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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167937/antiviral-defenses-in-plants-through-genome-editing
#1
REVIEW
Gustavo Romay, Claude Bragard
Plant-virus interactions based-studies have contributed to increase our understanding on plant resistance mechanisms, providing new tools for crop improvement. In the last two decades, RNA interference, a post-transcriptional gene silencing approach, has been used to induce antiviral defenses in plants with the help of genetic engineering technologies. More recently, the new genome editing systems (GES) are revolutionizing the scope of tools available to confer virus resistance in plants. The most explored GES are zinc finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nucleases, and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/Cas9 endonuclease...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163712/seedusoon-a-new-software-program-to-improve-seed-stock-management-and-plant-line-exchanges-between-research-laboratories
#2
Céline Charavay, Stéphane Segard, Nathalie Pochon, Laurent Nussaume, Hélène Javot
Plant research is supported by an ever-growing collection of mutant or transgenic lines. In the past, a typical basic research laboratory would focus on only a few plant lines that were carefully isolated from collections of lines containing random mutations. The subsequent technological breakthrough in high-throughput sequencing, combined with novel and highly efficient mutagenesis techniques (including site-directed mutagenesis), has led to a recent exponential growth in plant line collections used by individual researchers...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121482/functional-display-of-ice-nucleation-protein-inaz-on-the-surface-of-bacterial-ghosts
#3
Johannes Kassmannhuber, Mascha Rauscher, Lea Schöner, Angela Witte, Werner Lubitz
In a concept study the ability to induce heterogeneous ice formation by Bacterial Ghosts (BGs) from Escherichia coli carrying ice nucleation protein InaZ from Pseudomonas syringae in their outer membrane was investigated by a droplet-freezing assay of ultra-pure water. As determined by the median freezing temperature and cumulative ice nucleation spectra it could be demonstrated that both the living recombinant E. coli and their corresponding BGs functionally display InaZ on their surface. Under the production conditions chosen both samples belong to type II ice-nucleation particles inducing ice formation at a temperature range of between -5...
January 25, 2017: Bioengineered
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117743/global-sources-and-pathways-of-mercury-in-the-context-of-human-health
#4
REVIEW
Kyrre Sundseth, Jozef M Pacyna, Elisabeth G Pacyna, Nicola Pirrone, Rebecca J Thorne
This paper reviews information from the existing literature and the EU GMOS (Global Mercury Observation System) project to assess the current scientific knowledge on global mercury releases into the atmosphere, on global atmospheric transport and deposition, and on the linkage between environmental contamination and potential impacts on human health. The review concludes that assessment of global sources and pathways of mercury in the context of human health is important for being able to monitor the effects from implementation of the Minamata Convention targets, although new research is needed on the improvement of emission inventory data, the chemical and physical behaviour of mercury in the atmosphere, the improvement of monitoring network data, predictions of future emissions and speciation, and on the subsequent effects on the environment, human health, as well as the economic costs and benefits of reducing these aspects...
January 22, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092385/visual-detection-of-multiple-genetically-modified-organisms-in-a-capillary-array
#5
Ning Shao, Jianwei Chen, Jiaying Hu, Rong Li, Dabing Zhang, Shujuan Guo, Junhou Hui, Peng Liu, Litao Yang, Sheng-Ce Tao
There is an urgent need for rapid, low-cost multiplex methodologies for the monitoring of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Here, we report a C[combining low line]apillary A[combining low line]rray-based L[combining low line]oop-mediated isothermal amplification for M[combining low line]ultiplex visual detection of nucleic acids (CALM) platform for the simple and rapid monitoring of GMOs. In CALM, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) primer sets are pre-fixed to the inner surface of capillaries...
January 16, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069261/de-problematizing-gmos-suggestions-for-communicating-about-genetic-engineering
#6
Stefaan Blancke, Wim Grunewald, Geert De Jaeger
The public debates concerning genetic engineering (GE) involve many non-scientific issues. The ensuing complexity is one reason why biotechnologists are reluctant to become involved. By sharing our personal experiences in science communication and suggesting ways to de-problematize GE, we aim to inspire our colleagues to engage with the public.
January 6, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068490/food-analysis-using-organelle-dna-and-the-effects-of-processing-on-assays
#7
Jane M Caldwell
Extrachromosomal DNA such as organelle DNA are increasingly targeted in molecular detection assays where samples have been degraded by physical or chemical means. Owing to multiple organelles per cell and greater copy numbers than nuclear genes, organelle gene targets provide a more robust signal in polymerase chain reaction (PCR), quantitative PCR (qPCR), and other emerging molecular technologies. Because of these advantages, direct analysis of organelle DNA in food matrices is used for detection of contaminants and identification and authentication of food ingredients and allergens...
January 4, 2017: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050262/gmos-in-russia-research-society-and-legislation
#8
I V Korobko, P G Georgiev, K G Skryabin, M P Kirpichnikov
Russian legislation lags behind the rapid developments witnessed in genetic engineering. Only a scientifically based and well-substantiated policy on the place of organisms that are created with the use of genetic engineering technologies and an assessment of the risks associated with them could guarantee that the breakthroughs achieved in modern genetic engineering technologies are effectively put to use in the real economy. A lack of demand for such breakthroughs in the practical field will lead to stagnation in scientific research and to a loss of expertise...
October 2016: Acta Naturae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001470/the-eu-legislation-on-gmos-between-nonsense-and-protectionism-an-ongoing-schumpeterian-chain-of-public-choices
#9
Giovanni Tagliabue
The EU regulation of agricultural biotechnology is botched and convoluted: the pseudo-concept of "Genetically Modified Organisms" has no coherent semantic or scientific content. The reasons of the paradox by which the cultivation of "GMOs" is substantially banned in Europe, while enormous quantities of recombinant-DNA cereals and legumes are imported to be used as feedstuff, are explained. The Directive 2015/412, giving Member states the choice to refuse the cultivation of genetically engineered crops at a national or local level, paves the way for a mosaic-like, Harlequinesque form of protectionism: nothing resembling a well-regulated free market...
December 21, 2016: GM Crops & Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846272/gmos-rapid-detection-of-genome-mosaicism-over-short-evolutionary-distances
#10
Mirjana Domazet-Lošo, Tomislav Domazet-Lošo
Prokaryotic and viral genomes are often altered by recombination and horizontal gene transfer. The existing methods for detecting recombination are primarily aimed at viral genomes or sets of loci, since the expensive computation of underlying statistical models often hinders the comparison of complete prokaryotic genomes. As an alternative, alignment-free solutions are more efficient, but cannot map (align) a query to subject genomes. To address this problem, we have developed gmos (Genome MOsaic Structure), a new program that determines the mosaic structure of query genomes when compared to a set of closely related subject genomes...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813691/a-critical-assessment-of-regulatory-triggers-for-products-of-biotechnology-product-vs-process
#11
REVIEW
Alan McHughen
Regulatory policies governing the safety of genetic engineering (rDNA) and the resulting products (GMOs) have been contentious and divisive, especially in agricultural applications of the technologies. These tensions led to vastly different approaches to safety regulation in different jurisdictions, even though the intent of regulations-to assure public and environmental safety-are common worldwide, and even though the international scientific communities agree on the basic principles of risk assessment and risk management...
October 2016: GM Crops & Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803459/cas9-in-genetically-modified-food-is-unlikely-to-cause-food-allergy
#12
Osamu Nakajima, Tomoko Nishimaki-Mogami, Kazunari Kondo
Genome editing has undergone rapid development during the last three years. It is anticipated that genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for food purposes will be widely produced using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat/Cas9 (CRISPR)/Cas9 system in the near future. However, the Cas9 gene may then enter the genomes of GMOs for food if the breeding process is not strictly managed, which could lead to the Cas9 protein or associated peptides being produced within these organisms. A variety of peptides could theoretically be produced from the Cas9 gene by using open reading frames different from that of Cas9 in the GMOs...
2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784303/event-specific-detection-of-transgenic-potato-av43-6-g7-using-real-time-and-digital-pcr-methods
#13
Hongwei Gao, Xiaofan Yu, Tingting Deng, Min Sun, Xizhi Xiao, Xin Huang, Ying Chen, Ronggui Li
BACKGROUND: The isolation of unknown DNA sequences flanked by known sequences is an important task in the event-specific detection of GMOs. None of event-specific detection method was developed based on the junction sequence of an exogenous integrant in the transgenic potato AV43-6-G7. RESULTS: The flanking sequence between the exogenous fragment and recombinant chromosome of this potato was successfully acquired through exogenous gene 5'-RACE. The event-specific primers and Taqman probe were designed to amplify fragments spanning the exogenous DNA and potato genomic DNA...
October 27, 2016: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752448/accumulation-and-variability-of-maize-pollen-deposition-on-leaves-of-european-lepidoptera-host-plants-and-relation-to-release-rates-and-deposition-determined-by-standardised-technical-sampling
#14
Frieder Hofmann, Maren Kruse-Plass, Ulrike Kuhn, Mathias Otto, Ulrich Schlechtriemen, Boris Schröder, Rudolf Vögel, Werner Wosniok
BACKGROUND: Risk assessment for GMOs such as Bt maize requires detailed data concerning pollen deposition onto non-target host-plant leaves. A field study of pollen on lepidopteran host-plant leaves was therefore undertaken in 2009-2012 in Germany. During the maize flowering period, we used in situ microscopy at a spatial resolution adequate to monitor the feeding behaviour of butterfly larvae. The plant-specific pollen deposition data were supplemented with standardised measurements of pollen release rates and deposition obtained by volumetric pollen monitors and passive samplers...
2016: Environmental Sciences Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27498978/multi-stakeholders-attitudes-toward-bt-rice-in-southwest-iran-application-of-tpb-and-multi-attribute-models
#15
Omid M Ghoochani, Mansour Ghanian, Masoud Baradaran, Hossein Azadi
Organisms that have been genetically engineered and modified (GM) are referred to as genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Bt crops are plants that have been genetically modified to produce certain proteins from the soil bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), which makes these plants resistant to certain lepidopteran and coleopteran species. Genetically Modified (GM) rice was produced in 2006 by Iranian researchers from Tarom Mowla'ii and has since been called 'Bt rice'. As rice is an important source of food for over 3 billion inhabitants on Earth, this study aims to use a correlational survey in order to shed light on the predicting factors relating to the extent of stakeholders' behavioral intentions towards Bt rice...
March 2017: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27458082/ligand-binding-to-an-allergenic-lipid-transfer-protein-enhances-conformational-flexibility-resulting-in-an-increase-in-susceptibility-to-gastroduodenal-proteolysis
#16
Syed Umer Abdullah, Yuri Alexeev, Philip E Johnson, Neil M Rigby, Alan R Mackie, Balvinder Dhaliwal, E N Clare Mills
Non-specific lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are a family of lipid-binding molecules that are widely distributed across flowering plant species, many of which have been identified as allergens. They are highly resistant to simulated gastroduodenal proteolysis, a property that may play a role in determining their allergenicity and it has been suggested that lipid binding may further increase stability to proteolysis. It is demonstrated that LTPs from wheat and peach bind a range of lipids in a variety of conditions, including those found in the gastroduodenal tract...
July 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27451215/a-case-study-to-determine-the-geographical-origin-of-unknown-gm-papaya-in-routine-food-sample-analysis-followed-by-identification-of-papaya-events-16-0-1-and-18-2-4
#17
Theo W Prins, Ingrid M J Scholtens, Arno W Bak, Jeroen P van Dijk, Marleen M Voorhuijzen, Emile J Laurensse, Esther J Kok
During routine monitoring for GMOs in food in the Netherlands, papaya-containing food supplements were found positive for the genetically modified (GM) elements P-35S and T-nos. The goal of this study was to identify the unknown and EU unauthorised GM papaya event(s). A screening strategy was applied using additional GM screening elements including a newly developed PRSV coat protein PCR. The detected PRSV coat protein PCR product was sequenced and the nucleotide sequence showed identity to PRSV YK strains indigenous to China and Taiwan...
December 15, 2016: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27436567/successful-detection-of-foreign-insert-in-transgenic-rice-tt51-1-bt63-by-rna-sequencing-combined-with-pcr
#18
Yunjing Li, Jun Li, Yuhua Wu, Yinglong Cao, Jun Li, Li Zhu, Xiaofei Li, Shunmou Huang, Gang Wu
BACKGROUND: As event-specific sequence information for most unauthorized GMOs is currently still unavailable, detecting unauthorized GMOs remains challenging. Here, we used insect-resistant rice TT51-1 as an example to develop a novel approach via detecting GMOs by RNA-seq (sequencing) and PCR. RNA-seq of TT51-1generated 4.8 million (M) 21-nt cDNA tags. Alignment to the Oryza sativa ssp. japonica reference genome revealed 24,098 unmapped tags. Foreign tags from the nopaline synthetic enzyme gene (NOS) terminator and insect-resistant genes were then identified by searching against the NCBI VecScreen and NT databases...
July 19, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27425792/successful-comeback-of-the-single-dose-live-oral-cholera-vaccine-cvd-103-hgr
#19
Christian Herzog
Effective and easy to administer cholera vaccines are in need more than ever, for at risk populations and travellers alike. In many parts of the world cholera is still endemic, causing outbreaks and constituting repeatedly serious public health problems. The oral live cholera vaccine CVD 103-HgR (Orochol, Mutachol), the first genetically modified organism (GMO) used as vaccine, was in its time (launched 1993, Switzerland) the ideal cholera vaccine: single-dose, protective efficacy of 80-100% against moderate to severe cholera, acting within 8 days and exhibiting excellent safety, indiscernible from placebo...
July 2016: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27388138/where-civics-meets-science-building-science-for-the-public-good-through-civic-science
#20
Jonathan Garlick, Peter Levine
In America, as in much of the world, public understanding of science and civic engagement on science issues that impact contemporary life matter more today than ever. From the Planned Parenthood controversy, to the Flint water crisis, to Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) and the fluoridation debate, societal polarization about science issues has reached dramatic levels that present significant obstacles to public discussion and problem solving. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved...
July 7, 2016: Oral Diseases
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