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simulation fidelity

Richard A Manderville, Stacey D Wetmore
The formation of DNA adducts by the attack of intermediates derived from toxic substances at the C8 position of 2-deoxyguanosine (dG) is a common damaging event. Although the majority of studies on C8-dG adducts have focused on lesions containing a C8-N-C tether between the bulky moiety and the nucleobase, the formation of O-linked lesions with a similar tether topology and C-linked adducts involving direct C8-C connectivity have also been uncovered. Several studies have been done to try to better understand the structural impact and mutagenicity of O-linked and C-linked aryl C8-dG adducts, including lesions arising from unsubstituted and chloro substituted phenols, and the food mutagen ochratoxin A (OTA)...
October 21, 2016: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Aimee K Gardner, Matthew Kosemund, Deborah Hogg, Abraham Heymann, Joseph Martinez
INTRODUCTION: The role of goal setting within post-simulation debriefing is not well known. This study sought to examine how inclusion of group-level goals, individual-level goals, or no goals in the debriefing process impacts teamwork. METHODS: Students participated in two high-fidelity team training scenarios. Between scenarios, teams were assigned to one of three debriefing groups: jointly creating five teamwork goals for the group to achieve (group-level goals); independently creating five teamwork goals for each individual to attain (individual-level goals); or no goals...
October 8, 2016: American Journal of Surgery
Isabelle Bragard, Nesrine Farhat, Marie-Christine Seghaye, Oliver Karam, Arthur Neuschwander, Yasaman Shayan, Katharina Schumacher
OBJECTIVES: Pediatric cardiac arrest is a rare event. Its management requires technical (TSs) and nontechnical skills (NTSs). We assessed the effectiveness of a simulation-based training to improve these skills in managing life-threatening pediatric cardiac arrhythmias. METHODS: Four teams, each composed of 1 pediatric resident, 1 emergency medicine resident, and 2 pediatric nurses, were randomly assigned to the experimental group (EG) participating in 5 video-recorded simulation sessions with debriefing or to the control group (CG) assessed 2 times with video-recorded simulation sessions without debriefing at a 2-week interval...
October 18, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Chelsea Willie, Fei Chen, Benny L Joyner, Kimberly Blasius
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Medical Education
Sridhar Ravi, Dmitry Kolomenskiy, Thomas Engels, Kai Schneider, Chun Wang, Jörn Sesterhenn, Hao Liu
The natural wind environment that volant insects encounter is unsteady and highly complex, posing significant flight-control and stability challenges. It is critical to understand the strategies insects employ to safely navigate in natural environments. We combined experiments on free flying bumblebees with high-fidelity numerical simulations and lower-order modeling to identify the mechanics that mediate insect flight in unsteady winds. We trained bumblebees to fly upwind towards an artificial flower in a wind tunnel under steady wind and in a von Kármán street formed in the wake of a cylinder...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Félix Beaudoin, Dany Lachance-Quirion, W A Coish, Michel Pioro-Ladrière
Microwave-frequency superconducting resonators are ideally suited to perform dispersive qubit readout, to mediate two-qubit gates, and to shuttle states between distant quantum systems. A prerequisite for these applications is a strong qubit-resonator coupling. Strong coupling between an electron-spin qubit and a microwave resonator can be achieved by correlating spin- and orbital degrees of freedom. This correlation can be achieved through the Zeeman coupling of a single electron in a double quantum dot to a spatially inhomogeneous magnetic field generated by a nearby nanomagnet...
October 17, 2016: Nanotechnology
Mark Xavier Cicero, Travis Whitfill, Frank Overly, Janette Baird, Barbara Walsh, Jorge Yarzebski, Antonio Riera, Kathleen Adelgais, Garth D Meckler, Carl Baum, David Christopher Cone, Marc Auerbach
OBJECTIVE: Paramedics and emergency medical technicians (EMTs) triage pediatric disaster victims infrequently. The objective of this study was to measure the effect of a multiple-patient, multiple-simulation curriculum on accuracy of pediatric disaster triage (PDT). METHODS: Paramedics, paramedic students, and EMTs from three sites were enrolled. Triage accuracy was measured three times (Time 0, Time 1 [two weeks later], and Time 2 [6 months later]) during a disaster simulation, in which high and low fidelity manikins and actors portrayed 10 victims...
October 17, 2016: Prehospital Emergency Care
M Hirschvogel, M Bassilious, L Jagschies, S M Wildhirt, M W Gee
A model for patient-specific cardiac mechanics simulation is introduced, incorporating a 3-dimensional finite element model of the ventricular part of the heart which is coupled to a reduced-order 0-dimensional closed-loop vascular system, heart valve and atrial chamber model.The ventricles are modeled by a nonlinear orthotropic passive material law. The electrical activation is mimicked by a prescribed parametrized active stress acting along a generic muscle fiber orientation. Our activation function is constructed such that the start of ventricular contraction and relaxation as well as the active stress curve's slope are parameterized...
October 15, 2016: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
Nathan S S Atkinson, Robert V Bryant, Yi Dong, Christian Maaser, Torsten Kucharzik, Giovanni Maconi, Anil K Asthana, Michael Blaivas, Adrian Goudie, Odd Helge Gilja, Christian Nolsøe, Dieter Nürnberg, Christoph F Dietrich
Gastrointestinal ultrasound (GIUS) is an ultrasound application that has been practiced for more than 30 years. Recently, GIUS has enjoyed a resurgence of interest, and there is now strong evidence of its utility and accuracy as a diagnostic tool for multiple indications. The method of learning GIUS is not standardised and may incorporate mentorship, didactic teaching and e-learning. Simulation, using either low- or high-fidelity models, can also play a key role in practicing and honing novice GIUS skills...
October 11, 2016: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
Jaime Zinsmaster, Sally Vliem
Although current research suggests many positive outcomes with the use of high-fidelity simulation (HFS) in nursing education, little is known about the influence of HFS on knowledge retention. This quasiexperimental study examined the effects of HFS on student knowledge acquisition and retention, while validating the simulation quality with established tools on satisfaction, self-efficacy, educational practices, and simulation design. Results indicate that, although HFS had a statistically significant impact on knowledge acquisition, knowledge retention rates were not influenced...
September 2016: Nursing Education Perspectives
Basil Chaballout, Margory Molloy, Jacqueline Vaughn, Raymond Brisson Iii, Ryan Shaw
BACKGROUND: Studies show that students who use fidelity-based simulation technology perform better and have higher retention rates than peers who learn in traditional paper-based training. Augmented reality is increasingly being used as a teaching and learning tool in a continual effort to make simulations more realistic for students. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this project was to assess the feasibility and acceptability of using augmented reality via Google Glass during clinical simulation scenarios for training health science students...
March 7, 2016: JMIR Med Educ
Samuel R Barber, Elliott D Kozin, Matthew Dedmon, Brian M Lin, Kyuwon Lee, Sumi Sinha, Nicole Black, Aaron K Remenschneider, Daniel J Lee
INTRODUCTION: Surgical simulators are designed to improve operative skills and patient safety. Transcanal Endoscopic Ear Surgery (TEES) is a relatively new surgical approach with a slow learning curve due to one-handed dissection. A reusable and customizable 3-dimensional (3D)-printed endoscopic ear surgery simulator may facilitate the development of surgical skills with high fidelity and low cost. Herein, we aim to design, fabricate, and test a low-cost and reusable 3D-printed TEES simulator...
November 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Melissa N Baginski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 4, 2016: Nurse Educator
Ravishekar Ravi Kannan, Z J Chen, Narender Singh, Andrzej Przekwas, Renishkumar Delvadia, Geng Tian, Ross Walenga
The models used for modeling the airflow in the human airways are either 0D compartmental or full 3D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models. In the former, airways are treated as compartments and the computations are performed with several assumptions, thereby generating a low fidelity solution. The CFD method displays extremely high fidelity since the solution is obtained by solving the conservation equations in a physiologically consistent geometry. However, CFD models (i) require millions of degrees of freedom (DOF) to accurately describe the geometry and to reduce the discretization errors, (ii) have convergence problems and (iii) require several days to simulate a few breathing cycles...
October 5, 2016: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
Alberto Acerbi, Claudio Tennie, Alex Mesoudi
The extensive use of social learning is considered a major reason for the ecological success of humans. Theoretical considerations, models and experiments have explored the evolutionary basis of social learning, showing the conditions under which learning from others is more adaptive than individual learning. Here we present an extension of a previous experimental set-up, in which individuals go on simulated 'hunts' and their success depends on the features of a 'virtual arrowhead' they design. Individuals can modify their arrowhead either by individual trial and error or by copying others...
September 2016: Royal Society Open Science
Charles H Bloodworth, Eric L Pierce, Thomas F Easley, Andrew Drach, Amir H Khalighi, Milan Toma, Morten O Jensen, Michael S Sacks, Ajit P Yoganathan
Computational modeling of the mitral valve (MV) has potential applications for determining optimal MV repair techniques and risk of recurrent mitral regurgitation. Two key concerns for informing these models are (1) sensitivity of model performance to the accuracy of the input geometry, and, (2) acquisition of comprehensive data sets against which the simulation can be validated across clinically relevant geometries. Addressing the first concern, ex vivo micro-computed tomography (microCT) was used to image MVs at high resolution (~40 micron voxel size)...
October 3, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Drew M Morris, June J Pilcher
Cool vehicle cabin temperatures can induce short-term non-hypothermic cold stress. The current study created a cold condition to examine the impact of cold stress on driving behavior. Forty-four participants drove a high-fidelity driving simulator during a thermal neutral or local torso cooled condition. Participants performed additional tasks to assess attention, psychomotor vigilance, and manual dexterity. Skin temperature was significantly lower in the cold condition while internal temperature was unaffected...
October 2016: Biological Psychology
Qian Cao, Wojciech Zbijewski, Alejandro Sisniega, John Yorkston, Jeffrey H Siewerdsen, J Webster Stayman
Application of model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) to high resolution cone-beam CT (CBCT) is computationally challenging because of the very fine discretization (voxel size  <100 µm) of the reconstructed volume. Moreover, standard MBIR techniques require that the complete transaxial support for the acquired projections is reconstructed, thus precluding acceleration by restricting the reconstruction to a region-of-interest. To reduce the computational burden of high resolution MBIR, we propose a multiresolution penalized-weighted least squares (PWLS) algorithm, where the volume is parameterized as a union of fine and coarse voxel grids as well as selective binning of detector pixels...
October 21, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Aussama Nassar, Angela Coates, Faiz Tuma, Forough Farrokhyar, Susan Reid
OBJECTIVES: To develop a novel assessment tool for trainees-led trauma resuscitation. Assess psychometric properties of the proposed tool. Evaluate feasibility and utility of the tool. INTRODUCTION: Trauma resuscitation is a structured and complex process involving unique sets of skills. There is currently no published structured formative evaluation tool for trauma trainees. Therefore, many trauma trainees rely upon limited, unstructured feedback on their performance...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Surgical Education
Carmen M Coombs, Ryan Y Shields, Elizabeth A Hunt, Ying Wei Lum, Patrick R Sosnay, Julianne S Perretta, Rhett H Lieberman, Nicole A Shilkofski
PROBLEM: Because reported use of simulation in preclinical basic science courses is limited, the authors describe the design, implementation, and preliminary evaluation of a simulation-based clinical correlation curriculum in an anatomy course for first-year medical students at Perdana University Graduate School of Medicine (in collaboration with Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine). APPROACH: The simulation curriculum, with five weekly modules, was a component of a noncadaveric human anatomy course for three classes (n = 81 students) from September 2011 to November 2013...
September 27, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
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