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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27587336/drivers-of-bacterial-genomes-plasticity-and-roles-they-play-in-pathogen-virulence-persistence-and-drug-resistance
#1
REVIEW
Seema Patel
Despite the advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, sophisticated data analysis and drug development efforts, bacterial drug resistance persists and is escalating in magnitude. To better control the pathogens, a thorough understanding of their genomic architecture and dynamics is vital. Bacterial genome is extremely complex, a mosaic of numerous co-operating and antagonizing components, altruistic and self-interested entities, behavior of which are predictable and conserved to some extent, yet largely dictated by an array of variables...
August 30, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27509852/postglacial-viability-and-colonization-in-north-america-s-ice-free-corridor
#2
Mikkel W Pedersen, Anthony Ruter, Charles Schweger, Harvey Friebe, Richard A Staff, Kristian K Kjeldsen, Marie L Z Mendoza, Alwynne B Beaudoin, Cynthia Zutter, Nicolaj K Larsen, Ben A Potter, Rasmus Nielsen, Rebecca A Rainville, Ludovic Orlando, David J Meltzer, Kurt H Kjær, Eske Willerslev
During the Last Glacial Maximum, continental ice sheets isolated Beringia (northeast Siberia and northwest North America) from unglaciated North America. By around 15 to 14 thousand calibrated radiocarbon years before present (cal. kyr bp), glacial retreat opened an approximately 1,500-km-long corridor between the ice sheets. It remains unclear when plants and animals colonized this corridor and it became biologically viable for human migration. We obtained radiocarbon dates, pollen, macrofossils and metagenomic DNA from lake sediment cores in a bottleneck portion of the corridor...
August 10, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27426005/an-overview-of-the-regulation-of-influenza-vaccines-in-the-united-states
#3
Jerry P Weir, Marion F Gruber
Influenza virus vaccines are unique among currently licensed viral vaccines. The vaccines designed to protect against seasonal influenza illness must be updated periodically in an effort to match the vaccine strain with currently circulating viruses, and the vaccine manufacturing timeline includes multiple, overlapping processes with a very limited amount of flexibility. In the United States (U.S.), over 150 million doses of seasonal trivalent and quadrivalent vaccine are produced annually, a mammoth effort, particularly in the context of a vaccine with components that usually change on a yearly basis...
September 2016: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27326379/phosphorus-mobilizing-consortium-mammoth-p-%C3%A2-enhances-plant-growth
#4
Peter Baas, Colin Bell, Lauren M Mancini, Melanie N Lee, Richard T Conant, Matthew D Wallenstein
Phosphorus (P) is a critical nutrient used to maximize plant growth and yield. Current agriculture management practices commonly experience low plant P use efficiency due to natural chemical sorption and transformations when P fertilizer is applied to soils. A perplexing challenge facing agriculture production is finding sustainable solutions to deliver P more efficiently to plants. Using prescribed applications of specific soil microbial assemblages to mobilize soil bound-P to improve crop nutrient uptake and productivity has rarely been employed...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27252584/ascribing-functions-to-genes-journey-towards-genetic-improvement-of-rice-via-functional-genomics
#5
Ananda Mustafiz, Sumita Kumari, Ratna Karan
Rice, one of the most important cereal crops for mankind, feeds more than half the world population. Rice has been heralded as a model cereal owing to its small genome size, amenability to easy transformation, high synteny to other cereal crops and availability of complete genome sequence. Moreover, sequence wealth in rice is getting more refined and precise due to resequencing efforts. This humungous resource of sequence data has confronted research fraternity with a herculean challenge as well as an excellent opportunity to functionally validate expressed as well as regulatory portions of the genome...
June 2016: Current Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27143688/changes-in-variation-at-the-mhc-class-ii-dqa-locus-during-the-final-demise-of-the-woolly-mammoth
#6
Patrícia Pečnerová, David Díez-Del-Molino, Sergey Vartanyan, Love Dalén
According to the nearly-neutral theory of evolution, the relative strengths of selection and drift shift in favour of drift at small population sizes. Numerous studies have analysed the effect of bottlenecks and small population sizes on genetic diversity in the MHC, which plays a central role in pathogen recognition and immune defense and is thus considered a model example for the study of adaptive evolution. However, to understand changes in genetic diversity at loci under selection, it is necessary to compare the genetic diversity of a population before and after the bottleneck...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27113442/the-maintaining-musculoskeletal-health-mammoth-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-trial-of-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-versus-usual-care-for-the-prevention-of-chronic-widespread-pain
#7
Gary J Macfarlane, Marcus Beasley, Gordon Prescott, Paul McNamee, Philip Keeley, Majid Artus, John McBeth, Philip Hannaford, Gareth T Jones, Neil Basu, John Norrie, Karina Lovell
BACKGROUND: Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) has been shown to improve outcomes for patients with fibromyalgia, and its cardinal feature chronic widespread pain (CWP). Prediction models have now been developed which identify groups who are at high-risk of developing CWP. It would be beneficial to be able to prevent the development of CWP in these people because of the high cost of symptoms and because once established they are difficult to manage. We will test the hypothesis that among patients who are identified as at high-risk, a short course of telephone-delivered CBT (tCBT) reduces the onset of CWP...
2016: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27051865/climate-co2-and-the-history-of-north-american-grasses-since-the-last-glacial-maximum
#8
Jennifer M Cotton, Thure E Cerling, Kathryn A Hoppe, Thomas M Mosier, Christopher J Still
The spread of C4 grasses in the late Neogene is one of the most important ecological transitions of the Cenozoic, but the primary driver of this global expansion is widely debated. We use the stable carbon isotopic composition (δ(13)C) of bison and mammoth tissues as a proxy for the relative abundance of C3 and C4 vegetation in their grazing habitat to determine climatic and atmospheric CO2 controls on C4 grass distributions from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to the present. We predict the spatial variability of grass δ(13)C in North America using a mean of three different methods of classification and regression tree (CART) machine learning techniques and nine climatic variables...
March 2016: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26946579/mammoth-order-for-singapore-project
#9
(no author information available yet)
Two new hospitals in Singapore that form a new integrated healthcare hub, that feature a range of innovations in patient treatment and care, and are reportedly the country's first such healthcare facilities built together as an integrated development to complement each other's capabilities and services, were officially opened by Singapore's Prime Minister, Lee Hsien Loong, last October. Operated by Jurong Health, a public healthcare 'cluster' formed to facilitate the integration of healthcare services in the west of Singapore, the Ng Teng Fong Hospital and Jurong Community Hospital feature an extensive array of Gerflor flooring, selected, as the company explains in this article, for a combination of outstanding aesthetics, durability, safety, and hard wear...
January 2016: Health Estate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26868396/draft-genome-sequence-of-enterococcus-faecium-strain-58m-isolated-from-intestinal-tract-content-of-a-woolly-mammoth-mammuthus-primigenius
#10
Artemiy Goncharov, Semyon Grigorjev, Alena Karaseva, Viktoria Kolodzhieva, Daniil Azarov, Yana Akhremenko, Lidia Tarasova, Alexei Tikhonov, Alexey Masharskiy, Lyudmila Zueva, Alexander Suvorov
Enterococcus faecium 58m is a putative ancient nonpathogenic strain isolated from the intestinal content of an adult woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius). Here, we report its draft genome sequence, consisting of 60 contigs. In silico genomic analysis was performed to determine the genetic features and pathogenic potential of this microorganism.
2016: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26840445/was-frozen-mammoth-or-giant-ground-sloth-served-for-dinner-at-the-explorers-club
#11
Jessica R Glass, Matt Davis, Timothy J Walsh, Eric J Sargis, Adalgisa Caccone
Accounts of woolly mammoths (Mammuthus primigenius) preserved so well in ice that their meat is still edible have a long history of intriguing the public and influencing paleontological thought on Quaternary extinctions and climate, with some scientists resorting to catastrophism to explain the instantaneous freezing necessary to preserve edible meat. Famously, members of The Explorers Club purportedly dined on frozen mammoth from Alaska, USA, in 1951. This event, well received by the press and general public, became an enduring legend for the Club and popularized the notorious annual tradition of serving rare and exotic food at Club dinners that continues to this day...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26822944/water-relations-and-photosynthesis-along-an-elevation-gradient-for-artemisia-tridentata-during-an-historic-drought
#12
Charlotte C Reed, Michael E Loik
Quantifying the variation in plant-water relations and photosynthesis over environmental gradients and during unique events can provide a better understanding of vegetation patterns in a future climate. We evaluated the hypotheses that photosynthesis and plant water potential would correspond to gradients in precipitation and soil moisture during a lengthy drought, and that experimental water additions would increase photosynthesis for the widespread evergreen shrub Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana. We quantified abiotic conditions and physiological characteristics for control and watered plants at 2135, 2315, and 2835 m near Mammoth Lakes, CA, USA, at the ecotone of the Sierra Nevada and Great Basin ecoregions...
May 2016: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26816465/evaluation-of-palatal-rugae-pattern-in-establishing-identification-and-sex-determination-in-nalgonda-children
#13
Rani S Thabitha, Rajendra E Reddy, M Manjula, N Sreelakshmi, A Rajesh, Vinay L Kumar
BACKGROUND: Establishing individual identification of a decedent only by dental means is a mammoth task in forensic odontology. Palatal rugae's uniqueness, its resistance to heat, and stability throughout life have been proved by its use as an alternative aid in individual identification where comparison of fingerprints and other records is difficult. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to analyze the role of palatal rugoscopy in personal identification and sex determination of Nalgonda pediatric population...
September 2015: Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26816376/paleoanthropology-early-human-presence-in-the-arctic-evidence-from-45-000-year-old-mammoth-remains
#14
Vladimir V Pitulko, Alexei N Tikhonov, Elena Y Pavlova, Pavel A Nikolskiy, Konstantin E Kuper, Roman N Polozov
Archaeological evidence for human dispersal through northern Eurasia before 40,000 years ago is rare. In west Siberia, the northernmost find of that age is located at 57°N. Elsewhere, the earliest presence of humans in the Arctic is commonly thought to be circa 35,000 to 30,000 years before the present. A mammoth kill site in the central Siberian Arctic, dated to 45,000 years before the present, expands the populated area to almost 72°N. The advancement of mammoth hunting probably allowed people to survive and spread widely across northernmost Arctic Siberia...
January 15, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26618284/the-mammoth-in-the-room
#15
Daniel Goodenberger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2015: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26598656/tracking-the-origins-of-yakutian-horses-and-the-genetic-basis-for-their-fast-adaptation-to-subarctic-environments
#16
Pablo Librado, Clio Der Sarkissian, Luca Ermini, Mikkel Schubert, Hákon Jónsson, Anders Albrechtsen, Matteo Fumagalli, Melinda A Yang, Cristina Gamba, Andaine Seguin-Orlando, Cecilie D Mortensen, Bent Petersen, Cindi A Hoover, Belen Lorente-Galdos, Artem Nedoluzhko, Eugenia Boulygina, Svetlana Tsygankova, Markus Neuditschko, Vidhya Jagannathan, Catherine Thèves, Ahmed H Alfarhan, Saleh A Alquraishi, Khaled A S Al-Rasheid, Thomas Sicheritz-Ponten, Ruslan Popov, Semyon Grigoriev, Anatoly N Alekseev, Edward M Rubin, Molly McCue, Stefan Rieder, Tosso Leeb, Alexei Tikhonov, Eric Crubézy, Montgomery Slatkin, Tomas Marques-Bonet, Rasmus Nielsen, Eske Willerslev, Juha Kantanen, Egor Prokhortchouk, Ludovic Orlando
Yakutia, Sakha Republic, in the Siberian Far East, represents one of the coldest places on Earth, with winter record temperatures dropping below -70 °C. Nevertheless, Yakutian horses survive all year round in the open air due to striking phenotypic adaptations, including compact body conformations, extremely hairy winter coats, and acute seasonal differences in metabolic activities. The evolutionary origins of Yakutian horses and the genetic basis of their adaptations remain, however, contentious. Here, we present the complete genomes of nine present-day Yakutian horses and two ancient specimens dating from the early 19th century and ∼5,200 y ago...
December 15, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26564853/evolution-and-dispersal-of-mammoths-across-the-northern-hemisphere
#17
A M Lister, A V Sher
Mammoths provide a detailed example of species origins and dispersal, but understanding has been impeded by taxonomic confusion, especially in North America. The Columbian mammoth Mammuthus columbi was thought to have evolved in North America from a more primitive Eurasian immigrant. The earliest American mammoths (1.5 million years ago), however, resemble the advanced Eurasian M. trogontherii that crossed the Bering land bridge around that time, giving rise directly to M. columbi. Woolly mammoth M. primigenius later evolved in Beringia and spread into Europe and North America, leading to a diversity of morphologies as it encountered endemic M...
November 13, 2015: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26530525/mammoth-2-0-will-genome-engineering-resurrect-extinct-species
#18
Beth Shapiro
It is impossible to 'clone' species for which no living cells exist. Genome editing may therefore provide the only means to bring extinct species--or, more accurately, extinct traits--back to life.
2015: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26504224/the-impact-of-large-terrestrial-carnivores-on-pleistocene-ecosystems
#19
Blaire Van Valkenburgh, Matthew W Hayward, William J Ripple, Carlo Meloro, V Louise Roth
Large mammalian terrestrial herbivores, such as elephants, have dramatic effects on the ecosystems they inhabit and at high population densities their environmental impacts can be devastating. Pleistocene terrestrial ecosystems included a much greater diversity of megaherbivores (e.g., mammoths, mastodons, giant ground sloths) and thus a greater potential for widespread habitat degradation if population sizes were not limited. Nevertheless, based on modern observations, it is generally believed that populations of megaherbivores (>800 kg) are largely immune to the effects of predation and this perception has been extended into the Pleistocene...
January 26, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26504223/combining-paleo-data-and-modern-exclosure-experiments-to-assess-the-impact-of-megafauna-extinctions-on-woody-vegetation
#20
REVIEW
Elisabeth S Bakker, Jacquelyn L Gill, Christopher N Johnson, Frans W M Vera, Christopher J Sandom, Gregory P Asner, Jens-Christian Svenning
Until recently in Earth history, very large herbivores (mammoths, ground sloths, diprotodons, and many others) occurred in most of the World's terrestrial ecosystems, but the majority have gone extinct as part of the late-Quaternary extinctions. How has this large-scale removal of large herbivores affected landscape structure and ecosystem functioning? In this review, we combine paleo-data with information from modern exclosure experiments to assess the impact of large herbivores (and their disappearance) on woody species, landscape structure, and ecosystem functions...
January 26, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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