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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231476/evaluation-of-cognitive-performance-in-professional-divers-by-means-of-event-related-potentials-and-neuropsychology
#1
Mehmet Ergen, Atilla Uslu, Ozlem Caglar, Sukriye Akca-Kalem, Maide Cimsit, Hakan Gurvit
OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether professional air diving with no decompression illness causes any long-term changes in cognitive functions. METHODS: The all-male participants consisted of 18 healthy control (HC) volunteers and 32 divers. Divers were divided into two subgroups as moderate exposure group, Divers-I (DI) and extensive exposure group, Divers-II (DII). Participants were administered a comprehensive neuropsychological battery and event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while they performed auditory oddball task and visual continuous performance test (CPT)...
January 29, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231381/hippocampal-prefrontal-theta-phase-synchrony-in-planning-of-multi-step-actions-based-on-memory-retrieval
#2
Seiya Ishino, Susumu Takahashi, Masaaki Ogawa, Yoshio Sakurai
Planning of multi-step actions based on the retrieval of acquired information is essential for efficient foraging. The hippocampus (HPC) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) may play critical roles in this process. However, in rodents, many studies investigating such roles utilized T-maze tasks that only require one-step actions (i.e., selection of one of two alternatives), in which memory retrieval and selection of an action based on the retrieval cannot be clearly differentiated. In monkeys, PFC has been suggested to be involved in planning of multi-step actions; however, the synchrony between HPC and PFC has not been evaluated...
February 23, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230394/the-onset-and-time-course-of-semantic-priming-during-rapid-recognition-of-visual-words
#3
Renske S Hoedemaker, Peter C Gordon
In 2 experiments, we assessed the effects of response latency and task-induced goals on the onset and time course of semantic priming during rapid processing of visual words as revealed by ocular response tasks. In Experiment 1 (ocular lexical decision task), participants performed a lexical decision task using eye movement responses on a sequence of 4 words. In Experiment 2, the same words were encoded for an episodic recognition memory task that did not require a metalinguistic judgment. For both tasks, survival analyses showed that the earliest observable effect (divergence point [DP]) of semantic priming on target-word reading times occurred at approximately 260 ms, and ex-Gaussian distribution fits revealed that the magnitude of the priming effect increased as a function of response time...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230159/diversity-in-mixed-species-groups-improves-success-in-a-novel-feeder-test-in-a-wild-songbird-community
#4
Todd M Freeberg, Shannon K Eppert, Kathryn E Sieving, Jeffrey R Lucas
Mixed-species groups are common and are thought to provide benefits to group members via enhanced food finding and antipredator abilities. These benefits could accrue due to larger group sizes in general but also to the diverse species composition in the groups. We tested these possibilities using a novel feeder test in a wild songbird community containing three species that varied in their dominant-subordinate status and in their nuclear-satellite roles: Carolina chickadees (Poecile carolinensis), tufted titmice (Baeolophus bicolor), and white-breasted nuthatches (Sitta carolinensis)...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229913/increased-risk-of-developing-schizophrenia-in-animals-exposed-to-cigarette-smoke-during-the-gestational-period
#5
Alexandra I Zugno, Mariana B Oliveira, Gustavo A Mastella, Alexandra S A Heylmann, Lara Canever, Felipe D Pacheco, Louyse S Damazio, Sullivan A Citadin, Luiz Antonio de Lucca, Lutiana Roque Simões, Fernanda Malgarin, Josiane Budni, Tatiana Barichello, Patricia F Schuck, João Quevedo
Cigarette smoking during the prenatal period has been investigated as a causative factor of obstetric abnormalities, which lead to cognitive and behavioural changes associated with schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to investigate behaviour and AChE activity in brain structures in adult rats exposed to cigarette smoke during the prenatal period. Pregnant rats were divided into non-PCSE (non-prenatal cigarette smoke exposure) and PCSE (prenatal cigarette smoke exposure) groups. On post-natal day 60, the rats received saline or ketamine for 7days and were subjected to behavioural tasks...
February 13, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229892/safety-and-efficacy-of-opicinumab-in-acute-optic-neuritis-renew-a-randomised-placebo-controlled-phase-2-trial
#6
Diego Cadavid, Laura Balcer, Steven Galetta, Orhan Aktas, Tjalf Ziemssen, Ludo Vanopdenbosch, Jette Frederiksen, Mark Skeen, Glenn J Jaffe, Helmut Butzkueven, Focke Ziemssen, Luca Massacesi, Yi Chai, Lei Xu, Stefanie Freeman
BACKGROUND: The human monoclonal antibody opicinumab (BIIB033, anti-LINGO-1) has shown remyelinating activity in preclinical studies. We therefore assessed the safety and tolerability, and efficacy of opicinumab given soon after a first acute optic neuritis episode. METHODS: This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 study (RENEW) was done at 33 sites in Australia, Canada, and Europe in participants (aged 18-55 years) with a first unilateral acute optic neuritis episode within 28 days from study baseline...
March 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229630/elevated-basal-cytosolic-calcium-of-endothelial-cells-influences-the-post-surgical-outcome-in-diabetic-cts
#7
I M Bin-Jaliah, Mea Shariff, P S Nayar, H C Chandramoorthy
Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)-induced neuropathy and ischemia-reperfusion post-surgery prolong carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) pathology, but the effect of T2DM on the prognostic outcome of carpal tunnel (CT) release surgery needs to be investigated. Materials and methods A total of 64 individuals with CTS underwent CT release surgery. HbA1c levels identified their diabetic status. The individual prognostic outcomes were measured by nerve conduction velocity (NCV), amplitude, and latency. Measurement of [Ca(2+)]c and reactive oxygen species (ROS) from isolated endothelial cells (ECs) revealed the oxidative burden of the normal and diabetic CTS phenotypes...
December 2016: Physiol Int
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229064/abnormal-auditory-brainstem-response-abr-findings-in-a-near-normal-hearing-child-with-noonan-syndrome
#8
Bahram Jalaei, Mohd Normani Zakaria, Dinsuhaimi Sidek
INTRODUCTION: Noonan syndrome (NS) is a heterogeneous genetic disease that affects many parts of the body. It was named after Dr. Jacqueline Anne Noonan, a paediatric cardiologist. CASE REPORT: We report audiological tests and auditory brainstem response (ABR) findings in a 5-year old Malay boy with NS. Despite showing the marked signs of NS, the child could only produce a few meaningful words. Audiological tests found him to have bilateral mild conductive hearing loss at low frequencies...
January 2017: Iranian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228585/fixation-target-representation-in-prefrontal-cortex-during-the-anti-saccade-task
#9
Xin Zhou, Christos Constantinidis
Neurons that discharge strongly during the time period of fixation of a visual target and cease to discharge prior to saccade initiation have been described in the brain stem, superior colliculus, and cortical areas. In subcortical structures, fixation neurons play a reciprocal role with saccadic neurons during the generation of eye movements. Their role in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is less obvious and it is not known if they are activated by fixation, inhibit saccade generation, or play a role in more complex functions such as the inhibition of inappropriate responses...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228321/immunization-of-bighorn-sheep-against-mannheimia-haemolytica-with-a-bovine-herpesvirus-1-vectored-vaccine
#10
Sai A Batra, Sudarvili Shanthalingam, Gaetano Donofrio, Gary J Haldorson, Shafiqul Chowdhury, Stephen N White, Subramaniam Srikumaran
Mannheimia haemolytica is an important pathogen of pneumonia in bighorn sheep (BHS), consistently causing 100% mortality under experimental conditions. Leukotoxin is the critical virulence factor of M. haemolytica. In a 'proof of concept' study, a vaccine containing leukotoxin and surface antigens of M. haemolytica induced 100% protection in BHS, but required multiple booster doses. Vaccination of wildlife is difficult. BHS, however, can be vaccinated at the time of transplantation, but administration of booster doses is impossible...
February 19, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228241/neuropeptide-s-reduces-propofol-or-ketamine-induced-slow-wave-states-through-activation-of-cognate-receptors-in-the-rat
#11
Xiang-Pan Kong, Can Wang, Jun-Fan Xie, Peng Zhao, Li-Rong Dai, Yu-Feng Shao, Jian-Sheng Lin, Yi-Ping Hou
Intracerebroventricular injection of NPS reduces the duration of the ketamine- or thiopental-induced loss of the righting reflex in rats. But the specific EEG activities are unknown. We therefore sought to examine the effects of the NPS-NPSR system on anesthetic-induced characteristics of EEG power spectra and sleep-wake profiles. NPS alone or together with an NPSR antagonist was injected intracerebroventricularly, whereas the propofol (50mg/kg) or ketamine (100mg/kg) was administrated intraperitoneally. NPS (1 or 2nmol) significantly reduced the amount of propofol-induced EEG delta activity and slow wave states (SWS)...
February 14, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227970/combining-a-hybrid-robotic-system-with-a-bain-machine-interface-for-the-rehabilitation-of-reaching-movements-a-case-study-with-a-stroke-patient
#12
F Resquin, J Ibanez, J Gonzalez-Vargas, F Brunetti, I Dimbwadyo, S Alves, L Carrasco, L Torres, Jose Luis Pons, F Resquin, J Ibañez, J Gonzalez-Vargas, F Brunetti, I Dimbwadyo, S Alves, L Carrasco, L Torres, Jose Luis Pons, S Alves, Jose Luis Pons, F Brunetti, J Gonzalez-Vargas, F Resquin, I Dimbwadyo, L Carrasco, L Torres, J Ibanez
Reaching and grasping are two of the most affected functions after stroke. Hybrid rehabilitation systems combining Functional Electrical Stimulation with Robotic devices have been proposed in the literature to improve rehabilitation outcomes. In this work, we present the combined use of a hybrid robotic system with an EEG-based Brain-Machine Interface to detect the user's movement intentions to trigger the assistance. The platform has been tested in a single session with a stroke patient. The results show how the patient could successfully interact with the BMI and command the assistance of the hybrid system with low latencies...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227924/a-hybrid-hardware-and-software-approach-for-cancelling-stimulus-artifacts-during-same-electrode-neural-stimulation-and-recording
#13
Stanislav Culaclii, Brian Kim, Yi-Kai Lo, Wentai Liu, Stanislav Culaclii, Brian Kim, Yi-Kai Lo, Wentai Liu, Brian Kim, Yi-Kai Lo, Wentai Liu, Stanislav Culaclii
Recovering neural responses from electrode recordings is fundamental for understanding the dynamics of neural networks. This effort is often obscured by stimulus artifacts in the recordings, which result from stimuli injected into the electrode-tissue interface. Stimulus artifacts, which can be orders of magnitude larger than the neural responses of interest, can mask short-latency evoked responses. Furthermore, simultaneous neural stimulation and recording on the same electrode generates artifacts with larger amplitudes compared to a separate electrode setup, which inevitably overwhelm the amplifier operation and cause unrecoverable neural signal loss...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227847/a-compact-representation-for-the-auditory-full-range-response-and-its-fast-denoising-using-an-image-filter-based-on-the-radon-transform
#14
Manuel C Kohl, Daniel J Strauss, Manuel C Kohl, Daniel J Strauss, Daniel J Strauss, Manuel C Kohl
The Auditory Brainstem, Middle-Latency and Late Responses, a class of event-related potentials (ERPs), are of considerable interest in neuroscience research as robust neural correlates of different processing stages along the auditory pathway. While most research to date centers around one of the responses at a time for practical reasons, recent efforts indicate a paradigm shift towards acquiring them together, enabling the simultaneous monitoring of all auditory processing stages from the brainstem to the cortex...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227825/real-time-autonomous-bladder-event-classification-and-closed-loop-control-from-single-channel-pressure-data
#15
Robert Karam, Swarup Bhunia, Steve Majerus, Steven W Brose, Margot S Damaser, Dennis Bourbeau, Robert Karam, Swarup Bhunia, Steve Majerus, Steven W Brose, Margot S Damaser, Dennis Bourbeau, Steve Majerus, Margot S Damaser, Robert Karam, Steven W Brose, Dennis Bourbeau, Swarup Bhunia
Urinary incontinence, or the loss of bladder control, is a debilitating condition affecting millions worldwide, which significantly reduces quality of life. Neuromodulation of lower urinary tract nerves can be used to treat sensations of urgency in many subjects, including those with Spinal Cord Injury (SCI). Event driven, or conditional stimulation has been investigated as a possible improvement to the state-of-the-art open-loop stimulation systems available today. However, this requires a robust, adaptive, and noise-tolerant method of classifying bladder function from real-time bladder pressure measurements...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227748/the-correlation-between-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-parameters-and-neuromuscular-properties-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy
#16
H Marzbani, Sh Parvin, S Amiri, M Lotfian, M R Kharazi, Sh Azizi, M M Mirbagheri, H Marzbani, Sh Parvin, S Amiri, M Lotfian, M R Kharazi, Sh Azizi, M M Mirbagheri, M R Kharazi, Sh Azizi, M Lotfian, M M Mirbagheri, S Amiri, Sh Parvin, H Marzbani
We studied the correlation between corticospinal signaling and neuromuscular properties in children with Cerebral Palsy (CP). Corticospinal signaling was evaluated using Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS). Neuromuscular properties were quantified using Hoffmann reflex (H-reflex), sonoelastography, clinical measurements, and isokinetic measures. In particular, we determined the relationship between the TMS parameters of the ankle joint and the neuromuscular features of ankle extensors and flexors as well as popular clinical measures of gait speed, endurance, balance and mobility...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227650/real-time-gait-event-detection-for-lower-limb-amputees-using-a-single-wearable-sensor
#17
H F Maqbool, M A B Husman, M I Awad, A Abouhossein, P Mehryar, N Iqbal, A A Dehghani-Sanij, H F Maqbool, M A B Husman, M I Awad, A Abouhossein, P Mehryar, N Iqbal, A A Dehghani-Sanij, M A B Husman, M I Awad, N Iqbal, P Mehryar, H F Maqbool, A Abouhossein, A A Dehghani-Sanij
This paper presents a rule-based real-time gait event/phase detection system (R-GEDS) using a shank mounted inertial measurement unit (IMU) for lower limb amputees during the level ground walking. Development of the algorithm is based on the shank angular velocity in the sagittal plane and linear acceleration signal in the shank longitudinal direction. System performance was evaluated with four control subjects (CS) and one transfemoral amputee (TFA) and the results were validated with four FlexiForce footswitches (FSW)...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227576/a-fundamental-study-on-visual-impairment-evaluation-using-n170
#18
Takayuki Ishii, Masaki Kyoso, Takayuki Ishii, Masaki Kyoso, Takayuki Ishii, Masaki Kyoso
Progressive population aging has created many problems. Many aged people suffers from cataract because prevalence of cataract in advanced age is far higher than younger people. In this study, we have focused on N170 as a visibility-related signal for quantitative evaluation of cataract. In this report, basic evaluation of N170 in presenting numerical images which had different contrasts was performed. Amplitude and latency were extracted from N170, and then relations to the contrasts of the images were checked...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227568/system-to-induce-and-measure-embodiment-of-an-artificial-hand-with-programmable-convergent-visual-and-tactile-stimuli
#19
Heather L Benz, Talia R Sieff, Mahsa Alborz, Kimberly Kontson, Elizabeth Kilpatrick, Eugene F Civillico, Heather L Benz, Talia R Sieff, Mahsa Alborz, Kimberly Kontson, Elizabeth Kilpatrick, Eugene F Civillico, Kimberly Kontson, Heather L Benz, Talia R Sieff, Elizabeth Kilpatrick, Eugene F Civillico, Mahsa Alborz
The sense of prosthesis embodiment, or the feeling that the device has been incorporated into a user's body image, may be enhanced by emerging technology such as invasive electrical stimulation for sensory feedback. In turn, prosthesis embodiment may be linked to increased prosthesis use and improved functional outcomes. We describe the development of a tool to assay artificial hand embodiment in a quantitative way in people with intact limbs, and characterize its operation. The system delivers temporally coordinated visual and tactile stimuli at a programmable latency while recording limb temperature...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227524/a-feasibility-study-of-using-event-related-potential-as-a-biometrics
#20
Yih-Choung Yu, Sicheng Wang, Lisa A Gabel, Yih-Choung Yu, Sicheng Wang, Lisa A Gabel, Lisa A Gabel, Yih-Choung Yu, Sicheng Wang
The use of an individual's neural response to stimuli (the event-related potential or ERP) has potential as a biometric because it is highly resistant to fraud relative to other conventional authentication systems. P300 is an ERP in human electroencephalography (EEG) that occurs in response to an oddball stimulus when an individual is actively engaged in a target detection task. Because P300 is consistently detectable from almost every subject, it is considered a potential signal for biometric applications...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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