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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128349/a-strategic-plan-to-identify-key-neurophysiological-mechanisms-and-brain-circuits-in-autism
#1
REVIEW
Frédérique Bonnet-Brilhault, Joëlle Malvy, Laurie Tuller, Philippe Prévost, Rasha Zebib, Sandrine Ferré, Christophe Dos Santos, Sylvie Roux, Emmanuelle Houy-Durand, Rémy Magné, Yassine Mofid, Marianne Latinus, Claire Wardak, Nadia Aguillon-Hernandez, Magali Batty, Marie Gomot
Autism and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) cover a large variety of clinical profiles which share two main dimensions: social and communication impairment and repetitive behaviors or restricted interests, which are present during childhood. There is now no doubt that genetic factors are a major component in the etiology of autism but precise physiopathological pathways are still being investigated. Furthermore, developmental trajectories combined with compensatory mechanisms will lead to various clinical and neurophysiological profiles which together constitute this Autism Spectrum Disorder...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124548/development-of-an-experimental-and-digital-cardiovascular-arterial-model-for-transient-hemodynamic-and-postural-change-studies-a-preliminary-framework-analysis
#2
Rodward L Hewlin, John P Kizito
The ultimate goal of the present work is to aid in the development of tools to assist in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Gaining an understanding of hemodynamic parameters for medical implants allow clinicians to have some patient-specific proposals for intervention planning. In the present work an experimental and digital computational fluid dynamics (CFD) arterial model consisting of a number of major arteries (aorta, carotid bifurcation, cranial, femoral, jejunal, and subclavian arteries) were fabricated to study: (1) the effects of local hemodynamics (flow parameters) on global hemodynamics (2) the effects of transition from bedrest to upright position (postural change) on hemodynamics, and (3) diffusion of dye (medical drug diffusion simulation) in the arterial system via experimental and numerical techniques...
November 9, 2017: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116975/progress-on-a-new-kind-of-progress-test-assessing-medical-students-clinical-skills
#3
Robin H DeMuth, Jonathan G Gold, Brian E Mavis, Dianne P Wagner
PROBLEM: Progress testing of medical knowledge has advantages over traditional medical school examination strategies. However, little is known about its use in assessing medical students' clinical skills or their integration of clinical skills with necessary science knowledge. The authors previously reported on the feasibility of the Progress Clinical Skills Examination (PCSE), piloted with a group of early learners. This subsequent pilot test studied the exam's validity to determine whether the PCSE is sensitive to the growth in students' clinical skills across the four years of medical school...
November 7, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099087/multipass-target-search-in-natural-environments
#4
Michael J Kuhlman, Michael W Otte, Donald Sofge, Satyandra K Gupta
Consider a disaster scenario where search and rescue workers must search difficult to access buildings during an earthquake or flood. Often, finding survivors a few hours sooner results in a dramatic increase in saved lives, suggesting the use of drones for expedient rescue operations. Entropy can be used to quantify the generation and resolution of uncertainty. When searching for targets, maximizing mutual information of future sensor observations will minimize expected target location uncertainty by minimizing the entropy of the future estimate...
November 2, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096139/feasibility-of-stereotactic-catheter-ventriculocisternostomy-for-cisternal-lavage-therapy-in-patients-with-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#5
Peter C Reinacher, Volker A Coenen, Rainer Kraeutle, Christian Scheiwe, Ramazan Jabbarli, Roland Roelz
OBJECTIVE: Delayed cerebral infarction (DCI) confers considerable morbidity and mortality after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Available prevention strategies are insufficient. Cisternal blood clearance by stereotactic catheter ventriculocisternostomy (STX-VCS) and cisternal lavage therapy is a novel concept for DCI prevention. Here, we assess the general feasibility, pitfalls and imaging requirements of STX-VCS after aSAH. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 73 aSAH patients admitted between 2008 and 2015 with appropriate imaging for simulation of stereotactic procedures were included...
October 16, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094419/dynamic-collimator-trajectory-algorithm-for-multiple-metastases-dynamic-conformal-arc-treatment-planning
#6
R Lee MacDonald, Christopher G Thomas, Alasdair Syme
PURPOSE: To develop an algorithm for dynamic collimator positioning to optimize beam's-eye-view (BEV) fitting of targets in dynamic conformal arc (DCA) based radiotherapy procedures, of particular use in multiple metastases stereotactic radiosurgery procedures. METHODS: A trajectory algorithm was developed to dynamically modify the angle of the collimator as a function of arc-based control point to provide optimized collimation of target volume(s). Central to this algorithm is a concept denoted herein as "whitespace" defined as any non-target area in the BEV that is not covered by any collimation system and is open to exposure from the radiation beam...
November 1, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077960/locomotor-training-and-strength-and-balance-exercises-for-walking-recovery-after-stroke-response-to-number-of-training-sessions
#7
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Dorian K Rose, Stephen E Nadeau, Samuel S Wu, Julie K Tilson, Bruce H Dobkin, Qinglin Pei, Pamela W Duncan
Background: Evidence-based guidelines are needed to inform rehabilitation practice, including the effect of number of exercise training sessions on recovery of walking ability after stroke. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the response to increasing number of training sessions of 2 interventions-locomotor training and strength and balance exercises-on poststroke walking recovery. Design: This is a secondary analysis of the Locomotor Experience Applied Post-Stroke (LEAPS) randomized controlled trial...
November 1, 2017: Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075187/predictive-place-cell-sequences-for-goal-finding-emerge-from-goal-memory-and-the-cognitive-map-a-computational-model
#8
Lorenz Gönner, Julien Vitay, Fred H Hamker
Hippocampal place-cell sequences observed during awake immobility often represent previous experience, suggesting a role in memory processes. However, recent reports of goals being overrepresented in sequential activity suggest a role in short-term planning, although a detailed understanding of the origins of hippocampal sequential activity and of its functional role is still lacking. In particular, it is unknown which mechanism could support efficient planning by generating place-cell sequences biased toward known goal locations, in an adaptive and constructive fashion...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074942/evaluating-anthropogenic-threats-to-endangered-killer-whales-to-inform-effective-recovery-plans
#9
Robert C Lacy, Rob Williams, Erin Ashe, Kenneth C Balcomb Iii, Lauren J N Brent, Christopher W Clark, Darren P Croft, Deborah A Giles, Misty MacDuffee, Paul C Paquet
Understanding cumulative effects of multiple threats is key to guiding effective management to conserve endangered species. The critically endangered, Southern Resident killer whale population of the northeastern Pacific Ocean provides a data-rich case to explore anthropogenic threats on population viability. Primary threats include: limitation of preferred prey, Chinook salmon; anthropogenic noise and disturbance, which reduce foraging efficiency; and high levels of stored contaminants, including PCBs. We constructed a population viability analysis to explore possible demographic trajectories and the relative importance of anthropogenic stressors...
October 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067950/percutaneous-sacroiliac-screw-placement-a-prospective-randomized-comparison-of-robot-assisted-navigation-procedures-with-a-conventional-technique
#10
Jun-Qiang Wang, Yu Wang, Yun Feng, Wei Han, Yong-Gang Su, Wen-Yong Liu, Wei-Jun Zhang, Xin-Bao Wu, Man-Yi Wang, Yu-Bo Fan
BACKGROUND: Sacroiliac (SI) screw fixation is a demanding technique, with a high rate of screw malposition due to the complex pelvic anatomy. TiRobot™ is an orthopedic surgery robot which can be used for SI screw fixation. This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of robot-assisted placement of SI screws compared with a freehand technique. METHODS: Thirty patients requiring posterior pelvic ring stabilization were randomized to receive freehand or robot-assisted SI screw fixation, between January 2016 and June 2016 at Beijing Jishuitan Hospital...
November 5, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064181/a-mayo-clinic-13-year-investigation-of-the-syndrome-of-rapid-onset-esrd-among-renal-transplant-recipients-an-analysis-of-the-implications-of-renal-allograft-biopsy-results
#11
REVIEW
Macaulay Amechi Onuigbo, Nneoma Agbasi
INTRODUCTION: We first described the syndrome of rapid onset end stage renal disease (SORO-ESRD), acute yet irreversible renal failure, in 2010. OBJECTIVE: The impact of SORO-ESRD renal allograft survival remains speculative and we plan to study this question. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of individual adult patient-level serum creatinine trajectories of ESRD patients on maintenance hemodialysis for >90 days at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, 2001-2013...
October 2017: Hemodialysis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063827/subcutaneous-injection-of-adalimumab-trial-compared-with-control-sciatic-a-randomised-controlled-trial-of-adalimumab-injection-compared-with-placebo-for-patients-receiving-physiotherapy-treatment-for-sciatica
#12
Nefyn H Williams, Alison Jenkins, Nia Goulden, Zoe Hoare, Dyfrig A Hughes, Eifiona Wood, Nadine E Foster, David A Walsh, Dawn Carnes, Valerie Sparkes, Elaine M Hay, John Isaacs, Kika Konstantinou, Dylan Morrissey, Jaro Karppinen, Stephane Genevay, Clare Wilkinson
BACKGROUND: Biological treatments such as adalimumab (Humira(®); AbbVie Ltd, Maidenhead, UK) are antibodies targeting tumour necrosis factor alpha, released from ruptured intervertebral discs, which might be useful in sciatica. Recent systematic reviews concluded that they might be effective, but that a definitive randomised controlled trial was needed. Usual care in the NHS typically includes a physiotherapy intervention. OBJECTIVES: To test whether or not injections of adalimumab plus physiotherapy are more clinically effective and cost-effective than injections of saline plus physiotherapy for patients with sciatica...
October 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063491/a-possible-correlation-between-the-basal-ganglia-motor-function-and-the-inverse-kinematics-calculation
#13
Armin Salimi-Badr, Mohammad Mehdi Ebadzadeh, Christian Darlot
The main hypothesis of this study, based on experimental data showing the relations between the BG activities and kinematic variables, is that BG are involved in computing inverse kinematics (IK) as a part of planning and decision-making. Indeed, it is assumed that based on the desired kinematic variables (such as velocity) of a limb in the workspace, angular kinematic variables in the joint configuration space are calculated. Therefore, in this paper, a system-level computational model of BG is proposed based on geometrical rules, which is able to compute IK...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061485/penalty-boundary-sequential-convex-programming-algorithm-for-non-convex-optimal-control-problems
#14
Zhe Zhang, Gumin Jin, Jianxun Li
A nonlinear optimal control problem with non-convex cost function and non-convex state constraints can be addressed by a series of convex programming to obtain numerical solutions in previous methods. However, a feasible initial solution is essential to ensure the convergence. In this paper, slack variables are added into the model to handle the infeasible initial point and are penalized in the cost. What is more, a new approximation point on the boundary of constraints is embraced in each iteration to increase the similarity to original problem and decrease number of iterations...
October 21, 2017: ISA Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058687/planning-guidance-and-quality-assurance-of-pelvic-screw-placement-using-deformable-image-registration
#15
Joseph Goerres, Ali Uneri, Matthew W Jacobson, Benjamin Ramsay, Tharindu De Silva, Michael D Ketcha, Runze Han, Amir Manbachi, Sebastian Vogt, Gerhard Kleinszig, Jean-Paul Wolinsky, Greg Michael Osgood, Jeffrey H Siewerdsen
Percutaneous pelvic screw placement is challenging due to narrow bone corridors surrounded by vulnerable structures and difficult visual interpretation of complex anatomical shapes in 2D x-ray projection images. To address these challenges, a system for planning, guidance, and quality assurance (QA) is presented, providing functionality analogous to surgical navigation, but based on robust 3D-2D image registration techniques using fluoroscopy images already acquired in routine workflow. Two novel aspects of the system are investigated: automatic planning of pelvic screw trajectories and the ability to account for deformation of surgical devices (K-wire deflection)...
October 23, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056978/screening-for-disruptive-behaviour-problems-in-preschool-children-in-primary-health-care-settings
#16
Alice Charach, John D McLennan, Stacey Ageranioti Bélanger, Mary Kay Nixon
Disruptive behaviour problems in preschool children are significant risk factors for, and potential components of, neurodevelopmental and mental health disorders. Some non-compliance, temper tantrums and aggression between two and five years of age are normal and transient. However, problematic levels of disruptive behaviour, specifically when accompanied by functional impairment and/or significant distress, should be identified because early intervention can improve outcome trajectories. This position statement provides an approach to early identification using clinical screening at periodic health examinations, followed by a systematic mental health examination that includes standardized measures...
2017: Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056296/task-demands-predict-a-dynamic-switch-in-the-content-of-awake-hippocampal-replay
#17
H Freyja Ólafsdóttir, Francis Carpenter, Caswell Barry
Reactivation of hippocampal place cell sequences during behavioral immobility and rest has been linked with both memory consolidation and navigational planning. Yet it remains to be investigated whether these functions are temporally segregated, occurring during different behavioral states. During a self-paced spatial task, awake hippocampal replay occurring either immediately before movement toward a reward location or just after arrival at a reward location preferentially involved cells consistent with the current trajectory...
November 15, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052463/hot-and-cool-executive-function-in-children-and-adolescents-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-cross-sectional-developmental-trajectories
#18
Evangelia-Chrysanthi Kouklari, Stella Tsermentseli, Claire P Monks
The development of executive function (EF) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has only been investigated using "cool"-cognitive-EF tasks. Little is known about the development of "hot"-affective-EF and whether it follows a similar developmental pathway. This study employed a cross-sectional developmental trajectories approach to examine the developmental changes in cool (working memory, inhibition, and planning) and hot EF (delay discounting and affective decision-making) of ASD participants (n = 79) and controls (n = 91) relative to age and IQ, shedding more light on the hot-cool EF organization...
October 20, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048589/impact-of-trajectory-planning-with-susceptibility-weighted-imaging-for-intracranial-electrode-implantation
#19
Guilherme Barros, Michael J Lang, Nikolaos Mouchtouris, Ashwini D Sharan, Chengyuan Wu
BACKGROUND: While T1-weighted gadolinium-enhanced (T1-Gd) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the standard imaging sequence for trajectory planning of stereotactic procedures, including deep brain stimulation, stereoelectroencephalography, and laser interstitial thermal therapy, susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) has been reported to demonstrate increased sensitivity for the visualization of microvasculature. OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of SWI visualization on trajectory planning for electrode implantation and evaluate the relationship between the rate of vessel-electrode intersections and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)...
October 18, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045355/complexity-of-chronic-conditions-impact-on-end-of-life-expense-trajectories-of-medicare-decedents
#20
Suzanne S Sullivan, Junxin Li, Yow-Wu Bill Wu, Sharon Hewner
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to determine if the pattern of monthly medical expense can be used to identify individuals at risk of dying, thus supporting providers in proactively engaging in advanced care planning discussions. BACKGROUND: Identifying the right time to discuss end of life can be difficult. Improved predictive capacity has made it possible for nurse leaders to use large data sets to guide clinical decision making. METHODS: We examined the patterns of monthly medical expense of Medicare beneficiaries with life-limiting illness during the last 24 months of life using analysis of variance, t tests, and stepwise hierarchical linear modeling...
November 2017: Journal of Nursing Administration
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