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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209239/genetic-biomarkers-on-age-related-cognitive-decline
#1
REVIEW
Chieh-Hsin Lin, Eugene Lin, Hsien-Yuan Lane
With ever-increasing elder populations, age-related cognitive decline, which is characterized as a gradual decline in cognitive capacity in the aging process, has turned out to be a mammoth public health concern. Since genetic information has become increasingly important to explore the biological mechanisms of cognitive decline, the search for genetic biomarkers of cognitive aging has received much attention. There is growing evidence that single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the ADAMTS9, BDNF, CASS4, COMT, CR1, DNMT3A, DTNBP1, REST, SRR, TOMM40, circadian clock, and Alzheimer's diseases-associated genes may contribute to susceptibility to cognitive aging...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192242/impact-related-microspherules-in-late-pleistocene-alaskan-and-yukon-muck-deposits-signify-recurrent-episodes-of-catastrophic-emplacement
#2
Jonathan T Hagstrum, Richard B Firestone, Allen West, James C Weaver, Ted E Bunch
Large quantities of impact-related microspherules have been found in fine-grained sediments retained within seven out of nine, radiocarbon-dated, Late Pleistocene mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) and bison (Bison priscus) skull fragments. The well-preserved fossils were recovered from frozen "muck" deposits (organic-rich silt) exposed within the Fairbanks and Klondike mining districts of Alaska, USA, and the Yukon Territory, Canada. In addition, elevated platinum abundances were found in sediment analysed from three out of four fossil skulls...
November 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172865/mammoth-a-new-database-for-curated-mathematical-models-of-biomolecular-systems
#3
Fedor Kazantsev, Ilya Akberdin, Sergey Lashin, Natalia Ree, Vladimir Timonov, Alexander Ratushny, Tamara Khlebodarova, Vitaly Likhoshvai
MOTIVATION: Living systems have a complex hierarchical organization that can be viewed as a set of dynamically interacting subsystems. Thus, to simulate the internal nature and dynamics of the entire biological system, we should use the iterative way for a model reconstruction, which is a consistent composition and combination of its elementary subsystems. In accordance with this bottom-up approach, we have developed the MAthematical Models of bioMOlecular sysTems (MAMMOTh) tool that consists of the database containing manually curated MAMMOTh fitted to the experimental data and a software tool that provides their further integration...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134102/imperial-trophy-or-island-relict-a-new-extinction-paradigm-for-p%C3%A3-re-david-s-deer-a-chinese-conservation-icon
#4
Samuel T Turvey, Ian Barnes, Melissa Marr, Selina Brace
Determining the 'dynamic biogeography' of range collapse in threatened species is essential for effective conservation, but reconstruction of spatio-temporal patterns of population vulnerability and resilience can require use of non-standard ecological data such as historical archives. Père David's deer or milu, one of the few living mammal species that has become extinct in the wild, is historically known only from a small captive herd of unknown provenance that survived until 1900 in the Imperial Hunting Park near Beijing, from which all living individuals are descended...
October 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103934/genome-based-sexing-provides-clues-about-behavior-and-social-structure-in-the-woolly-mammoth
#5
Patrícia Pečnerová, David Díez-Del-Molino, Nicolas Dussex, Tatiana Feuerborn, Johanna von Seth, Johannes van der Plicht, Pavel Nikolskiy, Alexei Tikhonov, Sergey Vartanyan, Love Dalén
While present-day taxa are valuable proxies for understanding the biology of extinct species, it is also crucial to examine physical remains in order to obtain a more comprehensive view of their behavior, social structure, and life histories [1, 2]. For example, information on demographic parameters such as age distribution and sex ratios in fossil assemblages can be used to accurately infer socioecological patterns (e.g., [3]). Here we use genomic data to determine the sex of 98 woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) specimens in order to infer social and behavioral patterns in the last 60,000 years of the species' existence...
November 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096892/cancer-stem-cells-and-metastasis
#6
Sushmita Bose Nandy, Rajkumar Lakshmanaswamy
Decades of cancer research have led to substantial progress in the treatment of primary breast cancers. Despite of the advancement in this field, treating a metastatic disease has remained a mammoth task. One of the possible theories explaining metastatic disease involves the cancer stem cells (CSCs). CSCs have been shown to be an integral part of solid tumors. The process of metastasis involves the fine orchestration between CSCs and other microenvironmental factors. This chapter will provide an overview about the process of metastasis and the interactive role of CSCs with the components of the microenvironment in each phase of the metastatic cascade...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056454/evolutionary-history-of-saber-toothed-cats-based-on-ancient-mitogenomics
#7
Johanna L A Paijmans, Ross Barnett, M Thomas P Gilbert, M Lisandra Zepeda-Mendoza, Jelle W F Reumer, John de Vos, Grant Zazula, Doris Nagel, Gennady F Baryshnikov, Jennifer A Leonard, Nadin Rohland, Michael V Westbury, Axel Barlow, Michael Hofreiter
Saber-toothed cats (Machairodontinae) are among the most widely recognized representatives of the now largely extinct Pleistocene megafauna. However, many aspects of their ecology, evolution, and extinction remain uncertain. Although ancient-DNA studies have led to huge advances in our knowledge of these aspects of many other megafauna species (e.g., mammoths and cave bears), relatively few ancient-DNA studies have focused on saber-toothed cats [1-3], and they have been restricted to short fragments of mitochondrial DNA...
November 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959177/ancient-permafrost-staphylococci-carry-antibiotic-resistance-genes
#8
Elena Kashuba, Alexey A Dmitriev, Shady Mansour Kamal, Ojar Melefors, Gennady Griva, Ute Römling, Ingemar Ernberg, Vladimir Kashuba, Anatoli Brouchkov
Background: Permafrost preserves a variety of viable ancient microorganisms. Some of them can be cultivated after being kept at subzero temperatures for thousands or even millions of years. Objective: To cultivate bacterial strains from permafrost. Design: We isolated and cultivated two bacterial strains from permafrost that was obtained at Mammoth Mountain in Siberia and attributed to the Middle Miocene. Bacterial genomic DNA was sequenced with 40-60× coverage and high-quality contigs were assembled. The first strain was assigned to Staphylococcus warneri species (designated MMP1) and the second one to Staphylococcus hominis species (designated MMP2), based on the classification of 16S ribosomal RNA genes and genomic sequences...
2017: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916375/bacterial-community-in-ancient-permafrost-alluvium-at-the-mammoth-mountain-eastern-siberia
#9
Anatoli Brouchkov, Marsel Kabilov, Svetlana Filippova, Olga Baturina, Victor Rogov, Valery Galchenko, Andrey Mulyukin, Oksana Fursova, Gennady Pogorelko
Permanently frozen (approx. 3.5Ma) alluvial Neogene sediments exposed in the Aldan river valley at the Mammoth Mountain (Eastern Siberia) are unique, ancient, and poorly studied permafrost environments. So far, the structure of the indigenous bacterial community has remained unknown. Use of 16S metagenomic analysis with total DNA isolation using DNA Spin Kit for Soil (MO-Bio) and QIAamp DNA Stool Mini Kit (Qiagen) has revealed the major and minor bacterial lineages in the permafrost alluvium sediments. In sum, 61 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) with 31,239 reads (Qiagen kit) and 15,404 reads (Mo-Bio kit) could be assigned to the known taxa...
December 15, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875067/high-incidence-of-cervical-ribs-indicates-vulnerable-condition-in-late-pleistocene-woolly-rhinoceroses
#10
Alexandra A E van der Geer, Frietson Galis
Mammals as a rule have seven cervical vertebrae, a number that remains remarkably constant. Changes of this number are associated with major congenital abnormalities (pleiotropic effects) that are, at least in humans, strongly selected against. Recently, it was found that Late Pleistocene mammoths (Mammuthus primigenius) from the North Sea have an unusually high incidence of abnormal cervical vertebral numbers, approximately ten times higher than that of extant elephants. Abnormal numbers were due to the presence of large cervical ribs on the seventh vertebra, indicating a homeotic change from a cervical rib-less vertebra into a thoracic rib-bearing vertebra...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754955/isotopic-analyses-suggest-mammoth-and-plant-in-the-diet-of-the-oldest-anatomically-modern-humans-from-far-southeast-europe
#11
Dorothée G Drucker, Yuichi I Naito, Stéphane Péan, Sandrine Prat, Laurent Crépin, Yoshito Chikaraishi, Naohiko Ohkouchi, Simon Puaud, Martina Lázničková-Galetová, Marylène Patou-Mathis, Aleksandr Yanevich, Hervé Bocherens
Relatively high (15)N abundances in bone collagen of early anatomically modern humans in Europe have often been interpreted as a specific consumption of freshwater resources, even if mammoth is an alternative high (15)N prey. At Buran-Kaya III, access to associated fauna in a secured archaeological context and application of recently developed isotopic analyses of individuals amino acids offer the opportunity to further examine this hypothesis. The site of Buran-Kaya III is located in south Crimea and has provided a rich archaeological sequence including two Upper Palaeolithic layers, from which human fossils were retrieved and directly dated as from 37...
July 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746760/de-extinction-and-conservation-genetics-in-the-anthropocene
#12
Ronald Sandler
One interesting feature of de-extinction-particularly with respect to long-extinct species such as the passenger pigeon, thylacine, and mammoth-is that it does not fit neatly into the primary rationales for adopting novel ecosystem-management and species-conservation technologies and strategies: efficiency and necessity. The efficiency rationale is that the new technology or strategy enables conservation biologists to do what they already do more effectively. Why should researchers embrace novel information technologies? Because they allow scientists to better track, monitor, map, aggregate, and analyze species behaviors, biological systems, and human-environment interactions...
July 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706989/inactivation-of-thermogenic-ucp1-as-a-historical-contingency-in-multiple-placental-mammal-clades
#13
Michael J Gaudry, Martin Jastroch, Jason R Treberg, Michael Hofreiter, Johanna L A Paijmans, James Starrett, Nathan Wales, Anthony V Signore, Mark S Springer, Kevin L Campbell
Mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) is essential for nonshivering thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue and is widely accepted to have played a key thermoregulatory role in small-bodied and neonatal placental mammals that enabled the exploitation of cold environments. We map ucp1 sequences from 133 mammals onto a species tree constructed from a ~51-kb sequence alignment and show that inactivating mutations have occurred in at least 8 of the 18 traditional placental orders, thereby challenging the physiological importance of UCP1 across Placentalia...
July 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698111/phylogeny-and-biogeography-of-maclura-moraceae-and-the-origin-of-an-anachronistic-fruit
#14
Elliot M Gardner, Paya Sarraf, Evelyn W Williams, Nyree J C Zerega
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Maclura (ca. 12spp., Moraceae) is a widespread genus of trees and woody climbers found on five continents. Maclura pomifera, the Osage orange, is considered a classic example of an anachronistic fruit. Native to the central USA, the grapefruit-sized Osage oranges are unpalatable and have no known extant native dispersers, leading to speculation that the fruits were adapted to extinct megafauna. Our aim was to reconstruct the phylogeny, estimate divergence dates, and infer ancestral ranges of Maclura in order to test the monophyly of subgeneric classifications and to understand evolution and dispersal patterns in this globally distributed group...
July 8, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657198/family-science-talk-in-museums-predicting-children-s-engagement-from-variations-in-talk-and-activity
#15
Maureen A Callanan, Claudia L Castañeda, Megan R Luce, Jennifer L Martin
Children's developing reasoning skills are better understood within the context of their social and cultural lives. As part of a research-museum partnership, this article reports a study exploring science-relevant conversations of 82 families, with children between 3 and 11 years, while visiting a children's museum exhibit about mammoth bones, and in a focused one-on-one exploration of a "mystery object." Parents' use of a variety of types of science talk predicted children's conceptual engagement in the exhibit, but interestingly, different types of parent talk predicted children's engagement depending on the order of the two activities...
June 28, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649261/the-role-of-sink-strength-and-nitrogen-availability-in-the-down-regulation-of-photosynthetic-capacity-in-field-grown-nicotiana-tabacum-l-at-elevated-co2-concentration
#16
Ursula M Ruiz-Vera, Amanda P De Souza, Stephen P Long, Donald R Ort
Down-regulation of photosynthesis is among the most common responses observed in C3 plants grown under elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]). Down-regulation is often attributed to an insufficient capacity of sink organs to use or store the increased carbohydrate production that results from the stimulation of photosynthesis by elevated [CO2]. Down-regulation can be accentuated by inadequate nitrogen (N) supply, which may limit sink development. While there is strong evidence for down-regulation of photosynthesis at elevated [CO2] in enclosure studies most often involving potted plants, there is little evidence for this when [CO2] is elevated fully under open-air field treatment conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463978/molecular-docking-studies-of-3-bromopyruvate-and-its-derivatives-to-metabolic-regulatory-enzymes-implication-in-designing-of-novel-anticancer-therapeutic-strategies
#17
Saveg Yadav, Shrish Kumar Pandey, Vinay Kumar Singh, Yugal Goel, Ajay Kumar, Sukh Mahendra Singh
Altered metabolism is an emerging hallmark of cancer, as malignant cells display a mammoth up-regulation of enzymes responsible for steering their bioenergetic and biosynthetic machinery. Thus, the recent anticancer therapeutic strategies focus on the targeting of metabolic enzymes, which has led to the identification of specific metabolic inhibitors. One of such inhibitors is 3-bromopyruvate (3-BP), with broad spectrum of anticancer activity due to its ability to inhibit multiple metabolic enzymes. However, the molecular characterization of its binding to the wide spectrum of target enzymes remains largely elusive...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432954/fully-automatic-left-ventricular-segmentation-from-long-axis-cardiac-cine-mr-scans
#18
Rahil Shahzad, Qian Tao, Oleh Dzyubachyk, Marius Staring, Boudewijn P F Lelieveldt, Rob J van der Geest
With an increasing number of large-scale population-based cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging studies being conducted nowadays, there comes the mammoth task of image annotation and image analysis. Such population-based studies would greatly benefit from automated pipelines, with an efficient CMR image analysis workflow. The purpose of this work is to investigate the feasibility of using a fully-automatic pipeline to segment the left ventricular endocardium and epicardium simultaneously on two orthogonal (vertical and horizontal) long-axis cardiac cine MRI scans...
April 13, 2017: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400493/a-virus-induced-assay-for-functional-dissection-and-analysis-of-monocot-and-dicot-flowering-time-genes
#19
Cheng Qin, Weiwei Chen, Jiajia Shen, Linming Cheng, Femi Akande, Ke Zhang, Chen Yuan, Chunyang Li, Pengcheng Zhang, Nongnong Shi, Qi Cheng, Yule Liu, Stephen Jackson, Yiguo Hong
Virus-induced flowering (VIF) uses virus vectors to express Flowering Locus T (FT) to induce flowering in plants. This approach has recently attracted wide interest for its practical applications in accelerating breeding in crops and woody fruit trees. However, the insight into VIF and its potential as a powerful tool for dissecting florigenic proteins remained to be elucidated. Here, we describe the mechanism and further applications of Potato virus X (PVX)-based VIF in the short-day Nicotiana tabacum cultivar Maryland Mammoth...
June 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369217/evolutionary-adaptation-revealed-by-comparative-genome-analysis-of-woolly-mammoths-and-elephants
#20
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Sean D Smith, Joseph K Kawash, Spyros Karaiskos, Ian Biluck, Andrey Grigoriev
Comparative genomics studies typically limit their focus to single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and that was the case for previous comparisons of woolly mammoth genomes. We extended the analysis to systematically identify not only SNVs but also larger structural variants (SVs) and indels and found multiple mammoth-specific deletions and duplications affecting exons or even complete genes. The most prominent SV found was an amplification of RNase L (with different copy numbers in different mammoth genomes, up to 9-fold), involved in antiviral defense and inflammasome function...
August 1, 2017: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
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