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Naked mole rat

Andrei Seluanov, Vadim N Gladyshev, Jan Vijg, Vera Gorbunova
Cancer researchers have traditionally used the mouse and the rat as staple model organisms. These animals are very short-lived, reproduce rapidly and are highly prone to cancer. They have been very useful for modelling some human cancer types and testing experimental treatments; however, these cancer-prone species offer little for understanding the mechanisms of cancer resistance. Recent technological advances have expanded bestiary research to non-standard model organisms that possess unique traits of very high value to humans, such as cancer resistance and longevity...
April 5, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cancer
Susanne Kurz, René Thieme, Ronny Amberg, Marco Groth, Heinz-Georg Jahnke, Philipp Pieroh, Lars-Christian Horn, Marlen Kolb, Klaus Huse, Matthias Platzer, Daniela Volke, Faramarz Dehghani, Anton Buzdin, Kathrin Engel, Andrea Robitzki, Ralf Hoffmann, Ines Gockel, Gerd Birkenmeier
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0189514.].
2018: PloS One
Arne Sahm, Martin Bens, Karol Szafranski, Susanne Holtze, Marco Groth, Matthias Görlach, Cornelis Calkhoven, Christine Müller, Matthias Schwab, Johann Kraus, Hans A Kestler, Alessandro Cellerino, Hynek Burda, Thomas Hildebrandt, Philip Dammann, Matthias Platzer
The genetics of lifespan determination is poorly understood. Most research has been done on short-lived animals and it is unclear if these insights can be transferred to long-lived mammals like humans. Some African mole-rats (Bathyergidae) have life expectancies that are multiple times higher than similar sized and phylogenetically closely related rodents. To gain new insights into genetic mechanisms determining mammalian lifespans, we obtained genomic and transcriptomic data from 17 rodent species and scanned eleven evolutionary branches associated with the evolution of enhanced longevity for positively selected genes (PSGs)...
March 23, 2018: PLoS Genetics
Elliott Ferris, Lisa M Abegglen, Joshua D Schiffman, Christopher Gregg
The identity of most functional elements in the mammalian genome and the phenotypes they impact are unclear. Here, we perform a genome-wide comparative analysis of patterns of accelerated evolution in species with highly distinctive traits to discover candidate functional elements for clinically important phenotypes. We identify accelerated regions (ARs) in the elephant, hibernating bat, orca, dolphin, naked mole rat, and thirteen-lined ground squirrel lineages in mammalian conserved regions, uncovering ∼33,000 elements that bind hundreds of different regulatory proteins in humans and mice...
March 6, 2018: Cell Reports
Sandra Malewski, E Pascal Malkemper, František Sedláček, Radim Šumbera, Kai R Caspa, Hynek Burda, Sabine Begall
Magnetosensitivity is widespread among animals with rodents being the most intensively studied mammalian group. The available behavioural assays for magnetoreception are time-consuming, which impedes screens for treatment effects that could characterize the enigmatic magnetoreceptors. Here, we present a fast and simple approach to test if an animal respond to magnetic stimuli: the magnetic novel object assay (MNOA). The MNOA focuses on investigating an animal's spontaneous exploration behaviour in the presence of a strong bar magnet compared to a demagnetised control...
March 1, 2018: Behavioural Processes
V N Manskikh, O A Averina, A I Nikiforova
The naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber, Rüppell, 1842) is a unique eusocial rodent with unusually long lifespan. Therefore, the study of spontaneous and experimentally induced pathologies in these animals is one of the most important tasks of gerontology. Various infections, noninfectious pathologies (including age-dependent changes), and tumors have been described in the naked mole rat. The most frequent pathologies are traumas (bite wounds), purulent and septic complications of traumatic injuries, renal tubular calcinosis, chronic progressive nephropathy, hepatic hemosiderosis, testicular interstitial cell hyperplasia, calcinosis cutis, cardiomyopathy, and dysbiosis-related infectious lesions of the digestive system...
December 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
M V Skulachev, V P Skulachev
(i) In 2015-2017 we compared possible reasons for longevity of two mammalian highly social species, i.e. naked mole rats and humans. We proposed that in both cases longevity is a result of neoteny, prolongation of youth by deceleration of late ontogeny (Skulachev, V. P. (2015) Abst. 11th Conf. on Mitochondrial Physiology (MiP2015), Lucni Bouda, Czech Republic, pp. 64-66; Skulachev, V. P., Holtze, S., Vyssokikh, M. Y., Bakeeva, L. E., Skulachev, M. V., Markov, A. V., Hildebrandt, T. B., and Sadovnichii, V. A...
December 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Mariela Faykoo-Martinez, D Ashley Monks, Iva B Zovkic, Melissa M Holmes
The social environment can alter pubertal timing through neuroendocrine mechanisms that are not fully understood; it is thought that stress hormones (e.g., glucocorticoids or corticotropin-releasing hormone) influence the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis to inhibit puberty. Here, we use the eusocial naked mole-rat, a unique species in which social interactions in a colony (i.e. dominance of a breeding female) suppress puberty in subordinate animals. Removing subordinate naked mole-rats from this social context initiates puberty, allowing for experimental control of pubertal timing...
2018: PloS One
Miquel Torrents-Ticó, Nigel C Bennett, Jennifer U M Jarvis, Markus Zöttl
In naked mole-rats ( Heterocephalus glaber ), some non-breeding males show faster growth and are more likely to disperse than others. These differences have been suggested to be the result of a specialized developmental strategy leading to shorter philopatry and independent breeding, as opposed to extended philopatry as non-reproductive helpers. However, it is unclear whether fast-growing males disperse sooner than slow-growing males. An alternative explanation is that variation in quality between individuals causes high-quality individuals to grow quickly and maximize dispersal success without reducing philopatry...
February 2018: Biology Letters
Yang Zhao, Alexander Tyshkovskiy, Daniel Muñoz-Espín, Xiao Tian, Manuel Serrano, Joao Pedro de Magalhaes, Eviatar Nevo, Vadim N Gladyshev, Andrei Seluanov, Vera Gorbunova
Cellular senescence is an important anticancer mechanism that restricts proliferation of damaged or premalignant cells. Cellular senescence also plays an important role in tissue remodeling during development. However, there is a trade-off associated with cellular senescence as senescent cells contribute to aging pathologies. The naked mole rat (NMR) ( Heterocephalus glaber ) is the longest-lived rodent that is resistant to a variety of age-related diseases. Remarkably, NMRs do not show aging phenotypes until very late stages of their lives...
February 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Kai Kupferschmidt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2, 2018: Science
J Graham Ruby, Megan Smith, Rochelle Buffenstein
The longest-lived rodent, the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber), has a reported maximum lifespan of >30 years and exhibits delayed and/or attenuated age-associated physiological declines. We questioned whether these mouse-sized, eusocial rodents conform to Gompertzian mortality laws by experiencing an exponentially increasing risk of death as they get older. We compiled and analyzed a large compendium of historical naked mole-rat lifespan data with >3000 data points. Kaplan-Meier analyses revealed a substantial portion of the population to have survived at 30 years of age...
January 24, 2018: ELife
Hiram Beltrán-Sánchez, Caleb Finch
The naked mole rat defies the Gompertz law and shows no sign of increased mortality risk as it gets older.
January 24, 2018: ELife
Matthew E Pamenter, Gigi Y Lau, Jeffrey G Richards, William K Milsom
Mitochondrial respiration and ATP production are compromised by hypoxia. Naked mole rats (NMRs) are among the most hypoxia-tolerant mammals and reduce metabolic rate in hypoxic environments; however, little is known regarding mitochondrial function during in vivo hypoxia exposure in this species. To address this knowledge gap, we asked whether the function of NMR brain mitochondria exhibits metabolic plasticity during acute hypoxia. Respirometry was utilized to assess whole-animal oxygen consumption rates and high-resolution respirometry was utilized to assess electron transport system (ETS) function in saponin-permeabilized NMR brain...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Chelsea R Houlahan, Alexia M Kirby, Yvonne A Dzal, Garret D Fairman, Matthew E Pamenter
Most small rodents reduce energy demand in hypoxia via behavioural strategies. For example, animals may reduce their activity, and/or move to colder environments or alter huddling strategies to take advantage of anapyretical energy savings. Naked mole rats (NMRs) are among the most hypoxia tolerant mammals and are highly social; social interactions also have a significant impact on behaviour. Therefore, this species offers a fascinating model in which to study trade-offs between social interactions and energy conservation in hypoxia...
February 6, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
I O Petruseva, A N Evdokimov, O I Lavrik
The naked mole-rat ( Heterocephalus glaber ) is one of the most promising models used to study genome maintenance systems, including the effective repair of damage to DNA. The naked mole-rat is the longest lived rodent species, which is extraordinarily resistant to cancer and has a number of other unique phenotypic traits. For at least 80% of its lifespan, this animal shows no signs of aging or any increased likelihood of death and retains the ability to reproduce. The naked mole-rat draws the heightened attention of researchers who study the molecular basis of lengthy lifespan and cancer resistance...
October 2017: Acta Naturae
Peter Stenvinkel, Johanna Painer, Makoto Kuro-O, Miguel Lanaspa, Walter Arnold, Thomas Ruf, Paul G Shiels, Richard J Johnson
Many of the >2 million animal species that inhabit Earth have developed survival mechanisms that aid in the prevention of obesity, kidney disease, starvation, dehydration and vascular ageing; however, some animals remain susceptible to these complications. Domestic and captive wild felids, for example, show susceptibility to chronic kidney disease (CKD), potentially linked to the high protein intake of these animals. By contrast, naked mole rats are a model of longevity and are protected from extreme environmental conditions through mechanisms that provide resistance to oxidative stress...
April 2018: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
Bang Xiao, Shiyong Wang, Guoshi Yang, Xiaoxi Sun, Shanmin Zhao, Lifang Lin, Jishuai Cheng, Wenjing Yang, Wei Cong, Wei Sun, Guanghan Kan, Shufang Cui
Background/Aims: Naked mole rats (NMRs) spend their lives in burrow systems containing very low levels of oxygen, indicating long-term hypoxic exposure, and suggesting that pathological changes caused by hypoxia are attenuated or absent in this hypoxia-tolerant species. The mechanisms underlying NMRs hypoxia tolerance remain poorly understood. In this study, we explored whether hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) play a role in NMRs adaption to hypoxia...
December 15, 2017: Oncotarget
Susanne Kurz, René Thieme, Ronny Amberg, Marco Groth, Heinz-Georg Jahnke, Philipp Pieroh, Lars-Christian Horn, Marlen Kolb, Klaus Huse, Matthias Platzer, Daniela Volke, Faramarz Dehghani, Anton Buzdin, Kathrin Engel, Andrea Robitzki, Ralf Hoffmann, Ines Gockel, Gerd Birkenmeier
Cancer resistance is a major cause for longevity of the naked mole-rat. Recent liver transcriptome analysis in this animal compared to wild-derived mice revealed higher expression of alpha2-macroglobulin (A2M) and cell adhesion molecules, which contribute to the naked mole-rat's cancer resistance. Notably, A2M is known to dramatically decrease with age in humans. We hypothesize that this might facilitate tumour development. Here we found that A2M modulates tumour cell adhesion, migration and growth by inhibition of tumour promoting signalling pathways, e...
2017: PloS One
Nichole L Beebe, Brett R Schofield
Perineuronal nets (PNs) are aggregates of extracellular matrix molecules that surround some neurons in the brain. While PNs occur widely across many cortical areas, subcortical PNs are especially associated with motor and auditory systems. The auditory system has recently been suggested as an ideal model system for studying PNs and their functions. However, descriptions of PNs in subcortical auditory areas vary, and it is unclear whether the variation reflects species differences or differences in staining techniques...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
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