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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490084/an-integrated-strategy-combining-dna-walking-and-ngs-to-detect-gmos
#1
Marie-Alice Fraiture, Philippe Herman, Nina Papazova, Marc De Loose, Dieter Deforce, Tom Ruttink, Nancy H Roosens
Recently, we developed a DNA walking system for the detection and characterization of a broad spectrum of GMOs in routine analysis of food/feed matrices. Here, we present a new version with improved throughput and sensitivity by coupling the DNA walking system to Pacific Bioscience® Next-generation sequencing technology. The performance of the new strategy was thoroughly assessed through several assays. First, we tested its detection and identification capability on grains with high or low GMO content. Second, the potential impacts of food processing were investigated using rice noodle samples...
October 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420193/a-quantitative-pcr-electrochemical-genosensor-test-for-the-screening-of-biotech-crops
#2
Suely Moura-Melo, Rebeca Miranda-Castro, Noemí de-Los-Santos-Álvarez, Arturo J Miranda-Ordieres, José Ribeiro Dos Santos Junior, Rosana A da Silva Fonseca, María Jesús Lobo-Castañón
The design of screening methods for the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food would improve the efficiency in their control. We report here a PCR amplification method combined with a sequence-specific electrochemical genosensor for the quantification of a DNA sequence characteristic of the 35S promoter derived from the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV). Specifically, we employ a genosensor constructed by chemisorption of a thiolated capture probe and p-aminothiophenol gold surfaces to entrap on the sensing layer the unpurified PCR amplicons, together with a signaling probe labeled with fluorescein...
April 18, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417173/semiautomated-taqman-pcr-screening-of-gmo-labelled-samples-for-unauthorised-gmos
#3
Ingrid M J Scholtens, Bonnie Molenaar, Richard A van Hoof, Stephanie Zaaijer, Theo W Prins, Esther J Kok
In most countries, systems are in place to analyse food products for the potential presence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), to enforce labelling requirements and to screen for the potential presence of unauthorised GMOs. With the growing number of GMOs on the world market, a larger diversity of methods is required for informative analyses. In this paper, the specificity of an extended screening set consisting of 32 screening methods to identify different crop species (endogenous genes) and GMO elements was verified against 59 different GMO reference materials...
June 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391763/detection-by-real-time-pcr-and-pyrosequencing-of-the-cry1ab-and-cry1ac-genes-introduced-in-gm-constructs
#4
Frederic Debode, Erik Janssen, Claude Bragard, Gilbert Berben
The presence of GMOs in food and feed is mainly detected by the use of targets focusing on promoters and terminators. As some genes are frequently used in GM construction, they also constitute excellent screening elements and their use is increasing. In this work, we propose a new target for the detection of cry1Ab and cry1Ac genes by real-time PCR and pyrosequencing. The specificity, sensitivity and robustness of the real-time PCR method were tested following the recommendations of international guidelines and the method met the expected performance criteria...
April 10, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372191/a-temperature-tolerant-multiplex-elements-and-genes-screening-system-for-genetically-modified-organisms-based-on-dual-priming-oligonucleotide-primers-and-capillary-electrophoresis
#5
Wei Fu, Shuang Wei, Chenguang Wang, Zhixin Du, Pengyu Zhu, Xiyang Wu, Gang Wu, Shuifang Zhu
High throughput screening systems are the preferred solution to meet the urgent requirement of increasing number of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). In this study, we have successfully developed a multiplex GMO element screening system with dual priming oligonucleotide (DPO) primers. This system can detect the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV 35S), terminator of nopaline synthase gene (NOS), figwort mosaic virus 35S (FMV 35S) promoter, neomycin phosphotransferaseII (NPTII), Bt Cry 1Ab, phosphinothricin acetyltransferase genes (bar) and Streptomyces viridochromogenes (pat) simultaneously, which covers more than 90% of all authorized GMO species worldwide...
August 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347568/how-can-we-better-detect-unauthorized-gmos-in-food-and-feed-chains
#6
REVIEW
Marie-Alice Fraiture, Philippe Herman, Marc De Loose, Frédéric Debode, Nancy H Roosens
Current GMO detection systems have limited abilities to detect unauthorized genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Here, we propose a new workflow, based on next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, to overcome this problem. In providing information about DNA sequences, this high-throughput workflow can distinguish authorized and unauthorized GMOs by strengthening the tools commonly used by enforcement laboratories with the help of NGS technology. In addition, thanks to its massive sequencing capacity, this workflow could be used to monitor GMOs present in the food and feed chain...
June 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278120/new-gmo-regulations-for-old-determining-a-new-future-for-eu-crop-biotechnology
#7
REVIEW
John Davison, Klaus Ammann
In this review, current EU GMO regulations are subjected to a point-by point analysis to determine their suitability for agriculture in modern Europe. Our analysis concerns present GMO regulations as well as suggestions for possible new regulations for genome editing and New Breeding Techniques (for which no regulations presently exist). Firstly, the present GMO regulations stem from the early days of recombinant DNA and are not adapted to current scientific understanding on this subject. Scientific understanding of GMOs has changed and these regulations are now, not only unfit for their original purpose, but, the purpose itself is now no longer scientifically valid...
January 2, 2017: GM Crops & Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255668/product-not-process-explaining-a-basic-concept-in-agricultural-biotechnologies-and-food-safety
#8
Giovanni Tagliabue
Most life scientists have relentlessly recommended any evaluative approach of agri-food products to be based on examination of the phenotype, i.e. the actual characteristics of the food, feed and fiber varieties: the effects of any new cultivar (or micro-organism, animal) on our health are not dependent on the process(es), the techniques used to obtain it.The so-called "genetically modified organisms" ("GMOs"), on the other hand, are commonly framed as a group with special properties - most frequently seen as dubious, or even harmful...
December 2017: Life Sciences, Society and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254006/quantification-of-dna-fragmentation-in-processed-foods-using-real-time-pcr
#9
Junichi Mano, Yasuyuki Nishitsuji, Yosuke Kikuchi, Shin-Ichi Fukudome, Takuya Hayashida, Hiroyuki Kawakami, Youichi Kurimoto, Akio Noguchi, Kazunari Kondo, Reiko Teshima, Reona Takabatake, Kazumi Kitta
DNA analysis of processed foods is performed widely to detect various targets, such as genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Food processing often causes DNA fragmentation, which consequently affects the results of PCR analysis. In order to assess the effects of DNA fragmentation on the reliability of PCR analysis, we investigated a novel methodology to quantify the degree of DNA fragmentation. We designed four real-time PCR assays that amplified 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequences common to various plants at lengths of approximately 100, 200, 400, and 800 base pairs (bp)...
July 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167937/antiviral-defenses-in-plants-through-genome-editing
#10
REVIEW
Gustavo Romay, Claude Bragard
Plant-virus interactions based-studies have contributed to increase our understanding on plant resistance mechanisms, providing new tools for crop improvement. In the last two decades, RNA interference, a post-transcriptional gene silencing approach, has been used to induce antiviral defenses in plants with the help of genetic engineering technologies. More recently, the new genome editing systems (GES) are revolutionizing the scope of tools available to confer virus resistance in plants. The most explored GES are zinc finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nucleases, and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/Cas9 endonuclease...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163712/seedusoon-a-new-software-program-to-improve-seed-stock-management-and-plant-line-exchanges-between-research-laboratories
#11
Céline Charavay, Stéphane Segard, Nathalie Pochon, Laurent Nussaume, Hélène Javot
Plant research is supported by an ever-growing collection of mutant or transgenic lines. In the past, a typical basic research laboratory would focus on only a few plant lines that were carefully isolated from collections of lines containing random mutations. The subsequent technological breakthrough in high-throughput sequencing, combined with novel and highly efficient mutagenesis techniques (including site-directed mutagenesis), has led to a recent exponential growth in plant line collections used by individual researchers...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121482/functional-display-of-ice-nucleation-protein-inaz-on-the-surface-of-bacterial-ghosts
#12
Johannes Kassmannhuber, Mascha Rauscher, Lea Schöner, Angela Witte, Werner Lubitz
In a concept study the ability to induce heterogeneous ice formation by Bacterial Ghosts (BGs) from Escherichia coli carrying ice nucleation protein InaZ from Pseudomonas syringae in their outer membrane was investigated by a droplet-freezing assay of ultra-pure water. As determined by the median freezing temperature and cumulative ice nucleation spectra it could be demonstrated that both the living recombinant E. coli and their corresponding BGs functionally display InaZ on their surface. Under the production conditions chosen both samples belong to type II ice-nucleation particles inducing ice formation at a temperature range of between -5...
January 25, 2017: Bioengineered
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117743/global-sources-and-pathways-of-mercury-in-the-context-of-human-health
#13
REVIEW
Kyrre Sundseth, Jozef M Pacyna, Elisabeth G Pacyna, Nicola Pirrone, Rebecca J Thorne
This paper reviews information from the existing literature and the EU GMOS (Global Mercury Observation System) project to assess the current scientific knowledge on global mercury releases into the atmosphere, on global atmospheric transport and deposition, and on the linkage between environmental contamination and potential impacts on human health. The review concludes that assessment of global sources and pathways of mercury in the context of human health is important for being able to monitor the effects from implementation of the Minamata Convention targets, although new research is needed on the improvement of emission inventory data, the chemical and physical behaviour of mercury in the atmosphere, the improvement of monitoring network data, predictions of future emissions and speciation, and on the subsequent effects on the environment, human health, as well as the economic costs and benefits of reducing these aspects...
January 22, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092385/visual-detection-of-multiple-genetically-modified-organisms-in-a-capillary-array
#14
Ning Shao, Jianwei Chen, Jiaying Hu, Rong Li, Dabing Zhang, Shujuan Guo, Junhou Hui, Peng Liu, Litao Yang, Sheng-Ce Tao
There is an urgent need for rapid, low-cost multiplex methodologies for the monitoring of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Here, we report a C[combining low line]apillary A[combining low line]rray-based L[combining low line]oop-mediated isothermal amplification for M[combining low line]ultiplex visual detection of nucleic acids (CALM) platform for the simple and rapid monitoring of GMOs. In CALM, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) primer sets are pre-fixed to the inner surface of capillaries...
January 16, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069261/de-problematizing-gmos-suggestions-for-communicating-about-genetic-engineering
#15
Stefaan Blancke, Wim Grunewald, Geert De Jaeger
The public debates concerning genetic engineering (GE) involve many non-scientific issues. The ensuing complexity is one reason why biotechnologists are reluctant to become involved. By sharing our personal experiences in science communication and suggesting ways to de-problematize GE, we aim to inspire our colleagues to engage with the public.
January 6, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068490/food-analysis-using-organelle-dna-and-the-effects-of-processing-on-assays
#16
Jane M Caldwell
Extrachromosomal DNA such as organelle DNA are increasingly targeted in molecular detection assays where samples have been degraded by physical or chemical means. Owing to multiple organelles per cell and greater copy numbers than nuclear genes, organelle gene targets provide a more robust signal in polymerase chain reaction (PCR), quantitative PCR (qPCR), and other emerging molecular technologies. Because of these advantages, direct analysis of organelle DNA in food matrices is used for detection of contaminants and identification and authentication of food ingredients and allergens...
February 28, 2017: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050262/gmos-in-russia-research-society-and-legislation
#17
I V Korobko, P G Georgiev, K G Skryabin, M P Kirpichnikov
Russian legislation lags behind the rapid developments witnessed in genetic engineering. Only a scientifically based and well-substantiated policy on the place of organisms that are created with the use of genetic engineering technologies and an assessment of the risks associated with them could guarantee that the breakthroughs achieved in modern genetic engineering technologies are effectively put to use in the real economy. A lack of demand for such breakthroughs in the practical field will lead to stagnation in scientific research and to a loss of expertise...
October 2016: Acta Naturae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001470/the-eu-legislation-on-gmos-between-nonsense-and-protectionism-an-ongoing-schumpeterian-chain-of-public-choices
#18
Giovanni Tagliabue
The EU regulation of agricultural biotechnology is botched and convoluted: the pseudo-concept of "Genetically Modified Organisms" has no coherent semantic or scientific content. The reasons of the paradox by which the cultivation of "GMOs" is substantially banned in Europe, while enormous quantities of recombinant-DNA cereals and legumes are imported to be used as feedstuff, are explained. The Directive 2015/412, giving Member states the choice to refuse the cultivation of genetically engineered crops at a national or local level, paves the way for a mosaic-like, Harlequinesque form of protectionism: nothing resembling a well-regulated free market...
January 2, 2017: GM Crops & Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846272/gmos-rapid-detection-of-genome-mosaicism-over-short-evolutionary-distances
#19
Mirjana Domazet-Lošo, Tomislav Domazet-Lošo
Prokaryotic and viral genomes are often altered by recombination and horizontal gene transfer. The existing methods for detecting recombination are primarily aimed at viral genomes or sets of loci, since the expensive computation of underlying statistical models often hinders the comparison of complete prokaryotic genomes. As an alternative, alignment-free solutions are more efficient, but cannot map (align) a query to subject genomes. To address this problem, we have developed gmos (Genome MOsaic Structure), a new program that determines the mosaic structure of query genomes when compared to a set of closely related subject genomes...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813691/a-critical-assessment-of-regulatory-triggers-for-products-of-biotechnology-product-vs-process
#20
REVIEW
Alan McHughen
Regulatory policies governing the safety of genetic engineering (rDNA) and the resulting products (GMOs) have been contentious and divisive, especially in agricultural applications of the technologies. These tensions led to vastly different approaches to safety regulation in different jurisdictions, even though the intent of regulations-to assure public and environmental safety-are common worldwide, and even though the international scientific communities agree on the basic principles of risk assessment and risk management...
October 2016: GM Crops & Food
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