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American trypanosomiasis

Vanessa Bellini Bardella, Sebastián Pita, André Luis Laforga Vanzela, Cleber Galvão, Francisco Panzera
The subfamily Triatominae (Hemiptera, Reduviidae) includes 150 species of blood-sucking insects, vectors of Chagas disease or American trypanosomiasis. Karyotypic information reveals a striking stability in the number of autosomes. However, this group shows substantial variability in genome size, the amount and distribution of C-heterochromatin, and the chromosome positions of 45S rDNA clusters. Here, we analysed the karyotypes of 41 species from six different genera with C-fluorescence banding in order to evaluate the base-pair richness of heterochromatic regions...
October 2016: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
C Díaz-Luján, M F Triquell, C Castillo, D Hardisson, U Kemmerling, R E Fretes
American trypanosomiasis has long been a neglected disease endemic in LatinAmerica, but congenital transmission has now spread Chagas disease to cause a global health problem. As the early stages of the infection of placental tissue and the vertical transmission by Trypanosoma cruzi are still not well understood, it is important to investigate the relevance of the first structure of the placental barrier in chorionic villi infection by T. cruzi during the initial stage of the infection. Explants of human chorionic villi from healthy pregnant women at term were denuded of their syncytiotrophoblast and co-cultured for 3h, 24h and 96h with 800,000 trypomastigotes (simulating acute infection)...
September 26, 2016: Acta Tropica
Isidro Jarque, Miguel Salavert, Javier Pemán
Parasitic infections are rarely documented in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. However they may be responsible for fatal complications that are only diagnosed at autopsy. Increased awareness of the possibility of parasitic diseases both in autologous and allogeneic stem cell transplant patients is relevant not only for implementing preventive measures but also for performing an early diagnosis and starting appropriate therapy for these unrecognized but fatal infectious complications in hematopoietic transplant recipients...
2016: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
Juan B Rodriguez, Bruno N Falcone, Sergio H Szajnman
INTRODUCTION: Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiologic agent of American trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease), which is one of the important parasitic diseases worldwide. The number of infected people with T. cruzi diminished from 18 million in 1991 to 6 million in 2010, but it is still the most prevalent parasitic disease in the Americas. The existing chemotherapy is still deficient and based on two drugs: nifurtimox and benznidazole, which are not FDA-approved in the United States. AREAS COVERED: This review covers the current and future directions of Chagas disease chemotherapy based on drugs that interfere with relevant metabolic pathways...
September 2016: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
Kiyosei Takasu
The search for new drugs that could treat tropical protozoan diseases, such as malaria or neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), motivates many medicinal chemists. New classes of antiprotozoal drugs that act through a novel mechanism of action must be developed. This review presents our efforts toward finding new candidate treatments for malaria, American trypanosomiasis, human African trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis based on π-delocalized lipophilic cations (DLCs). DLCs, such as rhodacyanines, azarhodacyanines, β-carbolinium salts, and phenoxazinium salts, displayed strong antiprotozoal activities with highly selective indices...
2016: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Rocio Paucar, Elsa Moreno-Viguri, Silvia Pérez-Silanes
Chagas disease or American trypanosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. Although the number of infected individuals has decreased, about 6-7 million people are infected worldwide. The chemotherapy drugs currently used are limited to benznidazole and nifurtimox. They are effective in acute phase, congenital transmission and children with chronic infection; however, recent clinical trials have shown limitations in adults with chronic infection, presenting drawbacks during the treatment...
June 26, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
F Chacón, A Bacigalupo, J F Quiroga, A Ferreira, P E Cattan, G Ramírez-Toloza
American trypanosomiasis is a chronic disease transmitted mainly by vectors. The hematophagous triatomine vectors transmit Trypanosoma cruzi to a wide variety of mammals, which usually are their food source. This study determined the feeding profile of Mepraia spinolai, a sylvatic triatomine vector, present in endemic areas of Chile. Vectors were captured in the north-central area of Chile. Samples of intestinal contents were analyzed by an Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that identifies and discriminates the presence of serum antigens from Homo sapiens and nine animal species (Canis familiaris, Felis catus, Capra hircus, Mus musculus, Gallus gallus, Octodon degus, Thylamys elegans, Phyllotis darwini and Oryctolagus cuniculus)...
October 2016: Acta Tropica
Charles O Ogindo, Mozna H Khraiwesh, Matthew George, Yakini Brandy, Nailah Brandy, Ayele Gugssa, Mohammad Ashraf, Muneer Abbas, William M Southerland, Clarence M Lee, Oladapo Bakare, Yayin Fang
Chagas disease, also called American trypanosomiasis, is a parasitic disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi). Recent findings have underscored the abundance of the causative organism, (T. cruzi), especially in the southern tier states of the US and the risk burden for the rural farming communities there. Due to a lack of safe and effective drugs, there is an urgent need for novel therapeutic options for treating Chagas disease. We report here our first scientific effort to pursue a novel drug design for treating Chagas disease via the targeting of T...
August 15, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Juan Bautista Rodriguez
Trypanosomatids possess an unremitting requirement for distinctive endogenous sterols for their life cycle and cannot use the copious availability of cholesterol existing in their mammalian hosts. Exhaustion of endogenous sterols such as ergosterol or of its next biosynthetic product 24-ethylcholesta-5,7,22-trien-3-ol brings forth an inhibition of proliferation on Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of American trypanosomiasis or Chagas disease. These metabolites are crucial; consequently, the enzymes implicated in catalyzing their formation constitute interesting molecular targets for drug design...
June 10, 2016: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
Surendra Jain, Melissa Jacob, Larry Walker, Babu Tekwani
BACKGROUND: Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) is a protozoan parasitic disease caused by Trypanosoma brucei. The disease is endemic in regions of sub-Saharan Africa, covering 36 countries and more than 60 million people at the risk. Only few drugs are available for the treatment of HAT. Current drugs suffer from severe toxicities and require intramuscular or intravenous administrations. The situation is further aggravated due to the emergence of drug resistance. There is an urgent need of new drugs that are effective orally against both stages of HAT...
2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Paula Beatriz Santiago, Teresa C F Assumpção, Carla Nunes de Araújo, Izabela Marques Dourado Bastos, David Neves, Ionizete Garcia da Silva, Sébastien Charneau, Rayner Myr L Queiroz, Tainá Raiol, João Victor de Araújo Oliveira, Marcelo Valle de Sousa, Eric Calvo, José M C Ribeiro, Jaime M Santana
BACKGROUND: Triatomines are hematophagous insects that act as vectors of Chagas disease. Rhodnius neglectus is one of these kissing bugs found, contributing to the transmission of this American trypanosomiasis. The saliva of hematophagous arthropods contains bioactive molecules responsible for counteracting host haemostatic, inflammatory, and immune responses. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Next generation sequencing and mass spectrometry-based protein identification were performed to investigate the content of triatomine R...
April 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Tomás Nepomuceno-Mejía, Reyna Lara-Martínez, Roberto Hernández, María de Lourdes Segura-Valdez, Luis F Jiménez-García
Nucleolar assembly is a cellular event that requires the synthesis and processing of ribosomal RNA, in addition to the participation of pre-nucleolar bodies (PNBs) at the end of mitosis. In mammals and plants, nucleolar biogenesis has been described in detail, but in unicellular eukaryotes it is a poorly understood process. In this study, we used light and electron microscopy cytochemical techniques to investigate the distribution of nucleolar components in the pathway of nucleolus rebuilding during closed cell division in epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of American trypanosomiasis...
June 2016: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Mohammed Auwal Ibrahim, Murtala Bindawa Isah, Abdulmalik Abdullahi Salman
Trypanosomiasis is a serious parasitic disease that affects humans and animals resulting in heavy health and economic burdens. Disturbance of redox equilibrium represents a classical challenge for both the host and the parasite during infections with either extracellular African or intracellular American trypanosomes species. This is in spite of existing detoxification mechanisms in both the host and the parasite for maintaining oxidative balance. However, oxidative stress still plays vital roles in the induction of numerous host-associated pathological damages such as anemia, hepatic and renal damages as well as cardiomyopathy while on the other hand, drugs that specifically induce oxidative stress to the parasite have been effective...
2016: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Andrés B Lantos, Giannina Carlevaro, Beatriz Araoz, Pablo Ruiz Diaz, María de Los Milagros Camara, Carlos A Buscaglia, Mariano Bossi, Hai Yu, Xi Chen, Carolyn R Bertozzi, Juan Mucci, Oscar Campetella
Trypanosoma cruzi, the flagellate protozoan agent of Chagas disease or American trypanosomiasis, is unable to synthesize sialic acids de novo. Mucins and trans-sialidase (TS) are substrate and enzyme, respectively, of the glycobiological system that scavenges sialic acid from the host in a crucial interplay for T. cruzi life cycle. The acquisition of the sialyl residue allows the parasite to avoid lysis by serum factors and to interact with the host cell. A major drawback to studying the sialylation kinetics and turnover of the trypomastigote glycoconjugates is the difficulty to identify and follow the recently acquired sialyl residues...
April 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Fábio Prestes de Campos, Henry Mor Pansard, Luiz Cláudio Arantes, Arnaldo Teixeira Rodrigues, Melissa Falster Daubermann, Marcos Felipe Azambuja, Laércio Cassol Argenta, Luiz Alberto Michet da Silva
Chagas' disease carries high morbidity and mortality due to acute parasitemia or cardiac, digestive, cutaneous or neurologic chronic lesions. Latin American countries have the majority of infected or at risk people. Transplanted patients using immunosuppressive agents may develop severe and even fatal forms of the disease. The available treatment causes frequent severe side-effects. A 59 years-old woman with end stage renal disease and positive serology for Chagas` disease, but without any clinical manifestation of this pathology, underwent kidney transplantation from a cadaveric donor and displayed three months later a thigh panniculitis from which a biopsy unveiled amastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi...
March 2016: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
Luz Peverengo, Luz Rodeles, Miguel Hernan Vicco, Iván Marcipar
INTRODUCTION: chronic Chagas heart disease (CCHD) is the most common manifestation of American Trypanosomiasis, causing about 50,000 deaths annually. Several factors bear correlation with the severity of CCHD. However, to our knowledge, the assessment on the contribution of major cardiovascular risk factors (CRF), such as hypertension and atherogenic dyslipidemia (AD) to CCHD severity is scarce, despite their well-established role in coronary artery disease, heart failure and stroke. OBJECTIVE: to explore the potential relationship of blood pressure and AD with the clinical profile of patients with CCHD...
January 2016: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
Ana Paula Margioto Teston, Ana Paula de Abreu, Ana Paula Gruendling, Maria Terezinha Bahia, Mônica Lúcia Gomes, Silvana Marques de Araújo, Max Jean de Ornelas Toledo
Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiological agent of American trypanosomiasis (Chagas' disease), which affects 6-7 million people worldwide, mainly in Latin America. It presents great genetic and biological variability that plays an important role in the clinical and epidemiological features of the disease. Our working hypothesis is that the genetic diversity of T. cruzi has an important impact on detection of the parasite using diagnostic techniques. The present study evaluated the diagnostic performance of parasitological, molecular, and serological techniques for detecting 27 strains of T...
July 2016: Experimental Parasitology
María Elizabeth Márquez, Juan Luis Concepción, Eglys González-Marcano, Alberto Paniz Mondolfi
American Trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease) is an infectious disease caused by the hemoflagellate parasite Trypanosoma cruzi which is transmitted by reduviid bugs. T. cruzi infection occurs in a broad spectrum of reservoir animals throughout North, Central, and South America and usually evolves into an asymptomatic chronic clinical stage of the disease in which diagnosis is often challenging. This chapter describes the application of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA including protocols for sample preparation, DNA extraction, and target amplification methods...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Luciana Lima, Oneida Espinosa-Álvarez, C Miguel Pinto, Manzelio Cavazzana, Ana Carolina Pavan, Julio C Carranza, Burton K Lim, Marta Campaner, Carmen S A Takata, Erney P Camargo, Patrick B Hamilton, Marta M G Teixeira
BACKGROUND: Bat trypanosomes are implicated in the evolution of the T. cruzi clade, which harbours most African, European and American trypanosomes from bats and other trypanosomes from African, Australian and American terrestrial mammals, including T. cruzi and T. rangeli, the agents of the American human trypanosomiasis. The diversity of bat trypanosomes globally is still poorly understood, and the common ancestor, geographical origin, and evolution of species within the T. cruzi clade remain largely unresolved...
2015: Parasites & Vectors
Raúl A Alzogaray
,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) is a broad-spectrum insect repellent used by millions of people since the 1950s. Ethyl 3-[acetyl(butyl)amino]propanoate (IR3535) is a repellent developed more recently that is still not used as extensively. This study compares the behavioral and toxicological effects of both substances in fifth-instar nymphs of the blood-sucking bug Rhodnius prolixus Stål (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), one of the main vectors of American trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease). Repellency was quantified using filter paper discs as experimental arenas...
March 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
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