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Naked mole rat

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237731/naked-mole-rat-acid-sensing-ion-channel-3-forms-nonfunctional-homomers-but-functional-heteromers
#1
Laura-Nadine Schuhmacher, Gerard Callejo, Shyam Srivats, Ewan St John Smith
Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) form both homotrimeric and heterotrimeric ion channels that are activated by extracellular protons and are involved in a wide range of physiological and pathophysiological processes, including pain and anxiety. ASIC proteins can form both homotrimeric and heterotrimeric ion channels. The ASIC3 subunit has been shown to be of particular importance in the peripheral nervous system with pharmacological and genetic manipulations demonstrating a role in pain. Naked mole-rats, despite having functional ASICs, are insensitive to acid as a noxious stimulus and show diminished avoidance of acidic fumes, ammonia and carbon dioxide...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228719/levels-of-leydig-cell-autophagy-regulate-the-fertility-of-male-naked-mole-rats
#2
Wenjing Yang, Li Li, Xiaofeng Huang, Guanghan Kan, Lifang Lin, Jishuai Cheng, Chen Xu, Wei Sun, Wei Cong, Shanmin Zhao, Shufang Cui
Fertility is abolished in nonbreeding males in colonies of natal naked mole-rats (NMRs). Although spermatogenesis occurs in both breeding and nonbreeding male NMRs, the mechanisms underlying the differences in fertility between breeders and nonbreeders remain unexplored. In this study, a significant decrease in autophagy was observed in Leydig cells of the testis from nonbreeding male NMRs. This alteration was visualised as a significant decrease in the levels of autophagy-related gene 7 (Atg7), Atg5, microtubule-associated protein 1A/B light chain 3 (LC3-II/I) and the number of autophagosomes and an increase in P62 levels using Western blotting analyses...
November 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228582/comparative-study-of-macrophages-in-naked-mole-rats-and-icr-mice
#3
Jishuai Cheng, Zheng Yuan, Wenjing Yang, Chang Xu, Wei Cong, Lifang Lin, Shanmin Zhao, Wei Sun, Xiaosong Bai, Shufang Cui
The domestic and foreign scholars have studied naked mole rats more focused on the respect such as its long life, resistant to low oxygen, little spontaneous tumor, but the study of the immune system is little. In this study, we compared the anatomy and tissue morphology of NMR and ICR mouse spleens and found that the gross appearance of the NNMR spleen differed from ICR. There were more macrophages in NNMR spleens than in ICR spleens. Furthermore, we focused on the differences of macrophages. We compared their phagocytic capabilities and the data showed that NNMR macrophages are more phagocytic than ICR mouse macrophages...
November 14, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223874/the-hypoxia-tolerant-vertebrate-brain-arresting-synaptic-activity
#4
Leslie T Buck, Matthew E Pamenter
The ion channel arrest hypothesis has been the foundation of three decades of research into the underlying mechanisms of hypoxia/anoxia tolerance in several key species, including: painted turtles, goldfish, crucian carp, naked mole rats, and arctic and ground squirrels. The hypothesis originally stated that hypoxia/anoxia tolerant species ought to have fewer ion channels per area membrane and/or mechanisms to regulate the permeability of ions through channels. Today we can add to this and include mechanisms to remove channels from membranes and the expression of low conductance isoforms...
December 6, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138211/transcriptome-sequencing-of-the-naked-mole-rat-heterocephalus-glaber-and-identification-of-hypoxia-tolerance-genes
#5
Bang Xiao, Li Li, Chang Xu, Shanmin Zhao, Lifang Lin, Jishuai Cheng, Wenjing Yang, Wei Cong, Guanghan Kan, Shufang Cui
The naked mole rat (NMR; Heterocephalus glaber) is a small rodent species found in regions of Kenya, Ethiopia and Somalia. It has a high tolerance for hypoxia and is thus, considered one of the most important natural models for studying hypoxia tolerance mechanisms. The various mechanisms underlying the NMR's hypoxia tolerance are beginning to be understood at different levels of organization, and next-generation sequencing methods promise to expand this understanding to the level of gene expression. In this study, we examined the sequence and transcript abundance data of the muscle transcriptome of NMRs exposed to hypoxia using the Illumina HiSeq 2500 system to clarify the possible genomic adaptive responses to the hypoxic underground surroundings...
November 14, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107597/naked-mole-rat-cells-have-a-stable-epigenome-that-resists-ipsc%C3%A2-reprogramming
#6
Li Tan, Zhonghe Ke, Gregory Tombline, Nicholas Macoretta, Kevin Hayes, Xiao Tian, Ruitu Lv, Julia Ablaeva, Michael Gilbert, Natarajan V Bhanu, Zuo-Fei Yuan, Benjamin A Garcia, Yujiang G Shi, Yang Shi, Andrei Seluanov, Vera Gorbunova
Naked mole rat (NMR) is a valuable model for aging and cancer research due to its exceptional longevity and cancer resistance. We observed that the reprogramming efficiency of NMR fibroblasts in response to OSKM was drastically lower than that of mouse fibroblasts. Expression of SV40 LargeT antigen (LT) dramatically improved reprogramming of NMR fibroblasts. Inactivation of Rb alone, but not p53, was sufficient to improve reprogramming efficiency, suggesting that NMR chromatin may be refractory to reprogramming...
November 14, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107591/naked-mole-rat-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-and-their-contribution-to-interspecific-chimera
#7
Sang-Goo Lee, Aleksei E Mikhalchenko, Sun Hee Yim, Alexei V Lobanov, Jin-Kyu Park, Kwang-Hwan Choi, Roderick T Bronson, Chang-Kyu Lee, Thomas J Park, Vadim N Gladyshev
Naked mole rats (NMRs) are exceptionally long-lived, cancer-resistant rodents. Identifying the defining characteristics of these traits may shed light on aging and cancer mechanisms. Here, we report the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from NMR fibroblasts and their contribution to mouse-NMR chimeric embryos. Efficient reprogramming could be observed under N2B27+2i conditions. The iPSCs displayed a characteristic morphology, expressed pluripotent markers, formed embryoid bodies, and showed typical differentiation patterns...
November 14, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062810/a-trickster-in-disguise-hyaluronan-s-ambivalent-roles-in-the-matrix
#8
REVIEW
Lena Bohaumilitzky, Ann-Kathrin Huber, Eva Maria Stork, Simon Wengert, Franziska Woelfl, Heike Boehm
Hyaluronan (HA) is a simple but diverse glycosaminoglycan. It plays a major role in aging, cellular senescence, cancer, and tissue homeostasis. In which way HA affects the surrounding tissues greatly depends on the molecular weight of HA. Whereas high molecular weight HA is associated with homeostasis and protective effects, HA fragments tend to be linked to the pathologic state. Furthermore, the interaction of HA with its binding partners, the hyaladherins, such as CD44, is essential for sustaining tissue integrity and is likewise related to cancer...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939386/investigation-into-the-role-of-an-extracellular-loop-in-mediating-proton-evoked-inhibition-of-voltage-gated-sodium-channels
#9
Elisa Harms, Carsten Stoetzer, Thomas Stueber, Andrias O O'Reilly, Andreas Leffler
Proton-evoked activation of sensory neurons is counteracted by inhibition of voltage-gated Na(+) channels, and the low acid-sensitivity of sensory neuron of the African naked mole-rat (ANMr) was reported to be due to a strong proton-evoked block of ANMrNav1.7. Here we aimed to reevaluate the role of the suggested negatively-charged motif in the ANMrNav1.7 domain IV P-loop for inhibition by protons. Patch clamp recordings were performed on the recombinant α-subunits Nav1.2-1.8. The insertion of the negatively charged motif (EKE) of ANMrNav1...
November 20, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905723/breeding-and-rearing-naked-mole-rats-heterocephalus-glaber-under-laboratory-conditions
#10
Chenlin Yu, Shiyong Wang, Guoshi Yang, Shanmin Zhao, Lifang Lin, Wenjing Yang, Qiu Tang, Wei Sun, Shufang Cui
The unique biologic characteristics of naked mole-rats (NMR, Heterocephalus glaber) include longevity, cancer resistance, hypoxia tolerance, and pain insensitivity, making NMR an attractive model for biomedical research on aging, cancer, and neurobiology. However, breeding and rearing NMR in captivity is challenging. Here, we report a method for breeding NMR by using a closed-colony mating system. We selected sexually mature male and female NMR from different natal colonies and mated them 1:1. The 5 original colonies had an annual parity of 3...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899002/the-unexpected-intelligence-what-is-the-naked-mole-rat-s-secret-to-surviving-oxygen-deprivation
#11
Senka Ljubojevic-Holzer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852094/unraveling-the-gut-microbiome-of-the-long-lived-naked-mole-rat
#12
Tewodros Debebe, Elena Biagi, Matteo Soverini, Susanne Holtze, Thomas Bernd Hildebrandt, Claudia Birkemeyer, Dereje Wyohannis, Alemayehu Lemma, Patrizia Brigidi, Vulk Savkovic, Brigitte König, Marco Candela, Gerd Birkenmeier
The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a subterranean mouse-sized African mammal that shows astonishingly few age-related degenerative changes and seems to not be affected by cancer. These features make this wild rodent an excellent model to study the biology of healthy aging and longevity. Here we characterize for the first time the intestinal microbial ecosystem of the naked mole-rat in comparison to humans and other mammals, highlighting peculiarities related to the specific living environment, such as the enrichment in bacteria able to utilize soil sulfate as a terminal electron acceptor to sustain an anaerobic oxidative metabolism...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800931/molecular-signatures-of-longevity-insights-from-cross-species-comparative-studies
#13
REVIEW
Siming Ma, Vadim N Gladyshev
Much of the current research on longevity focuses on the aging process within a single species. Several molecular players (e.g. IGF1 and MTOR), pharmacological compounds (e.g. rapamycin and metformin), and dietary approaches (e.g. calorie restriction and methionine restriction) have been shown to be important in regulating and modestly extending lifespan in model organisms. On the other hand, natural lifespan varies much more significantly across species. Within mammals alone, maximum lifespan differs more than 100 fold, but the underlying regulatory mechanisms remain poorly understood...
October 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780992/functional-morphology-of-the-olfactory-mucosa-and-olfactory-bulb-in-fossorial-rodents-the-east-african-root-rat-tachyoryctes-splendens-and-the-naked-mole-rat-heterocephalus-glaber
#14
P N Onyono, B M Kavoi, S G Kiama, A N Makanya
Optimal functioning of the olfactory system is critical for survival of fossorial rodents in their subterranean lifestyle. This study examines the structure of the olfactory mucosa and olfactory bulb of two fossorial rodents exhibiting distinct social behaviors, the East African root rat and the naked mole rat. The social naked mole rat displayed simpler ethmoturbinates consisting of dorsomedial and broad discoid/flaplike parts that projected rostrally from the ethmoid bone. In the solitary root rat however, the ethmoturbinates were highly complex and exhibited elaborate branching which greatly increased the olfactory surface area...
July 28, 2017: Tissue & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780592/the-naked-mole-rat-exhibits-an-unusual-cardiac-myofilament-protein-profile-providing-new-insights-into-heart-function-of-this-naturally-subterranean-rodent
#15
Kelly M Grimes, David Y Barefield, Mohit Kumar, James W McNamara, Susan T Weintraub, Pieter P de Tombe, Sakthivel Sadayappan, Rochelle Buffenstein
The long-lived, hypoxic-tolerant naked mole-rat well-maintains cardiac function over its three-decade-long lifespan and exhibits many cardiac features atypical of similar-sized laboratory rodents. For example, they exhibit low heart rates and resting cardiac contractility, yet have a large cardiac reserve. These traits are considered ecophysiological adaptations to their dank subterranean atmosphere of low oxygen and high carbon dioxide levels and may also contribute to negligible declines in cardiac function during aging...
December 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775241/comparative-study-of-macrophages-in-naked-mole-rats-and-icr-mice
#16
Jishuai Cheng, Zheng Yuan, Wenjing Yang, Chang Xu, Wei Cong, Lifang Lin, Shanmin Zhao, Wei Sun, Xiaosong Bai, Shufang Cui
The domestic and foreign scholars have studied naked mole rats more focused on the respect such as its long life, resistant to low oxygen, little spontaneous tumor, but the study of the immune system is little. In this study, we compared the anatomy and tissue morphology of NMR and ICR mouse spleens and found that the gross appearance of the NNMR spleen differed from ICR. There were more macrophages in NNMR spleens than in ICR spleens. Furthermore, we focused on the differences of macrophages. We compared their phagocytic capabilities and the data showed that NNMR macrophages are more phagocytic than ICR mouse macrophages...
July 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698112/slow-aging-in-mammals-lessons-from-african-mole-rats-and-bats
#17
REVIEW
Philip Dammann
Traditionally, the main mammalian models used in aging research have been mice and rats, i.e. short-lived species that obviously lack effective maintenance mechanisms to keep their soma in a functional state for prolonged periods of time. It is doubtful that life-extending mechanisms identified only in such short-lived species adequately reflect the diversity of longevity pathways that have naturally evolved in mammals, or that they have much relevance for long-lived species such as humans. Therefore, some complementary, long-lived mammalian models have been introduced to aging research in the past 15-20 years, particularly naked mole-rats (and to a lesser extent also other mole-rats) and bats...
October 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672778/correction-h2o2-treatment-or-serum-deprivation-induces-autophagy-and-apoptosis-in-naked-mole-rat-skin-fibroblasts-by-inhibiting-the-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathway
#18
Shanmin Zhao, Li Li, Shiyong Wang, Chenlin Yu, Bang Xiao, Lifang Lin, Wei Cong, Jishuai Cheng, Wenjing Yang, Wei Sun, Shufang Cui
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472634/learning-of-nature-the-curious-case-of-the-naked-mole-rat
#19
REVIEW
Francisco Alejandro Lagunas-Rangel, Venice Chávez-Valencia
Naked mole rats (NMRs) are the longest-living rodents known, living up to approximately 30 years and showing sustained good health. Nowadays, NMRs are considered excellent models for aging and, additionally, for cancer research, due to the evidence of a remarkable cancer resistance demonstrated through thousands of necropsies performed with very few cases that describe this pathology, which is believed to be a disease that unavoidably accompanies aging. Since some years ago, several studies have tried to explain the possible mechanisms underlying longevity and cancer resistance in NMRs through different perspectives and directions, creating new knowledge that subsequently could be used for cancer prevention and delaying aging in humans...
May 1, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442628/papers-of-note-in-science356-6335
#20
Annalisa M VanHook
This week's articles highlight a peptide that controls myoblast fusion; a metabolic adaptation that enables naked mole-rats to resist the detrimental effects of anoxia; a transcription factor that coordinates signaling in the mammary epithelial stem cell niche; and transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of the response to an environmental stimulus.
April 25, 2017: Science Signaling
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