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Trabecular meshwork

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804648/inhibition-of-rho-kinase-induces-antioxidative-molecules-and-suppresses-reactive-oxidative-species-in-trabecular-meshwork-cells
#1
Tomokazu Fujimoto, Toshihiro Inoue, Saori Ohira, Nanako Awai-Kasaoka, Takanori Kameda, Miyuki Inoue-Mochita, Hidenobu Tanihara
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of rho kinase inhibitors on oxidative stress in trabecular meshwork (TM) cells. METHODS: TM cells were isolated from the eyes of cynomolgus monkeys. Y-27632 and menadione were used to inhibit rho kinase and induce production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), respectively. The cynomolgus monkey array and 12,613 probes were used in DNA microarray analysis, and the affected genes were categorized using gene ontology analysis. The mRNA levels of the target genes were confirmed by real-time RT-PCR...
2017: Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800647/effects-of-vitrectomy-and-lensectomy-on-older-rhesus-macaques-oxygen-distribution-antioxidant-status-and-aqueous-humor-dynamics
#2
Carla J Siegfried, Ying-Bo Shui, Baohe Tian, T Michael Nork, Gregg A Heatley, Paul L Kaufman
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate effects of vitrectomy (PPV) and lens extraction with intraocular lens implantation (PE/IOL) on molecular oxygen (pO2) distribution, aqueous humor antioxidant-oxidant balance, aqueous humor dynamics, and histopathologic changes in the trabecular meshwork (TM) in the older macaque monkey. Methods: Six rhesus monkeys underwent PPV followed by PE/IOL. pO2, outflow facility, and intraocular pressure (IOP) were measured...
August 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799956/peripheral-blunt-dissection-using-a-microhoe-facilitated-method-for-descemet-membrane-endothelial-keratoplasty-donor-tissue-preparation
#3
Armand M Borovik, Mauricio Perez, Tova Lifshitz, Adi Einan-Lifshitz, Nir Sorkin, Tanguy Boutin, Mahmood Showail, Amir Rosenblatt, David S Rootman
PURPOSE: To describe a modified technique for Descemet membrane donor tissue preparation that facilitates the original Melles stripping technique. METHODS: Descemet membrane is prepared using a Rootman/Goldich modified Sloane microhoe, using a blunt instrument as opposed to a sharp blade or needle and begins dissection within the trabecular meshwork. The trabecular tissue is dissected for 360 degrees, and then Descemet membrane is stripped to approximately 50%. A skin biopsy punch is then used to create fenestration in the cornea, which is used to mark an "F...
August 9, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783422/the-role-of-nitric-oxide-in-the-intraocular-pressure-lowering-efficacy-of-latanoprostene-bunod-review-of-nonclinical-studies
#4
Megan E Cavet, Heleen H DeCory
Latanoprostene bunod (LBN) is a topical ophthalmic therapeutic for the reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension (OHT). LBN is composed of latanoprost acid (LA) linked to a nitric oxide (NO)-donating moiety and is the first NO-releasing prostaglandin analog to be submitted for marketing authorization in the United States. The role of latanoprost in increasing uveoscleral outflow of aqueous humor (AqH) is well established. Herein, we review findings from nonclinical studies, which evaluated the role of NO in the IOP-lowering efficacy of LBN...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763501/single-stranded-adeno-associated-virus-achieves-efficient-gene-transfer-to-anterior-segment-in-the-mouse-eye
#5
Li Wang, Ru Xiao, Eva Andres-Mateos, Luk H Vandenberghe
Adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) are used extensively as a gene delivery vehicle for retinal gene therapy, yet its ability to target the anterior segment of the eye, critical to unlocking therapeutic opportunities, is less characterized. Previously, self-complimentary (sc) AAV was shown to be necessary for transduction of the cornea and trabecular meshwork (TM), limiting the size of the gene transfer cassette, likely due to a block in second strand synthesis thought to be required for functional transduction...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760643/reactive-oxygen-species-oxidative-stress-glaucoma-and-hyperbaric-oxygen-therapy
#6
Charles McMonnies
This review examines the role of oxidative stress in damage to cells of the trabecular meshwork and associated impaired aqueous drainage as well as damage to retinal ganglion cells and associated visual field losses. Consideration is given to the interaction between vascular and mechanical explanations for pathological changes in glaucoma. For example, elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) forces may contribute to ischaemia but there is increasing evidence that altered blood flow in a wider sense is also involved...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756742/pentablock-copolymer-dexamethasone-nanoformulations-elevate-myoc-in-vitro-liberation-activity-and-safety-in-human-trabecular-meshwork-cells
#7
Vibhuti Agrahari, Guorong Li, Vivek Agrahari, Iris Navarro, Kristin Perkumas, Abhirup Mandal, W Daniel Stamer, Ashim K Mitra
AIM: The aim of this study is to examine the elevation of MYOC in long-term treatment of human trabecular meshwork (HTM) cells using dexamethasone (DEX) encapsulated pentablock (PB) copolymer-based nanoparticles (NPs) (DEX-PB-NPs). MATERIALS & METHODS: PB copolymers and DEX-PB-NPs were synthesized and characterized using nuclear magnetic resonance, gel permeation chromatography, and X-ray diffraction analyses. MYOC levels secreted from HTM cells were measured by western blot (WB) analysis...
July 31, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743412/pseudoexfoliation-signs-in-the-anterior-segment-assessed-by-optical-coherence-tomography-and-scheimpflug-device
#8
J I Fernández-Vigo, L de-Pablo Gómez de Liaño, I Sánchez-Guillen, A Macarro-Merino, C Fernández-Vigo, J García-Feijóo, J A Fernández-Vigo
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate different anterior segment parameters in eyes with pseudoexfoliation (PSX), fellow eyes, and controls using optical coherence tomography and a Scheimpflug imaging system. METHODS: Three groups were studied: 44 eyes of 44 patients with PSX, 30 clinically unaffected fellow eyes, and 148 eyes of 148 healthy controls. The anterior chamber depth and volume, corneal volume and thickness, pupil diameter and corneal densitometry were measured using a Scheimpflug imaging system (Pentacam, Oculus Inc...
July 22, 2017: Archivos de la Sociedad Española de Oftalmología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739100/movement-of-retinal-vessels-toward-the-optic-nerve-head-after-increasing-intraocular-pressure-in-monkey-eyes-with-experimental-glaucoma
#9
Atsumi Kuroda, Nobuko Enomoto, Kyoko Ishida, Masamitsu Shimazawa, Tetsuro Noguchi, Naoto Horai, Hirotaka Onoe, Hideaki Hara, Goji Tomita
A shift or displacement of the retinal blood vessels (RBVs) with neuroretinal rim thinning indicates the progression of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. In chronic open angle glaucoma, individuals with RBV positional shifts exhibit more rapid visual field loss than those without RBV shifts. The retinal vessels reportedly move onto the optic nerve head (ONH) in response to glaucoma damage, suggesting that RBVs are pulled toward the ONH in response to increased cupping. Whether this phenomenon only applies to RVBs located in the vicinity or inside the ONH or, more generally, to RBVs also located far from the ONH, however, is unclear...
September 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730218/the-morphogen-behind-primary-congenital-glaucoma-and-the-dream-of-targeting
#10
Kyrillus Samaan Shohdy, Wegdan Aly Rashad, Mohamed Khalid Fargoun, Phillippe Urban
Glaucoma is a clinical entity with multifactorial etiology, a severe subtype occurs in infancy called primary congenital glaucoma (PCG). Three distinct levels interact sequentially to produce PCG: (i) genetic mutations mainly affecting the CYP1B1 gene, (ii) absence or dysregulation of a morphogen, and (iii) trabecular meshwork pathological changes either in patterning or remodeling. We will discuss these three levels in detail towards further understanding of the morphological basis of the disease, focusing on the missing points, for instance the exact nature and function of the morphogen along with the putative role of CYP1B1 gene...
2017: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729644/erratum-interaction-of-cochlin-and-mechanosensitive-channel-trek-1-in-trabecular-meshwork-cells-influences-the-regulation-of-intraocular-pressure
#11
Teresia A Carreon, Aida Castellanos, Xavier Gasull, Sanjoy K Bhattacharya
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML version of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719417/anterior-chamber-angle-and-trabecular-meshwork-measurements-made-by-fourier-domain-optical-coherence-tomography-in-healthy-white-children
#12
José I Fernández-Vigo, Lucía De-Pablo-Gómez-de-Liaño, Cristina Fernández-Vigo, Gabriel Arcos-Villegas, Cristina Fernández-Pérez, Julián García-Feijóo, José Á Fernández-Vigo
PURPOSE: To obtain anterior chamber angle and trabecular meshwork (TM) measurements by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) in a population of healthy white children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study examining 409 right eyes of 409 children. Trabecular-iris angle (TIA) and TM length and area were measured by FD-OCT (RTVue 100) in the nasal and temporal quadrants to analyze correlations between angle or TM measurements and age, sex, and refractive error...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687341/carbenoxolone-prevents-chemical-eye-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-cell-death-via-11%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-type-1-inhibition
#13
Kyoung-Jin Choi, Yoon-Ju Na, Sung Bum Park, Won Hoon Jung, Hye-Rim Sung, Ki Young Kim
Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of preventable blindness diseases, affecting more than 2 million people in the United States. Recently, 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) inhibitors were found to exert preventive effects against glaucoma. Therefore, we investigated whether carbenoxolone (CBX), an 11β-HSD1 inhibitor, prevents chemical ischemia-reperfusion-induced cell death in human trabecular meshwork (HTM) cells. The present study demonstrated that CBX inhibited cell death caused by iodoacetic acid (IAA)-induced ischemia-reperfusion, and its effect was associated with the inhibition of 11β-HSD1 expression and activity...
July 4, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673001/role-of-nuclear-factor-erythroid-derived-2-like-2-in-the-age-resistant-properties-of-the-glaucoma-trabecular-meshwork
#14
Jintao Cheng, Jiamei Liang, Jinze Qi
Glaucoma is a major cause of irreversible blindness. Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) regulates the expression of numerous antioxidants within cells and is therefore a focus of current ophthalmic research. To determine the roles of Nrf2 in mediating the glaucoma trabecular meshwork (GTM), the present study evaluated the levels of Nrf2 expression in GTM and human trabecular meshwork (HTM) cells by reverse-transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. It was principally observed that Nrf2 expression was downregulated in GTM cells...
July 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666629/ageing-and-ocular-tissue-stiffness-in-glaucoma
#15
REVIEW
Baiyun Liu, Sara McNally, Jason I Kilpatrick, Suzanne P Jarvis, Colm J O'Brien
Glaucoma is a progressive and chronic neurodegenerative disorder characterised by damage to the inner layers of the retina and deformation of the optic nerve head. The degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and their axons results in an irreversible loss of vision and is correlated with increasing age. Extracellular matrix (ECM) changes related to natural ageing generates a stiffer extracellular environment throughout the body. Altered age-associated ocular tissue stiffening plays a major role in a significant number of ophthalmic pathologies...
June 27, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660585/isoprenylation-of-monomeric-gtpases-in-human-trabecular-meshwork-cells
#16
Evan B Stubbs
Small monomeric GTPases, including those belonging to the Rho family, regulate a diverse array of intracellular signaling pathways which affect vesicle transport/trafficking, endocytosis, cell cycle progression, cell contractility, and formation of stress fibers or focal adhesions. Functional activation of newly synthesized small monomeric GTPases is facilitated by a multistep post-translational process involving transferase-catalyzed addition of farnesyl or geranylgeranyl isoprenoids to conserved cysteine residues within a unique carboxy terminal CaaX motif...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660005/histological-findings-in-the-trabecular-meshwork-of-a-patient-with-atopic-glaucoma
#17
Satoru Kase, Shiki Chin, Teruhiko Hamanaka, Yasuhiro Shinmei, Takeshi Ohguchi, Riki Kijima, Akira Matsuda, Susumu Ishida
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to report a case of atopic dermatitis showing elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) beyond the baseline levels followed by a modified 360-degree suture trabeculotomy, and to analyze the histological findings in the trabecular meshwork. METHODS: A 40-year-old male suffered from blurred vision in the right eye (OD). He had a medical history of severe atopic dermatitis and intraocular lens implantation OU due to atopic cataract. At the initial presentation, the visual acuity was 0...
2017: Open Ophthalmology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658514/the-role-and-therapeutic-potential-of-melatonin-in-age-related-ocular-diseases
#18
REVIEW
Almudena Crooke, Fernando Huete-Toral, Basilio Colligris, Jesús Pintor
The eye is continuously exposed to solar UV radiation and pollutants, making it prone to oxidative attacks. In fact, oxidative damage is a major cause of age-related ocular diseases including cataract, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, and diabetic retinopathy. As the nature of lens cells, trabecular meshwork cells, retinal ganglion cells, retinal pigment epithelial cells, and photoreceptors is postmitotic, autophagy plays a critical role in their cellular homeostasis. In age-related ocular diseases, this process is impaired, and thus, oxidative damage becomes irreversible...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632458/aquaporins-novel-targets-for-age-related-ocular-disorders
#19
Rajkumar Patil, Haishan Wang, Najam A Sharif, Alok Mitra
Aquaporins (AQPs), a large family of membrane protein channels that facilitate transport of water and other small solutes, play important roles in physiological functions and human diseases. Up till now, 13 types of AQPs, numbered 0 through 12, have been identified in various mammalian tissues. Homologous genes for AQPs in amphibians, insects, and bacteria highlight the evolutionary conservation and, thus, the importance of these membrane channels. Many members of the AQP family are expressed in the eye. AQP1, which is a water-selective channel, is expressed in the anterior chamber (cornea, ciliary body, trabecular meshwork) and posterior chamber (retina and microvessels in choroid), controlling the fluid homeostasis in the eye...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621684/expression-of-hypothalamic-neurohormones-and-their-receptors-in-the-human-eye
#20
Sander R Dubovy, Maria P Fernandez, Jose J Echegaray, Norman L Block, Noriyuki Unoki, Roberto Perez, Irving Vidaurre, Richard K Lee, Mehrdad Nadji, Andrew V Schally
Extrapituitary roles for hypothalamic neurohormones have recently become apparent and clinically relevant, based on the use of synthetic peptide analogs for the treatment of multiple conditions including cancers, pulmonary edema and myocardial infarction. In the eye, it has been suggested that some of these hormones and their receptors may be present in the ciliary body, iris, trabecular meshwork and retina, but their physiological role has yet to be elucidated. Our study intends to comprehensively demonstrate the expression of some hypothalamic neuroendocrine hormones and their receptors within different retinal and extraretinal structures of the human eye...
June 3, 2017: Oncotarget
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