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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720410/mammoth-grazers-on-the-ocean-s-minuteness-a-review-of-selective-feeding-using-mucous-meshes
#1
REVIEW
Keats R Conley, Fabien Lombard, Kelly R Sutherland
Mucous-mesh grazers (pelagic tunicates and thecosome pteropods) are common in oceanic waters and efficiently capture, consume and repackage particles many orders of magnitude smaller than themselves. They feed using an adhesive mucous mesh to capture prey particles from ambient seawater. Historically, their grazing process has been characterized as non-selective, depending only on the size of the prey particle and the pore dimensions of the mesh. The purpose of this review is to reverse this assumption by reviewing recent evidence that shows mucous-mesh feeding can be selective...
May 16, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674002/dengue-virus-ns2-and-ns4-minor-proteins-mammoth-roles
#2
REVIEW
Sindhoora Bhargavi Gopala Reddy, Wei-Xin Chin, Nanjunda Swamy Shivananju
Despite the ever increasing global incidence of dengue fever, there are no specific chemotherapy regimens for its treatment. Structural studies on dengue virus (DENV) proteins have revealed potential drug targets. Major DENV proteins such as the envelope protein and non-structural (NS) proteins 3 and 5 have been extensively investigated in antiviral studies, but with limited success in vitro. However, the minor NS proteins NS2 and NS4 have remained relatively underreported. Emerging evidence indicating their indispensable roles in virus propagation and host immunomodulation should encourage us to target these proteins for drug discovery...
April 16, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522651/combined-non-invasive-pixe-pige-analyses-of-mammoth-ivory-from-aurignacian-archaeological-sites
#3
Ina Reiche, Claire Heckel, Katharina Müller, Olaf Jöris, Tim Matthies, Nicholas J Conard, Harald Floss, Randall White
Among the earliest Homo sapiens societies in Eurasia, the Aurignacian phase of the Early Upper Paleolithic, approximately 40 000-30 000 years ago, mammoth ivory assumed great social and economic significance, and was used to create hundreds of personal ornaments as well as the earliest known works of three-dimensional figurative art in the world. This paper reports on the results of micro-PIXE/PIGE analyses of mammoth-ivory artifacts and debris from five major sites of Aurignacian ivory use. Patterns of variable fluorine content indicate regionally distinctive strategies of ivory procurement that correspond to apparent differences in human-mammoth interactions...
March 9, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483680/the-large-mean-body-size-of-mammalian-herbivores-explains-the-productivity-paradox-during-the-last-glacial-maximum
#4
Dan Zhu, Philippe Ciais, Jinfeng Chang, Gerhard Krinner, Shushi Peng, Nicolas Viovy, Josep Peñuelas, Sergey Zimov
Large herbivores are a major agent in ecosystems, influencing vegetation structure, and carbon and nutrient flows. During the last glacial period, a mammoth steppe ecosystem prevailed in the unglaciated northern lands, supporting a high diversity and density of megafaunal herbivores. The apparent discrepancy between abundant megafauna and the expected low vegetation productivity under a generally harsher climate with a lower CO2 concentration, termed the productivity paradox, requires large-scale quantitative analysis using process-based ecosystem models...
April 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483267/-flowering-locus-t-mrna-is-synthesized-in-specialized-companion-cells-in-arabidopsis-and-maryland-mammoth-tobacco-leaf-veins
#5
Qingguo Chen, Raja S Payyavula, Lin Chen, Jing Zhang, Cankui Zhang, Robert Turgeon
Flowering is triggered by the transmission of a mobile protein, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), from leaves to the shoot apex. FT originates in the phloem of leaf veins. However, the identity of the FT-synthesizing cells in the phloem is not known. As a result, it has not been possible to determine whether the complex regulatory networks that control FT synthesis involve intercellular communication, as is the case in many aspects of plant development. We demonstrate here that FT in Arabidopsis thaliana and FT orthologs in Maryland Mammoth tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum ) are produced in two unique files of phloem companion cells...
March 13, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483247/a-comprehensive-genomic-history-of-extinct-and-living-elephants
#6
Eleftheria Palkopoulou, Mark Lipson, Swapan Mallick, Svend Nielsen, Nadin Rohland, Sina Baleka, Emil Karpinski, Atma M Ivancevic, Thu-Hien To, R Daniel Kortschak, Joy M Raison, Zhipeng Qu, Tat-Jun Chin, Kurt W Alt, Stefan Claesson, Love Dalén, Ross D E MacPhee, Harald Meller, Alfred L Roca, Oliver A Ryder, David Heiman, Sarah Young, Matthew Breen, Christina Williams, Bronwen L Aken, Magali Ruffier, Elinor Karlsson, Jeremy Johnson, Federica Di Palma, Jessica Alfoldi, David L Adelson, Thomas Mailund, Kasper Munch, Kerstin Lindblad-Toh, Michael Hofreiter, Hendrik Poinar, David Reich
Elephantids are the world's most iconic megafaunal family, yet there is no comprehensive genomic assessment of their relationships. We report a total of 14 genomes, including 2 from the American mastodon, which is an extinct elephantid relative, and 12 spanning all three extant and three extinct elephantid species including an ∼120,000-y-old straight-tusked elephant, a Columbian mammoth, and woolly mammoths. Earlier genetic studies modeled elephantid evolution via simple bifurcating trees, but here we show that interspecies hybridization has been a recurrent feature of elephantid evolution...
March 13, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29480600/the-mammoth-professor
#7
J H Meurman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297313/a-compendium-and-functional-characterization-of-mammalian-genes-involved-in-adaptation-to-arctic-or-antarctic-environments
#8
Nikolay S Yudin, Denis M Larkin, Elena V Ignatieva
BACKGROUND: Many mammals are well adapted to surviving in extremely cold environments. These species have likely accumulated genetic changes that help them efficiently cope with low temperatures. It is not known whether the same genes related to cold adaptation in one species would be under selection in another species. The aims of this study therefore were: to create a compendium of mammalian genes related to adaptations to a low temperature environment; to identify genes related to cold tolerance that have been subjected to independent positive selection in several species; to determine promising candidate genes/pathways/organs for further empirical research on cold adaptation in mammals...
December 28, 2017: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277542/evolution-of-the-mc5r-gene-in-placental-mammals-with-evidence-for-its-inactivation-in-multiple-lineages-that-lack-sebaceous-glands
#9
Mark S Springer, John Gatesy
MC5R is one of five melanocortin receptor genes found in placental mammals. MC5R plays an important role in energy homeostasis and is also expressed in the terminal differentiation of sebaceous glands. Among placental mammals there are multiple lineages that either lack or have degenerative sebaceous glands including Cetacea (whales, dolphins, and porpoises), Hippopotamidae (hippopotamuses), Sirenia (manatees and dugongs), Proboscidea (elephants), Rhinocerotidae (rhinos), and Heterocephalus glaber (naked mole rat)...
March 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209239/genetic-biomarkers-on-age-related-cognitive-decline
#10
REVIEW
Chieh-Hsin Lin, Eugene Lin, Hsien-Yuan Lane
With ever-increasing elder populations, age-related cognitive decline, which is characterized as a gradual decline in cognitive capacity in the aging process, has turned out to be a mammoth public health concern. Since genetic information has become increasingly important to explore the biological mechanisms of cognitive decline, the search for genetic biomarkers of cognitive aging has received much attention. There is growing evidence that single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the ADAMTS9, BDNF, CASS4, COMT, CR1, DNMT3A, DTNBP1, REST, SRR, TOMM40 , circadian clock, and Alzheimer's diseases-associated genes may contribute to susceptibility to cognitive aging...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192242/impact-related-microspherules-in-late-pleistocene-alaskan-and-yukon-muck-deposits-signify-recurrent-episodes-of-catastrophic-emplacement
#11
Jonathan T Hagstrum, Richard B Firestone, Allen West, James C Weaver, Ted E Bunch
Large quantities of impact-related microspherules have been found in fine-grained sediments retained within seven out of nine, radiocarbon-dated, Late Pleistocene mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) and bison (Bison priscus) skull fragments. The well-preserved fossils were recovered from frozen "muck" deposits (organic-rich silt) exposed within the Fairbanks and Klondike mining districts of Alaska, USA, and the Yukon Territory, Canada. In addition, elevated platinum abundances were found in sediment analysed from three out of four fossil skulls...
November 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172865/mammoth-a-new-database-for-curated-mathematical-models-of-biomolecular-systems
#12
Fedor Kazantsev, Ilya Akberdin, Sergey Lashin, Natalia Ree, Vladimir Timonov, Alexander Ratushny, Tamara Khlebodarova, Vitaly Likhoshvai
MOTIVATION: Living systems have a complex hierarchical organization that can be viewed as a set of dynamically interacting subsystems. Thus, to simulate the internal nature and dynamics of the entire biological system, we should use the iterative way for a model reconstruction, which is a consistent composition and combination of its elementary subsystems. In accordance with this bottom-up approach, we have developed the MAthematical Models of bioMOlecular sysTems (MAMMOTh) tool that consists of the database containing manually curated MAMMOTh fitted to the experimental data and a software tool that provides their further integration...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134102/imperial-trophy-or-island-relict-a-new-extinction-paradigm-for-p%C3%A3-re-david-s-deer-a-chinese-conservation-icon
#13
Samuel T Turvey, Ian Barnes, Melissa Marr, Selina Brace
Determining the 'dynamic biogeography' of range collapse in threatened species is essential for effective conservation, but reconstruction of spatio-temporal patterns of population vulnerability and resilience can require use of non-standard ecological data such as historical archives. Père David's deer or milu, one of the few living mammal species that has become extinct in the wild, is historically known only from a small captive herd of unknown provenance that survived until 1900 in the Imperial Hunting Park near Beijing, from which all living individuals are descended...
October 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103934/genome-based-sexing-provides-clues-about-behavior-and-social-structure-in-the-woolly-mammoth
#14
Patrícia Pečnerová, David Díez-Del-Molino, Nicolas Dussex, Tatiana Feuerborn, Johanna von Seth, Johannes van der Plicht, Pavel Nikolskiy, Alexei Tikhonov, Sergey Vartanyan, Love Dalén
While present-day taxa are valuable proxies for understanding the biology of extinct species, it is also crucial to examine physical remains in order to obtain a more comprehensive view of their behavior, social structure, and life histories [1, 2]. For example, information on demographic parameters such as age distribution and sex ratios in fossil assemblages can be used to accurately infer socioecological patterns (e.g., [3]). Here we use genomic data to determine the sex of 98 woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) specimens in order to infer social and behavioral patterns in the last 60,000 years of the species' existence...
November 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096892/cancer-stem-cells-and-metastasis
#15
Sushmita Bose Nandy, Rajkumar Lakshmanaswamy
Decades of cancer research have led to substantial progress in the treatment of primary breast cancers. Despite of the advancement in this field, treating a metastatic disease has remained a mammoth task. One of the possible theories explaining metastatic disease involves the cancer stem cells (CSCs). CSCs have been shown to be an integral part of solid tumors. The process of metastasis involves the fine orchestration between CSCs and other microenvironmental factors. This chapter will provide an overview about the process of metastasis and the interactive role of CSCs with the components of the microenvironment in each phase of the metastatic cascade...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056454/evolutionary-history-of-saber-toothed-cats-based-on-ancient-mitogenomics
#16
Johanna L A Paijmans, Ross Barnett, M Thomas P Gilbert, M Lisandra Zepeda-Mendoza, Jelle W F Reumer, John de Vos, Grant Zazula, Doris Nagel, Gennady F Baryshnikov, Jennifer A Leonard, Nadin Rohland, Michael V Westbury, Axel Barlow, Michael Hofreiter
Saber-toothed cats (Machairodontinae) are among the most widely recognized representatives of the now largely extinct Pleistocene megafauna. However, many aspects of their ecology, evolution, and extinction remain uncertain. Although ancient-DNA studies have led to huge advances in our knowledge of these aspects of many other megafauna species (e.g., mammoths and cave bears), relatively few ancient-DNA studies have focused on saber-toothed cats [1-3], and they have been restricted to short fragments of mitochondrial DNA...
November 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959177/ancient-permafrost-staphylococci-carry-antibiotic-resistance-genes
#17
Elena Kashuba, Alexey A Dmitriev, Shady Mansour Kamal, Ojar Melefors, Gennady Griva, Ute Römling, Ingemar Ernberg, Vladimir Kashuba, Anatoli Brouchkov
Background: Permafrost preserves a variety of viable ancient microorganisms. Some of them can be cultivated after being kept at subzero temperatures for thousands or even millions of years. Objective: To cultivate bacterial strains from permafrost. Design: We isolated and cultivated two bacterial strains from permafrost that was obtained at Mammoth Mountain in Siberia and attributed to the Middle Miocene. Bacterial genomic DNA was sequenced with 40-60× coverage and high-quality contigs were assembled. The first strain was assigned to Staphylococcus warneri species (designated MMP1) and the second one to Staphylococcus hominis species (designated MMP2), based on the classification of 16S ribosomal RNA genes and genomic sequences...
2017: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916375/bacterial-community-in-ancient-permafrost-alluvium-at-the-mammoth-mountain-eastern-siberia
#18
Anatoli Brouchkov, Marsel Kabilov, Svetlana Filippova, Olga Baturina, Victor Rogov, Valery Galchenko, Andrey Mulyukin, Oksana Fursova, Gennady Pogorelko
Permanently frozen (approx. 3.5Ma) alluvial Neogene sediments exposed in the Aldan river valley at the Mammoth Mountain (Eastern Siberia) are unique, ancient, and poorly studied permafrost environments. So far, the structure of the indigenous bacterial community has remained unknown. Use of 16S metagenomic analysis with total DNA isolation using DNA Spin Kit for Soil (MO-Bio) and QIAamp DNA Stool Mini Kit (Qiagen) has revealed the major and minor bacterial lineages in the permafrost alluvium sediments. In sum, 61 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) with 31,239 reads (Qiagen kit) and 15,404 reads (Mo-Bio kit) could be assigned to the known taxa...
December 15, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875067/high-incidence-of-cervical-ribs-indicates-vulnerable-condition-in-late-pleistocene-woolly-rhinoceroses
#19
Alexandra A E van der Geer, Frietson Galis
Mammals as a rule have seven cervical vertebrae, a number that remains remarkably constant. Changes of this number are associated with major congenital abnormalities (pleiotropic effects) that are, at least in humans, strongly selected against. Recently, it was found that Late Pleistocene mammoths (Mammuthus primigenius) from the North Sea have an unusually high incidence of abnormal cervical vertebral numbers, approximately ten times higher than that of extant elephants. Abnormal numbers were due to the presence of large cervical ribs on the seventh vertebra, indicating a homeotic change from a cervical rib-less vertebra into a thoracic rib-bearing vertebra...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754955/isotopic-analyses-suggest-mammoth-and-plant-in-the-diet-of-the-oldest-anatomically-modern-humans-from-far-southeast-europe
#20
Dorothée G Drucker, Yuichi I Naito, Stéphane Péan, Sandrine Prat, Laurent Crépin, Yoshito Chikaraishi, Naohiko Ohkouchi, Simon Puaud, Martina Lázničková-Galetová, Marylène Patou-Mathis, Aleksandr Yanevich, Hervé Bocherens
Relatively high (15)N abundances in bone collagen of early anatomically modern humans in Europe have often been interpreted as a specific consumption of freshwater resources, even if mammoth is an alternative high (15)N prey. At Buran-Kaya III, access to associated fauna in a secured archaeological context and application of recently developed isotopic analyses of individuals amino acids offer the opportunity to further examine this hypothesis. The site of Buran-Kaya III is located in south Crimea and has provided a rich archaeological sequence including two Upper Palaeolithic layers, from which human fossils were retrieved and directly dated as from 37...
July 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
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