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Trabecular meshwork

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346614/crosstalk-between-transforming-growth-factor-beta-2-and-toll-like-receptor-4-in-the-trabecular-meshwork
#1
Humberto Hernandez, Wanda E Medina-Ortiz, Tomi Luan, Abbot F Clark, Colleen M McDowell
Purpose: The trabecular meshwork (TM) is involved in the outflow of aqueous humor and intraocular pressure (IOP) regulation. Regulation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) by TGFβ2 signaling pathways in the TM has been extensively studied. Recent evidence has implicated toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in the regulation of ECM and fibrogenesis in liver, kidney, lung, and skin. Here, we investigated the role of TGFβ2-TLR4 signaling crosstalk in the regulation of the ECM in the TM and ocular hypertension...
March 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337067/late-spontaneous-resolution-of-a-double-anterior-chamber-post-deep-anterior-lamellar-keratoplasty
#2
Andrea Passani, Angela Tindara Sframeli, Pasquale Loiudice, Marco Nardi
A 31-year-old healthy male underwent deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty with big-bubble technique for treatment of keratoconus in his right eye. One week after surgery, he presented with detachment of the endothelium-Descemet complex with formation of a double anterior chamber, despite the apparent absence of an intraoperative Descemet membrane rupture. A subsequent intervention with the intent to relocate the corneal graft button was not effective, because the detachment appeared again one day later. The authors hypothesized that, at the time of the stromal dissection with big bubble technique, a small amount of air penetrated into the anterior chamber, creating a false pathway through the trabecular meshwork...
January 2017: Saudi Journal of Ophthalmology: Official Journal of the Saudi Ophthalmological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327135/stratification-of-phaco-trabectome-surgery-results-using-a-glaucoma-severity-index-in-a-retrospective-analysis
#3
Pritha Roy, Ralitsa T Loewen, Yalong Dang, Hardik A Parikh, Igor I Bussel, Nils A Loewen
BACKGROUND: To stratify the outcomes of phacoemulsification combined with trabectome surgery using a new glaucoma severity index. METHODS: This is a retrospective, observational cohort study that included open angle glaucoma patients with visually significant cataract that had phacoemulsification combined with trabectome surgery. Exclusion criteria were follow-up less than 12 months, any other surgeries or diagnosis of neovascular or active uveitic glaucoma. Patients were stratified into four groups according to the Glaucoma Index (GI) that incorporated preoperative intraocular pressure (IOP), number of medications and visual field status...
March 21, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298869/pigment-dispersion-syndrome-associated-with-spontaneous-subluxation-of-crystalline-lens
#4
Vikas Veerwal, Jawahar Lal Goyal, Parul Jain, Ritu Arora
Pigment dispersion syndrome (PDS) is an ocular condition characterized by a dispersion of iris pigment throughout the eye. This pigment is deposited in a characteristic manner on the corneal endothelium as Krukenberg's spindle, anterior surface of the iris, in the trabecular meshwork, on the lens and zonule and occasionally on the anterior hyaloid face. Even with deposition of pigment on zonular fibers, no zonular weakness, or zonular dehiscence has been reported in these cases. We report a unique case of PDS with bilateral spontaneous subluxation of crystalline lens...
January 2017: Oman Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245337/feasibility-of-laser-trabeculoplasty-in-angle-closure-glaucoma-a-review-of-favorable-histopathological-findings-in-narrow-angles
#5
REVIEW
Alexis Galeno Matos, Sanjay G Asrani, Jayter Silva Paula
Selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) has been indicated as a safe and efficient treatment for primary open-angle glaucoma; however, recent studies have also shown positive results with the use of SLT in some clinical conditions related to primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG). Despite the potential benefits of SLT in selected cases of PACG, the mechanisms underlying the modifications in the trabecular meshwork tissue of patients with PACG are poorly understood. This narrative review approached both the current, limited knowledge about the histological changes observed in different forms of PACG and the clinical results of SLT treatment for PACG...
February 28, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241317/tgf%C3%AE-2-induces-the-formation-of-cross-linked-actin-networks-clans-in-human-trabecular-meshwork-cells-through-the-smad-and-non-smad-dependent-pathways
#6
Michela Montecchi-Palmer, Jaclyn Y Bermudez, Hannah C Webber, Gaurang C Patel, Abbot F Clark, Weiming Mao
Purpose: Increased intraocular pressure results from increased aqueous humor (AH) outflow resistance at the trabecular meshwork (TM) due to pathologic changes including the formation of cross-linked actin networks (CLANs). Transforming growth factor β2 (TGFβ2) is elevated in the AH and TM of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) patients and induces POAG-associated TM changes, including CLANs. We determined the role of individual TGFβ2 signaling pathways in CLAN formation. Methods: Cultured nonglaucomatous human TM (NTM) cells were treated with control or TGFβ2, with or without the inhibitors of TGFβ receptor, Smad3, c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK), P38, or Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK)...
February 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241021/extracellular-vesicles-mediate-signaling-between-the-aqueous-humor-producing-and-draining-cells-in-the-ocular-system
#7
Natalie Lerner, Sofia Avissar, Elie Beit-Yannai
PURPOSE: Canonical Wnt signaling is associated with glaucoma pathogenesis and intraocular pressure (IOP) regulation. Our goal was to gain insight into the influence of non-pigmented ciliary epithelium (NPCE)-derived exosomes on Wnt signaling by trabecular meshwork (TM) cells. The potential impact of exosomes on Wnt signaling in the ocular drainage system remains poorly understood. METHODS: Exosomes isolated from media collected from cultured NPCE cells by differential ultracentrifugation were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), tunable resistive pulse sensing (TRPS), and nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), sucrose density gradient migration and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240260/enhanced-cytomegalovirus-infection-in-human-trabecular-meshwork-cells-and-its-implication-in-glaucoma-pathogenesis
#8
Jin A Choi, Ju-Eun Kim, Seung-Jun Noh, Eun Kyoung Kim, Chan Kee Park, Soon-Young Paik
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is one of the infectious causes of hypertensive anterior uveitis, which is characterized by recurrent episodes of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) and mild anterior uveitis. Despite the potentially vision-threatening complications of this disease, the underlying mechanisms remain largely undefined. We aimed to investigate whether human trabecular meshwork (TM) cells, the key cell type that regulates IOP, could support CMV replication, as well as demonstrate the relevant pathological changes in TM...
February 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238754/cross-linked-actin-networks-clans-in-glaucoma
#9
REVIEW
Jaclyn Y Bermudez, Michela Montecchi-Palmer, Weiming Mao, Abbot F Clark
One of the major causes of decreased vision, irreversible vision loss and blindness worldwide is glaucoma. Increased intraocular pressure (IOP) is a major risk factor associated with glaucoma and its molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. The trabecular meshwork (TM) is the primary site of injury in glaucoma, and its dysfunction results in elevated IOP. The glaucomatous TM has increased extracellular matrix deposition as well as cytoskeletal rearrangements referred to as cross-linked actin networks (CLANs) that consist of dome like structures consisting of hubs and spokes...
February 24, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237425/aqueous-angiography-in-living-nonhuman-primates-shows-segmental-pulsatile-and-dynamic-angiographic-aqueous-humor-outflow
#10
Alex S Huang, Meng Li, Diya Yang, Huaizhou Wang, Ningli Wang, Robert N Weinreb
PURPOSE: To evaluate the feasibility of safely performing aqueous angiography in intact eyes of living nonhuman primates (NHPs) for evaluating aqueous humor outflow and segmental patterns. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, observational study. SUBJECTS: Six nonhuman primates. METHODS: Aqueous angiography was performed in 6 nonhuman primates. After anesthesia, an anterior chamber (AC) maintainer was placed through a temporal 1-mm side-port wound...
February 22, 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226388/-can-anti-vegf-injections-cause-glaucoma-or-ocular-hypertension
#11
I Lanzl, K Kotliar
An increasing number of patients receive intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) injections with a high frequency for the treatment of neovascular macular disease. Since the volume of the vitreous body is temporarily increased by the injection of the substances, a short-term intraocular pressure increase after the introduction of the substance is not uncommon. However, there are more and more reports indicating that multiple injections may lead to a long-term increase in intraocular pressure...
February 2017: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214551/effect-of-benzalkonium-chloride-on-trabecular-meshwork-cells-in-a-new-in-vitro-3d-trabecular-meshwork-model-for-glaucoma
#12
Meryem Bouchemi, Christophe Roubeix, Karima Kessal, Luisa Riancho, Anne-Laure Raveu, Hayet Soualmia, Christophe Baudouin, Françoise Brignole-Baudouin
PURPOSE: To validate a new culture model of primary human trabecular meshwork cells (p-hTMCs) using Matrigel®, in order to mimic in vitro 3D-TM organization, and to investigate the proinflammatory effect of benzalkonium chloride (BAK) in 3D p-hTMC cultures. METHODS: p-hTMCs, seeded onto Matrigel®-coated inserts were stimulated with BAK (10(-4)%), dexamethasone (DEX) (10(-6)M) or transforming growth factor-beta 2 (TGF-β2) (5ng/ml) for 48h and observed with confocal microscopy...
February 16, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210622/epigenetics-and-signaling-pathways-in-glaucoma
#13
REVIEW
Angela C Gauthier, Ji Liu
Glaucoma is the most common cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. This neurodegenerative disease becomes more prevalent with aging, but predisposing genetic and environmental factors also contribute to increased risk. Emerging evidence now suggests that epigenetics may also be involved, which provides potential new therapeutic targets. These three factors work through several pathways, including TGF-β, MAP kinase, Rho kinase, BDNF, JNK, PI-3/Akt, PTEN, Bcl-2, Caspase, and Calcium-Calpain signaling. Together, these pathways result in the upregulation of proapoptotic gene expression, the downregulation of neuroprotective and prosurvival factors, and the generation of fibrosis at the trabecular meshwork, which may block aqueous humor drainage...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187473/-imaging-of-the-intrascleral-aqueous-drainage-system-new-insights-for-glaucoma-surgery-targeting-the-trabecular-meshwork
#14
C van Oterendorp
Numerous new techniques in glaucoma surgery target the trabecular meshwork, which is considered to be the main site of aqueous outflow resistance. These approaches rely on a functioning aqueous drainage system distal to the site of surgery. Thus, the intrascleral aqueous outflow tract comprises Schlemm's canal, collector channels and aqueous veins and has become an object of increasing research interest. The intrascleral outflow tract contributes approximately 25-50 % to the total aqueous outflow resistance, but the outflow capacity differs greatly over the segments of the eye...
February 10, 2017: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169917/targeting-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-signaling-in-primary-open-angle-glaucoma
#15
Jenny Wang, Alon Harris, Mark A Prendes, Loor Alshawa, Josh C Gross, Scott M Wentz, Ambika B Rao, Nathaniel J Kim, Alexander Synder, Brent Siesky
Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) may play a role in the pathogenesis of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Elevated levels of TGF-β are found in the aqueous humor and in reactive optic nerve astrocytes in patients with glaucoma. In POAG, aqueous humor outflow resistance at the trabecular meshwork (TM) leads to increased intraocular pressure and retinal ganglion cell death. It is hypothesized that TGF-β increases outflow resistance by altering extracellular matrix homeostasis and cell contractility in the TM through interactions with other proteins and signaling molecules...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168044/anti-inflammatory-and-antioxidative-stress-effects-of-oryzanol-in-glaucomatous-rabbits
#16
Shital S Panchal, Rajesh K Patidar, Abhishek B Jha, Ahmed A Allam, Jamaan Ajarem, Shital B Butani
Purpose. γ-Oryzanol works by anti-inflammatory and radical scavenging activity as a neuroprotective, anticancer, antiulcer, and immunosuppressive agent. The present study was conducted to investigate effect of oryzanol in acute and chronic experimental glaucoma in rabbits. Methods. Effect of oryzanol was evaluated in 5% dextrose induced acute model of ocular hypertension in rabbit eye. Chronic model of glaucoma was induced with subconjunctival injection of 5% of 0.3 ml phenol. Treatment with oryzanol was given for next two weeks after induction of glaucoma...
2017: Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167045/dexamethasone-induced-ocular-hypertension-in-mice-effects-of-myocilin-and-route-of-administration
#17
Gaurang C Patel, Tien N Phan, Prabhavathi Maddineni, Ramesh B Kasetti, J Cameron Millar, Abbot F Clark, Gulab S Zode
Glucocorticoid (GC)-induced ocular hypertension (OHT) is a serious adverse effect of prolonged GC therapy that can lead to iatrogenic glaucoma and permanent vision loss. An appropriate mouse model can help us understand precise molecular mechanisms and etiology of GC-induced OHT. We therefore developed a novel, simple, and reproducible mouse model of GC-induced OHT. GC-induced myocilin expression in the trabecular meshwork (TM) has been suggested to play an important role in GC-induced OHT. We further determined whether myocilin contributes to GC-OHT...
April 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159972/role-of-id-proteins-in-bmp4-inhibition-of-profibrotic-effects-of-tgf-%C3%AE-2-in-human-tm-cells
#18
Avani A Mody, Robert J Wordinger, Abbot F Clark
Purpose: Increased expression of TGF-β2 in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) aqueous humor (AH) and trabecular meshwork (TM) causes deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) in the TM and elevated IOP. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) regulate TGF-β2-induced ECM production. The underlying mechanism for BMP4 inhibition of TGF-β2-induced fibrosis remains undetermined. Bone morphogenic protein 4 induces inhibitor of DNA binding proteins (ID1, ID3), which suppress transcription factor activities to regulate gene expression...
February 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155681/microstructure-visualization-of-conventional-outflow-pathway-and-finite-element-modeling-analysis-of-trabecular-meshwork
#19
Jing Zhang, Lin Ren, Xi Mei, Qiang Xu, Wei Zheng, Zhicheng Liu
BACKGROUND: The intraocular pressure (IOP) is maintained through a dynamic equilibrium between the production and drainage of aqueous humor. Elevation of intraocular pressure is mainly caused by the blocking of aqueous humor outflow pathway. Therefore, it is particularly important to study the structure of drainage pathway and the effect of ocular hypertension at the process of aqueous humor outflow. METHODS: Conventional drainage pathway of aqueous humor, including trabecular meshwork (TM), Schlemm's canal (SC) and aqueous vein, were imaged by using trans-scleral imaging method with lateral resolution of 2 μm...
December 28, 2016: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153738/myocilin-expression-is-regulated-by-retinoic-acid-in-the-trabecular-meshwork-derived-cellular-environment
#20
Cécile Prat, Corinne Belville, Aurélie Comptour, Geoffroy Marceau, Gael Clairefond, Frédéric Chiambaretta, Vincent Sapin, Loïc Blanchon
Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness and is usually classified as angle closure and open angle glaucoma (OAG). Primary open angle glaucoma represents the most frequent clinical presentation leading to ganglion cell death and optic nerve degeneration as a main consequence of an intraocular pressure' (IOP) increase. The mechanisms of this IOP increase in such pathology remain unclear but one protein called Myocilin could be a part of the puzzle in the trabecular meshwork (TM). Previously described to be transcriptionally regulated by glucocorticoids, the comprehension of the trabecular regulation of Myocilin' expression has only weakly progressed since 15 years...
January 30, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
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