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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504703/polygenic-transmission-disequilibrium-confirms-that-common-and-rare-variation-act-additively-to-create-risk-for-autism-spectrum-disorders
#1
Daniel J Weiner, Emilie M Wigdor, Stephan Ripke, Raymond K Walters, Jack A Kosmicki, Jakob Grove, Kaitlin E Samocha, Jacqueline I Goldstein, Aysu Okbay, Jonas Bybjerg-Grauholm, Thomas Werge, David M Hougaard, Jacob Taylor, David Skuse, Bernie Devlin, Richard Anney, Stephan J Sanders, Somer Bishop, Preben Bo Mortensen, Anders D Børglum, George Davey Smith, Mark J Daly, Elise B Robinson
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk is influenced by common polygenic and de novo variation. We aimed to clarify the influence of polygenic risk for ASD and to identify subgroups of ASD cases, including those with strongly acting de novo variants, in which polygenic risk is relevant. Using a novel approach called the polygenic transmission disequilibrium test and data from 6,454 families with a child with ASD, we show that polygenic risk for ASD, schizophrenia, and greater educational attainment is over-transmitted to children with ASD...
May 15, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504324/electromagnetic-fields-pulsed-radiofrequency-radiation-and-epigenetics-how-wireless-technologies-may-affect-childhood-development
#2
Cindy Sage, Ernesto Burgio
Mobile phones and other wireless devices that produce electromagnetic fields (EMF) and pulsed radiofrequency radiation (RFR) are widely documented to cause potentially harmful health impacts that can be detrimental to young people. New epigenetic studies are profiled in this review to account for some neurodevelopmental and neurobehavioral changes due to exposure to wireless technologies. Symptoms of retarded memory, learning, cognition, attention, and behavioral problems have been reported in numerous studies and are similarly manifested in autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders, as a result of EMF and RFR exposures where both epigenetic drivers and genetic (DNA) damage are likely contributors...
May 15, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502070/sleep-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#3
REVIEW
Margaret C Souders, Stefanie Zavodny, Whitney Eriksen, Rebecca Sinko, James Connell, Connor Kerns, Roseann Schaaf, Jennifer Pinto-Martin
The purposes of this paper are to provide an overview of the state of the science of sleep in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), present hypotheses for the high prevalence of insomnia in children with ASD, and present a practice pathway for promoting optimal sleep. Approximately two thirds of children with ASD have chronic insomnia, and to date, the strongest evidence on promoting sleep is for sleep education, environmental changes, behavioral interventions, and exogenous melatonin. The Sleep Committee of the Autism Treatment Network (ATN) developed a practice pathway, based on expert consensus, to capture best practices for screening, identification, and treatment for sleep problems in ASD in 2012...
June 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488981/a-survey-of-parents-with-children-on-the-autism-spectrum-experience-with-services-and-treatments
#4
Tracy A Becerra, Maria L Massolo, Vincent M Yau, Ashli A Owen-Smith, Frances L Lynch, Phillip M Crawford, Kathryn A Pearson, Magdalena E Pomichowski, Virginia P Quinn, Cathleen K Yoshida, Lisa A Croen
INTRODUCTION: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are lifelong neurodevelopmental disorders, and little is known about how parents address the health and psychosocial consequences of ASD. Few studies have examined use of various treatments and services in a large, diverse sample of children with ASD and their families. OBJECTIVE: This paper presents methods to create an autism research resource across multiple large health delivery systems and describes services and treatments used by children with ASD and their families...
2017: Permanente Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488079/fathers-orientation-to-their-children-s-autism-diagnosis-a-grounded-theory-study
#5
Michael D Hannon, LaChan V Hannon
Sixteen fathers of individuals with autism were interviewed to develop a grounded theory explaining how they learned about their children's autism diagnosis. Results suggest the orientation process entails at least two phases: orienting oneself and orienting others. The orienting oneself phase entailed fathers having suspicion of developmental differences, engaging in research and education activities, having their children formally evaluated; inquiring about their children's prognosis, and having curiosities about autism's etiology...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473784/rural-trends-in-diagnosis-and-services-for-autism-spectrum-disorder
#6
REVIEW
Ligia Antezana, Angela Scarpa, Andrew Valdespino, Jordan Albright, John A Richey
Rural communities face significant challenges regarding the adequate availability of diagnostic-, treatment-, and support-services for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Specifically, a variety of factors, including geographic distance between families and service providers, low reliance on health care professionals, and cultural characteristics, contribute to the diminished availability and utilization of services. Together, these factors lead to risks for delayed ASD screening and diagnosis, yielding lower educational and functional outcomes...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471964/prenatal-perinatal-and-postnatal-factors-associated-with-autism-a-meta-analysis
#7
Chengzhong Wang, Hua Geng, Weidong Liu, Guiqin Zhang
BACKGROUND: The aim of this meta-analysis was to investigate the prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal risk factors for children autism. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science were used to search for studies that examined the prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal risk factors for children autism. A fixed-effects model or random-effects model was used to pool the overall effect estimates. RESULTS: Data from 37,634 autistic children and 12,081,416 nonautistic children enrolled in 17 studies were collated...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449247/informant-discrepancy-defines-discrete-clinically-useful-autism-spectrum-disorder-subgroups
#8
Matthew D Lerner, Andres De Los Reyes, Deborah A G Drabick, Alan H Gerber, Kenneth D Gadow
BACKGROUND: Discrepancy between informants (parents and teachers) in severity ratings of core symptoms commonly arise when assessing autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Whether such discrepancy yields unique information about the ASD phenotype and its clinical correlates has not been examined. We examined whether degree of discrepancy between parent and teacher ASD symptom ratings defines discrete, clinically meaningful subgroups of youth with ASD using an efficient, cost-effective procedure...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422625/characteristics-of-students-receiving-occupational-therapy-services-in-transition-and-factors-related-to-postsecondary-success
#9
Maria M Eismann, Rebecca Weisshaar, Cristina Capretta, Dennis S Cleary, Anne V Kirby, Andrew C Persch
OBJECTIVE: This study had a twofold purpose: (1) identify the characteristics of people with disabilities who received occupational therapy services during their transition to adulthood and (2) determine factors associated with their successful postsecondary transition. METHOD: This study was a secondary analysis of National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 data. Data analyses include descriptive statistics, binary logistic regression, and simple linear regression...
May 2017: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416810/the-joint-impact-of-cognitive-performance-in-adolescence-and-familial-cognitive-aptitude-on-risk-for-major-psychiatric-disorders-a-delineation-of-four-potential-pathways-to-illness
#10
K S Kendler, H Ohlsson, R S E Keefe, K Sundquist, J Sundquist
How do joint measures of premorbid cognitive ability and familial cognitive aptitude (FCA) reflect risk for a diversity of psychiatric and substance use disorders? To address this question, we examined, using Cox models, the predictive effects of school achievement (SA) measured at age 16 and FCA-assessed from SA in siblings and cousins, and educational attainment in parents-on risk for 12 major psychiatric syndromes in 1 140 608 Swedes born 1972-1990. Four developmental patterns emerged. In the first, risk was predicted jointly by low levels of SA and high levels of FCA-that is a level of SA lower than would be predicted from the FCA...
April 18, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413441/prevalence-and-associated-factors-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-among-ugandan-children-a-cross-sectional-study
#11
Joan Wamulugwa, Angelina Kakooza, Sabrina Bakeera Kitaka, Joyce Nalugya, Mark Kaddumukasa, Shirley Moore, Martha Sajatovic, Elly Katabira
BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder among the children. The burden of ADHD or its associated factors in Uganda are not known. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and the associated factors of ADHD among children attending the neurology and psychiatry clinics at Mulago National Referral Hospital. METHODS: Using the disruptive behavior scale (45 items), we investigated the presence of ADHD symptoms among children attending Mulago Hospital...
2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412577/describing-heterogeneity-of-unmet-needs-among-adults-with-a-developmental-disability-an-examination-of-the-2012-canadian-survey-on-disability
#12
Jennifer Zwicker, Arezou Zaresani, J C Herb Emery
BACKGROUND: As a signatory to the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, Canada has committed to protect the rights and dignity of persons with developmental disabilities (DD), which means that labour markets, education, and training opportunities should be inclusive and accessible. PURPOSE: Describe the unmet employment, education and daily needs of adults with DD, with a sub analysis of persons with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and cerebral palsy (CP) in Canada, to inform efficient and equitable policy development...
April 13, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410256/parent-reported-severity-and-health-educational-services-use-among-us-children-with-autism-results-from-a-national-survey
#13
Katharine E Zuckerman, Nora D B Friedman, Alison E Chavez, Amy M Shui, Karen A Kuhlthau
OBJECTIVE: Little national data exist regarding service use patterns for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) of varying severity. This study aimed to assess the relationship between parent-reported severity and use of educational and health care services. METHODS: Data from the 2011 Survey of Pathways to Diagnosis and Services were used to examine a nationally representative sample of 1420 US children aged 6 to 17 years with ASD, with or without developmental delay and intellectual disability...
May 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395532/age-of-diagnosis-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-latino-children-the-case-of-venezuelan-children
#14
Cecilia Montiel-Nava, José A Chacín, Zoila González-Ávila
Latino children are diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder later in life, usually with more severe symptoms, and lower IQs, compared with non-Latino children. Possible reasons for such disparities could be due to lower levels of parent education, lower socioeconomic status, limited knowledge of parents about autism spectrum disorder, and diminished health-care knowledge. The goal of the study was to describe the age of parental concerns and at first autism spectrum disorder diagnosis, and factors associated with age at the first diagnosis in a sample of Venezuelan children...
April 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395297/observed-and-parent-report-measures-of-social-communication-in-toddlers-with-and-without-autism-spectrum-disorder-across-race-ethnicity
#15
Sheri T Stronach, Amy M Wetherby
Purpose: This study investigated whether measures of early social communication vary among young children of diverse racial/ethnic status with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Method: Participants were 364 toddlers between ages 18 and 36 months with a diagnosis of ASD confirmed (n = 195) or ruled out (n = 169), from 3 racial/ethnic categories: non-Hispanic White (n = 226), non-Hispanic Black (n = 74), and Hispanic (n = 64). Group differences in social communication were examined using an observational measure-the Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales Behavior Sample (CSBS-BS; Wetherby & Prizant, 2002)-and a parent-report measure, the Early Screening for Autism and Communication Disorders (Wetherby, Woods, & Lord, 2007)...
May 17, 2017: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391453/moderating-effects-of-parental-characteristics-on-the-effectiveness-of-a-theory-of-mind-training-for-children-with-autism-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Danielle M J de Veld, Patricia Howlin, Elske Hoddenbach, Fleur Mulder, Imke Wolf, Hans M Koot, Ramón Lindauer, Sander Begeer
This RCT investigated whether the effect of a Theory of Mind (ToM) intervention for children with ASD was moderated by parental education level and employment, family structure, and parental ASD. Children with autism aged 8-13 years (n = 136) were randomized over a waitlist control or treatment condition. At posttest, children in the treatment condition had more ToM knowledge, showed fewer autistic features, and more ToM-related behavior than children in the control condition. Children who had one or two parents with at least a college degree, and children with parents not diagnosed with/suspected of having ASD themselves benefitted from the training...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387533/the-impact-of-childhood-autism-spectrum-disorder-on-parent-s-labour-force-participation-can-parents-be-expected-to-be-able-to-re-join-the-labour-force
#17
Emily J Callander, Daniel B Lindsay
Parental employment is a significant factor in ensuring financial ability to access care for children with autism spectrum disorder. This article aimed to identify the influence of autism spectrum disorder on parental employment and whether childcare access may effect labour force participation using the Longitudinal Survey of Australian Children, with 12 years of follow-up data (2004-2015). Parental employment when the child was aged between 0 and 11 years was assessed. A significantly larger percentage of parents whose children had autism spectrum disorder were not in the labour force when their child was aged between 2-3 and 10-11 years...
March 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377687/the-changing-landscape-of-neuroscience-research-2006-2015-a-bibliometric-study
#18
Andy Wai Kan Yeung, Tazuko K Goto, W Keung Leung
Background: It is beneficial to evaluate changes in neuroscience research field regarding research directions and topics over a defined period. Such information enables stakeholders to quickly identify the most influential research and incorporate latest evidence into research-informed education. To our knowledge, no study reported changes in neuroscience literature over the last decade. Therefore, the current study determined research terms with highest citation scores, compared publication shares of research areas and contributing countries in this field from 2006 to 2015 and identified the most productive journals...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373809/a-child-with-kabuki-syndrome-and-autism-spectrum-disorder
#19
Mehmet Sertçelik, Çağatay Uğur, Aynur Şahin Aközel, Cihat Kağan Gürkan
Kabuki syndrome (KS) is characterized by skeletal abnormalities, short stature, characteristic facial features, postnatal growth delay, and mental retardation. There are only a few case reports that present the coexistence of KS with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the literature. Herein we present the case of a boy with KS and ASD and discuss the possible shared etiologies. A 4-year-old boy was brought by his parents with complaints of no speech, hyperactivity, enuresis complex, temper tantrum, self-injury, and harming people or objects...
September 2016: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368272/consensus-statement-of-the-indian-academy-of-pediatrics-on-evaluation-and-management-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#20
Samir Dalwai, Shabina Ahmed, Vrajesh Udani, Nandini Mundkur, S S Kamath, M K C Nair
JUSTIFICATION: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a clinically heterogenous condition with a wide range of etiological factors and causing significant public health burden. ASD poses a serious developmental disadvantage to the child in the form of poor schooling, social function and adult productivity. Thus, framing evidence-based national guidelines is a pressing need. PROCESS: The meeting on formulation of national consensus guidelines on neurodevelopmental disorders was organized by Indian Academy of Paediatrics in Mumbai on 18th and 19th December 2015...
March 29, 2017: Indian Pediatrics
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