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Peripheral artery disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471161/peripheral-artery-disease-and-antiplatelet-treatment
#1
REVIEW
Vasiliki Tsigkou, Gerasimos Siasos, Kleanthis Rovos, Niki Tripyla, Dimitris Tousoulis
Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is one of the most important causes of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and its prevalence is alarmingly increasing in modern societies. PAD shares common characteristics with the other atherosclerotic diseases but involves specifically the arteries of the lower extremities. Apart from the changes in lifestyle, antiplatelet agents are the hallmark of the treatment and improve the symptoms as well as the progression of the disease. Aspirin is the cornerstone of treatment and is administrated in doses ranging from 75 to 325mg daily...
February 19, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470746/nitinol-stents-in-the-femoropopliteal-artery-a-mechanical-perspective-on-material-design-and-performance
#2
REVIEW
Kaspars Maleckis, Eric Anttila, Paul Aylward, William Poulson, Anastasia Desyatova, Jason MacTaggart, Alexey Kamenskiy
Endovascular stenting has matured into a commonly used treatment for peripheral arterial disease (PAD) due to its minimally invasive nature and associated reductions in short-term morbidity and mortality. The mechanical properties of the superelastic Nitinol alloy have played a major role in the explosion of peripheral artery stenting, with modern stents demonstrating reasonable resilience and durability. Yet in the superficial femoral and popliteal arteries, even the newest generation Nitinol stents continue to demonstrate clinical outcomes that leave significant room for improvement...
February 22, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468666/eicosanoids-prostacyclin-and-cyclooxygenase-in-the-cardiovascular-system
#3
REVIEW
Jane A Mitchell, Nicholas S Kirkby
Eicosanoids represent a diverse family of lipid mediators with fundamental roles in controlling physiology and disease. Within the eicosanoid super family are prostanoids, which are specifically derived from arachidonic acid by the enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX). COX has two isoforms; COX-1 and COX-2. COX-2 is the therapeutic target for the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) class of pain medications. Of the prostanoids, prostacyclin, first discovered by Sir Professor John Vane in 1976, remains amongst the best studied and retains an impressive pedigree as one the bodies fundamental cardiovascular protective pathways...
February 21, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468589/a-murine-model-of-hind-limb-ischemia-to-study-angiogenesis-and-arteriogenesis
#4
Jun Yu, Alan Dardik
Therapeutic angiogenesis offers promise as a novel treatment that is complementary to surgical or endovascular procedures for peripheral arterial diseases (PAD). Appropriate development and use of hind limb ischemia models is necessary for successful studies of therapeutic angiogenesis and/or arteriogenesis. In this chapter, we describe two commonly used murine unilateral hind limb ischemia models, the femoral artery transection model and the femoral/saphenous artery excision model.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466988/blood-flow-characteristics-of-diabetic-patients-with-complications-detected-by-optical-measurement
#5
Yuri An, Yujung Kang, Jungsul Lee, Chulwoo Ahn, Kihwan Kwon, Chulhee Choi
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most common diseases worldwide. Uncontrolled and prolonged hyperglycemia can cause diabetic complications, which reduce the quality of life of patients. Diabetic complications are common in DM patients. Because it is impossible to completely recover from diabetic complications, it is important for early detection. In this study, we suggest a novel method of determining blood flow characteristics based on fluorescence image analysis with indocyanine green and report that diabetic complications have unique blood flow characteristics...
February 21, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466936/utilization-and-in-hospital-outcomes-associated-with-atherectomy-in-the-treatment-of-peripheral-vascular-disease-an-observational-analysis-from-the-national-inpatient-sample
#6
Rajkumar Doshi, Evan Shlofmitz, Perwaiz Meraj
Objective Percutaneous revascularization for patients with peripheral arterial disease has become a treatment of choice for many symptomatic patients. The presence of severe arterial calcification presents many challenges for successful revascularization. Atherectomy is an adjunctive treatment option for patients with severe calcification undergoing percutaneous intervention. We sought to analyze the impact of atherectomy on in-hospital outcomes, length of stay, and cost in the percutaneous treatment of peripheral arterial disease...
January 1, 2018: Vascular
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465495/exercise-rehabilitation-for-peripheral-artery-disease-a-review
#7
Mary M McDermott
PURPOSE: To summarize evidence regarding exercise therapy for people with lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD). METHODS: Literature was reviewed regarding optimal strategies for delivering exercise interventions for people with PAD. Randomized trial evidence and recent studies were emphasized. RESULTS: Randomized clinical trial evidence consistently demonstrates that supervised treadmill exercise improves treadmill walking performance in people with PAD...
March 2018: Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465323/peripheral-mu-opioid-receptors-attenuate-the-responses-of-group-iii-and-iv-afferents-to-contraction-in-rats-with-simulated-peripheral-artery-disease
#8
Jonathan E Harms, Audrey J Stone, Marc P Kaufman
Patients with peripheral artery disease show an exaggerated pressor response to mild exercise, an effect attributable to the exercise pressor reflex, whose afferent arm is comprised of the thinly myelinated group III and unmyelinated group IV afferents. Previously, we found that DAMGO, a μ opioid agonist injected into the femoral artery, attenuated the exaggerated exercise pressor reflex in rats with ligated femoral arteries, a preparation which simulates the blood flow patterns to muscle that is seen in patients with PAD...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463192/home-based-exercise-for-elderly-patients-with-intermittent-claudication-limited-by-osteoarticular-disorders-feasibility-and-effectiveness-of-a-low-intensity-programme
#9
Nicola Lamberti, Sofia Straudi, Efisio Lissia, Lorenza Cavazzini, Sergio Buja, Roberto Manfredini, Nino Basaglia, Fabio Manfredini
BACKGROUND: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a common cardiovascular pathology affecting mobility in elderly. Osteoarticular diseases (ODs), responsible for functional limitations and confounding leg symptoms, may interfere with exercise therapy. This study evaluates the feasibility and effectiveness of a structured home-based exercise programme on rehabilitative outcomes in a cohort of elderly PAD patients with and without coexisting ODs. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were enrolled from 2002 to 2016 in an exercise programme prescribed and controlled at the hospital and based on two daily 10-minute home walking sessions below the self-selected speed...
February 21, 2018: VASA. Zeitschrift Für Gefässkrankheiten
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462898/do-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-fetuin-a-play-different-roles-in-symptomatic-coronary-artery-disease-and-peripheral-arterial-disease
#10
Fabio Nascimbeni, Dante Romagnoli, Stefano Ballestri, Enrica Baldelli, Simonetta Lugari, Valentina Sirotti, Valentina Giampaoli, Amedeo Lonardo
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is strongly associated with both atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) and Fetuin-A. However, the association of Fetuin-A with atherosclerosis is more controversial. We hypothesized that the pathogenic interplay of NAFLD, Fetuin-A and atherosclerosis varies based on arterial site. Accordingly, we aimed to assess NAFLD prevalence, Fetuin-A values and their relationship with symptomatic atherosclerosis occurring in different localizations: coronary artery disease (CAD) vs...
February 16, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462052/does-robotic-beating-heart-connector-totally-endoscopic-coronary-artery-bypass-bridge-the-sex-gap-in-coronary-bypass-surgery
#11
Hiroto Kitahara, Mackenzie McCrorey, Brooke Patel, Sarah Nisivaco, Husam H Balkhy
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have shown that women carry a higher risk of morbidity and mortality after coronary artery bypass surgery. We investigated sex differences in risk factors and outcomes in our patients undergoing robotic beating heart connector totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass. METHODS: From July 2013 to April 2017, patients undergoing connector totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass were reviewed. We compared the outcomes of men versus women...
February 15, 2018: Innovations: Technology and Techniques in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459603/study-of-angiographic-relationship-between-peripheral-arterial-diseases-with-the-involvement-of-specific-coronary-artery-lesion
#12
S A Habib, M N Islam, M F Rahman, M Ullah, K Pasha, S N Alam, K Mohsin, N Fatema, M R Khan, S S Shakil, M N Hasan
The purpose of this study was to investigate magnitude, pattern and involvement of previously unheralded coronary artery disease in patients suffering from clinically significant peripheral artery disease of lower limbs. This cross sectional study was carried out in National Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Dhaka, Bangladesh from January 2014 to February 2015. Total 58 patients with clinically diagnosed peripheral arterial disease of lower limb undergoing angiographic evaluation. Selective CAG in addition to peripheral arteriography was performed in all the study population as per ACC/AHA guidelines for CAG (class IIa recommendation)...
January 2018: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459465/mental-stress-induced-myocardial-ischemia-in-young-patients-with-recent-myocardial-infarction-sex-differences-and-mechanisms
#13
Viola Vaccarino, Samaah Sullivan, Muhammad Hammadah, Kobina Wilmot, Ibhar Al Mheid, Ronnie Ramadan, Lisa Elon, Pratik M Pimple, Ernest V Garcia, Jonathon Nye, Amit J Shah, Ayman Alkhoder, Oleksiy Levantsevych, Hawkins Gay, Malik Obideen, Minxuan Huang, Tené T Lewis, J Douglas Bremner, Arshed A Quyyumi, Paolo Raggi
BACKGROUND: Mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia (MSIMI) is frequent in patients with coronary artery disease and is associated with worse prognosis. Young women with a previous myocardial infarction (MI), a group with unexplained higher mortality than men of comparable age, have shown elevated rates of MSIMI, but the mechanisms are unknown. METHODS: We studied 306 patients (150 women and 156 men) ≤61 years of age who were hospitalized for MI in the previous 8 months and 112 community controls (58 women and 54 men) frequency matched for sex and age to the patients with MI...
February 20, 2018: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459267/ankle-brachial-index-and-cognitive-function-among-hispanics-latinos-results-from-the-hispanic-community-health-study-study-of-latinos
#14
Wassim Tarraf, Michael H Criqui, Matthew A Allison, Clinton B Wright, Myriam Fornage, Martha Daviglus, Robert C Kaplan, Sonia Davis, Alan S Conceicao, Hector M González
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The Ankle-Brachial index (ABI) is a well-accepted measure of peripheral artery disease (arterial stenosis and stiffness) and has been shown to be associated with cognitive function and disorders; however, these associations have not been examined in Hispanics/Latinos. Therefore, we sought to examine relationships between ABI and cognitive function among diverse middle-age and older Hispanics/Latinos. METHODS: We used cross-sectional data on n = 7991 participants aged 45-74 years, without stroke or coronary heart disease, from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos...
February 9, 2018: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459079/anti-hypertensive-treatment-in-peripheral-artery-disease
#15
REVIEW
Costas Tsioufis, Ioannis Andrikou, Gerasimos Siasos, Konstantinos Filis, Dimitrios Tousoulis
Peripheral artery disease (PAD) affects more than 200 million people worldwide. Hypertension has been related to increased risk of PAD. The treatment of elevated blood pressure (BP) in these patients is indicated to lower the cardiovascular risk with a BP goal of less than 130/80mmHg. Although there is no evidence that one class of antihypertensive medication or strategy is superior for BP lowering in PAD, the use of renin-angiotensin-system (RAS) inhibitors can be effective to reduce the cardiovascular risk...
February 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459014/regional-variation-in-racial-disparities-among-patients-with-peripheral-artery-disease
#16
Thomas F X O'Donnell, Chloe Powell, Sarah E Deery, Jeremy D Darling, Kakra Hughes, Kristina A Giles, Grace J Wang, Marc L Schermerhorn
OBJECTIVE: Prior studies identified significant racial disparities as well as regional variation in outcomes of patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD). We aimed to determine whether regional variation contributes to these racial disparities. METHODS: We identified all white or black patients who underwent infrainguinal revascularization or amputation in 15 deidentified regions of the Vascular Quality Initiative between 2003 and 2017. We excluded three regions with <100 procedures...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458330/gait-pattern-in-patients-with-peripheral-artery-disease
#17
Maria Szymczak, Paweł Krupa, Grzegorz Oszkinis, Marian Majchrzycki
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present paper is to assess the gait pattern of patients with Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD). A more specific aim is to compare the gait pattern of PAD patients before and after the appearance of intermittent claudication symptoms. METHODS: The study involved 34 PAD patients with a claudication distance ≥200 m and 20 participants without PAD, who formed the control group. The gait pattern of PAD patients was assessed twice: before the appearance of intermittent claudication symptoms (pain-free conditions) and after the appearance of intermittent claudication symptoms (pain conditions)...
February 20, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458301/measurement-of-peripheral-blood-flow-in-patients-with-peripheral-artery-disease-methods-and-considerations
#18
Dereck L Salisbury, Rebecca Jl Brown, Ulf G Bronas, Laura N Kirk, Diane Treat-Jacobson
Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a manifestation of generalized atherosclerosis which results in hemodynamic compromise of oxygen and substrate delivery to the lower extremity skeletal muscles. Hemodynamic assessments are vital in PAD diagnosis and in the evaluation of strategies aimed at treating claudication (i.e. exercise training, revascularization, and pharmacological agents). Venous occlusion plethysmography (VOP) is a century-old, non-invasive technique used to quantify limb blood flow and has been used to evaluate hemodynamic compromise in patients with PAD...
February 1, 2018: Vascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458291/local-antibiotic-delivery-systems-current-and-future-applications-for-diabetic-foot-infections
#19
Konstantinos Markakis, Alan Robert Faris, Hamed Sharaf, Barzo Faris, Sharon Rees, Frank L Bowling
Foot infections are common among diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy and/or peripheral arterial disease, and it can be the pivotal event leading to a minor or major amputation of the lower extremity. Treatment of diabetic foot infections, especially deep-seated ones, remains challenging, in part because impaired blood perfusion and the presence of biofilms can impair the effectiveness of systemic antibiotics. The local application of antibiotics is an emerging field in the treatment of diabetic foot infections, with demonstrable advantages...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Lower Extremity Wounds
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456512/local-injections-of-superoxide-dismutase-attenuate-the-exercise-pressor-reflex-in-rats-with-femoral-artery-occlusion
#20
Jihong Xing, Jian Lu, Jiahao Liu, Jianhua Li
The exercise pressor reflex is amplified in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) and in an experimental PAD model of rats induced by femoral artery occlusion. Heightened blood pressure worsens the restricted blood flow directed to the limbs in this disease. The purpose of this study was to determine the role played by muscle oxidative stress in regulating the augmented pressor response to static exercise in PAD. We hypothesized that limb ischemia impairs muscle superoxide dismutase (SOD) thereby leading to abnormal autonomic responsiveness observed in PAD animals, and a chronic compensation of SOD for anti-oxidation improves the exaggerated exercise pressor reflex...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
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