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Head neck cancer therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054984/overcoming-resistance-to-cetuximab-with-honokiol-a-small-molecule-polyphenol
#1
Hannah E Pearson, Mari Iida, Rachel A Orbuch, Nellie K McDaniel, Kwangok P Nickel, Randall J Kimple, Jack Arbiser, Deric L Wheeler
Overexpression and activation of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) have been linked to poor prognosis in several human cancers. Cetuximab is a monoclonal antibody against EGFR, that is used for the treatment in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and metastatic colorectal cancer. Unfortunately, most tumors have intrinsic or acquire resistance to cetuximab during the course of therapy. Honokiol is a natural compound found in the bark and leaves of the Chinese Magnolia tree and is established to have several anti-cancer properties without appreciable toxicity...
October 20, 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049027/atlas-ranking-and-selection-for-automatic-segmentation-of-the-esophagus-from-ct-scans
#2
Jinzhong Yang, Benjamin Haas, Raymond Fang, Beth B Beadle, Adam S Garden, Zhongxing Liao, Lifei Zhang, Peter A Balter, Laurence E Court
In radiation treatment planning, the esophagus is an important organ-at-risk that should be spared in patients with head and neck cancer or thoracic cancer who undergo intensity-modulated radiation therapy. However, automatic segmentation of the esophagus from CT scans is extremely challenging because of the structure's inconsistent intensity, low contrast against the surrounding tissues, complex and variable shape and location, and random air bubbles. The goal of this study is to develop an online atlas selection approach to choose a subset of optimal atlases for multi-atlas segmentation to delineate esophagus automatically...
October 19, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045700/prediction-model-of-critical-weight-loss-in-cancer-patients-during-particle-therapy
#3
Zhihong Zhang, Y Zhu, Lijuan Zhang, Ziying Wang, Hongwei Wan
Background and purpose: The objective of this study is to investigate the predictors of critical weight loss in cancer patients receiving particle therapy, and build a prediction model based on its predictive factors. Materials and methods: Patients receiving particle therapy were enroled between June 2015 and June 2016. Body weight was measured at the start and end of particle therapy. Association between critical weight loss (defined as >5%) during particle therapy and patients' demographic, clinical characteristic, pre-therapeutic nutrition risk screening (NRS 2002) and BMI were evaluated by logistic regression and decision tree analysis...
October 17, 2017: Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045516/navigating-the-highlights-of-phase-iii-trials-a-watchful-eye-on-evidence-based-radiotherapy
#4
J C Trone, S Espenel, A Rehailia-Blanchard, E Guillaume, N Vial, C Rancoule, C Rodriguez-Lafrasse, M Ben Mrad, A El Meddeb Hamrouni, E Ollier, C Chargari, E Deutsch, A Vallard, N Magné
Background: Phase III randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are the cornerstone of evidence-based oncology. However, there is no exhaustive review describing the radiotherapy RTCs characteristics. The objective of the present study was to describe features of all phase III RCTs including at least a radiation therapy. Methods and materials: Requests were performed in the Medline database (via PubMed). The latest update was performed in April 2016, using the following MESH terms: 'clinical trials: phase III as topic', 'radiotherapy', 'brachytherapy', as keywords...
July 12, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045513/dpyd-genotype-guided-dose-individualization-to-improve-patient-safety-of-fluoropyrimidine-therapy-call-for-a-drug-label-update
#5
L M Henricks, F L Opdam, J H Beijnen, A Cats, J H M Schellens
The fluoropyrimidine anticancer drugs, especially 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and capecitabine, are frequently prescribed for several types of cancer, including breast, colorectal, head and neck and gastric cancer. In the current drug labels of 5-FU and capecitabine in the European Union and the United States of America no adaptive dosing strategies are incorporated for polymorphic metabolism of 5-FU.Although treatment with fluoropyrimidines is generally well tolerated, a major clinical limitation is that a proportion of the treated population experiences severe, sometimes life-threatening, fluoropyrimidine-related toxicity...
August 2, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044879/exercise-therapy-for-trismus-secondary-to-head-and-neck-cancer-a-systematic-review
#6
Jolanda I Kamstra, Marianne van Leeuwen, Jan L N Roodenburg, Pieter U Dijkstra
BACKGROUND: Effects of exercise therapy for trismus secondary to head and neck cancer have not been reviewed systematically since 2004. METHODS: Four databases were searched. The quality of observational studies and randomized controlled trials was assessed. RESULTS: Two hundred eleven articles were found, 20 studies were included. A large variation in research methodology, stretching techniques, duration of stretch, and repetition of exercises was found...
November 2017: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044458/patient-reported-quality-of-life-outcomes-after-de-escalated-chemoradiation-for-human-papillomavirus-positive-oropharyngeal-carcinoma-findings-from-a-phase-2-trial
#7
John V Hegde, Narek Shaverdian, Megan E Daly, Carol Felix, Deborah L Wong, Michael H Rosove, Jordan H Garst, Pin-Chieh Wang, Darlene Veruttipong, Shyam Rao, Ruben C Fragoso, Jonathan W Riess, Michael L Steinberg, Allen M Chen
BACKGROUND: The current study represents a subset analysis of quality-of-life (QOL) outcomes among patients treated on a phase 2 trial of de-escalated chemoradiation for human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated oropharyngeal cancer. METHODS: Eligibility included newly diagnosed, (American Joint Committee on Cancer, 7th edition) stage III or IV oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, p16 positivity, age ≥ 18 years, and a Zubrod performance status of 0 to 1. Treatment was induction paclitaxel at a dose of 175 mg/m(2) and carboplatin at an area under the curve of 6 for 2 cycles followed by response-adapted, dose-reduced radiation of 54 Gy or 60 Gy with weekly concurrent paclitaxel at a dose of 30 mg/m(2) ...
October 17, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035371/lncrna-mir100hg-derived-mir-100-and-mir-125b-mediate-cetuximab-resistance-via-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#8
Yuanyuan Lu, Xiaodi Zhao, Qi Liu, Cunxi Li, Ramona Graves-Deal, Zheng Cao, Bhuminder Singh, Jeffrey L Franklin, Jing Wang, Huaying Hu, Tianying Wei, Mingli Yang, Timothy J Yeatman, Ethan Lee, Kenyi Saito-Diaz, Scott Hinger, James G Patton, Christine H Chung, Stephan Emmrich, Jan-Henning Klusmann, Daiming Fan, Robert J Coffey
De novo and acquired resistance, which are largely attributed to genetic alterations, are barriers to effective anti-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor (EGFR) therapy. To generate cetuximab-resistant cells, we exposed cetuximab-sensitive colorectal cancer cells to cetuximab in three-dimensional culture. Using whole-exome sequencing and transcriptional profiling, we found that the long non-coding RNA MIR100HG and two embedded microRNAs, miR-100 and miR-125b, were overexpressed in the absence of known genetic events linked to cetuximab resistance...
October 16, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033672/role-of-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography-computed-tomography-in-the-evaluation-of-head-and-neck-carcinoma
#9
REVIEW
Moheieldin M Abouzied, Ahmed Fathala, Abdulaziz Alsugair, Ahmad I Al Muhaideb, Mohammed H Al Qahtani
Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) has been playing a pivotal role in tumor imaging for the past 20 years. Head and neck (HN) cancers are a good example that can illustrate such unique role of FDG imaging contributing to the patient's management. In this review article, we will describe the normal physiological distribution of FDG within HN structures focusing on its limitations and pitfalls. In addition, we will be also describing its role in the initial staging and restaging of the disease, particularly with regard to therapy response assessment...
October 2017: World Journal of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031904/definitive-radiotherapy-for-a-head-and-neck-merkel-cell-carcinoma-and-comprehensive-nodal-volumes-a-case-for-using-a-computer-designed-variable-thickness-compensator-to-reduce-risk-and-severity-of-mucositis
#10
Anesa Ahamad, Donald T Weed, Darel D Pruett, Daniel Saulpaugh, Womah Neeranjun, Eduardo Fernandez
When contemplating how to treat head and neck primary cancers and regional lymph nodes with radiotherapy, we often select the contemporary intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) without much consideration of older methods that may give fewer side effects and be more cost-effective. For an 87-year-old female with a 1.5-cm Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) located 1.5 cm lateral to the orbital rim, we were challenged to deliver 50 Gy to comprehensive elective nodal regions and 70 Gy to the primary. We were particularly concerned about the potential adverse acute effects of radiotherapy to mucosal structures in this elderly female...
October 11, 2017: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031066/serendipitous-discovery-of-potent-human-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma-anti-cancer-molecules-a-fortunate-failure-of-a-rational-molecular-design
#11
Chiara Zagni, Venerando Pistarà, Luciana A Oliveira, Rogerio M Castilho, Giovanni Romeo, Ugo Chiacchio, Antonio Rescifina
Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) play an important role as valuable drugs targeted to cancer therapy: several HDACis are currently being tested in clinical trials. Two new potential HDACis 1a and 1d, characterized by the presence of a biphenyl-4-sulfonamide group as a connection unit between the N-{4-[(E)-(2-formylhydrazinylidene)methyl]-3-hydroxyphenyl} and the 2-hydroxy-N-(trifluoroacetyl)benzamide moiety, respectively, as two zinc-binding group (ZBG), have been designed, synthesized and tested for their biological activity...
October 5, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029943/bcg-immune-activation-reduces-growth-and-angiogenesis-in-an-in-vitro-model-of-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#12
Carolina Sánchez-Rodríguez, Keyliz Peraza Cruces, Juan Riestra Ayora, Eduardo Martín-Sanz, Ricardo Sanz-Fernández
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is one of the most frequent cancers worldwide and is associated with poor survival and significant treatment morbidity. The immune profile in patients with HNSCC is immunosuppressive and presents cytokine-mediated adaptive immune responses, triggered apoptosis of T cells, and alterations in antigen processing machinery. Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) immunotherapy has been used successfully as a treatment for several types of cancer. In the present study, we sought to determine the antitumor effect of soluble mediators from peripheral blood mononuclear immune cells (PBMCs) activated with BCG vaccine in a three-dimensional coculture model of HNSCC growth using FaDu hypopharynx carcinoma squamous cells...
October 10, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028221/quality-of-life-and-patient-reported-outcomes-following-proton-radiation-therapy-a-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
Vivek Verma, Charles B Simone, Mark V Mishra
Background: As costs of cancer care rise, the importance of documenting value in oncology increases. Proton beam radiotherapy (PBT) has the potential to reduce toxicities in cancer patients, but is relatively expensive and unproven. Evaluating quality of life (QOL) and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) is essential to establishing PBT's "value" in oncologic therapy. The goal of this systematic review was to assess QOL and PROs in patients treated with PBT. Methods: Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA)-guided systematic searches were conducted...
April 1, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024572/radiological-manifestations-of-immune-related-adverse-effects-observed-in-patients-with-melanoma-undergoing-immunotherapy
#14
Parveen Sidhu, Alexander M Menzies, Georgina Long, Matteo Carlino, Shirleen Lorens, Rony Kapoor
Immunotherapy drugs work by stimulating the patient's own immune system to recognize and destroy cancer cells. This subclass of drugs is increasingly administered to patients with advanced melanoma. They are also commonly incorporated into other cancer therapies such as non-small cell lung cancer, renal cancer, head and neck cancers and Hodgkin lymphoma. The most commonly administered immunotherapeutic agents in the treatment of melanoma include programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) inhibitors, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) inhibitors and a subclass of cytokines...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024069/functional-analysis-of-esm1-by-sirna-knockdown-in-primary-and-metastatic-head-and-neck-cancer-cells
#15
Onur Bender, Mehmet Gunduz, Sadik Cigdem, Omer Faruk Hatipoglu, Muradiye Acar, Mesut Kaya, Reidar Grenman, Esra Gunduz, Kadriye Serife Ugur
BACKGROUND: Genetic factors play a large role in cancer and thus there is a great desire to understand the effects of different genes in cancer and to also develop gene therapy for better treatments. Therefore, the development of alternative diagnosis and therapy modalities are of utmost importance. The aim of our study is to illuminate the role of ESM1 (endothelial cell specific molecule-1, also known as Endocan) in proliferation and migration of head and neck cancer, thus helping to pave the way for new treatment modalities and predictive biomarkers...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022097/prevalence-of-fibroblast-growth-factor-receptor-1-fgfr1-amplification-in-squamous-cell-carcinomas-of-the-head-and-neck
#16
Till Sebastian Clauditz, Arne Böttcher, Henning Hanken, Kerstin Borgmann, Guido Sauter, Waldemar Wilczak, Tobias Grob, Adrian Münscher
BACKGROUND: FGFR1 is a receptor tyrosine kinases involved in tumor growth signaling, survival, and differentiation in many solid cancer types. There is growing evidence that FGFR1 amplification might predict therapy response to FGFR1 inhibitors in squamous cell lung cancers. To estimate the potential applicability of anti FGFR1 therapies in squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck, we studied patterns of FGFR1 amplification using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A tissue microarray was constructed from 453 primary treatment-naive squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck regions with histopathological and clinical follow-up data [including oral cavity (n = 222), oropharynx (n = 126), and larynx (n = 105)]...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985342/the-effect-of-head-and-neck-radiotherapy-on-blood-pressure-and-orthostatic-hypotension-in-patients-with-head-and-neck-tumors
#17
Avshalom Leibowitz, Ehud Grossman, Anat Berkovitch, Meital Levartovski, Sarit Appel, Yehonatan Sharabi, Iris Gluck
Background: Radiotherapy (RT) plays a key role in the management of head and neck cancer (HNC), especially in locally advanced disease. Patients undergoing head and neck RT, especially elderly ones, are suffering from low and labile blood pressure (BP) during the treatment. They complain of weakness and fatigue and are prone to recurrent falls. The aim of this study was to characterized BP changes during RT period. Methods: Patients with HNC, recieving radiation to the neck, were recruited from Sheba medical center RT unit...
August 29, 2017: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982847/the-role-of-toll-like-receptors-tlrs-in-oral-carcinogenesis
#18
REVIEW
Luciana Pellegrini Pisani, Debora Estadella, Daniel Araki Ribeiro
Oral cancer accounts for 10% of head and neck tumors. Despite the recent advancements in surgical techniques, as well as in chemo- and radiotherapy therapeutic protocols, survival rates for oral cancer patients have not improved significantly in the last decades. Recently, toll like receptors (TLRs) have been described as promoters of cell proliferation, invasiveness, and angiogenesis in a variety of cancers. The aim of this review is to identify how TLRs participate in oral carcinogenesis in order to evaluate their biological relevance...
October 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982840/human-papillomavirus-and-potentially-relevant-biomarkers-in-tonsillar-and-base-of-tongue-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#19
REVIEW
Anders Näsman, Cinzia Bersani, David Lindquist, Juan Du, Torbjörn Ramqvist, Tina Dalianis
Human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive tonsillar- and base of tongue cancer is increasing epidemically and has much better outcome than corresponding HPV-negative cancer and most other head and neck cancers with around 80% 3-year disease free survival with conventional radiotherapy and surgery. Consequently, most HPV-positive cancer patients may not require the intensified chemoradiotherapy given to many head and neck cancer patients and would, with tapered treatment, avoid several severe side-effects. Moreover, intensified therapy has not improved survival and treatment alternatives are needed...
October 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976574/robust-intensity-modulated-proton-therapy-to-reduce-high-linear-energy-transfer-in-organs-at-risk
#20
Yu An, Jie Shan, Samir H Patel, William Wong, Steven E Schild, Xiaoning Ding, Martin Bues, Wei Liu
PURPOSE: We propose a robust treatment planning model that simultaneously considers proton range and patient setup uncertainties and reduces high linear energy transfer (LET) exposure in organs at risk (OARs) to minimize the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) dose in OARs for intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT). Our method could potentially reduce the unwanted damage to OARs. METHODS: We retrospectively generated plans for 10 patients including 2 prostate, 4 head and neck, and 4 lung cancer patients...
October 4, 2017: Medical Physics
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