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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092385/visual-detection-of-multiple-genetically-modified-organisms-in-a-capillary-array
#1
Ning Shao, Jianwei Chen, Jiaying Hu, Rong Li, Dabing Zhang, Shujuan Guo, Junhou Hui, Peng Liu, Litao Yang, Sheng-Ce Tao
There is an urgent need for rapid, low-cost multiplex methodologies for the monitoring of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Here, we report a C[combining low line]apillary A[combining low line]rray-based L[combining low line]oop-mediated isothermal amplification for M[combining low line]ultiplex visual detection of nucleic acids (CALM) platform for the simple and rapid monitoring of GMOs. In CALM, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) primer sets are pre-fixed to the inner surface of capillaries...
January 16, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069261/de-problematizing-gmos-suggestions-for-communicating-about-genetic-engineering
#2
Stefaan Blancke, Wim Grunewald, Geert De Jaeger
The public debates concerning genetic engineering (GE) involve many non-scientific issues. The ensuing complexity is one reason why biotechnologists are reluctant to become involved. By sharing our personal experiences in science communication and suggesting ways to de-problematize GE, we aim to inspire our colleagues to engage with the public.
January 6, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068490/food-analysis-using-organelle-dna-and-the-effects-of-processing-on-assays
#3
Jane M Caldwell
Extrachromosomal DNA such as organelle DNA are increasingly targeted in molecular detection assays where samples have been degraded by physical or chemical means. Owing to multiple organelles per cell and greater copy numbers than nuclear genes, organelle gene targets provide a more robust signal in polymerase chain reaction (PCR), quantitative PCR (qPCR), and other emerging molecular technologies. Because of these advantages, direct analysis of organelle DNA in food matrices is used for detection of contaminants and identification and authentication of food ingredients and allergens...
January 4, 2017: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050262/gmos-in-russia-research-society-and-legislation
#4
I V Korobko, P G Georgiev, K G Skryabin, M P Kirpichnikov
Russian legislation lags behind the rapid developments witnessed in genetic engineering. Only a scientifically based and well-substantiated policy on the place of organisms that are created with the use of genetic engineering technologies and an assessment of the risks associated with them could guarantee that the breakthroughs achieved in modern genetic engineering technologies are effectively put to use in the real economy. A lack of demand for such breakthroughs in the practical field will lead to stagnation in scientific research and to a loss of expertise...
October 2016: Acta Naturae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001470/the-eu-legislation-on-gmos-between-nonsense-and-protectionism-an-ongoing-schumpeterian-chain-of-public-choices
#5
Giovanni Tagliabue
The EU regulation of agricultural biotechnology is botched and convoluted: the pseudo-concept of "Genetically Modified Organisms" has no coherent semantic or scientific content. The reasons of the paradox by which the cultivation of "GMOs" is substantially banned in Europe, while enormous quantities of recombinant-DNA cereals and legumes are imported to be used as feedstuff, are explained. The Directive 2015/412, giving Member states the choice to refuse the cultivation of genetically engineered crops at a national or local level, paves the way for a mosaic-like, Harlequinesque form of protectionism: nothing resembling a well-regulated free market...
December 21, 2016: GM Crops & Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846272/gmos-rapid-detection-of-genome-mosaicism-over-short-evolutionary-distances
#6
Mirjana Domazet-Lošo, Tomislav Domazet-Lošo
Prokaryotic and viral genomes are often altered by recombination and horizontal gene transfer. The existing methods for detecting recombination are primarily aimed at viral genomes or sets of loci, since the expensive computation of underlying statistical models often hinders the comparison of complete prokaryotic genomes. As an alternative, alignment-free solutions are more efficient, but cannot map (align) a query to subject genomes. To address this problem, we have developed gmos (Genome MOsaic Structure), a new program that determines the mosaic structure of query genomes when compared to a set of closely related subject genomes...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813691/a-critical-assessment-of-regulatory-triggers-for-products-of-biotechnology-product-vs-process
#7
Alan McHughen
Regulatory policies governing the safety of genetic engineering (rDNA) and the resulting products (GMOs) have been contentious and divisive, especially in agricultural applications of the technologies. These tensions led to vastly different approaches to safety regulation in different jurisdictions, even though the intent of regulations-to assure public and environmental safety-are common worldwide, and even though the international scientific communities agree on the basic principles of risk assessment and risk management...
October 2016: GM Crops & Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803459/cas9-in-genetically-modified-food-is-unlikely-to-cause-food-allergy
#8
Osamu Nakajima, Tomoko Nishimaki-Mogami, Kazunari Kondo
Genome editing has undergone rapid development during the last three years. It is anticipated that genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for food purposes will be widely produced using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat/Cas9 (CRISPR)/Cas9 system in the near future. However, the Cas9 gene may then enter the genomes of GMOs for food if the breeding process is not strictly managed, which could lead to the Cas9 protein or associated peptides being produced within these organisms. A variety of peptides could theoretically be produced from the Cas9 gene by using open reading frames different from that of Cas9 in the GMOs...
2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784303/event-specific-detection-of-transgenic-potato-av43-6-g7-using-real-time-and-digital-pcr-methods
#9
Hongwei Gao, Xiaofan Yu, Tingting Deng, Min Sun, Xizhi Xiao, Xin Huang, Ying Chen, Ronggui Li
BACKGROUND: The isolation of unknown DNA sequences flanked by known sequences is an important task in the event-specific detection of GMOs. None of event-specific detection method was developed based on the junction sequence of an exogenous integrant in the transgenic potato AV43-6-G7. RESULTS: The flanking sequence between the exogenous fragment and recombinant chromosome of this potato was successfully acquired through exogenous gene 5'-RACE. The event-specific primers and Taqman probe were designed to amplify fragments spanning the exogenous DNA and potato genomic DNA...
October 27, 2016: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752448/accumulation-and-variability-of-maize-pollen-deposition-on-leaves-of-european-lepidoptera-host-plants-and-relation-to-release-rates-and-deposition-determined-by-standardised-technical-sampling
#10
Frieder Hofmann, Maren Kruse-Plass, Ulrike Kuhn, Mathias Otto, Ulrich Schlechtriemen, Boris Schröder, Rudolf Vögel, Werner Wosniok
BACKGROUND: Risk assessment for GMOs such as Bt maize requires detailed data concerning pollen deposition onto non-target host-plant leaves. A field study of pollen on lepidopteran host-plant leaves was therefore undertaken in 2009-2012 in Germany. During the maize flowering period, we used in situ microscopy at a spatial resolution adequate to monitor the feeding behaviour of butterfly larvae. The plant-specific pollen deposition data were supplemented with standardised measurements of pollen release rates and deposition obtained by volumetric pollen monitors and passive samplers...
2016: Environmental Sciences Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27498978/multi-stakeholders-attitudes-toward-bt-rice-in-southwest-iran-application-of-tpb-and-multi-attribute-models
#11
Omid M Ghoochani, Mansour Ghanian, Masoud Baradaran, Hossein Azadi
Organisms that have been genetically engineered and modified (GM) are referred to as genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Bt crops are plants that have been genetically modified to produce certain proteins from the soil bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), which makes these plants resistant to certain lepidopteran and coleopteran species. Genetically Modified (GM) rice was produced in 2006 by Iranian researchers from Tarom Mowla'ii and has since been called 'Bt rice'. As rice is an important source of food for over 3 billion inhabitants on Earth, this study aims to use a correlational survey in order to shed light on the predicting factors relating to the extent of stakeholders' behavioral intentions towards Bt rice...
August 8, 2016: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27458082/ligand-binding-to-an-allergenic-lipid-transfer-protein-enhances-conformational-flexibility-resulting-in-an-increase-in-susceptibility-to-gastroduodenal-proteolysis
#12
Syed Umer Abdullah, Yuri Alexeev, Philip E Johnson, Neil M Rigby, Alan R Mackie, Balvinder Dhaliwal, E N Clare Mills
Non-specific lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are a family of lipid-binding molecules that are widely distributed across flowering plant species, many of which have been identified as allergens. They are highly resistant to simulated gastroduodenal proteolysis, a property that may play a role in determining their allergenicity and it has been suggested that lipid binding may further increase stability to proteolysis. It is demonstrated that LTPs from wheat and peach bind a range of lipids in a variety of conditions, including those found in the gastroduodenal tract...
July 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27451215/a-case-study-to-determine-the-geographical-origin-of-unknown-gm-papaya-in-routine-food-sample-analysis-followed-by-identification-of-papaya-events-16-0-1-and-18-2-4
#13
Theo W Prins, Ingrid M J Scholtens, Arno W Bak, Jeroen P van Dijk, Marleen M Voorhuijzen, Emile J Laurensse, Esther J Kok
During routine monitoring for GMOs in food in the Netherlands, papaya-containing food supplements were found positive for the genetically modified (GM) elements P-35S and T-nos. The goal of this study was to identify the unknown and EU unauthorised GM papaya event(s). A screening strategy was applied using additional GM screening elements including a newly developed PRSV coat protein PCR. The detected PRSV coat protein PCR product was sequenced and the nucleotide sequence showed identity to PRSV YK strains indigenous to China and Taiwan...
December 15, 2016: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27436567/successful-detection-of-foreign-insert-in-transgenic-rice-tt51-1-bt63-by-rna-sequencing-combined-with-pcr
#14
Yunjing Li, Jun Li, Yuhua Wu, Yinglong Cao, Jun Li, Li Zhu, Xiaofei Li, Shunmou Huang, Gang Wu
BACKGROUND: As event-specific sequence information for most unauthorized GMOs is currently still unavailable, detecting unauthorized GMOs remains challenging. Here, we used insect-resistant rice TT51-1 as an example to develop a novel approach via detecting GMOs by RNA-seq (sequencing) and PCR. RNA-seq of TT51-1generated 4.8 million (M) 21-nt cDNA tags. Alignment to the Oryza sativa ssp. japonica reference genome revealed 24,098 unmapped tags. Foreign tags from the nopaline synthetic enzyme gene (NOS) terminator and insect-resistant genes were then identified by searching against the NCBI VecScreen and NT databases...
July 19, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27425792/successful-comeback-of-the-single-dose-live-oral-cholera-vaccine-cvd-103-hgr
#15
Christian Herzog
Effective and easy to administer cholera vaccines are in need more than ever, for at risk populations and travellers alike. In many parts of the world cholera is still endemic, causing outbreaks and constituting repeatedly serious public health problems. The oral live cholera vaccine CVD 103-HgR (Orochol, Mutachol), the first genetically modified organism (GMO) used as vaccine, was in its time (launched 1993, Switzerland) the ideal cholera vaccine: single-dose, protective efficacy of 80-100% against moderate to severe cholera, acting within 8 days and exhibiting excellent safety, indiscernible from placebo...
July 2016: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27388138/where-civics-meets-science-building-science-for-the-public-good-through-civic-science
#16
Jonathan Garlick, Peter Levine
In America, as in much of the world, public understanding of science and civic engagement on science issues that impact contemporary life matter more today than ever. From the Planned Parenthood controversy, to the Flint water crisis, to Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) and the fluoridation debate, societal polarization about science issues has reached dramatic levels that present significant obstacles to public discussion and problem solving. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved...
July 7, 2016: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27386337/development-of-a-qualitative-real-time-pcr-method-to-detect-19-targets-for-identification-of-genetically-modified-organisms
#17
Cheng Peng, Pengfei Wang, Xiaoli Xu, Xiaofu Wang, Wei Wei, Xiaoyun Chen, Junfeng Xu
As the amount of commercially available genetically modified organisms (GMOs) grows recent years, the diversity of target sequences for molecular detection techniques are eagerly needed. Considered as the gold standard for GMO analysis, the real-time PCR technology was optimized to produce a high-throughput GMO screening method. With this method we can detect 19 transgenic targets. The specificity of the assays was demonstrated to be 100 % by the specific amplification of DNA derived from reference material from 20 genetically modified crops and 4 non modified crops...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27350822/the-strains-recommended-for-use-in-the-bacterial-reverse-mutation-test-oecd-guideline-471-can-be-certified-as-non-genetically-modified-organisms
#18
Kei-Ichi Sugiyama, Masami Yamada, Takumi Awogi, Atsushi Hakura
The bacterial reverse mutation test, commonly called Ames test, is used worldwide. In Japan, the genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are regulated under the Cartagena Domestic Law, and organisms obtained by self-cloning and/or natural occurrence would be exempted from the law case by case. The strains of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli recommended for use in the bacterial reverse mutation test (OECD guideline 471), have been considered as non-GMOs because they can be constructed by self-cloning or naturally occurring bacterial strains, or do not disturb the biological diversity...
2016: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27322926/design-and-evaluation-of-a-digital-module-with-guided-peer-feedback-for-student-learning-biotechnology-and-molecular-life-sciences-attitudinal-change-and-satisfaction
#19
Omid Noroozi, Martin Mulder
This study aims to investigate the impacts of a digital learning module with guided peer feedback on students' domain-specific knowledge gain and their attitudinal change in the field of biotechnology and molecular life sciences. The extent to which the use of this module is appreciated by students is studied as well. A pre-test, post-test design was used with 203 students who were randomly assigned to groups of three. They were asked to work on the digital module with the aim of exploring various perspectives, and the "pros and cons" on the topic of "Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)...
June 20, 2016: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27317828/safety-assessment-of-gm-plants-an-updated-review-of-the-scientific-literature
#20
REVIEW
José L Domingo
In a wide revision of the literature conducted in 2000, I noted that the information in scientific journals on the safety of genetically modified (GM) foods in general, and GM plants in particular, was scarce. Of course, it was not sufficient to guarantee that the consumption of these products should not mean risks for the health of the consumers. Because of the scientific interest in GM organisms (GMOs), as well as the great concern that the consumption of GM foods/plants has raised in a number of countries, I conducted two subsequent revisions (2007 and 2011) on the adverse/toxic effects of GM plants...
September 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
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