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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226388/-can-anti-vegf-injections-cause-glaucoma-or-ocular-hypertension
#1
I Lanzl, K Kotliar
An increasing number of patients receive intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) injections with a high frequency for the treatment of neovascular macular disease. Since the volume of the vitreous body is temporarily increased by the injection of the substances, a short-term intraocular pressure increase after the introduction of the substance is not uncommon. However, there are more and more reports indicating that multiple injections may lead to a long-term increase in intraocular pressure...
February 2017: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214551/effect-of-benzalkonium-chloride-on-trabecular-meshwork-cells-in-a-new-in-vitro-3d-trabecular-meshwork-model-for-glaucoma
#2
Meryem Bouchemi, Christophe Roubeix, Karima Kessal, Luisa Riancho, Anne-Laure Raveu, Hayet Soualmia, Christophe Baudouin, Françoise Brignole-Baudouin
PURPOSE: To validate a new culture model of primary human trabecular meshwork cells (p-hTMCs) using Matrigel®, in order to mimic in vitro 3D-TM organization, and to investigate the proinflammatory effect of benzalkonium chloride (BAK) in 3D p-hTMC cultures. METHODS: p-hTMCs, seeded onto Matrigel®-coated inserts were stimulated with BAK (10(-4)%), dexamethasone (DEX) (10(-6)M) or transforming growth factor-beta 2 (TGF-β2) (5ng/ml) for 48h and observed with confocal microscopy...
February 15, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210622/epigenetics-and-signaling-pathways-in-glaucoma
#3
REVIEW
Angela C Gauthier, Ji Liu
Glaucoma is the most common cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. This neurodegenerative disease becomes more prevalent with aging, but predisposing genetic and environmental factors also contribute to increased risk. Emerging evidence now suggests that epigenetics may also be involved, which provides potential new therapeutic targets. These three factors work through several pathways, including TGF-β, MAP kinase, Rho kinase, BDNF, JNK, PI-3/Akt, PTEN, Bcl-2, Caspase, and Calcium-Calpain signaling. Together, these pathways result in the upregulation of proapoptotic gene expression, the downregulation of neuroprotective and prosurvival factors, and the generation of fibrosis at the trabecular meshwork, which may block aqueous humor drainage...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187473/-imaging-of-the-intrascleral-aqueous-drainage-system-new-insights-for-glaucoma-surgery-targeting-the-trabecular-meshwork
#4
C van Oterendorp
Numerous new techniques in glaucoma surgery target the trabecular meshwork, which is considered to be the main site of aqueous outflow resistance. These approaches rely on a functioning aqueous drainage system distal to the site of surgery. Thus, the intrascleral aqueous outflow tract comprises Schlemm's canal, collector channels and aqueous veins and has become an object of increasing research interest. The intrascleral outflow tract contributes approximately 25-50 % to the total aqueous outflow resistance, but the outflow capacity differs greatly over the segments of the eye...
February 10, 2017: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169917/targeting-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-signaling-in-primary-open-angle-glaucoma
#5
Jenny Wang, Alon Harris, Mark A Prendes, Loor Alshawa, Josh C Gross, Scott M Wentz, Ambika B Rao, Nathaniel J Kim, Alexander Synder, Brent Siesky
Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) may play a role in the pathogenesis of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Elevated levels of TGF-β are found in the aqueous humor and in reactive optic nerve astrocytes in patients with glaucoma. In POAG, aqueous humor outflow resistance at the trabecular meshwork (TM) leads to increased intraocular pressure and retinal ganglion cell death. It is hypothesized that TGF-β increases outflow resistance by altering extracellular matrix homeostasis and cell contractility in the TM through interactions with other proteins and signaling molecules...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168044/anti-inflammatory-and-antioxidative-stress-effects-of-oryzanol-in-glaucomatous-rabbits
#6
Shital S Panchal, Rajesh K Patidar, Abhishek B Jha, Ahmed A Allam, Jamaan Ajarem, Shital B Butani
Purpose. γ-Oryzanol works by anti-inflammatory and radical scavenging activity as a neuroprotective, anticancer, antiulcer, and immunosuppressive agent. The present study was conducted to investigate effect of oryzanol in acute and chronic experimental glaucoma in rabbits. Methods. Effect of oryzanol was evaluated in 5% dextrose induced acute model of ocular hypertension in rabbit eye. Chronic model of glaucoma was induced with subconjunctival injection of 5% of 0.3 ml phenol. Treatment with oryzanol was given for next two weeks after induction of glaucoma...
2017: Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167045/dexamethasone-induced-ocular-hypertension-in-mice-effects-of-myocilin-and-route-of-administration
#7
Gaurang C Patel, Tien N Phan, Prabhavathi Maddineni, Ramesh B Kasetti, J Cameron Millar, Abbot F Clark, Gulab S Zode
Glucocorticoid (GC)-induced ocular hypertension (OHT) is a serious adverse effect of prolonged GC therapy that can lead to iatrogenic glaucoma and permanent vision loss. An appropriate mouse model can help us understand precise molecular mechanisms and etiology of GC-induced OHT. We therefore developed a novel, simple, and reproducible mouse model of GC-induced OHT. GC-induced myocilin expression in the trabecular meshwork (TM) has been suggested to play an important role in GC-induced OHT. We further determined whether myocilin contributes to GC-OHT...
February 3, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159972/role-of-id-proteins-in-bmp4-inhibition-of-profibrotic-effects-of-tgf-%C3%AE-2-in-human-tm-cells
#8
Avani A Mody, Robert J Wordinger, Abbot F Clark
Purpose: Increased expression of TGF-β2 in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) aqueous humor (AH) and trabecular meshwork (TM) causes deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) in the TM and elevated IOP. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) regulate TGF-β2-induced ECM production. The underlying mechanism for BMP4 inhibition of TGF-β2-induced fibrosis remains undetermined. Bone morphogenic protein 4 induces inhibitor of DNA binding proteins (ID1, ID3), which suppress transcription factor activities to regulate gene expression...
February 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155681/microstructure-visualization-of-conventional-outflow-pathway-and-finite-element-modeling-analysis-of-trabecular-meshwork
#9
Jing Zhang, Lin Ren, Xi Mei, Qiang Xu, Wei Zheng, Zhicheng Liu
BACKGROUND: The intraocular pressure (IOP) is maintained through a dynamic equilibrium between the production and drainage of aqueous humor. Elevation of intraocular pressure is mainly caused by the blocking of aqueous humor outflow pathway. Therefore, it is particularly important to study the structure of drainage pathway and the effect of ocular hypertension at the process of aqueous humor outflow. METHODS: Conventional drainage pathway of aqueous humor, including trabecular meshwork (TM), Schlemm's canal (SC) and aqueous vein, were imaged by using trans-scleral imaging method with lateral resolution of 2 μm...
December 28, 2016: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153738/myocilin-expression-is-regulated-by-retinoic-acid-in-the-trabecular-meshwork-derived-cellular-environment
#10
Cécile Prat, Corinne Belville, Aurélie Comptour, Geoffroy Marceau, Gael Clairefond, Frédéric Chiambaretta, Vincent Sapin, Loïc Blanchon
Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness and is usually classified as angle closure and open angle glaucoma (OAG). Primary open angle glaucoma represents the most frequent clinical presentation leading to ganglion cell death and optic nerve degeneration as a main consequence of an intraocular pressure' (IOP) increase. The mechanisms of this IOP increase in such pathology remain unclear but one protein called Myocilin could be a part of the puzzle in the trabecular meshwork (TM). Previously described to be transcriptionally regulated by glucocorticoids, the comprehension of the trabecular regulation of Myocilin' expression has only weakly progressed since 15 years...
January 30, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125837/regulatory-roles-of-anoctamin-6-in-human-trabecular-meshwork-cells
#11
Juni Banerjee, Chi-Ting Leung, Ang Li, Kim Peterson-Yantorno, Huan Ouyang, W Daniel Stamer, Mortimer M Civan
Purpose: Trabecular meshwork (TM) cell volume is a determinant of aqueous humor outflow resistance, and thereby IOP. Regulation of TM cell volume depends on chloride ion (Cl-) release through swelling-activated channels (ICl,Swell), whose pore is formed by LRRC8 proteins. Chloride ion release through swelling-activated channels has been reported to be regulated by calcium-activated anoctamins, but this finding is controversial. Particularly uncertain has been the effect of anoctamin Ano6, reported as a Ca2+-activated Cl- (CaCC) or cation channel in other cells...
January 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114698/-impact-of-drugs-on-glaucoma-and-intraocular-pressure
#12
T Schlote
Purpose Systemic drugs may have unfavourable effects on intraocular pressure, glaucoma and the efficacy of glaucoma drugs. Material and Methods The article provides a review of the literature from PubMed and clinical experience. Results Topical and systemic corticosteroids induce complex changes inside the trabecular meshwork. New genetic results improve the understanding of pathogenetic processes, although many questions are still open. Arterial hypertension and antihypertonic drugs may influence the risk of glaucoma, intraocular pressure and ocular perfusion pressure...
February 2017: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099049/effects-of-hydrogen-sulfide-releasing-compounds-on-aqueous-humor-outflow-facility-in-porcine-ocular-anterior-segments-ex-vivo
#13
Jenaye Robinson, Esther Okoro, Chinoso Ezuedu, Leah Bush, Catherine A Opere, Sunny E Ohia, Ya Fatou Njie-Mbye
PURPOSE: To investigate the pharmacological actions of hydrogen sulfide (H2S)-releasing compounds l-cysteine and sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) on aqueous humor (AH) outflow facility in porcine ocular anterior segment. METHODS: Porcine ocular anterior segments were perfused with Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium at a constant pressure of 7.35 mmHg. After stable outflow baseline, explants were exposed to NaHS or l-cysteine. The increase in outflow generated by the H2S-releasing compounds was measured in the absence and presence of inhibitor of H2S biosynthesis (aminooxyacetic acid; AOAA), blocker of KATP channels (glibenclamide), and inhibitor of adenylyl cyclase (SQ 22536)...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091584/enhancement-of-outflow-facility-in-the-murine-eye-by-targeting-selected-tight-junctions-of-schlemm-s-canal-endothelia
#14
Lawrence C S Tam, Ester Reina-Torres, Joseph M Sherwood, Paul S Cassidy, Darragh E Crosbie, Elke Lütjen-Drecoll, Cassandra Flügel-Koch, Kristin Perkumas, Marian M Humphries, Anna-Sophia Kiang, Jeffrey O'Callaghan, John J Callanan, A Thomas Read, C Ross Ethier, Colm O'Brien, Matthew Lawrence, Matthew Campbell, W Daniel Stamer, Darryl R Overby, Pete Humphries
The juxtacanalicular connective tissue of the trabecular meshwork together with inner wall endothelium of Schlemm's canal (SC) provide the bulk of resistance to aqueous outflow from the anterior chamber. Endothelial cells lining SC elaborate tight junctions (TJs), down-regulation of which may widen paracellular spaces between cells, allowing greater fluid outflow. We observed significant increase in paracellular permeability following siRNA-mediated suppression of TJ transcripts, claudin-11, zonula-occludens-1 (ZO-1) and tricellulin in human SC endothelial monolayers...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090788/selection-of-suitable-reference-genes-for-quantitative-real-time-pcr-in-trabecular-meshwork-cells-under-oxidative-stress
#15
Jing Zhao, HongYan Zhou, Lixia Sun, Ben Yang, Lin Zhang, Hongfeng Shi, Yajuan Zheng
Oxidative stress-induced dysfunction in trabecular meshwork (TM) cells is considered a major alteration that can lead to glaucoma. H2O2 is the most widely used agent for inducing oxidation in TM cells in vitro. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is an important method for studying alterations in gene expression, and suitable (i.e., invariant) reference genes must be defined to normalize expression levels. In this study, eight common reference genes, i.e., PRS18, ACTB, B2M, GAPDH, PPIA, HPRT1, YWHAZ, and TBP, were evaluated for use in studies of H2O2-induced dysfunction in TM cells...
January 15, 2017: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079655/microarchitecture-of-schlemm-canal-before-and-after-selective-laser-trabeculoplasty-in-enhanced-depth-imaging-optical-coherence-tomography
#16
Alon Skaat, Michael S Rosman, Jason L Chien, Mark P Ghassibi, Jeffrey M Liebmann, Robert Ritch, Sung Chul Park
PURPOSE: To characterize the in vivo effect of selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) on the Schlemm canal (SC) in eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-one serial horizontal enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomograph B-scans (interval between B-scans, ∼35 μm) of the nasal corneoscleral limbus were obtained before and 4 weeks after SLT. Fifty B-scans in the overlapping regions before and after SLT were selected for analysis based on the structures of aqueous and blood vessels as landmarks...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075618/rodent-models-of-glaucoma-and-their-applicability-for-drug-discovery
#17
Renu Agarwal, Puneet Agarwal
Rodents have widely been used to represent glaucomatous changes both in the presence and absence of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) as they offer clear advantages over other animal species. IOP elevation is commonly achieved by creating an obstruction in the aqueous outflow pathways, consequently leading to retinal ganglion cell and optic nerve (ON) damage, the hallmark of glaucoma. These changes may also be achieved in the absence of elevated IOP by directly inflicting injury to retina or ON. Areas covered: This paper presents a summary of currently used rodent models of glaucoma...
January 18, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074272/-role-of-the-aging-visual-system-in-glaucoma
#18
J D Unterlauft, M R R Böhm
BACKGROUND: Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness worldwide and is usually diagnosed in higher age groups. The goal was to survey how patient age influences the development of glaucoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A web-based search on aging of the visual system and its influence on glaucoma was performed and the most important results are summarized. RESULTS: The prevalence of glaucoma rises with age. Aging processes of the trabecular meshwork and the uveoscleral outflow pathway lead to a rise in the intraocular pressure...
January 10, 2017: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073110/relationship-between-the-pathogenesis-of-glaucoma-and-mirna
#19
Ruru Guo, Wencui Shen, Chang Su, Shaoyun Jiang, Jiantao Wang
Small RNA (microRNA or miRNA) is a kind of small noncoding single-stranded RNA that regulates complementary mRNA at the posttranscriptional level in eukaryotic organisms. As important regulatory factors, miRNAs play an important role in the occurrence and development of glaucoma and widely participate in regulating biological processes of glaucoma-related genes. This article reviews the connection between the aqueous humor, trabecular meshwork, the apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells, and miRNA.
January 11, 2017: Ophthalmic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068412/a-comparison-of-gene-expression-profiles-between-glucocorticoid-responder-and-non-responder-bovine-trabecular-meshwork-cells-using-rna-sequencing
#20
Jaclyn Y Bermudez, Hannah C Webber, Bartley Brown, Terry A Braun, Abbot F Clark, Weiming Mao
The most common ocular side effect of glucocorticoid (GC) therapy is GC-induced ocular hypertension (OHT) and GC-induced glaucoma (GIG). GC-induced OHT occurs in about 40% of the general population, while the other 60% are resistant. This study aims to determine the genes and pathways involved in differential GC responsiveness in the trabecular meshwork (TM). Using paired bovine eyes, one eye was perfusion-cultured with 100nM dexamethasone (DEX), while the fellow eye was used to establish a bovine TM (BTM) cell strain...
2017: PloS One
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