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Naked mole rat

Damir Omerbašić, Ewan St J Smith, Mirko Moroni, Johanna Homfeld, Ole Eigenbrod, Nigel C Bennett, Jane Reznick, Chris G Faulkes, Matthias Selbach, Gary R Lewin
The naked mole-rat is a subterranean rodent lacking several pain behaviors found in humans, rats, and mice. For example, nerve growth factor (NGF), an important mediator of pain sensitization, fails to produce thermal hyperalgesia in naked mole-rats. The sensitization of capsaicin-sensitive TRPV1 ion channels is necessary for NGF-induced hyperalgesia, but naked mole-rats have fully functional TRPV1 channels. We show that exposing isolated naked mole-rat nociceptors to NGF does not sensitize TRPV1. However, the naked mole-rat NGF receptor TrkA displays a reduced ability to engage signal transduction pathways that sensitize TRPV1...
October 11, 2016: Cell Reports
Markus Zöttl, Philippe Vullioud, Rute Mendonça, Miquel Torrents Ticó, David Gaynor, Adam Mitchell, Tim Clutton-Brock
In many cooperative breeders, the contributions of helpers to cooperative activities change with age, resulting in age-related polyethisms. In contrast, some studies of social mole rats (including naked mole rats, Heterocephalus glaber, and Damaraland mole rats, Fukomys damarensis) suggest that individual differences in cooperative behavior are the result of divergent developmental pathways, leading to discrete and permanent functional categories of helpers that resemble the caste systems found in eusocial insects...
September 13, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
A R Chappell, S M Freeman, Y K Lin, J L LaPrairie, K Inoue, L J Young, L D Hayes
Social monogamy is a mating strategy rarely employed by mammalian species. Laboratory studies in socially monogamous prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) demonstrate that oxytocin and vasopressin act within the mesolimbic dopamine pathway to facilitate pair-bond formation. Species differences in oxytocin receptor (OTR) and vasopressin 1a receptor (V1aR) distribution in this pathway are associated with species differences in mating strategy. Here we characterize the neuroanatomical distribution of OTR and V1aR binding sites in naturally occurring populations of Taiwan voles (M...
June 2016: Journal of Zoology: Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London
Gregory D Larsen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 20, 2016: Lab Animal
Kaitlyn N Lewis, Ilya Soifer, Eugene Melamud, Margaret Roy, R Scott McIsaac, Matthew Hibbs, Rochelle Buffenstein
Animals have evolved to survive, and even thrive, in different environments. Genetic adaptations may have indirectly created phenotypes that also resulted in a longer lifespan. One example of this phenomenon is the preternaturally long-lived naked mole-rat. This strictly subterranean rodent tolerates hypoxia, hypercapnia, and soil-based toxins. Naked mole-rats also exhibit pronounced resistance to cancer and an attenuated decline of many physiological characteristics that often decline as mammals age. Elucidating mechanisms that give rise to their unique phenotypes will lead to better understanding of subterranean ecophysiology and biology of aging...
August 2016: Mammalian Genome: Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society
Kevin K Park, Xueting Luo, Skyler J Mooney, Benjamin J Yungher, Stephane Belin, Chen Wang, Melissa M Holmes, Zhigang He
In the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS), axonal damage often triggers neuronal cell death and glial activation, with very limited spontaneous axon regeneration. In this study, we performed optic nerve injury in adult naked mole-rats, the longest living rodent with a maximum lifespan exceeding 30 years, and found that injury responses in this species are quite distinct to other mammalian species. In contrast to what is seen in other mammals, the majority of injured retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) survive with relatively high spontaneous axon regeneration...
June 28, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Tewodros Debebe, Susanne Holtze, Michaela Morhart, Thomas Bernd Hildebrandt, Steffen Rodewald, Klaus Huse, Matthias Platzer, Dereje Wyohannes, Salomon Yirga, Alemayehu Lemma, Rene Thieme, Brigitte König, Gerd Birkenmeier
BACKGROUND: A variety of microbial communities exist throughout the human and animal body. Genetics, environmental factors and long-term dietary habit contribute to shaping the composition of the gut microbiota. For this reason the study of the gut microbiota of a mammal exhibiting an extraordinary life span is of great importance. The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a eusocial mammal known for its longevity and cancer resistance. METHODS: Here we analyzed its gut microbiota by cultivating the bacteria under aerobic and anaerobic conditions and identifying their species by mass spectrometry...
2016: Gut Pathogens
Yanjiao Dong, Yue Pang, Qingwei Li
Rodents, including the nude mice with congenital aplasia of the thymus, cancer-resistant naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber) and blind mole rat (Spalax galili), are important model organisms that are widely used in biomedical research. The aging process is closely related to cancer incidence in mammals and the aging degree is positively correlated with the risk of cancer. Since rodents account for 40% of mammals, study of the unique antitumor mechanism in long-lived rodents is very important. Replicative senescence is anti-tumor mechanism that prevalently exist in rodents, however, unique anti-tumor mechanisms have been found in naked mole-rats and blind mole-rats...
May 2016: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
Alison Patrick, Michael Seluanov, Chaewon Hwang, Jonathan Tam, Tanya Khan, Ari Morgenstern, Lauren Wiener, Juan M Vazquez, Hiba Zafar, Robert Wen, Malika Muratkalyeva, Katherine Doerig, Maria Zagorulya, Lauren Cole, Sophia Catalano, Aliny Ab Lobo Ladd, A Augusto Coppi, Yüksel Coşkun, Xiao Tian, Julia Ablaeva, Eviatar Nevo, Vadim N Gladyshev, Zhengdong D Zhang, Jan Vijg, Andrei Seluanov, Vera Gorbunova
Differences in the way human and mouse fibroblasts experience senescence in culture had long puzzled researchers. While senescence of human cells is mediated by telomere shortening, Parrinello et al. demonstrated that senescence of mouse cells is caused by extreme oxygen sensitivity. It was hypothesized that the striking difference in oxygen sensitivity between mouse and human cells explains their different rates of aging. To test if this hypothesis is broadly applicable, we cultured cells from 16 rodent species with diverse lifespans in 3% and 21% oxygen and compared their growth rates...
May 2016: Aging
Shingo Miyawaki, Yoshimi Kawamura, Yuki Oiwa, Atsushi Shimizu, Tsuyoshi Hachiya, Hidemasa Bono, Ikuko Koya, Yohei Okada, Tokuhiro Kimura, Yoshihiro Tsuchiya, Sadafumi Suzuki, Nobuyuki Onishi, Naoko Kuzumaki, Yumi Matsuzaki, Minoru Narita, Eiji Ikeda, Kazuo Okanoya, Ken-Ichiro Seino, Hideyuki Saya, Hideyuki Okano, Kyoko Miura
The naked mole-rat (NMR, Heterocephalus glaber), which is the longest-lived rodent species, exhibits extraordinary resistance to cancer. Here we report that NMR somatic cells exhibit a unique tumour-suppressor response to reprogramming induction. In this study, we generate NMR-induced pluripotent stem cells (NMR-iPSCs) and find that NMR-iPSCs do not exhibit teratoma-forming tumorigenicity due to the species-specific activation of tumour-suppressor alternative reading frame (ARF) and a disruption mutation of the oncogene ES cell-expressed Ras (ERAS)...
2016: Nature Communications
Kyle R Taylor, Nicholas A Milone, Carlos E Rodriguez
The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is widely acclaimed to be cancer-resistant and of considerable research interest based on a paucity of reports of neoplasia in this species. We have, however, encountered four spontaneous cases of neoplasia and one presumptive case of neoplasia through routine necropsy and biopsy of individuals in a zoo collection of nonhybrid naked mole-rats bred from a single pair. One case each of metastasizing hepatocellular carcinoma, nephroblastoma (Wilms' tumor), and multicentric lymphosarcoma, as well as presumptive esophageal adenocarcinoma (Barrett's esophagus-like) was identified postmortem among 37 nonautolyzed necropsy submissions of naked mole-rats over 1-year-old that were submitted for necropsy between 1998 and August 2015...
April 29, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Kenneth S Rankin, Daniel Frankel
Hyaluronan, a glycosaminoglycan, abundant in the tumour microenvironment, is a key player in many processes associated with cancer. Recently the cancer resistance of the naked mole rat has been attributed to the presence of an ultra-high molecular weight form of this molecule. The physical properties of this multifunctional biopolymer have been extensively studied in the context of synovial joints. However, relatively little has been reported with regard to the soft matter properties of hyaluronan in relation to cancer...
May 7, 2016: Soft Matter
Kaori Oka, Kyoko Miura
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2016: Seikagaku. the Journal of Japanese Biochemical Society
Deane E Peragine, Yusef Yousuf, Yi Fu, Ashlyn Swift-Gallant, Keren Ginzberg, Melissa M Holmes
Competitive interactions can have striking and enduring effects on behavior, but the mechanisms underlying this experience-induced plasticity are unclear, particularly in females. Naked mole-rat (NMR) colonies are characterized by the strictest social and reproductive hierarchy among mammals, and represent an ideal system for studies of social competition. In large matriarchal colonies, breeding is monopolized by one female and 1-3 males, with other colony members being socially subordinate and reproductively suppressed...
May 2016: Hormones and Behavior
Danielle Chung, Yvonne A Dzal, Allison Seow, William K Milsom, Matthew E Pamenter
Naked mole rats are among the most hypoxia-tolerant mammals identified and live in chronic hypoxia throughout their lives. The physiological mechanisms underlying this tolerance, however, are poorly understood. Most vertebrates hyperventilate in acute hypoxia and exhibit an enhanced hyperventilation following acclimatization to chronic sustained hypoxia (CSH). Conversely, naked mole rats do not hyperventilate in acute hypoxia and their response to CSH has not been examined. In this study, we explored mechanisms of plasticity in the control of the hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) and hypoxic metabolic response (HMR) of freely behaving naked mole rats following 8-10 days of chronic sustained normoxia (CSN) or CSH...
March 30, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
A Piersigilli, D K Meyerholz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Veterinary Pathology
R Scott McIsaac, Kaitlyn N Lewis, Patrick A Gibney, Rochelle Buffenstein
Methionine restriction is a widely reported intervention for increasing life span in several model organisms. Low circulating levels of methionine are evident in the long-lived naked mole-rat, suggesting that it naturally presents with a life-extending phenotype akin to that observed in methionine-restricted animals. Similarly, long-lived dwarf mice also appear to have altered methionine metabolism. The mechanisms underlying methionine-restriction effects on life-span extension, however, remain unknown, as do their potential connections with caloric restriction, another well-established intervention for prolonging life span...
January 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
M K Oosthuizen, I Amrein
Diversity in social structures, from solitary to eusocial, is a prominent feature of subterranean African mole-rat species. Damaraland mole-rats are eusocial, they live in colonies that are characterized by a reproductive division of labor and a subdivision into castes based on physiology and behavior. Damaraland mole-rats are exceptionally long lived and reproductive animals show delayed aging compared to non-reproductive animals. In the present study, we described the hippocampal architecture and the rate of hippocampal neurogenesis of wild-derived, adult Damaraland mole-rats in relation to sex, relative age and social status or caste...
June 2, 2016: Neuroscience
Judy C Triplett, Aaron M Swomley, Jessime Kirk, Kelly M Grimes, Kaitilyn N Lewis, Miranda E Orr, Karl A Rodriguez, Jian Cai, Jon B Klein, Rochelle Buffenstein, D Allan Butterfield
Aging is the greatest risk factor for developing neurodegenerative diseases, which are associated with diminished neurotransmission as well as neuronal structure and function. However, several traits seemingly evolved to avert or delay age-related deterioration in the brain of the longest-lived rodent, the naked mole-rat (NMR). The NMR remarkably also exhibits negligible senescence, maintaining an extended healthspan for ~75 % of its life span. Using a proteomic approach, statistically significant changes with age in expression and/or phosphorylation levels of proteins associated with neurite outgrowth and neurotransmission were identified in the brain of the NMR and include: cofilin-1; collapsin response mediator protein 2; actin depolymerizing factor; spectrin alpha chain; septin-7; syntaxin-binding protein 1; synapsin-2 isoform IIB; and dynamin 1...
July 2016: Neurochemical Research
Karl A Rodriguez, Joseph M Valentine, David A Kramer, Jonathan A Gelfond, Deborah M Kristan, Eviatar Nevo, Rochelle Buffenstein
Proteostasis is an integral component of healthy aging, ensuring maintenance of protein structural and functional integrity with concomitant impact upon health span and longevity. In most metazoans, increasing age is accompanied by a decline in protein quality control resulting in the accrual of damaged, self-aggregating cytotoxic proteins. A notable exception to this trend is observed in the longest-lived rodent, the naked mole-rat (NMR, Heterocephalus glaber) which maintains proteostasis and proteasome-mediated degradation and autophagy during aging...
May 2016: Cell Stress & Chaperones
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