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Frieder Hofmann, Maren Kruse-Plass, Ulrike Kuhn, Mathias Otto, Ulrich Schlechtriemen, Boris Schröder, Rudolf Vögel, Werner Wosniok
BACKGROUND: Risk assessment for GMOs such as Bt maize requires detailed data concerning pollen deposition onto non-target host-plant leaves. A field study of pollen on lepidopteran host-plant leaves was therefore undertaken in 2009-2012 in Germany. During the maize flowering period, we used in situ microscopy at a spatial resolution adequate to monitor the feeding behaviour of butterfly larvae. The plant-specific pollen deposition data were supplemented with standardised measurements of pollen release rates and deposition obtained by volumetric pollen monitors and passive samplers...
2016: Environmental Sciences Europe
Omid M Ghoochani, Mansour Ghanian, Masoud Baradaran, Hossein Azadi
Organisms that have been genetically engineered and modified (GM) are referred to as genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Bt crops are plants that have been genetically modified to produce certain proteins from the soil bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), which makes these plants resistant to certain lepidopteran and coleopteran species. Genetically Modified (GM) rice was produced in 2006 by Iranian researchers from Tarom Mowla'ii and has since been called 'Bt rice'. As rice is an important source of food for over 3 billion inhabitants on Earth, this study aims to use a correlational survey in order to shed light on the predicting factors relating to the extent of stakeholders' behavioral intentions towards Bt rice...
August 8, 2016: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science
Syed Umer Abdullah, Yuri Alexeev, Philip E Johnson, Neil M Rigby, Alan R Mackie, Balvinder Dhaliwal, E N Clare Mills
Non-specific lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are a family of lipid-binding molecules that are widely distributed across flowering plant species, many of which have been identified as allergens. They are highly resistant to simulated gastroduodenal proteolysis, a property that may play a role in determining their allergenicity and it has been suggested that lipid binding may further increase stability to proteolysis. It is demonstrated that LTPs from wheat and peach bind a range of lipids in a variety of conditions, including those found in the gastroduodenal tract...
2016: Scientific Reports
Theo W Prins, Ingrid M J Scholtens, Arno W Bak, Jeroen P van Dijk, Marleen M Voorhuijzen, Emile J Laurensse, Esther J Kok
During routine monitoring for GMOs in food in the Netherlands, papaya-containing food supplements were found positive for the genetically modified (GM) elements P-35S and T-nos. The goal of this study was to identify the unknown and EU unauthorised GM papaya event(s). A screening strategy was applied using additional GM screening elements including a newly developed PRSV coat protein PCR. The detected PRSV coat protein PCR product was sequenced and the nucleotide sequence showed identity to PRSV YK strains indigenous to China and Taiwan...
December 15, 2016: Food Chemistry
Yunjing Li, Jun Li, Yuhua Wu, Yinglong Cao, Jun Li, Li Zhu, Xiaofei Li, Shunmou Huang, Gang Wu
BACKGROUND: As event-specific sequence information for most unauthorized GMOs is currently still unavailable, detecting unauthorized GMOs remains challenging. Here, we used insect-resistant rice TT51-1 as an example to develop a novel approach via detecting GMOs by RNA-seq (sequencing) and PCR. RNA-seq of TT51-1generated 4.8 million (M) 21-nt cDNA tags. Alignment to the Oryza sativa ssp. japonica reference genome revealed 24,098 unmapped tags. Foreign tags from the nopaline synthetic enzyme gene (NOS) terminator and insect-resistant genes were then identified by searching against the NCBI VecScreen and NT databases...
July 19, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Christian Herzog
Effective and easy to administer cholera vaccines are in need more than ever, for at risk populations and travellers alike. In many parts of the world cholera is still endemic, causing outbreaks and constituting repeatedly serious public health problems. The oral live cholera vaccine CVD 103-HgR (Orochol, Mutachol), the first genetically modified organism (GMO) used as vaccine, was in its time (launched 1993, Switzerland) the ideal cholera vaccine: single-dose, protective efficacy of 80-100% against moderate to severe cholera, acting within 8 days and exhibiting excellent safety, indiscernible from placebo...
July 2016: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
Jonathan Garlick, Peter Levine
In America, as in much of the world, public understanding of science and civic engagement on science issues that impact contemporary life matter more today than ever. From the Planned Parenthood controversy, to the Flint water crisis, to Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) and the fluoridation debate, societal polarization about science issues has reached dramatic levels that present significant obstacles to public discussion and problem solving. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved...
July 7, 2016: Oral Diseases
Cheng Peng, Pengfei Wang, Xiaoli Xu, Xiaofu Wang, Wei Wei, Xiaoyun Chen, Junfeng Xu
As the amount of commercially available genetically modified organisms (GMOs) grows recent years, the diversity of target sequences for molecular detection techniques are eagerly needed. Considered as the gold standard for GMO analysis, the real-time PCR technology was optimized to produce a high-throughput GMO screening method. With this method we can detect 19 transgenic targets. The specificity of the assays was demonstrated to be 100 % by the specific amplification of DNA derived from reference material from 20 genetically modified crops and 4 non modified crops...
2016: SpringerPlus
Kei-Ichi Sugiyama, Masami Yamada, Takumi Awogi, Atsushi Hakura
The bacterial reverse mutation test, commonly called Ames test, is used worldwide. In Japan, the genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are regulated under the Cartagena Domestic Law, and organisms obtained by self-cloning and/or natural occurrence would be exempted from the law case by case. The strains of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli recommended for use in the bacterial reverse mutation test (OECD guideline 471), have been considered as non-GMOs because they can be constructed by self-cloning or naturally occurring bacterial strains, or do not disturb the biological diversity...
2016: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
Omid Noroozi, Martin Mulder
This study aims to investigate the impacts of a digital learning module with guided peer feedback on students' domain-specific knowledge gain and their attitudinal change in the field of biotechnology and molecular life sciences. The extent to which the use of this module is appreciated by students is studied as well. A pre-test, post-test design was used with 203 students who were randomly assigned to groups of three. They were asked to work on the digital module with the aim of exploring various perspectives, and the "pros and cons" on the topic of "Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)...
June 20, 2016: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
José L Domingo
In a wide revision of the literature conducted in 2000, I noted that the information in scientific journals on the safety of genetically modified (GM) foods in general, and GM plants in particular, was scarce. Of course, it was not sufficient to guarantee that the consumption of these products should not mean risks for the health of the consumers. Because of the scientific interest in GM organisms (GMOs), as well as the great concern that the consumption of GM foods/plants has raised in a number of countries, I conducted two subsequent revisions (2007 and 2011) on the adverse/toxic effects of GM plants...
September 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
B Elijah Carter, Caitlin C Conn, Jason R Wiles
Due to a phenomenon known as the 'backfire effect', intuition-based opinions can be inadvertently strengthened by evidence-based counterarguments. Students' views on genetically modified organisms (GMOs) may be subject to this effect. We explored the impact of an empathetically accessible topic, world hunger, on receptivity to GMO technology as an alternative to direct evidence-based approaches.
July 2016: Trends in Plant Science
Antonio Velasco, Flor Arcega-Cabrera, Ismael Oceguera-Vargas, Martha Ramírez, Abraham Ortinez, Gunther Umlauf, Fabrizio Sena
Within the Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS) project, long-term continuous measurements of total gaseous mercury (TGM) were carried out by a monitoring station located at Celestun, Yucatan, Mexico, a coastal site along the Gulf of Mexico. The measurements covered the period from January 28th to October 17th, 2012. TGM data, at the Celestun site, were obtained using a high-resolution mercury vapor analyzer. TGM data show values from 0.50 to 2.82 ng/m(3) with an annual average concentration of 1.047 ± 0...
September 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Yong Wang, Qingkuo Lan, Xin Zhao, Wentao Xu, Feiwu Li, Qinying Wang, Rui Chen
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been widely demonstrated to play fundamental roles in gene regulation in most eukaryotes. To date, there has been no study describing the miRNA composition in genetically modified organisms (GMOs). In this study, small RNAs from dry seeds of two GM soybean lines and their parental cultivars were investigated using deep sequencing technology and bioinformatic approaches. As a result, several differentially expressed gma-miRNAs were found between the GM and non-GM soybeans. Meanwhile, more differentially expressed gma-miRNAs were identified between distantly relatednon-GM soybeans, indicating that the miRNA components of soybean seeds varied among different soybean lines, including the GM and non-GM soybeans, and the extent of difference might be related to their genetic relationship...
2016: PloS One
Stefan Hielscher, Ingo Pies, Vladislav Valentinov, Lioudmila Chatalova
The public discourse on the acceptability of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) is not only controversial, but also infused with highly emotional and moralizing rhetoric. Although the assessment of risks and benefits of GMOs must be a scientific exercise, many debates on this issue seem to remain impervious to scientific evidence. In many cases, the moral psychology attributes of the general public create incentives for both GMO opponents and proponents to pursue misleading public campaigns, which impede the comprehensive assessment of the full spectrum of the risks and benefits of GMOs...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
A Korwin-Kossakowska, K Sartowska, G Tomczyk, B Prusak, G Sender
The hypothesis assumes that feed containing GMOs affects animal health and results in the transgene product accumulating in the body. Therefore, the objective of the study was to evaluate the impact of genetically modified (GM) ingredients used in poultry diets on aspects of bird health status and accumulation of transgenic DNA in eggs, breast muscle and internal organs. A total of 10 generations of Japanese quail were fed three types of diets: group A - containing GM soya (Roundup Ready) and non-GM maize, group B - containing GM maize (MON810) and non-GM soya, and group C - containing non-GM soya and maize...
June 2016: British Poultry Science
Alfred J Arulandhu, Jeroen P van Dijk, David Dobnik, Arne Holst-Jensen, Jianxin Shi, Jana Zel, Esther J Kok
With the increased global production of different genetically modified (GM) plant varieties, chances increase that unauthorized GM organisms (UGMOs) may enter the food chain. At the same time, the detection of UGMOs is a challenging task because of the limited sequence information that will generally be available. PCR-based methods are available to detect and quantify known UGMOs in specific cases. If this approach is not feasible, DNA enrichment of the unknown adjacent sequences of known GMO elements is one way to detect the presence of UGMOs in a food or feed product...
July 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Aleksandra Malyska, Robert Bolla, Tomasz Twardowski
Science and technology are not autonomous entities and research trajectories are largely influenced by public opinion. The role of political decisions becomes especially evident in light of rapidly developing new breeding techniques (NBTs) and other genome editing methods for crop improvement. Decisions on how those new techniques should be regulated may not be based entirely on scientific rationale, and even if it is decided that crops produced by NBTs do not fall under the umbrella of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), their commercialization is by no means certain at this time...
July 2016: Trends in Biotechnology
Tetsuya Ishii, Motoko Araki
One of the major problems regarding consumer acceptance of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) is the possibility that their transgenes could have adverse effects on the environment and/or human health. Genome editing, represented by the CRISPR/Cas9 system, can efficiently achieve transgene-free gene modifications and is anticipated to generate a wide spectrum of plants. However, the public attitude against GMOs suggests that people will initially be unlikely to accept these plants. We herein explored the bottlenecks of consumer acceptance of transgene-free food crops developed by genome editing and made some recommendations...
July 2016: Plant Cell Reports
Noor Alasaad, Hussein Alzubi, Ahmad Abdul Kader
Food and feed samples were randomly collected from different sources, including local and imported materials from the Syrian local market. These included maize, barley, soybean, fresh food samples and raw material. GMO detection was conducted by PCR and nested PCR-based techniques using specific primers for the most used foreign DNA commonly used in genetic transformation procedures, i.e., 35S promoter, T-nos, epsps, cryIA(b) gene and nptII gene. The results revealed for the first time in Syria the presence of GM foods and feeds with glyphosate-resistant trait of P35S promoter and NOS terminator in the imported soybean samples with high frequency (5 out of the 6 imported soybean samples)...
June 2016: Data in Brief
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