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Trabecular meshwork

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346804/trabodenoson-an-adenosine-mimetic-with-a1-receptor-selectivity-lowers-intraocular-pressure-by-increasing-conventional-outflow-facility-in-mice
#1
Guorong Li, Karen Y Torrejon, Andrea M Unser, Feryan Ahmed, Iris D Navarro, Rudolf A Baumgartner, David S Albers, W Daniel Stamer
Purpose: To evaluate the relationship between the IOP-lowering effect of trabodenoson and the associated structural and functional changes in the trabecular meshwork (TM). Methods: Six independent cohorts of young and aged mice were exposed to three different topical once-a-day formulations of trabodenoson and eyes were compared to those treated with placebo drops. IOP was measured daily just before drug administration using rebound tonometry. Outflow facility was measured in enucleated eyes...
January 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344491/hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis-in-adults-with-intraocular-involvement-clinicopathologic-features-of-3-cases
#2
M Adelita Vizcaino, Charles G Eberhart, Fausto J Rodriguez
Background/Aims: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is an infrequent inflammatory multisystemic syndrome. Only rare cases with ophthalmic involvement describing their pathologic features have been previously reported. Methods: We report 3 cases of adult-onset HLH with bilateral ocular involvement and describe their clinicopathologic features. Results: Three adult males - 2 with a history of viral infection - developed persistent fever, fatigue, bone marrow abnormalities, and irreversible multiorgan failure...
December 2017: Ocular Oncology and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340644/proteasome-inhibition-increases-the-efficiency-of-lentiviral-vector-mediated-transduction-of-trabecular-meshwork
#3
Zeynep Aktas, Hongyu Rao, Sarah R Slauson, B'Ann T Gabelt, Inna V Larsen, Rachael T C Sheridan, Leonie Herrnberger, Ernst R Tamm, Paul L Kaufman, Curtis R Brandt
Purpose: To determine if proteasome inhibition using MG132 increased the efficiency of FIV vector-mediated transduction in human trabecular meshwork (TM)-1 cells and monkey organ-cultured anterior segments (MOCAS). Methods: TM-1 cells were pretreated for 1 hour with 0.5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO; vehicle control) or 5 to 50 μM MG132 and transduced with FIV.GFP (green fluorescent protein)- or FIV.mCherry-expressing vector at a multiplicity of transduction (MOT) of 20...
January 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340639/biomechanical-rigidity-and-quantitative-proteomics-analysis-of-segmental-regions-of-the-trabecular-meshwork-at-physiologic-and-elevated-pressures
#4
Janice A Vranka, Julia A Staverosky, Ashok P Reddy, Phillip A Wilmarth, Larry L David, Ted S Acott, Paul Russell, Vijay Krishna Raghunathan
Purpose: The extracellular matrix (ECM) of the trabecular meshwork (TM) modulates resistance to aqueous humor outflow, thereby regulating IOP. Glaucoma, a leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide, is associated with changes in the ECM of the TM. The elastic modulus of glaucomatous TM is larger than age-matched normal TM; however, the biomechanical properties of segmental low (LF) and high flow (HF) TM regions and their response to elevated pressure, are unknown. Methods: We perfused human anterior segments at two pressures using an ex vivo organ culture system...
January 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339920/microhook-ab-interno-trabeculotomy-a-novel-minimally-invasive-glaucoma-surgery
#5
Masaki Tanito
Trabeculotomy (LOT) is performed to reduce the intraocular pressure in patients with glaucoma, both in children and adults. It relieves the resistance to aqueous flow by cleaving the trabecular meshwork and the inner walls of Schlemm's canal. Microhook ab interno LOT (µLOT), a novel minimally invasive glaucoma surgery, incises trabecular meshwork using small hooks that are inserted through corneal side ports. An initial case series reported that both µLOT alone and combination of µLOT and cataract surgery normalize the intraocular pressure during the early postoperative period in Japanese patients with glaucoma...
2018: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339763/glucocorticoid-receptor-gr%C3%AE-regulates-glucocorticoid-induced-ocular-hypertension-in-mice
#6
Gaurang C Patel, Yang Liu, J Cameron Millar, Abbot F Clark
Prolonged glucocorticoid (GC) therapy can cause GC-induced ocular hypertension (OHT), which if left untreated progresses to iatrogenic glaucoma and permanent vision loss. The alternatively spliced isoform of glucocorticoid receptor GRβ acts as dominant negative regulator of GR activity, and it has been shown that overexpressing GRβ in trabecular meshwork (TM) cells inhibits GC-induced glaucomatous damage in TM cells. The purpose of this study was to use viral vectors to selectively overexpress the GRβ isoform in the TM of mouse eyes treated with GCs, to precisely dissect the role of GRβ in regulating steroid responsiveness...
January 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305605/role-of-the-autotaxin-lpa-pathway-in-dexamethasone-induced-fibrotic-responses-and-extracellular-matrix-production-in-human-trabecular-meshwork-cells
#7
Megumi Honjo, Nozomi Igarashi, Junko Nishida, Makoto Kurano, Yutaka Yatomi, Koji Igarashi, Kuniyuki Kano, Junken Aoki, Makoto Aihara
Purpose: Dexamethasone (Dex) regulates aqueous humor outflow by inducing reorganization of the cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix (ECM) production. Rho kinase (ROCK) has an important role in this process, but the upstream pathway leading to its activation remains elusive. The purpose of the study was to determine the role of autotaxin (ATX), an enzyme involved in the generation of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), in the Dex-induced fibrotic response and ECM production in human trabecular meshwork (HTM) cells...
January 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286147/mutual-regulation-of-the-hippo-wnt-lpa-tgf%C3%A2-%C3%AE-signaling-pathways-and-their-roles-in-glaucoma-review
#8
Xin Wang, Guoli Huai, Hailian Wang, Yuande Liu, Ping Qi, Wei Shi, Jie Peng, Hongji Yang, Shaoping Deng, Yi Wang
Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide and there is no effective treatment thus far. The trabecular meshwork has been identified as the major pathological area involved. Certain signaling pathways in the trabecular meshwork, including the Wnt, lysophosphatidic acid and transforming growth factor‑β pathways, have been identified as novel therapeutic targets in glaucoma treatment. Meanwhile, it has been reported that key proteins in these pathways, particularly the primary transcription regulator Yes‑associated protein (YAP) and transcriptional co‑activator with PDZ‑binding motif (TAZ), exhibit interactions with the Hippo pathway...
December 29, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284449/experimental-research-on-the-relationship-between-the-stiffness-and-the-expressions-of-fibronectin-proteins-and-adaptor-proteins-of-rat-trabecular-meshwork-cells
#9
Chuan Wang, Lin Li, Zhicheng Liu
BACKGROUND: Trabecular meshwork (TM) plays an important role in maintaining normal intraocular pressure (IOP). Studies have shown that glaucomatous TM tissues are stiffer than those of normal tissue. The high expression of fibronectin protein (FN) and adaptor protein (LNK) may be related to high resistance to aqueous humor outflow as well as high IOP. Our concern is what factors lead to the variation of the stiffness of trabecular tissue/cells. METHODS: Atomic force microscope (AFM) and Western blot (WB) analysis were applied to test TM cells of rats cultured with different concentrations of dexamethasone (DEX) and mifepristone (MIF)...
December 29, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282607/mechanism-of-the-reconstruction-of-aqueous-outflow-drainage
#10
REVIEW
Chen Xin, Ning Tian, Meng Li, Huaizhou Wang, Ningli Wang
Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. The reconstruction of aqueous outflow drainage (RAOD) has recently been proposed to aid in restoring aqueous outflow drainage in primary open-angle glaucoma. However, the mechanism of RAOD remains to be fully understood. Based on literature review and research studies, the potential mechanisms of RAOD are the following: (i) Circumferential dilation of the Schlemm's canal (SC) and surrounding collector channels. (ii) Instant formation of microcracks through RAOD procedures...
December 22, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250149/effects-of-atorvastatin-on-porcine-aqueous-humour-outflow-and-trabecular-meshwork-cells
#11
Lin Cong, Shuhao Fu, Jinling Zhang, Jin Zhao, Yuyan Zhang
Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) with complex pathogenesis is one of the many major causes of blindness. It is widely accepted that the major cause of POAG is the dysregulation of the trabecular meshwork (TM), which regulates the resistance to aqueous humour outflow. Intraocular pressure is elevated with increasing outflow resistance in the conventional pathway, which consists of the TM and Schlemm's canal. The TM is a filter made up of extracellular matrix (e.g., collagens), most of which is organized into a network of beams covered by endothelial-like trabecular cells...
January 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239730/directed-differentiation-of-periocular-mesenchyme-from-human-embryonic-stem-cells
#12
Matthew Lovatt, Gary Hin-Fai Yam, Gary S Peh, Alan Colman, N Ray Dunn, Jodhbir S Mehta
Corneal tissue is the most transplanted of all body tissues. Currently, cadaveric donor tissues are used for transplantation. However, a global shortage of transplant grade material has prompted development of alternative, cell-based therapies for corneal diseases. Pluripotent stem cells are attractive sources of cells for regenerative medicine, because large numbers of therapeutically useful cells can be generated. However, a detailed understanding of how to differentiate clinically relevant cell types from stem cells is fundamentally required...
November 16, 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222550/tissue-transglutaminase-elevates-intraocular-pressure-in-mice
#13
Urmimala Raychaudhuri, J Cameron Millar, Abbot F Clark
Purpose: Tissue transglutaminase (TGM2) is elevated in glaucomatous trabecular meshwork (TM) tissues. We investigated whether increased expression of TGM2 increases extracellular matrix crosslinking in the TM, thereby increasing aqueous humor outflow resistance and elevating intraocular pressure (IOP) in mouse eyes. Methods: GTM3, primary human GTM 125-05, and cultured mouse TM cells were transduced with adenovirus serotype 5 expressing human transglutaminase 2 (Ad5...
December 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213129/deep-tissue-analysis-of-distal-aqueous-drainage-structures-and-contractile-features
#14
Jose M Gonzalez, Minhee K Ko, Young-Kwon Hong, Robert Weigert, James C H Tan
Outflow resistance in the aqueous drainage tract distal to trabecular meshwork is potentially an important determinant of intraocular pressure and success of trabecular bypass glaucoma surgeries. It is unclear how distal resistance is modulated. We sought to establish: (a) multimodal 2-photon deep tissue imaging and 3-dimensional analysis of the distal aqueous drainage tract (DT) in transgenic mice in vivo and ex vivo; (b) criteria for distinguishing the DT from blood and lymphatic vessels; and (c) presence of a DT wall organization capable of contractility...
December 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194204/a-retrospective-review-comparing-the-safety-and-efficacy-of-120-versus-160-applications-of-selective-laser-trabeculoplasty
#15
Cliff Wong, Lingwei W Tao, Simon E Skalicky
PURPOSE: To compare the effectiveness and safety of 120 applications versus 160 applications of selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) at reducing intraocular pressure (IOP) from baseline in glaucoma patients over a 1-year period. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted, comprising 376 eyes from 199 patients who underwent SLT treatment performed by the same glaucoma subspecialist from 2014 to 2015. Data were obtained on patients' clinical features, management, and outcomes...
January 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190024/methods-for-analyzing-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-the-trabecular-meshwork-of-glaucoma-models
#16
Prabhavathi Maddineni, Ramesh B Kasetti, Gulab S Zode
The pathological mechanisms underlying increased outflow resistance at the trabecular meshwork (TM) that is responsible for elevating intraocular pressure (IOP) have not been fully delineated. Recent studies have shown that progressive accumulation of misfolded proteins and induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is associated with the pathophysiology of glaucomatous TM damage and IOP elevation. We have shown that known causes of human glaucoma, including expression of mutant myocilin or dexamethasone treatment induce abnormal protein accumulation and ER stress in the TM in vitro and in vivo models...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190016/ocular-hypertension-glaucoma-in-minipigs-episcleral-veins-cauterization-and-microbead-occlusion-methods
#17
Elena Vecino, Haritz Urcola, Alejando Bayon, Sansar C Sharma
Two methods to induce elevation of the intraocular pressure (experimental glaucoma) are described in the present chapter. The first method is based on increasing the post-trabecular resistance to aqueous outflow by cauterizing the episcleral veins (EVC). This method allows the observation of ultrastructural changes in the trabecular meshwork (TM) without interfering with any structure within the eye such as TM, ciliary body, and/or the Retina. The second method is the multiple injection of microbeads into the anterior chamber, as a pre and intra-trabecular method that induce secondary effects on the TM cells...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190014/hypertonic-saline-injection-model-of-experimental-glaucoma-in-rats
#18
John C Morrison, Elaine C Johnson, William O Cepurna
A reliable method of creating chronic elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP) in rodents is an important tool in reproducing and studying the mechanisms of optic nerve injury that occur in glaucoma. In addition, such a model could provide a valuable method for testing potential neuroprotective treatments. This paper outlines the basic methods for producing obstruction of aqueous humor outflow and IOP elevation by injecting hypertonic saline (a sclerosant) into the aqueous outflow pathway. This is one of several rodent glaucoma models in use today...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183303/link-between-neurodegeneration-and-trabecular-meshwork-injury-in-glaucomatous-patients
#19
Yong Zhang, Qinmei Yang, Feng Guo, Xia Chen, Lin Xie
BACKGROUND: Glaucoma is classified as a neurodegenerative disease. However, the biomarkers of neurodegeneration in the aqueous humour of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) eyes have not been quantitatively examined yet. In this study, levels of neurodegeneration-related cytokines in the aqueous humour of POAG eyes were measured and compared with those of non-glaucoma (senile cataract) control eyes. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 24 patients (24 eyes) with POAG and 22 patients (22 eyes) with cataract...
November 28, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164845/current-therapeutic-options-and-treatments-in-development-for-the-management-of-primary-open-angle-glaucoma
#20
Jeffrey M Liebmann, Jeannie K Lee
Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is the most common type of glaucoma, and is responsible for approximately 90% of glaucoma cases in North America. POAG is characterized by an asymptomatic onset, where patients do not present with symptoms until significant visual loss occurs in late stages of the disease. Importantly, while glaucoma is associated with several risk factors that contribute to damage and disease progression, intraocular pressure (IOP) is the only proven modifiable risk factor at this time. Treatments for POAG include use of pharmacologic and surgical interventions...
September 2017: American Journal of Managed Care
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