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trajectory planning

Qihui Lyu, Victoria Y Yu, Dan Ruan, Ryan Neph, Daniel O'Connor, Ke Sheng
Existing Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) optimization using coplanar arcs is highly efficient but usually dosimetrically inferior to intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with optimized non-coplanar beams. To achieve both dosimetric quality and delivery efficiency, we proposed in this study, a novel integrated optimization method for non-coplanar VMAT (4πVMAT). 4πVMAT with Direct Aperture Optimization (DAO) was achieved by utilizing a least square dose fidelity objective, along with an anisotropic total variation term for regularizing the fluence smoothness, a single segment term for imposing simple apertures, and a group sparsity term for selecting beam angles...
May 22, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Imeke Goldschmidt, André Karch, Rafael Mikolajczyk, Frauke Mutschler, Norman Junge, Eva Doreen Pfister, Tamara Möhring, Lorenzo d'Antiga, Patrick McKiernan, Deirdre Kelly, Dominique Debray, Valérie McLin, Joanna Pawlowska, Loreto Hierro, Kerstin Daemen, Jana Keil, Christine Falk, Ulrich Baumann
BACKGROUND: Although trough levels of immunosuppressive drugs are largely used to monitor immunosuppressive therapy after solid organ transplantation, there is still no established tool that allows for a validated assessment of functional degree of immunosuppression or the identification of clinically relevant over- or under-immunosuppression, depending on graft homeostasis. Reliable non-invasive markers to predict biopsy proven acute rejection (BPAR) do not exist. Literature data suggest that longitudinal measurements of immune markers might be predictive of BPAR, but data in children are scarce...
May 16, 2018: BMC Gastroenterology
Eneida Rached Campos, Djalma de Carvalho Moreira-Filho, Marcos Tadeu Nolasco da Silva
Scores to predict treatment outcomes have earned a well-deserved place in healthcare practice. However, when used to help achieve excellence in the care of a given disease, scores should also take into account organizational and social aspects. This article aims to create scores to obtain key variables and its application in the management of care of a given disease. We present a method called Epidemiological Planning for Patient Care Trajectory (PELC) and its application in a research of HIV pediatric patients...
May 2018: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Gerardo Pellegrino, Achille Tarsitano, Valerio Taraschi, Tomaso Vercellotti, Claudio Marchetti
Zygomatic implant site preparation could be considered a challenging procedure because of the use of a very long twist drill that could sometimes be difficult to control due to the need for drilling the malar bone on an oblique surface. Ultrasound was recently suggested to achieve better control, but the specific long tips required are not readily available, and the elongated tip also tends to reduce the efficacy. This technical note describes a proposal of a novel computer-aided technique to simplify the procedure of zygomatic implant site preparation...
May 2018: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
Paolo Mazzone, Alessandro Stefani, Fabio Viselli, Eugenio Scarnati
The recent introduction of frameless devices has enabled stereotactic neurosurgery to reach a level of accuracy that is comparable to traditional frame-based methodologies. Among frameless devices, the Nexframe appears to be very useful in implanting electrodes into the subthalamic nucleus or other structures for deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease. However, frameless devices, including the Nexframe, limit the possibility of intraoperative visual control of the placement of electrodes in the brain...
May 15, 2018: Brain Sciences
Jason T Slyer, Ella Archibald, Fernea Moyo, Marie Truglio-Londrigan
Early advance care planning and anticipatory decision making in the Alzheimer disease (AD) trajectory is a strategy NPs can incorporate to improve managing uncertainty around common decisions. This article explores decisions patients and caregivers face along the AD trajectory and provides resources for patients, caregivers, and NPs.
June 11, 2018: Nurse Practitioner
Vincent Wagner, Didier Acier, Jean-Eric Dietlin
OBJECTIVES: Trajectories of change accompanying alcohol-specialized care can be affected by numerous variables. Massive urges to drink can substantially hamper personal motivation to change. However, time perspective could also play an indirect role in this association. This research explores whether time perspectives mediates the relationship between inclinations to use or not to use alcohol and patients' motivation to change. DESIGN: The sample included 150 outpatients in care for their problematic alcohol use...
May 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychology
Katharina M Kubera, Mike M Schmitgen, Klaus H Maier-Hein, Philipp A Thomann, Dusan Hirjak, Robert C Wolf
BACKGROUND: Impulsivity is an essential human personality trait and highly relevant for the development of several mental disorders. There is evidence that impulsivity is heritable, yet little is known about neural correlates reflecting early brain development. Here, we address the question whether motor, attentional and non-planning components, as reflected by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), are distinctly associated with cortical thickness and surface area variations in young healthy individuals...
May 8, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Andrea Banino, Caswell Barry, Benigno Uria, Charles Blundell, Timothy Lillicrap, Piotr Mirowski, Alexander Pritzel, Martin J Chadwick, Thomas Degris, Joseph Modayil, Greg Wayne, Hubert Soyer, Fabio Viola, Brian Zhang, Ross Goroshin, Neil Rabinowitz, Razvan Pascanu, Charlie Beattie, Stig Petersen, Amir Sadik, Stephen Gaffney, Helen King, Koray Kavukcuoglu, Demis Hassabis, Raia Hadsell, Dharshan Kumaran
Deep neural networks have achieved impressive successes in fields ranging from object recognition to complex games such as Go1,2 . Navigation, however, remains a substantial challenge for artificial agents, with deep neural networks trained by reinforcement learning3-5 failing to rival the proficiency of mammalian spatial behaviour, which is underpinned by grid cells in the entorhinal cortex 6 . Grid cells are thought to provide a multi-scale periodic representation that functions as a metric for coding space7,8 and is critical for integrating self-motion (path integration)6,7,9 and planning direct trajectories to goals (vector-based navigation)7,10,11 ...
May 9, 2018: Nature
Andrew Mark Bassett, Caragh Brosnan, Erica Southgate, Heidi Lempp
BACKGROUND: There has been much interest in the transitions along the medical education continuum. However, little is known about how students from non-traditional backgrounds experience both the move to, and through Medical School, and their ambitions post-graduation. This research sought to understand the transitional journey into, and through undergraduate medical education, and future career aspirations for first-in-family (FiF) medical students. METHODS: Based on a interpretivist epistemological perspective, 20 FiF students from one English Medical School participated in semi-structured interviews...
May 9, 2018: BMC Medical Education
Julia W Gargano, Fangjun Zhou, Shannon Stokley, Lauri E Markowitz
BACKGROUND: In the United States, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) has recommended routine human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination at age 11-12 years since 2006 for girls and since 2011 for boys. ACIP also recommends vaccination through age 26 for females and through age 21 for males; males may be vaccinated through age 26. We describe vaccine uptake in adolescents and young adults using data from MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters. METHODS: We analyzed data on persons aged 11-26 years on December 31, 2014 who were continuously enrolled in a MarketScan health plan from age 11 through year 2014, or from 2006 to 2014 if aged ≥11 years in 2006 (916,513 females, 951,082 males)...
May 4, 2018: Vaccine
Katie Wiskar, Mustafa Toma, Barret Rush
Palliative care (PC) is now recommended by all major cardiovascular societies for advanced heart failure (HF). PC is a philosophy of care that uses a holistic approach to address physical, psychosocial, and spiritual needs in patients with a terminal disease process. In HF, PC has been shown to improve symptoms and quality of life, facilitate advanced care planning, decrease hospital readmissions, and decrease hospital-associated healthcare costs. Although PC is still underutilized in HF, uptake is increasing...
February 21, 2018: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine
Ahmadreza Vajdi, Gongxuan Zhang, Junlong Zhou, Tongquan Wei, Yongli Wang, Tianshu Wang
We study the problem of employing a mobile-sink into a large-scale Event-Driven Wireless Sensor Networks (EWSNs) for the purpose of data harvesting from sensor-nodes. Generally, this employment improves the main weakness of WSNs that is about energy-consumption in battery-driven sensor-nodes. The main motivation of our work is to address challenges which are related to a network’s topology by adopting a mobile-sink that moves in a predefined trajectory in the environment. Since, in this fashion, it is not possible to gather data from sensor-nodes individually, we adopt the approach of defining some of the sensor-nodes as Rendezvous Points (RPs) in the network...
May 4, 2018: Sensors
Géraldine De Blasi, Evelyne Bouteyre, Laetitia Rollin
BACKGROUND: Enabling cancer survivors to resume employment has become a public health issue in France, but not all survivors wish to or would benefit from doing so. OBJECTIVE: This French exploratory qualitative study was designed to identify the psychological factors that influence the decision of some cancer survivors not to return to work, despite their doctor's permission. METHODS: We conducted semi structured interviews with two women and one man...
May 1, 2018: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
Christos Koutsarnakis, Aristotelis V Kalyvas, Spyridon Komaitis, Faidon Liakos, Georgios P Skandalakis, Christos Anagnostopoulos, George Stranjalis
OBJECTIVE The authors investigated the specific topographic relationship of the optic radiation fibers to the roof and floor of the ventricular atrium because the current literature is ambiguous. METHODS Thirty-five normal, adult, formalin-fixed cerebral hemispheres and 30 focused MRI slices at the level of the atrium were included in the study. The correlative anatomy of the optic radiation with regard to the atrial roof and floor was investigated in 15 specimens, each through focused fiber microdissections...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Joshua I Glaser, Matthew G Perich, Pavan Ramkumar, Lee E Miller, Konrad P Kording
Our bodies and the environment constrain our movements. For example, when our arm is fully outstretched, we cannot extend it further. More generally, the distribution of possible movements is conditioned on the state of our bodies in the environment, which is constantly changing. However, little is known about how the brain represents such distributions, and uses them in movement planning. Here, we record from dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) and primary motor cortex (M1) while monkeys reach to randomly placed targets...
May 3, 2018: Nature Communications
Majeed Rana, Henrik Holtmann, Julian Lommen, Madiha Rana, Alexander Zeller, Norbert Kübler, Karsten Hufendiek, Elvis Hermann, Nils-Claudius Gellrich, Christoph Sproll
Intraorbital space-occupying lesions always pose a challenge, both in terms of definite surgical removal as well as preoperative sampling for histopathological examination. Despite the use of modern high-resolution imaging techniques, the dignity of orbital lesions can often not be determined with sufficient certainty preoperatively. As the amount and complexity of treatment possibilities continue to increase, detailed diagnostics in advance of treatment choice are essential. Histological classification of orbital lesions can still be considered the gold standard for reliable diagnoses, leading to appropriate treatment...
March 31, 2018: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
Shari L Hutchison, Irina Karpov, Alina Bodea Crisan, Eric Hulsey, David Dan
This study examines therapeutic alliance (TA) over 2 years and the association with clinical outcomes for children and youth in a home and school-based behavioral health service characterized by innovative TA practices. Caregiver report of TA and functioning were collected monthly and discussed to inform service planning. Trajectory analysis was conducted to discern distinct patterns of TA ratings over time with linear mixed models to examine factors associated with the resulting TA patterns. We identified 1714 Medicaid-eligible youth and families...
April 26, 2018: Community Mental Health Journal
Shinjini Mondal, Sara Van Belle
BACKGROUND: The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are seen in most corners as the embodiment of a more inclusive and holistic development approach, key to addressing the numerous and urgent challenges the world faces. In the health realm, a true SDG approach will require a five-fold paradigm shift according to Buse and Hawkes. This article explores whether early traces of this paradigm shift can already be witnessed in the Indian context, focusing on Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) more in particular...
April 25, 2018: Globalization and Health
Carina Carbia, Eduardo López-Caneda, Montserrat Corral, Fernando Cadaveira
Binge drinking (BD) is a public health concern with serious implications for brain development. This review is the first in which neuropsychological studies of healthy young BDs are synthesized following PRISMA guidelines. We conducted a literature search in PsycINFO, Web of Science, and PubMed. Articles were screened using strict inclusion criteria. Two authors independently assessed the methodological quality. Of the 27 studies included, 14 (52%) were of intermediate quality, 7 (26%) of poor quality and 6 (22%) of high quality...
April 17, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
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