary to black tar heroin (BTH) injection. METHODS: We report a retrospective single-center case series of 15 consecutive cases of wound botulism presenting to University Medical Center of El Paso...
May 31, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550022/longitudinal-assessment-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-in-sardinian-psychotic-patients-labsp-a-protocol-for-a-prospective-observational-study
#16
Diego Primavera, Mirko Manchia, Luca Deriu, Massimo Tusconi, Roberto Collu, Maria Scherma, Paola Fadda, Walter Fratta, Bernardo Carpiniello
INTRODUCTION: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a crucial role in neurodevelopment, synaptic plasticity and neuronal function and survival. Serum and plasma BDNF levels are moderately, but consistently, decreased in patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) compared with healthy controls. There is a lack of knowledge, however, on the temporal manifestation of this decline. Clinical, illness course and treatment factors might influence the variation of BDNF serum levels in patients with psychosis...
May 25, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494803/alzheimer-s-disease-dementia-and-stem-cell-therapy
#17
REVIEW
Thomas Duncan, Michael Valenzuela
Alzheimer's disease (AD) represents arguably the most significant social, economic, and medical crisis of our time. Characterized by progressive neurodegenerative pathology, AD is first and foremost a condition of neuronal and synaptic loss. Repopulation and regeneration of depleted neuronal circuitry by exogenous stem cells is therefore a rational therapeutic strategy. This review will focus on recent advances in stem cell therapies utilizing animal models of AD, as well as detailing the human clinical trials of stem cell therapies for AD that are currently undergoing development...
May 12, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458021/cerebrolysin-alleviates-cognitive-deficits-induced-by-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion-by-increasing-the-levels-of-plasticity-related-proteins-and-decreasing-the-levels-of-apoptosis-related-proteins-in-the-rat-hippocampus
#18
Zhijuan Liu, Ming Hu, Peiyuan Lu, Hebo Wang, Qianqian Qi, Jing Xu, Yining Xiao, Mingyue Fan, Yanqiu Jia, Dandan Zhang
The incidence of vascular dementia (VaD) has rapidly increased over the past few decades. Although officially approved medications for VaD remain limited, cerebrolysin (CBL) had preventive and treatment effects on VaD in some clinical trials. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been determined. The aim of this study was to determine whether CBL protects against cognitive deficits in a rat model of VaD induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion by increasing the levels of plasticity-related proteins and decreasing the levels of apoptosis-related proteins...
April 27, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438600/neurotrophin-receptors-in-the-pathogenesis-diagnosis-and-therapy-of-neurodegenerative-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Jacopo Meldolesi
In the last few years, exciting properties have emerged regarding the activation, signaling, mechanisms of action, and therapeutic targeting of the two types of neurotrophin receptors: the p75(NTR) with its intracellular and extracellular peptides, the Trks, their precursors and their complexes. This review summarizes these new developments, with particular focus on neurodegenerative diseases. Based on the evolving knowledge, innovative concepts have been formulated regarding the pathogenesis of these diseases, especially the Alzheimer's and two other, the Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases...
April 21, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362388/analyzing-dendritic-morphology-in-columns-and-layers
#20
Chun-Yuan Ting, Philip G McQueen, Nishith Pandya, Evan S McCreedy, Matthew McAuliffe, Chi-Hon Lee
In many regions of the central nervous systems, such as the fly optic lobes and the vertebrate cortex, synaptic circuits are organized in layers and columns to facilitate brain wiring during development and information processing in developed animals. Postsynaptic neurons elaborate dendrites in type-specific patterns in specific layers to synapse with appropriate presynaptic terminals. The fly medulla neuropil is composed of 10 layers and about 750 columns; each column is innervated by dendrites of over 38 types of medulla neurons, which match with the axonal terminals of some 7 types of afferents in a type-specific fashion...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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